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GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 


ARCHvEOLOGICAL 

LIBRARY 


ACCESSION NO. Id9> 

CALL No.. 




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JOURNALS AND DIARIES 

OF THE 

ASSISTANTS TO THE RESIDENT AT LAHORE, 

1846-1849. 


■ . 




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JOURNALS 


AND 

DIARIES 

OF THE 


,-hH^ 


Assistants to the Agent, Governor-General 


NOKTH-WEST FRONTIER 

AND • 


RESIDENT AT LAHORE 


. 5', ,1 j ^ 1846-1849 . 



PRINTED AT THE PIONEER PRESS 
ALLAHABAD 

1911 


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^ 6 / 


INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 


The present volume is one of a series of selections from 
the Punjab Government records which have been published 
by the Punjab Government. The volumes constituting the 
series are — 

The Delhi Residency and 

Agency Records ... 1807-1857, Volume I. 

The Ludhiana Agency Records, 1808-1815, Volume II. 

The Political Diaries of the 
Resident at Lahore and his 

Assistants ... 1846-1849, Volumes 

III— VI. 

The Mutiny Records — Corres- 
pondence and Reports ... 1857-1858, Volumes 

VII and VIII each 

in two Parts. 

It had been intended to issue further volumes also, dealing 
with (a) the records of the Karnal, Ambala and Ludhiana 
Agencies (including the despatches of Sir D. Ochterlony, 
Superintendent of Political Affairs and Agent to the Gover- 
nor-General at Ludhiana, and the diaries of his Assistant, 
Captain G. Birch), 1816 — 1840 ; (b) the records of the North- 
West Prontier Agency, 1840 — 1845, and (c) those of the 
Lahore Residency, 1846 — 1849 ; but it has been found neces- 
sary on financial grounds to postpone the publication of 
these further papers. 

The material for the volumes issued has been prepared 
and put through the Press by Mr. A. Raynor, late Registrar 
of the Punjab Civil Secretariat, 

Lahobe : 

December 1916. 





PEEFAOE. 


The treaties executed -vvitli the Lahore Darbar after the 
first Sikh War provided inter alia for the location of a British 
garrison at Lahore until the end of the year 1846, to assist 
in the reconstitution of a satisfactory administration. Major 
(shortly afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel) H. !M. Lawrence 
remained at Lahore as Agent to the Governor-General in 
charge of the political relations of the British Government 
with the Darbar. 

2. This arrangement continued until the Treaty of 
Bhairowal executed in December 1846, when the Lahore 
Government, in return for the continued service of the 
British garrison, agreed to admit of more direct supervision 
during the minority of the Maharaja. Lieutenant-Colonel 
H. M. Lawrence was then made Eesident as well as Agent to 
the Governor- General for the North-West Frontier, and this 
continued to be the designation of the appointment until 
the 6th March 1848, Avhen it was altered to that of 
Eesident at Lahore and Chief Commissioner of the Cis- and 
Trans- Sutlej States. 

3. Lieutenant-Colonel H. M. Lawrence held the office 
of Agent to the Governor-General, North-West Frontier, 
and Eesident at Lahore, from the 1st January to the 30th 
November 1847, when he proceeded on sick leave to Europe. 
He had been absent at Simla from the 21st of August to the 
17th of October 1847, during which period Mr. J. Lawrence, 
Commissioner and Superintendent of the Trans-Sutlej States, 
acted as Eesident and Agent to the Governor-General in 
addition to his other duties. Mr. J. Lawrence took ohai^ 



ii 


FRUFACE. 


again on Colonel Lawrence’s departure and officiated as 
Resident and Agent to the Governor-General until relieved, on 
the 6th March 1848, by Sir E. Currie under the designation 
of Resident at Lahore and Chief Commissioner of the Cis- 
and Trans- Sutlej States. Sir F. Currie was in charge when 
the second Sikh War broke out in April 1848. On March 
29th, 1849, the Punjab was annexed and the Government 
passed into tlie hands of the Board of Administration com- 
posed of Sir H. Lawrence, Mr. J. Lawrence and Mr. C. 
Mansel. 

4. The work done by the Assistants to the Resident in 
the interval between the Sikh "Wars and during the progress 
of the second Sikh War is the main subject of this and the 
two succeeding volumes. Tiie officers with whom the 
present volume is chiefly concerned are Captain James 
Abbott and Major George St. P. Lawrence, two of the 
older men among the Assistants of the day, the former being 
40 and the latter 43 years of age in 1847. Captain (after- 
wards Sir J ames) Abbott was for a long time connected with 
the Hazara District, the head-quarters station of which 
(Abbottabad) was called after his name, and died in the year 
1896. Major Lawrence, the elder brother of Henry and 
John Lawrence, experienced many adventures in both the 
Afghan and the Sikh Wars and was Agent to the Governor- 
General in Rajputana during the Mutiny. He died in 
1884. 



CONTENTS. 


Journals and Diaries of Captain J. Abbott, 1846-1849 
Peshawur Political Diaries, 1847 and 1848 



Pages 
I to 303 
.. 304 to 570 


' \ 





JOURNALS AND DIARIES 

OF 

CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT 
184.6 — 1849. 






Journals of Captain J. Abbott, Commissioner Jor the settlement 
of the Punjab Boundaries — 18^6. 



Period. 



No, 

From 

i 

.1 

To 

Page. 

Remarks. 

I 

1 

5th April 1846 ... 

1 

19th April 1846 

3 


2 

i 

j 22nd April 1846 

7th May 1846 ... 

6 

Marked “ Part 
2nd. ’’ Part ist 
not traceable. 

3 

1st May 1846 ... 

17th May 1846... i 

10 

1 


4 

i8th May 1846... 

31st May 1846... 

15 


S 

1 1st June 1846 ... 

1 5th June 1846... 1 

18 


6 

15th June 1846.,. 

30th June 1846... 

22 


7 

ist July 1846 ... 

i 

17th July 1846... 1 

1 

23 


8 

Sketch map to accompany the | 

above. I 

i 

Bet ween 
pages 26 
and 27. 


9 

i8th July 1846... 

31st July 1846 ... j 

27 


lO 

1st August 1846 

1 8th August 1846 

30 


1 1 

20th August 1846 

31st August 1846 

31 



—No Other Journals by Captain Abbott for the year 1846 are tiaceable in the 
Punjab records. 


I 




1. — Journal of Captain J. Abbott, Commissioner for the 
settlement of the Funjaub Boundaries, from the 
5th to the 19th April 1846. 

5th April 1846 . — Arrived at Rae ke puttun on the right or 
northern bank of the Beyass. Learn that the Dewan, Adjoodhia 
Pershaud, and the Bukshee, Goor Narain, are encamped at Undora. I 
wrote yesterday to advise them of my movements. 

6th April . — The Lahore Commissioners above named here last 
night and have just called upon me. They decline any definite answer 
as to the result of their enquiries regarding the limits of Noorpoor ; 
but gave me to understand that the investigation is still afoot. They 
presented me on the part of the Lahore Government with a purse of 
250 Nanuc Shaee rupees, which I have carried to account of Govern- 
ment and they sent food for my establishment and escort. Employed 
this day in collecting information. 

ph — Moved to Badpoor five miles down the Beyass. Assem- 
bled all the Native Officers and old inhabitants I could collect and took 
their depositions. 

8th April . — I again pressed Adjoodhia Pershaud for a distinct 
answer as to his views regarding the boundary hereabouts of Noorpoor. 
In reply he called upon me with a native map of Noorpoor just 
constructed informing me that he had heard that Purgunnahs Undora 
and Khirun had at one time belonged to the Kunhiyas, a Sikh 
principality in the Julundhur. He declined producing as yet any 
evidence, and allowed that at present the report was a mere rumour. 

I replied that I had already taken the depositions of all the Native 
Officers of Purgunnah Khirun and that it was unanimous in 
contradicting his suggestion that either Khirun or Undora had ever 
been alienated from Noorpoor ; that their evidence was strengthened 
by that of all the authorities hitherto tangible of neighbouring 
districts, but that I would patiently investigate any evidence he could 



4 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1846. 

adduce upon the other side. He evaded any distinct answer, but said 
he would abide by my decision. I begged him to perfect his chain of 
evidence and then to give me intimation. 

gth April 184.6 . — ^Took the deposition of Goorbuj, Chowdry of 
Undora, and again examined all the mooquddums of Khirun and several 
old Gosynes. It appears that Jye Singh, founder of the Kunhiyas, 
exacted tribute from many of the neighbouring principalities including 
Noorpoor in the time of Raja Prithee Singh ; that he sometimes 
crossed the Bey ass and harried Khirun and Undora in default of 
the Noorpoor tribute ; and that disputes between his zumeendars and 
those of the purgunnahs aforesaid were frequent owing to the frequent 
change of the course of the Beyass. It appears also that Mae Sudda 
Konwr (widow of Goorbuksh Singh) at the head of an army seized 
Khirun and held possession a whole year when her troops were driven 
out and the purgunnah was recovered by the Noorpoor Raja aided by 
the Kuttotch Chief. All, however, distinctly deny that either Khirun or 
Undora was ever disjoined from the Noorpoor Principality or ever held 
as a farm by the Noorpoor Raja, according to the suggestion of the 
Dewan. It appears to me that even had it been proved that Khirun 
and Undora had been possessions of the Kunhiyas, our claim to them 
as dependencies of the Julundhur would still be valid, the Kunhiyas 
being a principality of that Dooab, of which the seat of Government 
was at Hajepoor. 

nth . 4 />r« 7 .~Marched to Undora. The Dewan again sent my 
establishments a Ziafut and to me a purse of 250 Nanuc Shaee rupees 
which 1 passed to account of Government. I remonstrated against this 
needless expense and insisted that it should not be repeated. 

Took the evidence of the Talpoora Chowdry and others to the 
effect above described. There does not appear to exist a doubt as to 
these facts. This being a day of pilgrimage and lustration I could 
procure little evidence. 

I2th April. — (Sunday). 

Tjth ^^i/.-Completed the attainable evidence upon the question 
under consideration and took that of several zumeendars and others 
as to the western boundary of Noorpoor. This seems without contro. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1846. 5 

versy to have been, in the reign of Bir Singh, the last Noorpoor Raja, 

the bed of the torrent ChaunJ excluding the 27 villages 

(so-called) of Meerthul and Nungul and those of Gurrota, 12 in number, 
all lying within the plexus of the Chukki. 

i^th April — Marched to Meerthul in the fork of the Chukki 

and Chaunj. Made preparations for the todah bundie of those portions 
of the boundary which, owing to the shifting of the torrent, pass 
through ploughed fields. Generally the torrent itself, although now 
dry, forms by its bed of rock a distinct limit. The channel is here half 
a mile wide and the basin of the torrent double that measurement ; it 
emerges from the hills on the north-east and falls into the Beyass about 
two miles eastward of the mouth of the Chukki. It is a very imperfect 
and inconvenient frontier boundary, running almost dry, even during 
the rains, in the course of an hour or two and being easily passable 
at all other seasons. Meerthul is a jaghir, valued at 5,000 rupees 
of yearly revenue. It is high, healthy and one of the coolest sites 
hereabouts benefiting by the widely scattered waters of the Beyass. 
It has a Gurhee of mud upon an eminence. The Jaghirdar, Alum 
Singh, is styled Vuzzier, being son of the Vuzzier of Kotela, who 
received this estate as an equivalent for the surrender of that fort to 
Runjeet Singh, The basin of the Chukki near its mouth is about 
two miles wide. The channel is half a mile, the stream at present no 
more than 40 yards, and ankle deep. It would form a good boundary 
to our territory in this quarter. 

15th April . — Took further depositions respecting the boundary 
hereabouts to the same effect as the preceding. Despatched a Moonshee 
in company with one from the Dewan to erect temporary todahs upon 
the boundary, with a view to its survey. 

i6th April.— Settling the direction of the boundary and taking 
evidence as to its progress after quitting the torrent Chaunj. It appears 
that it then crosses over to the Chukki through arable land. 

lyth April . — My intention of marching to-day was frustrated by 
the arrears of survey work, partly delay by the todah bundie and 
partly by our having here a double line- The Dewan sent me a mason 
to erect permanent boundary pillars, but I ordered the zumeendars not 
to do so without further and special instructions from me. 



6 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 18^6. 


l8th April 184.6 Marched to Jhundree, where the boundary leaves 

the torrent’s bed and strikes through cultivated land. Took further 
depositions of the zumeendars on either side and sent the Moonshees to 
erect todahs. The Chaunj issues from low hills at Mulote, a mile further 
north. Took a series of bearings from these heights. Five small canals 
or runnels are here led out of the Chaunj — three through Undora of 
Noorpoor and two through Nungul. They entirely drain the torrent. 

ip//i April . — Although this is Sunday I am obliged to take the 
evidence of the zumeendars here assembled that they be not needlessly 
harassed. This engaged me the whole day. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Commissioner, Frontier Settlements, Punjaub. 


2 — Journal of Captain James Abbott, Commissioner for 
the adjustment of the Frontier, Punjaub, from 
the 22nd April to the 7th May 1846— (Part 2nd). 

22nd April /(S’./f?.— Marched by the boundary pillars set up to define 
the Noorpoor Estates. A worse boundary cannot be imagined, its course 
the most irregular and its features the mere divisions of ploughed fields 
or imaginary lines through waste land across the drainage of the country 
to the Chukki. The Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaudsent me again, on part 
of the Lahore Government, a purse of 280 rupees and a supply of food 
for the establishment. I found it impossible to reject it without giving 
offence. Carried it to account of Government after deducting 10 
rupees given as a present to the Moonshee who bore it. 

23rd April. Visited the castle of Pathankot, the strength of which 
had been greatly exaggerated to me. It is built upon rising ground 
eastward of and touching the town. The area is therefore almost filled 
with solid earth and the walls within afford no seraies nor stables by 
their vaulted ramparts. They are of kucha mortar, of the age of Shah 
Jehan, and too thin to admit of freely traversing or having guns placed 
upon the towers. They are much worn by time and the elements, Th^ 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1846. 


1 


city gives cover to their foot and on the north is a table eminence as 
high as the site within. Its only ditch on the town side is almost effaced 
and the gateway is not so strongly defended as in most forts of India. 
Swivel guns, 9- and 6-pounders, might be made to play from the tower 
with a little contrivance. But I found none within, and the extent of the 
garrison is a small thanna. The centre of the enclosure, which is the 
highest ground, is occupied by a square tower of four storeys, the 
interior of which consists of a court for men and a second for women, 
having apartments and verandahs all around and a small well in the 
inner court. The gateway is a high tower containing a few small but 
airy rooms. The site is salubrious, and were the central tower repaired 
it would afford good barracks for perhaps a company of Sipahis. It is 
one of those castles which could not keep a British force out many 
hours, but might prove a nuisance upon our immediate frontier by 
encouraging robbers in their malpractices under the shelter of its 
supposed strength. It commands the only carriage road from the 
Julundhur to Noorpoor. The country around is an amphitheatre 
of the richest cultivation, profusely watered by sluices from the 
Chukki and girdled by masses of dark mountain topped by the snowy 
range. 

2jyd, 3pli, 25th, 26th April 184.6 . — Engaged in taking the evi- 
dence of the zumeendars of Pathankot, Shoojanpoor and Shahpoor 
as to their respective boundaries now and in times past. It appears 
from concurrent testimony that in the reign of Aurungzebe, the 
younger brother of the Noorpoor Raja turning Muhummedan received 
from the Emperor as a separate possession all the lands of Noorpoor 
westward of the Chukki river, and then designated Shahpoor. The 
Rajas of Shahpoor were for distinction termed Pythaneas. Qusbah 
Pathankot, however, which lies within the Shahpoor boundary had long 
been appropriated by the Emperors as a thanna, for which its 
position well fits it, and Shah Jehan built the castle there. On the rise 
of the Kunhiya family, large portions of Shahpoor were seized by them 
and Shoojanpoor was constructed out of these fragments. When Prithee 
Singh succeeded to the principality of Noorpoor he took occasion, 
of the death of the Shahpoor Raja, to re-annex as much of his ancestral 
possessions, as the rise of other States had left to Shahpoor, and he 
bequeathed these with Noorpoor as a single principality to his son, Bir 



8 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^b- 

Singh. They remained his until he was seized by the late Maharaja 
Runjeet Singh and the principality was annihilated. 

The boundary therefore of Noorpoor, after running about 8 miles 
up the Chukki, crosses that river between Hara of Shahpoor and Traiti 
Boongul of Pathankot, and by a most irregular and undefined zigzag of 
13 miles runs across to the Ravi at Shahpoor Khas. The three purgun- 
nahs of Lukkunpoor, Chundgiran and Teh belonging to Shahpoor lie 
along the Ravi’s right bank further down its course. The highest 
estimate of the nett revenue of these is 17,000 rupees. 

This boundary is manifestly inconvenient, but it will be difficult to 
improve it, on account of the superior value of the lands of Pathankot 
and Soojhanpoor, which it would be necessary to include to get a more 
suitable line. Pathankot alone has a nett revenue of 17,090 rupees, 
which, added to the land it seems necessary to include of Nungul, 
Gurrota and Meerthul, valued at 8,000 rupees, gives 25,090 rupees 
worth of land to be purchased by equivalents. 

2yth April 184.6 . — Having been obliged to work very hard all 
yesterday (Sunday) that the zumeendars in attendance might not longer 
be detained from their homes, I gave the establishment this day the 
benefit of the Sabbath. 

28th Received instructions from Major Lawrence, Governor- 

General s Agent, to meet him at Deennanuggur. 

2gth and joth April , — Attending the Governor-General’s Agent at 
Deennanuggur. 

isl May. Returned to Pathankot. Employed in making enquiries 
during the day and in plotting the sketch map. By direction of Major 
Lawrence sent two companies of the Sikh Regiment here encamped to 
assist Captain Saunders Detachment in guarding the treasure from 
Jammoo. In the afternoon rode over the country in search of a suit- 
able feature for a boundary line. Found a dry torrent’s bed which 
runs diagonally across the space between the Ravi and Chukki rivers, 
joining the canal at about three miles from its contact with the Chukki. 

I fear it may enclose too large a tract of land. The survey work is 
very much in arrears. Europeans cannot do much in this weather. 

I cannot suffer them to sleep in the villages far from camp in the 



JOURNALS OF CAFTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1846. 


9 


present state of things, and the journey to and from their work occupies 
much time and labor. Sent out a Moonshee for intelligence. 

2nd May — Sent Lieutenant Young, who for some days has 
been laid up with an ulcerated leg, to Noorpoor for medical advice. 
Employed in collecting the jumma bundies of Pathankot. 

jrd May. — (Sunday). 

Jill May . — Marched to Shoojanpoor three koss and encamped on the 
Shah Nehr or Hussilli, a rapid and beautiful stream which runs almost 
due south from the Ravi until it touches the Chukki and then turns 
south-west through Deennanuggur. There is a small Baradurrie here 
in a shady spot one mile from the next town of Shoojanpoor. The 
lands are rich and well watered. The water of the canal even at this 
season is cold. The canal would have formed a desirable continuation 
to the Chukki as our boundary, had not the included lands been too 
rich to find an equivalent amongst those of ours which are disposable. 
It is my present endeavour to discover some water-course or other 
feature, by which the vague line of frontier between Shahpoor and 
Shoojanpoor may be avoided. 1 have collected as much evidence 
as possible, but must visit the whole of the lands hereabouts ere I can 
feel confident in any decision. Lieutenant Robinson is to-day laid up 
with a bilious attack so that the survey is at a pause. 

Mh May . — Traced up to their issue from the hills the more con- 
siderable of two stony water-courses : out until 1 1 a.m. I have great 
hope that this may prove a suitable boundary as it rises on the bounds 
of Qusbah Shahpoor and runs into the canal below Shoojanpoor. 
Lieutenant Lake joined me to-day from Noorpoor. 

6 th May . — Took the evidence of all the zumeendars whose lands 
adjoin the water-course surveyed yesterday. It generally forms the 
boundary between Shoojanpoor and Pathankot, but would shut in 
some of the former villages. Surveyed the canal up to its rise from 
the Ravi, the bed of which is very deep and wide, the river trickling 
through it in two or three seeming rills. The canal rushes boiling out 
with the force of a torrent and appears to swallow up nearly the whole 
of the Ravi’s water. Lieutenant Robinson is still unwell. Lieutenant 
Young, who has returned from Noorpoor. is still unfit for duty and my 
work proceeds under every disadvantage. 


2 



10 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, 1S46. 


ythMay i8^6 . — I found that the water-course I have been survey- 
ing cannot be made answerable for a boundary on account of the great 
extent and value of the additional area enclosed by it, for which we can 
offer no equivalent. Took the accounts of many zumeendars and 
others as to the existence of any suitable ravine or water-course, but 
without finding any clue. Another Moonshee or Kardar on the part of 
Maharaja Goolab Singh waited upon me to-day. The great distance of 
the boundary from any village which can supply my camp is very 
inconvenient at this season: even water is scarce in the \illages 
thereabouts. I have laid a dak which I trust will enable me thoroughly 
to e.xamine the whole line of boundary. 


Shooj.^npoor 
Stii May 181/.6 


I 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Commissioner, Frontier Settlements, Punjaub. 


3.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary Commis- 
sioner, from the 1st to the 17th May 1846. 

ist May Returned to Fathankot from Deennanuggur. Em- 

ployed during tlie rest of the day in making enquiries as to the local 
divisions and geographic features of the country. By direction of the 
Governor-General’s Agent caused two companies of tlie Sikh Regiment 
here encamped to be placed under the orders of the British Officer 
Commanding the Treasure Escort, during his continuance in the Sikh 
territory. In the evening rode across the country with compass and 
perambulator and discovered a stony ravine, three miles northward, 
which joins the canal at Bhadoor Lari and may possibly prove con- 
venient as a boundary line. The survey is so backward for want of 
instruments and native .survey uns (little at this season being possible 
to Europeans) that 1 am much i.npeded in my arrangements and de.Ee 
l>t le help from the .survey. Lieutenant Young moreover is laid up 
with a sore .eg and must be sent to Noorpoor for medical advice. 

^ •;’«'^-'/«)---Collecting information as to the ju Pathan- 

the collection, are made in kind 

and n<) recoj-ds are obtainable. 



/UCA'A’AJ-.S UJ- CAI'l'AJN J. AlthO 1 1 . /S/0. ii 

jrd May iS.f 6 . — (Sunday). — Lieutenant Young returned from 
Noorpoor. But liis leg is too much inflamed to allow him to use it for 
many days to come. 

Mh May — Marched to the Baradurrie at Shoojanpoor, four miles. 
The canal, a very rapid stream about 30 feet wide and of very various 
depth, passes under the Baradurrie at mid-course for the Chukki, which 
it originally joined. The water has, however, been diverted from this 
termination in the direction of Deennanuggur, the work I believe of the 
Emperors, as the original canal was of the Rajpootras. Engaged in 
enquiries relative to the villages on the banks of the canal and those 
bordering the ravine lately discovered. This ravine is generallj' a 
boundary to villages and almost to the two purgunnahs of Pathankot 
and Shoojanpoor. But the canal almost invariably divides villages ; 
so that it were an inconvenient boundary' line even did it not enclose 
20,000 rupees worth more land than we have the means of paying 
for. 

Mh May . — Rode up the larger of the ravines to its comnience- 
m.ent in the hills. Returned at ii^ a.m. It is a distinct feature, but 
does not always follow the line of the purgunnah or village bounds. 
The deviation, however, would not be a sufficient objection to it, should 
it not prove to enclose too much land. Its source is contiguous to the 
boundary of Qusbah Shah poor upon the Ravi. Lieutenant Lake joined 
me this morning. Instructed the zumeendars of villages on either side 
the ravine to attend me to-morrow to give particulars of their bounds. 

A single native surveyor would save me much ve.xatious delay and 
difficulty. But tho’ I have written to all, who may possibly assist me, 
to procure such a person, I am not yet provided. 

6 th May . — Engaged from morning till evening in taking the testi- 
mony of the zumeendars bordering the ravine. I fear that it will 
not be possible to make it our boundary, for it encloses rather more 
than the entire purgunnah of Pathankot, and this without Jaghirs is 
valued at 17,090 rupees yearly rent; whereas after pa3-ing 8,000 
rupees for the lands we have enclosed by the Chukki, there are only 
9,000 rupees worth of lands left beyond the Ravi to give in e.xchange. 
Even the smaller ravine, which encloses less land, takes in more, I fear, 
than can be paid for, and is otherwise awkward as constituting in no 



)2 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1846 


part a local division and as commencing at a considerable distance from 
the Ravi (about eight miles). The survey of this tract not being half 
finished, I must at once proceed to the spot and ascertain whether any 
feature exists of which advantage can be taken. The difficulty at this 
season is owing to the want of water and supplies in the villages. 

ylh May iS^ 6 . — Sent out a tent for the above purpose and 
examined all the zumeendars bordering the Durrungh ravine. Their 
testimony confirms my previous intelligence. Took the jummas of 
Shoojanpoor and compared the estimate with that given by the zumeen- 
dars. The villages of Shoojanpoor, eastward of the canal, pay a yearly 
rent of about 12,000 rupees. 

8 th May . — Rode out to Hara and from thence along the whole 
course of the boundary between the Shahpoor villages and those of 
Pathankot and Shoojanpoor. The line crosses ravines and fields without 
reference to any geographic feature, eventually emerging into the plain 
at Jhundrah. It crosses seven or eight large torrents. There seems to 
exist no question as to its course ; but it is defined by no visible line. 
By building boundary pyramids upon this line, it would remain undis- 
puted, although no map would define it. 

glh May . — Visited a mountain ridge, of which I had ascertained 
the existence, connecting the rivers Ravi and Chukki. Found it a 
lofty and precipitous ridge unoccupied by fields or habitations and 
forming the boundary between purgumiahs north and south of it. The 
villages of Shahpoor, which we should give up were this made the 
boundary, have a yearly rent of 9,509 rupees, or about 1,509 more 
than the villages we have taken with Meerthul. This would leave 
17,000 rupees worth of villages beyond the Ravi, exchangeable for 
Chumba or any other possessions we might deem requisite for our 
frontier. The villages beyond the Ravi at our disposal being Hill 
States, should naturally, if exchanged, fall to Raja Goolab Singh. 
Received yesterday a letter from Major Lawrence directing me to 
repair to Kangra : returned tlierefore to Shoojanpoor. The castle of 
Shahpoor occupies the verge of a cliff of pudding-stone about 150 
feet high, washed by the Ravi. It has no walls on the riverside. The 
other three sides consist of walls of tolerable height flanked by towers 
of w.iich several are solid, as batteries for each a single gun. The 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S46. 13 

form is an oblong. Inland the country is tolerably level, but the 
town at no great distance stands on higher ground. It is stronger 
than Pathankot and would enable an outpost to defend itself against 
any irregular attack, but is a mere castle and was built by the first 
Raja of Shahpoor for his residence. There is a long barrack of two 
storeys near the precipice which would shelter a company of Euro- 
peans or Natives. The walls are of stone and mortar. The body of 
water in the Ravi is not, I think, greater than that in the Beyass, 
but the velocity of the Ravi is more than double that of the Beyass 
and its water is extremely cold. Soon after leaving the mountains 
at Shahpoor it divides into many small streams, one of which supplies 
the canal. 

loth May i8,f.6 . — Marched to Doomtul and encamped there. 

nth May . — Marched to Undora. We had been informed that the 
Artillery were crossing at this place, but find that they are at Rae 
ke puttun. Wrote to the Officer Commanding Artillery asking whether 
the company of Sappers could be of use, supposing that a bridge of 
boats was under construction. 

I3th May . — Marched to Bandpoor. 

ijth May . — Marched to Rae ke puttun and, finding that no bridge 
was to be constructed, camped at Jukhur at the mouth of the pass with 
the view to precede the Artillery and prepare the passes for its passage. 

May. Commenced the ascent of the torrent's bed, which 
the first five miles is open, smooth and of easy acclivity, but afterwards 
very rugged and intricate for about two miles, winding through cliffs of 
sandstone and pudding-stone. I found it utterly impracticable to Artillery 
in draught, the rocks projecting so as to render necessary those nice 
and abrupt turns which are impossible to guns dragged with difficulty 
up an ascent : as the guns were expected on the third day, no time 
was to be lost, so I halted the Sappers and set them to work on the 
spot for about six hours. 

lyth May . — Resumed work in the pass at 3 a . m . and continued 
it until noon. Being this day better provided with tools and above 
all with gunpowder, we effected much in removing or shattering 
rocks and rounding off impassable edges of cliffs : and whilst at work 



14 JOVKNAIS OF CAPTAIX /■ ABBOTT, iSj6. 

Lieutenant Drummond of Engineers, who had most promptly answered 
niy demand for aid, arrived with another Sapper Company and 
resumed the work, which we were obliged to quit after middaj^ 

i 6 lh Mav iS^ 6 . — At work again in the pass at i o’clock a.m , but a 
less dangerous road over the summit of the first ascent. I cannot speak 
in too high terms of the zeal and ingenuity of Lieutenant Robinson 
of Engineers and the Sappers of the 3rd Company. Lieutenant Young 
also set an e.xcelicnt example. The work was very severe owing to the 
brevity of the interval we could command, and the want of levers, 
or a sufficient number of mining tools, rendered it necessary to shatter 
many of the rocks with sledge hammers. At daybreak this morning 
the pass was practicable to battering guns, and the first 9-pounder of 
the Jallalabad Field Battery had passed through all the intricacies of 
the defile in spite of the wretched riding of the natives who rode its 
fine horses The 24-pounder Howitzer in rounding a dangerous corner 
at an intemperate pace rolled over with its horses into the ravine. No 
lives were lost. I set to work at this spot to hollow out more of the 
rocky cliff, for although there were several feet of spare room, it is 
impossible always to make riders or drivers prudent, and I was an.xious 
to have a more open road for the siege ordnance. At 1 1 o'clock the 
Sappers were utterly e.vhausted, having been at work 10 hours. I 
therefore applied to the Officer Commanding a Detachment. of Sipahis 
for a working party. He placed one at my disposal, but not a Sipahi 
would touch cither a.xe or mamootk. They even suffered me to work 
with my own hands upon the cliff with the utmost indifference. I called 
to the Soobahdar commanding the party to set his men to work. 
He replied that his Sipahis would do anything else in the world, but that 
such work was degrading to a Sipahi. I desired him to remain at home 
with the women and not presume to come amongst men. The poor 
e.vhausted S.ippcrs tried to insist upon relieving me, but I sent them 
to their camp and continued to work for some time in front of the 
•SipaliL witiiout tiieir evincing any disposition to do their duty. My 
cluipra.'Si wished to take the axe. But I told him he was not a 
.-nldier and that none but soldiers should share in this labor; that 
this wa.s tiic first parallel to the attack of Kangra and the first 
opportunity of displaying manhood. On this the second Soobahdar, 
Jungli Khan, took up an axe and joined me, and all the Sipahis 



JOVKNALi, VF CAI'TAIN J. AJlFOTF, iS-f6. 


followed his example in succession. I told them I now perceived 
them to be soldiers raid not soldiers' wives. Finally, the first Soobali- 
dar was so ashamed of himself that he also took an ;ixe and joined 
us. I now praised and encouraged tlicm, and the work was completed 
bj' I o'clock, in good time for the first siege gun. I ha\e detailed 
this circumstance, because I have lotig anxiously watched the progress 
of iudulgcncc in the Native Army lending. I tidnk, at every stcii to 
render tlic Sipahi less hardy, less useful and less manageable than 
heretofore. Were the construction of field works part of the yearly 
c.xcrcibc of tlie soldier, such effeminate scruples as the above would 
never possess him. The hardihood and g.iihmtry which has ever 
so especially' distinguished tlie Native Sapper is an undoubted proof 
that his spirit undergoes no rebuff from the exercise of this soldierly 
duty. I must add tliat a young officer of the corps who came up whilst 
the party were working incited them by his personal example. The first 
1 8-pounder being without elephant shafts was dragged through the 
pass with the utmost difficulty. 'I'he fine elephant which pushed 
the wheel, having no frontlet, was much scratclied and cut by its 
exertions. It reached the first summit when night had closed in. I 
then returned to my camp. 

lytli May iS.f6. — Early this morning two parties of Sappers 
under Lieutenants Robinson and Young recommenced work, the one to 
soften the angles of the pass, ihe other to reconstiuct a bridge bui'iit 
during tlie night by the combustion of the jungle. The remainder of the 
siege ordnance came through with comparative ease, the iS-poundcrs 
being perfectly manageable with elephant shafts and much having 
been effected by Lieutenant Robinson in the early morning. 

J. ABBOT r. C.vrx.vi.x, 

Baiindary Coiin.'i/ssioii r. 

4. Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary Commis- 
sioner, from the 18th to the 31st May 1846. 

iSth ^lay iS.f6 . — Marched to Lunj, lu miles in the b.isin of the Guj 
river or torrent, flic road had been clcai'ed by Lieutenants Drummond 
and Dyas of the larger boulders (the principal obstruction) to within 
miles of Lunj and was completed to Lunj by evening. It crosses 
and recrosses the torrent at every quarter mile in 2^ feet water, with a 



,6 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, ,846. 

bed of boulders that form a most heavy pavement for wheels on the 
ascent and are most trying to the feet of cattle, especially of those which 
are shod. The boulders become larger and more plentiful as we pro- 
gress, and huge masses of granitic rock begin to appear as obstacles. 

igth May 184.6 . — Received instructions to hasten to Kangra with 
one Engineer Officer and ten Sappers. Left Lieutenant Robinson with 
his company in the pass and pressed on to Kangra. Found Mr. Potter 
at work in the pass with 350 coolies. He seems to be exerting himself 
zealously. The pass becomes more savage and intricate. The rocks 
can be removed only by blasting, and in some places are so large and 
so numerous that it is found easier to fill up their interstices with 
lavers of boulders and earth, thus building a causeway over them. 
This lasts about four miles farther, when I took a ravine which Mr. 
Potter supposed to be the gun road, but which the Engineers with 
good judgment avoided, as, although straighten and smoother than 
the bed of the Guj, it climbs over a needless ascent of about 250 
feet. Reached Kangra at i p.m., and was placed at the disposal of 
Brigadier Smith for Engineer duties. 

2olh — 2gth May . — Employed in reconnoitring. Kot Kangra is a 
long ridge of rock and upwards of a mile in length by an average 
breadth of 120 yards. The rivers Ban Gunga and Bunnair, meeting 
after an almost parallel course through deep and wide chasms, give it a 
peninsular form and its neck is almost severed by ravines on either 
side. The rock, which is pudding-stone, presents inaccessible cliffs 
almost continuously throughout its circuit, but at the postern on the 
south-west these arc softened into an abrupt declivity. The north- 
ern portion of this ridge rises high above the rest, giving site to the 
palace and the principal works of the fortress. These consist of a higher 
and a lower line of battlements and towers, with a long screen for the 
road into the fortress, the two lower works being upon rock of such 
■Stiff acclivity as to be generally inaccessible to the human foot. Five 
gates guarded with towers must be forced to enter the first enclosure, 
and tlie further access to the palace is impeded by one strong gate 
and several of inferior solidity. The second, which is the principal 
line of defence, is a precipitous rock of about 20 feet faced with squared 
stone masonry of more than eight feet thickness, the stones being 
often cramped together with iron. 'I'his facing becomes a battlement to 


journals of captain J. ABBOTT, 184b. \^ 

about five feet above the rock The rest of the area of the palace 
is guarded by a single and less solid circle of wall and tower cresting 
the precipice. But on the north-east the cliffs are so formidable 
that no battlements have been added. The town of Kangra, built upon 
the same ridge, northward of the fort, is separated from it by the 
eastern disconnecting ravine, prolonged by human labour in the form 
of a considerable ditch to the corresponding ravine on the west. The 
site of the town affords ground for batteries and cover to within 
250 yards. The cliffs opposite the postern offer a commanding position 
of about the same distance, and a spur of land on the north-west 
enfilades the principal defences on the town side at 600 yards of 
distance. 1 from the first considered the postern as the most assailable 
point, and was honored with the command of the Irregular Force 
destined for its attack. I conceived that a dozen good guns in position 
on the opposite cliff would speedily render the single line of works 
untenable. The gun road thither, though difficult, could soon be made 
practicable. The direct approach without passing under the battlements 
seemed to me tolerably accessible. The battlements were evidently 
far less solid than those on the town side. Our position commanded 
the whole interior on that side owing to the slope of the fortified hill 
toward us. Once within this wall, there was a thick jungle of trees 
giving cover to the very foot of the palace, which a bag of gunpowder 
would instantly demolish, and the quantity of wall to be brought 
down to win an entrance at the postern was comparatively trifling. 
Whilst proceeding to my nev/ post the garrison came out without 
their arms upon assurance of mercy. Their number was very small 
and that of their women and children almost equalled it. No one could 
regret having been saved a victory over such unequal numbers and the 
bloodshedding of so many defenceless beings. We found the postern 
weaker than even my anticipation. A vaulted passage whose top is 
a wide causeway leads down to the river Bunnair. Parallel with 
it southward is a steep but practicable footpath defended from stones 
by the trunk of a peepul tree. The towers above are cracked and 
rickety and the slopes we purposed to clamber over at the battered 
necks quite practicable. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner, 


3 



iS JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1846. 

5.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary Commis- 
sioner, from the 1st to the 15th June 1846. 

1st June 1846 . — Started on my return to my duties via Noorpoor. 
Camped at Rilloo, the head of a small principality, long since absorbed 
in Chumba. Put up in a shed or dhurmsala. The first four miles of road 
are good, being that prepared for the siege train. After descending into 
the Guj river by the excellent gun road, it became a mere footpath 
coursing through rice terraces, then crossing several ravines of consid- 
erable depth and difficulty, but all reducible to suit wheeled carriages. 

The Shah Rah, I find, does not pass through Rilloo, but about 
2^ miles south of it. Rilloo is a large village. Its castle stands upon 
a woody hill about 200 feet above it. It is commanded within Field 
Gun range by perfectly accessible ground. It is a small but very 
massive building of five towers, one of which is solid and will bear a 
gun. The walls are of stone and mortar five feet thick. The interior is 
divided into three tiers of galleries open to the court. It has three consid- 
erable cisterns, filled with water carried up from a neighbouring well. 
The two guns, once here, have been removed. The sole entrance is a 
square hole in the northern curtain, about six feet from the earth 
and ascended by a removable ladder. It has no ditch. The structure 
is new— -a mere castle, though of solid material. 

2nd June. — Rilloo. — The baggage not having reached Rilloo by 
night, owing to the road, a halt is inevitable. Mr. Hardinge, Private 
Secretary to the Right Hon’ble the Governor-General, accompanied 
by Dr. Walker, arrived yesterday from Cashmere. 

jrdjune . — Marched early this morning and put up at the travel- 
ler s bungalow in the town of Kotla. The road which all natives had 
described as so excellent proves to be barely practicable to camels and 
not to ours at all in their weakly condition. It is a succession of 
chasms and rugged ravines, mostly cut into steps and paved at great 
expense. 'Ihese steps could in most cases be softened into ramps 
for guns. But the toil must always be great. An easier road avoids 
Tilloknath by passing through Jangul, Bug, Rujjol and Dhuddoon. It 
needs repair, On the road I saw growing in the same woods the oak, 
the pear, the saymul or cotton tree, the mango and goollur. Rasp- 
berries, pink and yellow, were ripening in the hedges. Yet we have 



JOURiVALS OF CAPTAr.y f. ABBOTT, 1846. 


19 


descended considerably from Rilloo, which is at the very base of the 
snowy chain. The camels being unable to come on loaded, I have 
procured with difficulty a few coolies and sent them back for the 
baggage. 

ifXh and jth June 184.6 . — The baggage is slowly passing, upon 
coolies, this most difficult road, a guard having been sent to Jontai to 
receive it, as it arrives piecemeal. I received charge of the Fort 
yesterday on my arrival, it having been vacated by the garrison the day 
previous. Captain Apthorp and a company of the 41st arrived at 10 a.m. 
from Noorpoor to garrison Kotla and to him I delivered the keys. 

The town of Kotla lies along the right bank of the torrent Dheer. 
A ravine and small stream immediately below it, and another very deep 
ravine a quarter of a mile lower down, meeting the Dheer, give a 
peninsular shape to a huge mass of sand and pudding-stone, and this 
forms the site of the fortress. 

The precipices are very formidable on the further side from the 
town and toward the river Dheer. But as the surface of the mass 
follows the dip of the sandstone strata toward the town their height 
on that side is less considerable and near the gate they are not 
impracticable. The weak point, however, is the neck of tlie peninsula, 
which is merely indented with an accessible ravine separating the Fort 
from a hill upon which guns can be planted within a hundred yards of 
the walls and on a level with them. The hills around are within field 
gun range, and from beyond the river a long line of works might be 
enfiladed at about 700 yards. The eitadel adds nothing to the strength 
of the place. The plunging fire from the elevated batteries might gall a 
distant enemy unwise enough to expose himself to it. But there are 
abundance of covered approaches to the place, and once beneath it, its 
Artillery is powerless. Weak, however, as we may deem it, no Native 
Power would venture to storm it, if garrisoned by us. It has a spring 
of excellent water and the gateway is not above 60 or 70 feet above the 
copious stream of the Dheer. The elevation is considerable, equal I 
think to Kangra, and the climate is very pleasant, although the position 
of the place amongst rugged ravines is disagreeable. 


The quantity of wheat in store is very great and the gun ammuni- 
tion plentiful. The guns, seven in number, are with one exception light 



io 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S46. 

field pieces. The exception, a long brass gun, carries a ball of about 
6 lbs. All are of somewhat rude construction, composed partly of brass 
and partly of iron. There is but one wall piece visible ; whereas the 
rifled wall piece is the Artillery best adapted to the defence of such 
places. These at 400 yards are more deadly than field pieces, and being 
transferable from parapet to parapet, requiring no embrasure nor any 
stability of platform, can baffle the fire of guns in battery. But to be 
efficient they must be of sufficient weight and solidity to carry half 
a pound of lead with two ounces of powder. A second company of the 
41st arrived to-day from Noorpoor. The two companies, with a few 
Artillerymen, might hold the place for some time. But it would require 
at least 400 men to do justice to it. The two companies, however, can at 
present scarcely find shelter in the existing huts. It will be seen that 
Kotla does not in reality guard the communication between Noorpoor 
and Kangra, it being avoided by the detour noted in the route map. 

6 lh June Marched to Khooshnuggur, a spring with trees 

about a mile short of the city of Noorpoor. This place, a city in size, a 
village in appearance and in the quality of its merchandise, is situated 
upon the neck of a projecting cliff of sandstone, the extremity of which 
affords site to the castle. The small rivulet Jubbur flows about 400 feet 
below the Fort, affording a scanty supply of water at the expense of 
much labour to the garrison and citizens. The habits of the people are 
framed accordingly and ablutions are rare amongst them. The town is 
chiefly peopled with exiles from Cashmere who readily turn their hands 
to any trade, but are principally shawl weavers. They are a robust 
race, hovering in feature between Afghaun and Tartar, as dark as the 
natives of Upper India, but limbed like Englishmen. The ordinary 
wages of a shawl weaver, who cannot weave until he can read, is 
two annas a day or four rupees per month, and it is marvellous that upon 
such a pittance the strength of their frames can be nourished. The 
castle of Noorpoor has the precipice at the foot of about ^ of its walls ; 
strips of level table elsewhere. The city gives cover almost to the walls. 
It has no effective ditch ; is a simple quadrangle flanked at intervals 
with towers, but on the eastern face a circular ravelin has been thrown 
out to flank the gateway. It is the weakest place bearing the name of 

fort that I have ever seen. Yet such is the respect of natives for lofty 

walls of masonry that it has never, I believe, been taken by siege 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, /S46. at 

or escalade. It has no water, its cisterns being filled by sending 
pukkauls to the river. This deficiency might be abated by boring 
for springs. The sandstone rock is very porous and easily worked. 
The town might be supplied in three different ways. A. canal might 
be led out of the river some miles higher up and conducted along 
the cliff side, crossing ravines by aqueducts of timber, or kawreze 
(chains of wells), as used in Central Asia, might be dug at Khoosh- 
nuggur, distant one mile, and the water led through pipes of timber 
or grooves of sandstone round the hill to the town. Or a tank of 
sufficient depth and size to supply eight months’ consumption of water 
might he sunk and built at the hillside, and this, whatever its size, 
could easily be filled from the drainage of the hills during the monsoon. 
Building stone, lime and wood are all very abundant. 

The road from Kotla to Noorpoor is very severe for cattle, and is 
about three good marches for laden camels. There is, however, nothing 
that might not be softened to admit the passage of guns. 

yth June 184.6 — -Marched to Sirrinuggur, a garden and grove of the 
Rajas of Noorpoor, at the distance of five miles down the rivulet. It 
has been spoken of as a cantonment site, but there is far preferable 
ground on the high tableland between Kotla and Noorpoor at six miles 
from the latter, being a fine open valley, well wooded and well cultivated, 
on firm soil, sandstone formation, and having Rubbee crops ; all favour- 
able circumstances in respect of salubrity. A ridge of mountains 
about 8,000 feet high lies eastward, at the distance of 10 miles. 

Up to this moment I had been on all hand^ assured that I should 
here find buildings capable of sheltering part of my establishment. 
They prove to be mere ruins, and the wood is too dense to be salubrious 
during the monsoon. 

8th June . — Resumed my march for Pathankot to finish the 
settlement in that quarter and to decide upon some choice of shelter 
for the rains. I had hoped that the weather would hold up yet a week, 
but the rain fell with a fury which there was no mistaking, and after 
persisting in my march upwards of an hour, seeing no symptoms of 
abatement, I turned back. The horses could not face the storm, so 
I sent them to a neighbouring village and waded on foot through 
the torrent back to my encampment. It continued raining all this day, 



it JOURNALS OF CAFTAIN J. ABtiOT7\ 1846. 

and as the monsoon is now set in, it seems to me unwise to defer 
housing my establishments at once ; when I can descend alone to finish 
the settlement. 

gth to 15th June 184.6. — Returned to Khooshnuggur, where I 
purpose building a little cantonment of straw huts. Sent for timber, 
bamboo and grass, which has since been coming in. At Shahpoor I 
might have found greater facilities ; but it seems too isolated a post 
during the rainy season for a detachment that has no medical attendant, 
its distance from Noorpoor being upwards of 20 miles. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Boundary Commissioner. 


6 . — From Captain J. Abbott, Boundary Commissioner, to Major 
H. M. Lawrence, Governor-General’s Agent, N.-IV. F., Simla , — 
No. J 7 , dated Camp Pathankot, 2nd July 1846. 

I HAVE the honour to forward my Journal for the latter half 
of June last. I regret that the weather has prevented the possibility 
of any operations during that period excepting the necessary precaution 
of hutting my establishments. 


Journal of Captain J. Abbott, Boundary Commissioner, 
from the 15th to the 30th June 1846. 

i£th to 2ptli June 1846 — Employed in hutting myself and estab- 
lishments at the distance of two miles from the Fort of Noorpoor. 

joth June. The temporary cantonment being almost finished and 
the weather having broken a little, sent on my people and baggage to 
Pathankot and purpose following them to-morrow to complete the line 
of demarcation from the Chukki to the Ravi. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner, 



JOURNALS Of CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, /S46. *3 

7. — Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary Commis- 
sioner, from the 1st to the 17th July 1846. 

ist July 184.6 . — Marched from Noorpoor to Pathankot. 

2nd to ^Ih July . — Employed daily in exploring a variety of lines of 
boundary, conformable with the village limits, from the Chukki to 
the Ravi. These are surveyed after me by the native establishment. I 
have left the two Engineer Officers engaged at Noorpoor in preparing a 
map of the season’s work. The necessity of my present intricate and 
tedious task arises in the uncertainty of the decision of Government 
respecting the Meerthul Estate, an irresumable jaghir which has at the 
moment of transfer been resumed and reassessed, thereby throwing out 
all previous calculations, for the lands available for exchange beyond 
the Ravi, valued at 17,000 rupees, will little more than cover the 
lands we have already enclosed, if the proceedings of the Durbar are 
sanctioned by our Government. 

6lh July . — Engaged as above in the forenoon. In the afternoon 
in taking the assessments of the Pathankot villages as collected by 
the Devvan Adjoodhia Pershaud upon the returns of four years and 
comparing them with my own estimates. The difference is not material. 
But the Durbar have been making resumptions and fresh assessments, 
which are perplexing. 

"jlh July . — In the morning engaged as usual upon the boundary, 
afterwards took the affidavit of the zumeendars of Pathankot to 
their several signatures. Unfortunately they can give little information, 
and even the Putwaries’ accounts, where such exist, yield it only by dint 
of extraordinary labor and patience. 

8th July . — Attempted to cross the Chukki to explore a new course 
for the road from Noorpur to Julundhur, but the torrent was running 
about eight feet deep and with a violence which would have swept 
away the elephant. Engaged in protracting and comparing the work 
of the survey. 

gth July . — Effected a passage across the Chukki in three feet water 
and explored the projected line of road, being a very easy acclivity and 
declivity of two miles from the Chukki to Doomtul passing over the low 
intervening hills. The principal obstacles are low thick jungle and 
boulders. The removal of these with a httle dressing of the axe 



24 


/OURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, t8^. 

and spade would open it to wheel carriages. It is more toilsome than 
the old route, which is a mile longer. But the double passage of the 
treacherous and dangerous river Chukki is avoided, as well as the 
necessity of crossing the Sikh frontier. Duties upon merchandise are 
also avoided. 

lOth July 1846— look the new estimates of the Shoojanpoor vil- 
lages as collected by the Dewan. They far exceed my own and appear 
to me greatly exaggerated. At any rate they afford no just average, the 
rates of the two last years of scarcity raising the rents from 30 to 50 per 
cent, above the two previous medium years. As, however, there is 
no probability that our frontier will enclose any of these villages, I have 
not thought the subject worthy of very rigid investigation. My own 
estimates were made when I supposed many of these villages might 
fall within our boundary. Took the attestations of all the zuraeendars. 

I had hoped to be absent only a week from Noorpoor, but the 
sudden activity of the Dewan has protracted the term, and I am but too 
glad to have data which cannot be challenged by the Durbar. 

iith July . — Plotting survey work and comparing estimates, pending 
the arrival of the Meerthul zumeendars. 

12th July. — (Sunday). 

ijth July — Employed all day with the Nungul and Gurrota 
zumeendars in overhauling Putwaries’ books, etc. 

J4th July . — Employed again all day with aforesaid zumeendars. 
The assessment has risen considerably above the estimate given 
me when on the spot, owing to the rise of provisions the last two 
seasons. 

j^thjuly . — Engaged all day with the Meerthul zumeendars. Not 
only has this irresumable jaghir been resumed, but the owner has been 
prevented from gathering in the ripening harvest, and a new jumma 
has been huddled hastily upon the lands, to enhance their value at the 
moment of transfer. The zumeendars indeed express their acquiescence 
in the justice of the new settlement. But, then, they are aware that they 
have passed to the British Government. It might be otherwise had they 
remained Sikh. 

i6th July, Marched to Shahpoor upon the Ravi, to close some 
work of the survey which my call to Kot Kangra left incomplete. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S46. 


25 


I occupy a kind of double-storied barrack standing upon a high cliff 
ol the river where it emerges from tlie mountains and commanding 
a beautiful view. The building is in disrepair, but might be repaired 
at small expense, and is the most airy and habitable place ever 
constructed by a native. 

July 18^6. — Having now collected all the estimates at present 
obtainable, I proceed to sum up the result, and in the uncertainty 
whether Government will acknowledge the resumption of Meerthul, or 
whether, if acknowledged, the new and increased assessment will be 
sanctioned, I have struck out three new lines of boundary, exhibited 
upon the sketch map accompanying, vi:.— 

— Old boundary as existent in the time of the two last Rajas of 

Noorpoor. 

— Boundary equalising lands enclosed by us, with lands disposable 
for exchange, supposing Meerthul to remain a jaghir 
of 10 horsemen. This line includes within our limits the 
only carriage road between Julundhur and Noorpoor at 
present existing. 

oo-.veC.— The same, supposing Meerthul to be resumed at the valuation 
it has hitherto borne of 5,000 rupees. This includes at 
present no carriage road. 

D. — Boundary supposing Meerthul resumed and the new assess- 
ment of 7,000 rupees to be sanctioned. 

In respect of these lines, B, which includes the carriage road, 
is manifestly awkward as exhibiting a long tongue of British territory 
between the river Chukki and the Sikh cantonment of Pathankot. 

C is more compact and appears to me the most preferable 
line available. It does not include the present carriage road, but 
I have personally surveyed (see July 9th) a practicable pass over the 
low hills from the Chukki to Doomtul as marked in map, which 
at small expense could be made practicable to carriages, the length 
being two miles ; and this would supersede the dangerous passage 
and repassage of the Chukki, which has no boat and is often quite 
impassable. There is moreover another and more direct line of camel 
road from Nouipooi to Meerthul passing entirely through our territory 
and susceptible by native account of being opened at no great 

4 



26 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184b. 


expense to carriages. This I purpose surveying immediately. It 
seems to me an object of importance to be able to maintain free com- 
munication of all kinds without crossing the Cbukki. There is no 
regular intercourse with Noorpoor by means of wheeled carriages. 
Indeed eastward of Deennanuggur carts seem to be unknown. 

D appears to me preferable to B, but less desirable than C, 
admitting a corner of the Sikh State to eat into our frontier toward 
Noorpoor. 


I he principle upon which the Durbar is acting of resuming 
lands and altering assessments on this frontier at the very moment 
of transfer greatly embarrasses me^ and hence the necessity of marking 
out so many lines of boundary to meet possible contingencies — a 
tedious operation to a small establishment owing to the necessity of 
following all deviations of village boundaries. 


Of these resumptions the principal is Meerthul, given to the 
incumbent s father in exchange for Kotla. At the time of this transfer 


Meerthul was rated at 5,000 rupees and Kotla at 1 1,000. Meerthul 
is now worth 7,000 rupees, but under the Sikh Government would prob- 
ably not have exceeded 5,500 owing to the prevalent system of 
under-assessment compensated by plunder ad libilnin. But as it is the 
invariable custom to overvalue rather than to decry jaghirs at the 
time of gift, it may be inferred that this estate lias been greatly 
improved by the incumbents. On questioning the Dewan’s Moonshce 
It appears that the Durbar have offered the Jaghirdar another jaghir 
of 2,000 rupees as indemnity, with the promise of an additional 


3,000 rupees of jaghir, whenever his 10 horsemen arc forthcoming, 
thereby acknowledging that the estate was valued at 5,000 rupees 
and that only 3,000 rupees worth of it were resumable; those, vis., 
covering his covenanted military service. And hence, if the Durbar 
are acting ingenuously toward us, they are dealing unjustly by him j 
foi tint, his estate exceeded in value the u,ooo rupees of Kotla 
for whici. he received it in exchange, they have no plea for wresting 
irom him the benefits of his improvements. I have gone at length into 
tiesc details because this is the most important of the resumptions 

affecting my operations and because it exhibits the system upon which 

my me based and the hollowness of the argument which would justify 



L i4k^i.cn'Poof' 




SKETCH MAP 

SHOWING 3 AVAILABLE LINES OF BOUNDARY BETWEEN 
THE BRITJSH & SIKH DOMINIONS 
BETWEEN THE RIVERS RAVI <jb CHUKKI. THROUGH PATHANKOT. 

TO ACCOMPANY CAPT, J, ABBOTT'S JOURNAL 
^ UttontkJidy ISAQ 





y A 


' : A ■ ■ ■ ■ ■/ 


H A R A 


Haro, 


7 


'-...A 

O Trait t o '/ 


yjD 



o 






I ^Go,ynpoor ^ ^arru^lf ^ 

"XA XsurJ^on ■'>. y'^ 

P.or-r-ou ^ ^WX«v«- 




y0O/y?oor 




Dhakv 


•Ss/ii 


^P'^fvraitra 


Prj ^S°^y^^pi<^orou 


h-igh. 


n,7 y' 




, A"- 




h 

/ ^ /J? Qiorroboj 

T r> 


A 




,.ti^'" — - 




•'yy.' , ^ 


X, 




ItTaloty'^'y/P 

<3 


O'^ / 


%-y AowJliUs 


Mi,le.\ 


Ale^r-fJtu I 


Piorv^er Press AtLahaAacL. 


UnPLora, 


J. ABBOTT, 
B.C. 




JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1846. a? 

As it relates to the British Government it appears to me highly 
unfair that fresh assessments should be made at the moment of transfer 
to our hands ; for as with us the nominal and the real assessment 
are one, the zumeendars are too happy to pay under our Government 
a higher nominal rent than under the Sikhs. The lands of Shahpoor, 
Noorpoor, beyond the Ravi, to be given in exchange for Meerthul, 
etc., are assessed at about 17,000 rupees. But the zumeendars I have 
no doubt would be too happy to pay 20 or 22,000 as our ryutts. But 
as these estates are to remain under Native rule, it was cruel to 
raise the assessments at the moment of transfer ; because after they have 
satisfied the Native Government, they have to satisfy the rapacity of 
the Talooqdar, and thus we stand on even ground of exchange, only 
when the old assessments remain unaltered until after transfer. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Boundary Commissioner, 

9. —Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary Commis- 
sioner, Punjaub, from the 18th to the 31st July 1846. 

i8th July 184.6. — Shahpoor — upon the Ravi. Summoned the 
zumeendars of Lukkunpoor, Teh and Chundgraon, possessions of Shah- 
poor beyond the Ravi, to give an account of their assessments. Those 
of Teh have this day attended, but the Lukkunpoor zumeendars have 
not appeared, although Raja Goolab Singh’s Vuqueel assures me he has 
summoned them. I can find no place of shelter on those lands to 
enable me to gather the information on the spot at this season. 

igth July . — Have procured from the Teh zumeendars by much 
persuasion a statement of their jummas for the last season. I have 
forbidden my Moonshee to flatter them with the prospect of becoming 
British ryutts as this appears at present improbable, and I do not think 
such deception justifiable even for the purpose of obtaining information 
which we have a right to possess. They are evidently in great terror at 
continuing under their present Governor and afraid to communicate 
freely with me, lest they incur his displeasure. Indeed, as he has 
collected the revenue of the past season and is accountable to the 
British for it, I apprehend extreme difficulty in extorting a true return of 



28 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S46. 

the collections. It seems that Raja Goolab Singh has added to the 
former light assessment certain arbitrary sums, probably calculated to 
be equivalent to the extra exactions of farmers and others. I can hear 
nothing of the Lukkunpoor zumeendars, and shall therefore return to 
Pathankot to-morrow, my lengthened absence from Noorpoor being 
inconvenient. 

20th July 18^6. ~ Returned to Pathankot. 

2isl July - — Returned to Noorpoor by the devious route of the 
Chaunj torrent to ascertain the practicability of that line for carriages. 
The distance is 20 koss. From Malote, where the hills commence, to 
Gungtah, about 10 miles, the path is througli a wide level valley formed 
by the Chaunj, the small bright stream of which is crossed and recrossed 
continually. The valley is richly cultivated and profusely watered. The 
path requires little aid from human labour to open it to the heaviest 
Artillery, nothing in fact but what half a dozen Pioneers could effect 
on the advance. But at Gungtah it becomes more difficult, and a mile 
bej’ond it ascends a ridge of hill about 400 feet high, descending after- 
wards into the valley of the Jubbur or Noorpoor stream. The whole 
ascent and descent would require expensive levelling, and from being 
artificial would need yearly repairs : whereas the ascent and descent 
lower down near Doomtul is already almost made to hand, the ravines 
on either side being smooth, firm and of easy acclivity and the height 
to be surmounted little more than half. I doubt therefore whether 
hackeries would ever follow this route were it opened, whilst the easy 
ascent of the Chukki and Jubbur is available, and indeed there is at 
present almost no intercourse with Noorpoor by wheeled carriages, 
Gungtah is a place of some consequence. Several bridle roads meet 
there, and it is celebrated for its copper and brass manufactures. I can 
learn of no access to it from Noorpoor easier than that just mentioned. 

22»8 July. —Engaged this day in arranging matters disordered by 
my long absence. 

^ 3 '^ The Lukkunpoor zumeendars have just arrived down- 
cast and trembling, evidently terrified by threats, and of course little 
disposed to yield any true intelligence. The difference between' the 
aspect of these poor creatures and the happy faces of our own zumeeq- 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1846. 


29 


dars is remarkable. Nothing can reassure them. As I can myself get 
no intelligence from them, I have made them over to my Moonshee, a 
native of Noorpoor, in the hope that he may obtain some data upon 
which to work. Sent for the Tehsildar of Noorpoor to ascertain how 
much of my instructions he had fulfilled, viz., to prepare a list of the 
villages of his Tehsil bordering upon Chumba. I find that in the course 
of a month he has not taken even a single step to fulfil these orders, 
although their importance was clearly explained to him. In fact the 
instant I return to our own districts, I find Tehsildars and Kotwals 
equally indifferent and disobedient, setting an example of inattention 
to the whole district. The settlement of this portion of the frontier is 
thus thrown back some fourteen days. 

July 184.6 . — Engaged in mapping whilst the examination of the 
Lukkunpoor zumeendars proceeds in the office. Directed Raja Goolab 
Singh’s Vuqueel to summon the Mocquddums of the Chumba border. 

2Sth July . — Engaged all day in endeavouring to procure from the 
Lukkunpoor people a credible estimate of the past season’s collections. 
That which they have given in my office is at the rate of from 
I rupee 4 annas to i rupee 12 annas per plough. The season was not 
good ; but on the other hand the prices had risen in consequence, and 
all the villages of Pathankot and Shoojanpoor separated only by the 
Ravi showed increased returns for this season. The Noorpoor collec- 
tions also are very decent. By the zumeendars’ own confession, a 
plough can yield Government in good seasons 25 rupees per annum, 
or I2i per season, and if the produce were only half that of other 
years, yet the price was only nearly double. Such an extravagant 
difference is therefore incredible, and I have been obliged to inform 
the Vuqueel that if credible estimates are not given, I shall be obliged 
to represent the impossibility of procuring such whilst the Raja’s 
Kardars are in office. 

26th, 2'jth and 28th July . — Engaged with the Mooquddums of 
Shahpoor and Noorpoor. The hardship of detaining these people long 
from their homes at this busy season prevents my benefiting by the rest 
of the Sabbath. 


2glhjuly — Employed in mapping, etc. 



3 ° 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S46. 


joth ami jist July 18^6 . — Taking the evidence and depositions 
of the Chumba Mooquddums as to the course of their frontier. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


10.— Journal of Captain J. "Abbott, Boundary Commis- 
sioner, from the 1st to the 18th August 1846. 

1st August i8j}.6 . — Taking the evidence of the Chundgraon Moo- 
quddums and zumeendars as to tlie revenue and geography of that estate 
beyond the Ravi. 

3nd August. — (Sunday). 

jrd August.— Taking depositions of CJiumba Mooquddums as to 
their boundary with Noorpoor. 

./t/i, ylh, 6th, jth, 8th August. — Preparing paper and plotting the 
map of season’s work. Returned the tables for the completion of the 
plotting columns not yet brought up. 

pth August. — (Sunday). 

loth, nth August. — Comparing — enquiring. 

nth Taking the depositions of Mooquddums of the 

Chumba border. Lp to this date the rain has been so incessant that the 
work of the survey without doors has been stopped, although I have 
prepared, by enquiry and the evidence of the border authorities, about 
40 miles more for survey. 

ijlh Taking evidence of the Kotla Mooquddums. The 

rain has ceased, but three out of four of the measurers are laid up with 
fever. 

I4lh Correspondence, etc. ; waiting for the elements of 

the map (sic) and for the Lukkunpoor accounts. 

15th August.— Taking evidence of the Chumba border Mooquddums. 

i6lh August. — (Sunday). 



JOUKK^ALS of captain J. ABBOI'T, 1S46. 


3 ' 


///A, 1 8th August 1846 . — Looking over work, waiting for elements of 
map and for the Lukkunpoor accounts. Despatched a surveying party- 
At the end of last month finding that the accounts procured from the 
zumeendars of Lukkunpoor under the authority of Raja Goolab Singh's 
Vuqueel were utterly incredible, the collections of the past Rubbee 
averaging about i rupee 8 per plough, I informed the Vuqueel that, 
unless credible returns were forthcoming by return of post from 
Catoohee, I should be obliged to report that there was no hope of such 
during the continuance of the Raja's Kardars in that district, which is at 
present the property of the British Government. The Vuqueel asked 
for nine days’ law to produce satisfactory accounts, promising faithfully 
to fulfil his pledge. Nineteen days have, however, elapsed and I have 
heard nothing of the accounts. During this interval the settlement 
of that portion of the border is arrested and needless expense is 
incurred by our Government. Raja Goolab Singh has collected the 
Rubbee of those lands, for which he is accountable to the British 
Government. But I doubt anj' satisfactory return being rendered 
whilst he holds possession of the estates. They are (excepting Chund- 
graon) hill districts, and it might be e.xpected with reference to the 
treaty that they might eventually fall to the Raja in exchange for 
other possessions. 


J. ABBOTT, Capjain, 

Bonudary ( uiiiinissioiur. 

11- — Joul'nal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary Com- 
missioner, from the 20th to the 31st August 1846. 

20th August — 1 he boundary suivey is slowly proceeding 
owing to the weather, the roughness of the ground amongst the 
mountains and the thickness of the jungle ; the progress of the map is 
arrested by the incompleteness of traverse work. 

2ist, 22ltcl, 2 J'ii, 24I11, 2jlll, 20 th, jyih, jSUl AugUSt. — AiXlL^ still 
arrested, traverse tabic being incorrect. Survey proceeding in direction 
of Kangra. Took a few more depositions of Kotla zumeendars. The 
Lukkunpoor accounts are not yet received from Maharaja Goolab Singh, 
which occasions much vexatious delay, as I have no data for the balance 
of a transfer. 



32 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1846. 


2pth, joth, jist August 1846 . — The Lukkunpoor and Chundgraon 
accounts have at length arrived. The falsifications are not so gross as 
in the former account. But still they can scarcely be genuine: for 
those two estates were fanned for 14,500 rupees and this average 
gives only 14,150 rupees per annum. The survey is still continuing. 
The map still arrested for want of the elements. 

Camp NEAR Noorpoor ; ^ J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

jst September 18^6. 


Boundary Commissioner. 


Journals of ( ..iri.trx f. ^ Ibbott, Boiiwiary Commissioner, Punjab — iSf.'/. 

iNote , — Captain Abbott was in charge of flazara tro:n the 13th Augu-t i>>47. i 


Period. 


No 

1 

i 

From 

To 

Page. 

Reji.arks. 

I 

11 til January 1847 

jibt January 1847 

35 


2 

1st February 1847 

28th f'ebruary 1847 

36 

1 

3 

1st March 1847 ... 

I ith March 1847... 

37 


4 

1 2th March 1847.., 

i8th March 1847...* 

39 

1 

S 

20th March 1847... 

2Sth March 1847...* 

40 

j 

6 

2Sth March 1847... 

30th March 1847... 

40 


7 

1st April 1847 ... 

1 0th April 1847 ••• 

42 


8 

1st May 1847 

lOth May 1847 ... 

44 


9 

nth May 1847 ... 

20th May 1847 ••• 

SI 


10 

2ist May 1847 

31st May 1847 ... 1 

55 


1 1 

1st June 1847 

I Ith June 1847 ••• i 

58 


12 

nth June 1847 ... 

20th June 1847 ••• ! 

62 


13 

2ist June 1847 ... j 

30th June 1847 ••• 1 

65 


14 

1st July 1847 ... j 

nth July 1847 ... ; 

68 


IS 

13th July 1847 ... 

27th July 1847 ... ! 

72 


16 

29th July 1847 ... 

9th August 1847... ; 

78 


17 

13th August 1847 

291 h August 1847 

84 


18 

1st September 1847 

13th September 1 

1847. 1 

87 


19 

i8th September 

1847. 

3rd October 1847 ' 

91 


20 

4th October 1847,.. ' 

20th October 1847 

92 


21 

19th October 1847 

3rd November 1847 

96 


22 

4th November 1847 ; 

9th November 1847 

99 


23 

9th November 1847 

19th November 1847, 

102 


24 

20th November 1 847 

26th November 1847 

105 


25 

27 th November 1847 

4th December 1847 , 

107 


26 

5th December 1847 

29th December 1^47 

J 

1 10 



5 




No. 1.— Journal of Captain Janies Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, Punjaub, during January 1847. 

iith January — Returned from Lahore to Katooha vid Sial- 
kote, having visited the camp of the Engineers employed in the survey 
on the road. Lieutenant Young is now recovered from his illness, and 
I have directed him to precede Lieutenant Robinson, and to take up 
points for the apices of the triangles, erecting at each a flagstaff. 

13th January . — The Vuzeer of Maharaja Goolab Singh arrived this 
day. Until his arrival it has been impossible to commence the erection 
of boundary pillars. 

I^thto jisi . — Busily employed in erecting the boundary pillars in 
earth, to be re-edified in masonry when the brick and mortar are pre- 
pared. The work is perplexing as being new to the whole establishment, 
and I am in my saddle great part of each day, correcting errors and 
teaching the Moonshees, Kalassees, etc. After much consideration I 
have decided upon erecting a substantial pillar of masonry at every 
decided angle, however small that angle be, and to define the slight 
inflections by means of earthen pillars seven feet high, girt with a ditch. 
This will render disputes barely possible. In long right lines, the pillars 
will be distant about 50 yards the one from the other, and every fourth or 
fifth pillar will be of masonry. At the crossing of large rivers a column 
of masonry of double the usual height will be erected on either bank, 
and when the stream of a considerable river forms the boundary, one 
of these pillars will be placed at the first meeting of the boundary with 
the river and another at the point from which the boundary quits the 
river. Each pillar will have imbedded a slab of stone inscribed in 
Persian character and defining in few words the intermediate space. 
The ordinary pillars of masonry will be 45 feet high, with a foundation 
of feet, and a diameter in the shaft of 2^ feet. 

The boundary pillars have been set up in earth, from the Ravi to 
this point, Sookoo ki chuk, a distance, following the inflections of the 
boundary, of 38 miles. My native establishment, under its present 
strength, is utterly inadequate to the proposed task of fixing these 



36 JOURNALS OF CAPTATN J. ABBOTT. 1S47. 

boundary pillars from hence to the river Indus, before the ist June 
next. I am therefore entertaining additional mootsuddies and measurers 
at my own expense, unless it please Government to sanction the extra 
cost. The remaining distance from hence to the Indus, following inflec- 
tions of the boundary, is not less than 460 miles; for it is impossible 
to violate village bounds, and they run into the most irregular figures. 

The Traverse Survey of the boundary has proceeded, as far as 
Soochetgurh, but owing to the ill-health of the Native Surveyor it 
now proceeds but slowly. 

I have enclosed Katooha within the Jummoo territory, to be 
balanced by lands taken from the Jummoo frontier. This arrange- 
ment gives a better boundary to both States, and the Maharaja Goolab 
Singh had expressed his particular wish to effect it and readiness to 
give an equivalent in land. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 

No. 2.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, in February 1847. 

isl to zSth February —The whole of the past month has been 
diligently occupied in setting up boundary pillars; making new surveys 
for straightening the boundary line; taking the evidence of ail the 
village zumeendars as to the correctness of the landmarks ; settling dis- 
puted possessions of village lands by Punchayats, and those between the 
two States by evidence given in the presence of the parties before me in 
Kutcherry. I find it necessary to visit myself every pillar that is erected 
owing to the carelessness of natives in the absence of such check, so 
that 1 am in saddle five or six hours daily. 

It is impossible to give satisfaction to the Maharaja Goolab Singh. 
The instant I commence cutting off the corners of his territory to repay 
the Sikh Government for value received by the Maharaja, I am assailed 
with remonstrances. His Highness can spare it in any other part of the 
frontier, yet these corners are as inconvenient to him as to the Lahore 
Government. Moreover his Vuzeer, Roop Chand, gave in such exagger- 
ated estimates of the value of tlie lands thus cut off that it has caused 
much perplexity. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J- A/IPOTT. iS/y. 


i7 


The Jesrota villages reckoned by him at 36,000 rupees have fallen, 
upon calling for the k/iusralis, to 22,000. In all points in which the 
Maharaja is manifestly advocating what is for the advantage of his 
kingdom I am most anxious to conform, as far as possible, to his 
wishes, and of this character is his desire to keep as much of the plains 
about his capital as possible and to have a strip of plain territory at the 
foot of his hills to facilitate intercourse and the passage of guns, etc. 
But His Highness has so little plain country to givx in return that it 
will be impossible to carry out his views in the latter particular, especi- 
ally as it is impossible to persuade him that land about Jumboo were 
well bestowed to effect the second object. 

Much rain has fallen this month and the preceding ; about eight 
days have been lost to the establishments, and the Holi has consumed 
five days more, so that the work of the past month does not exceed 
70 miles. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Boundary Coirtnissioncr. 


No. 3.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary- 

Commissioner, from 1st to 11th March 1847. 

1st and 2nd March j 8 ^~. — Holi holidays, 

jrd March — Employed in surveying, setting up boundary pillars, 
examining work, plotting the Native Surveyor’s Field Book, and taking 
the razeenamahs of the zumeendars. 

4.th March . — Diito ditto between Sohl and Minawur. 

f/A Match . — Received a letter from Maharaja Goolab Singh 
earnestly requesting me not to cut off territory opposite Jumboo, but tc 
take it rather from any other part of his dominions, a request which 
should never have been needed could he have told me from whence to 
take it. The Taloquhs cut off are long projecting corners (Davigurh 
and Keerpind), value 1 2,000 rupees; and after having taken them, I 
am still at a loss to make up the sum due to the Lahore Government. 
Employed as above. 



38 /OUJU^AfS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 

6lh March — Mttllai — Employed as above between Kooleet 

and Minawur. The work begins to lag. The people of Maharaja Goolab 
Singh are becoming sulky and inattentive, and give me little aid, and the 
Todah bundis mootsuddies seem to be influenced by them ; for I cannot 
persuade them to work. Yesterday issued a Roobakaree making over 
the purgunnah of Minawur Khas to the Lahore Government, the survey 
having proceeded far enough to show that alterations in its limits will 
not be necessary, and the Jumboo people having made free with some 
of the green corn, although aware that the estate is not their own. 

jth March. — I am still detained here by the same causes Employed 
as before in setting up boundary pillars, etc. I have not any hearty 
assistance from Vuzeer Roop Chund. He and his people seem to hope 
to gain their purpose by delaying the progress of the settlement. He 
came to-day to remind me that I had acceeded to his request for a skirt 
of plain country opposite Minawur. I replied that, if he would produce 
any equivalent, he should have it. 

8th March — Mullal. — I cannot get free of this unhappy place. The 
locusts are ravaging Minawur. I am still employed in reviewing daily 
the boundary pillars set up the past day ; taking razeenamahs j 
hearing proceedings of the Puncha 3 'ats on village disputes ; plotting 
the daily surveys; instructing candidates for the surveys, etc 

pth March. — Marched to Punj Toote on the lesser Toh river, a 
tributary of the Chenab, surveying about i 5 miles of boundary pillars 
on the road. Employed as usual. The Kooleet territory ceases here 
and Mungla commences : Minawur (Sikh) continues. The ancient 
Jaghirdar of Mungla, a relation of Maharaja Goolab Singh, has been 
dispossessed by that Prince, and is almost in rebellion. He came to me 
for redress, but 1 referred him to Lahore. It is an ancient, petty prin- 
cipality of about ten villages in the hills. 

loth March —Pimj Toote. — Employed as on the previous day. 
Border Minawur and Mungla. 

nth March. — Lesser Toh river, two miles north of Minawur. Ex- 
amined the boundary pillars en route. Employed as above. Another 
and more urgent letter from Maharaja Goolab Singh requesting me 
to undo the Todah bundie of Ruthana and Keerpind. I have replied 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


39 


that I cannot even venture to suggest any alteration in it unless he will 
distinctly point out what plain territory I can take in lieu ; this having 
been cut off by express compact with his Commissioners. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 

No. 4. -Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, from 12th to 18th March 1847. 

J2th March iS.fJ . — Chuk Bhao on lesser Toll river, Minawur. 
Taking razeenamahs, plotting, inspecting boundary pillars, instructing, 
pupils, etc. 

ijth March . — Do Kooha . — Taking evidence upon disputed territory, 
inspecting boundary pillars between Minawur and Mungla, plotting, 
etc. 

14.111 and i§th March . — As above. Summing up evidence upon 
claims to disputed possessions in Charwa, Soochaytgurh, UHa, Thoob, etc. 

i6tlt March — Burnala . — Receiving evidence upon disputed villages, 
of Burnala and Goojrat. Taking razeenamahs, plotting and inspecting 
boundary pillars. 

lyth March . — Whilst my camp moved to Kuddala, I ran over to 
Jullalpoor to see the process of damascening sword blades there, of 
which I am preparing an account for the Asiatic Society. 

i8th March — Kuddala of Coo/rat.— Inspecting boundary pillars, 
plotting, taking razeenamahs. The impossibility of being ahead of the 
work to ascertain the best line, and in rear to see that it is efficiently 
executed, at one and the same time, and the sickness of the only efficient 
Native Surveyor, lead to constant obstructions and cancels {sic ) ; for as my 
Native Surveyor can neither sketch ground nor write Persian, nor 
English, his survey is of comparatively little use. Mr. Agnew has just 
addressed me upon the importance of a road at the foot of the mountains 
within the Jumboo territory. I am doing my best to leave space for the 
purpose on this side, i.e., eastward of the Jelum, but westward of that 
river it is doubtful whether I can effect it. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Contmissionef. 



4 * JOtJKNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847^ 

No. 5.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, from 20th to 25th March 1847. 

20tli March iS^y — Ktmdhala of Kotla. — Surveying boundary 
pillars, plotting, receiving razeenamahs and hearing causes. About five 
of the Kotla villages I have made over to the Jumboo frontier to give 
space for a road at the foot of the hills. 

2Jst March — Churrtoula. — Employed as above. I have cut off and 
given to the Sikh frontier the greater part of Bhimber to square 
accounts and make a clear boundary. 

22Hd March. — Ran over to Kotla to arrange my heavy baggage 
which I deposit at Jelum. 

2jrd March. — Returned to camp at Pindi of Kurriali. Inspected 
boundary pillars, plotted the Surveyor’s work, examined, compared and 
corrected the Todah bundk plans from the Chenab hither. 

2fth March — Peer Khann. — Surveying boundary pillars, plotting 
surveys, receiving razeenamahs from the village zumeendars and 
hearing a few causes. 

2M^i March — All Beg of Kurriali. — Employed as above. I have 
been obliged to cut off and assign to Jumboo more of Kurriali than I had 
supposed would be necessary, in order to admit of a carriage road 
from Bhimber to Meerpoor, an object of extreme importance. This 
tends to embarrass the settlement as it is difficult to repay the balance of 
plain country due to the Lahore Government. 

J ABBOTT, Captai.x, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 6.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 

Commissioner, from 25th to 30th March 1847. 

2^lh March i8if.y. — AH Beg tn Kurriali — Employed in inspection 
of boundary pillars, receipt of razeenamahs, plotting the survey, etc. 

26th and 2'jlh March. — Employed as above and in endeavouring to 
avoid the necessity of cutting off so large a portion of Kurriali. The 
innumerable ravines in the northern part of Kurriali render this inevi- 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 4 * 

table, as otherwise the communication on the Jumboo frontier would be 
impeded. The existence of so much rugged ground in Kurriali was not 
known to me in my first hurried visit, or 1 should have remarked upon 
the necessity of enclosing it in the Jumboo boundary with the hill 
villages specified in my report. The knowledge would not have altered 
my judgment of the southern portion of Kurriali, which is essentially a 
portion of the Lahore territory containing the great trunk road from 
Lahore to Peshawur, nor do I conceive thai table-land, broken into 
ravines by the action of the rains, is properl}’ hill country, but as this 
table, with its ravines, springs from the very roots of the mountains, the 
necessity, which annexes it to the hill country in forming a frontier, is a 
strong plea, even should it be found impossible to give an equivalent 
from the plain country of Jumboo. 

28th March i8^j~ Sumrala . — Employed as on previous days. I have 
been unable to make so clear a boundary hereabouts as I could wish, 
owing to the poverty of Jumboo in transferable plain country. 1 should 
have wished to make the two frontiers meet at the junction of the 
rivulet Sookaytur with the river Jelum, which would have been a very 
eligible line, but Maharaja Goolab Singh cannot pay in plain country for 
the additional land it would be necessary to give him The line 1 am 
thus forced to adopt is awkward and inconvenient, but it gives a free com- 
munication along the Jumboo frontier. Issued a Roobakaree making over 
to Lahore the districts Behwul, Zillah Mogul and Hoomuk. Soochayt- 
gurh was provided for thus, some time ago, but the Killadar, it is said, 
refused to obey the purvvana I have sent fresh instructions. The sloth 
and inefficiency of all the Jumboo establishment accompanying me is a 
cause of serious delay and distress to the zumeendars, who attend to 
render their accounts, and who are dragged for this purpose sometimes 
a hundred miles from their houses. 

3gih and joth March . — Engaged in surveying boundary pillars, 
receiving accounts of value of transferred lands, and razeenamahs from 
the zumeendars, in plotting surveys, etc. Lieutenant Young is about 30 
miles in advance, taking up points for the Trigonometrical Survey. 
Lieutenant Robinson is a short distance from me carrying on the 
trigonometrical observations. Both are working hard and well. They 
can barely keep pace with my progress owing to the shortness of their 



4 * 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 


lines, which the thickness of the atmosphere necessitates, as well as our 
want of apparatus for night signals. 

jist March i 8 ^y . — Still at Sumrala, where I have halted in the hope 
of freeing ni3’self from the long train of zumeendars, by clearing off their 
accounts. News has arrived that theBehwul Kardar refuses to obey my 
order of surrender sent through Vuzeer Roop Chund. Some apprehen- 
sion of this made me think advisable that the order should come from 
the Resident. I have reiterated it, but know not with what effect, 
I march to-morrow for Meerpoor, and thence by daily marches to Karoo 
Khowta, about 50 miles farthernorth. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 7 .— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, from 1st to 10th. April 1847. 

I St April /i?//.— Marched to Meerpoor. As the boundary between 
Lahore and Jumboo for many miles is the stream of the river Jelum, 
no boundary pillars are requisite during that extent of limit. I am 
therefore hastening to the point at which the boundary quits the 
Jelum. Employed in plotting and receiving razeenamahs. 

2nd April . — In consequence of heavy rain, I am detained here 
to-day contrary to my intention. 1 am laboring hard to make the Moon- 
shees of either State agree in their estimates and allow the zumeendars 
to depart. But their indolence and litigious spirit is a heavy griev- 
ance to these poor people. Lieutenant Robinson is working with the 
theodolite at Mungla. Lieutenant Young is 30 miles ahead, taking up 
trigonometric points. Corporal Smith is ordered to survey up the Jelum 
so far as it continues the boundary. Nund Kurrun, my only tolerably 
efficient Native Surveyor, is, I fear, in a dying state. Ram Deen, the 
other Surveyor, is far ahead defining the boundary. The pupils I 
employ in tracing out the occasional deviations from existing tenure 
suggested by circumstances. Boundary pillars in earth are now set up 
from the Ravi to the Jelum, about two-thirds of the entire line of frontier 
between the States. And if the testimony of the Vaqueels of either 
State may be credited, bricks and mortar are being collected throughout 



JOURNALS OP CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, 


43 


the line of boundary. I have myself made plans and models in wood 
for the construction ; and Moonshees have been specially deputed by 
Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud and Vuzeer Roop Chund to report upon 
the progress of the masonry. Still as the work is expensive, it will not, 

I fear, be accomplished speedily without European superintendence. 
If therefore, on reaching the Indus, I find my active operations 
suspended, I purpose deputing one of the Sapper Sergeants to report . 
upon the progress of the masonry. 

jrd April 184 .^. — Marched to Chowmook, eight miles ; employed in 
receiving razeenamahs and endeavouring to expedite settlement of 
accounts Meerpoor is a beautiful elevated valley, enjoying a fine climate 
and salubrious atmosphere. 

ifih April . — Marched to Dhangulli Ghaut, 12 miles. The road is 
latterly very rugged, and though under European superintendence it 
might be made passable for guns, it would always be very difficult and, 
in native hands, probably impracticable. It runs about a quarter of a 
mile up the basin of the Jelum, so that it is closed by the rains alto- 
gether ; about 1 1 miles lower down is the ferry of Hill which 
is practicable to guns and always open. Its road leads through 
Behwul, which has been declared to belong to Lahore and could not be 
enclosed in the Jumboo boundary unless that State had about 40,000 
rupees worth of land to give in exchange elsewhere. Employed as 
yesterday. 

/fih April . — Still at the Ghaut. I was out the whole forenoon 
exploring the river and the hills. It will be possible to give Jumboo 
this ferry and imperfect communication at a small expense. Indeed, 
the rocky character of the portion enclosed, and the fact of its forming 
the only available connection of the southern frontier of the Jumboo 
State, make me consider it properly a portion of that kingdom. 

5th, 6th and •jth April . — Moved camp from the Ghaut to a ravine 
under the old Gukka palace at Dhangulli, of which only the ruins 
remain. Surveying boundary pillars, plotting, and receiving razee- 
namahs. The people of this country steal the flags set up by the 
Trigonometrical Survey which causes much annoyance, as it is im- 
possible to have the flags always guarded on bleak, exposed, and lonely 
positions. The inhabitants of Lukri are said to be the offenders, but 



44 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, i 84 T. 

the Dewan declines molesting them on account of their strength and- 
bellicose disposition j and the evidence is not sufficient to justify risk 
of bloodshed. 

8th April 18^'j. — Detained here by the stupidity of the Todah 
bundle Moonshee, which has rendered a second set of boundary 
pillars necessary. Employed as on the preceding days, being daily for 
four to five hours in saddle. 

pill and loth April. — Marched to Tehooah, a beautiful valley of 
Kullur. Have the utmost difficulty in getting the Moonshees to come 
to any settlement of accounts. The work of hours is dwindled into 
weeks and months, and would never be settled at all without my 
peremptory interference. Yet nothing can be simpler than the work 
they have before them and the instructions for their guidance. The 
Jumboo Moonshees are such helpless inefficient creatures that I 
am obliged constantly to rouse them, or their master’s revenue would 
suffer. The whole establishment employed as on other days. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundaiy Commissioner. 


No. 8.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, from 1st to 10th May 1847. 

jst May 184.’], — Noorpoor. — Occupied in exploring the boundary 
which here climbs the ridge of Mount. Serra, affirmation of sandstone 
with blue limestone, elevated at least 1,500 feet above the plain of 
Rawul Pindi. I should have preferred carrying the boundary along 
the foot of this mountain, until the Jumboo boundary quits the 
mountain altogether ; but this could not be done without violating 
Sirdar Chuttur Singh’s jaghir of Syudpoor, otherwise the Maharaja 
Goolab Singh might have a camel road through the mountains into 
Khaunpoor and the Huzaras, a matter of the utmost importance to his 
kingdom. Had I been aware until this moment of the existence of this 
camel road I should have recommended the Maharaja to arrange with 
Chuttur Singh for the transfer of this portion of the mountain by sale 
or exchange. But native intelligence is so imperfect that although my 
enquiries have been made of hundreds of the zumeendars of the 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 45 

country, I had no idea, until I came close to the spot, that camels could 
cross this ridge anywhere but at Margulla. 

I have also been hearing and registering the petitions of the vari- 
ous refugees who are in my camp and endeavouring to shape out some 
settlement by which employment beneficial to the State might be found 
for them. 

Lieutenant Robinson is taking the trigonometrical observations. 
Lieutenant Young is 20 miles ahead, taking up stations and fixing flags. 
Corporal Smith has just returned from surveying part of the river Jelum 
which he has performed in a very creditable manner. One of the Native 
Surveyors is ahead defining the boundary and the Todah biindie Moon- 
shees are setting up the pillars. 1 am delaying at this spot in the hope 
of learning here the final answer to Dewan Joalla Sahaie's proposition to 
give up all lands westward of the Jelum, to which I attach such extreme 
importance. It would be inconvenient to carry farther the zumeendars of 
Nurraie, etc., and I cannot very well come to any settlement of their 
case until the final answer to this boundary question is known. 

2 nd May i 8 ^y — Noorpoor. — Employed as yesterday. I had a con- 
ference to-day with Shaikh Sowdagur, the Maharaja Goolab Singh’s acting 
Commissioner, upon the settlement of the neighbouring mountains and 
their borders. He agreed with me that the collections in the mountains 
were best entrusted to a mountain zumeendar or person whom the 
mountaineers respect. He prefers the former, and doubts whether the 
influence of the Gukkas, unsupported by military aid, would suffice for 
collecting revenue from this independent race, whereas there is 
generally in every purgunnah some one zumeendar whose extensive 
connections or wealth give him a preponderance over the others. The 
villages of Jumboo, skirting the mountains from the Sohaun river 
to this point, form a little district yielding about 8,000 rupees, inhabited 
by a race of men as free and independent in their feelings as the 
mountaineers, and who can turn out 500 armed men for any purpose 
of mischief. He was inclined to entrust the collections of this tract 
to the Nurraie zumeendar, as best able to awe the people, but this 
would make the Nurraie men too strong and leave unprovided for 
the Gukka refugees who, I think, might be usefully occupied in 
controlling these zumeendars. He objected to the number of jaghirs 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 


4 « 

this would lead to and pleaded the smallness of the revenue. I asked 
what number of troops would be necessary for this little tract of 
8,000 rupees alone. He allowed that not less than 500 men would be 
sufficient, costing 50,000 rupees or 42,000 more than the revenue. I 
thought that, if by giving up the value of the whole revenue in jaghirs 
they could effect a peaceable settlement, the gain would be 42,000 
rupees, and all the authors of disorder and anarchy would be provided 
for. I spoke particularly of the Mandla Raja, whose old jaghir lies here. 
He objected that he had just been guilty of an outrage. 1 reminded him 
that laws are made for those whom laws protect; that the instant 
the law ceases to protect any man’s rights, he is justified in infringing 
those laws ; that this man, the descendant of an illustrious race, not 
long ago sovereigns of this country, had been plundered of his posses- 
sion and wrongfully imprisoned by Hurri Singh, and again plundered 
by the Kardar in whose district he was not dwelling and who had 
no just plea against him. I believed him to possess great influence 
with these zumeendars, and I thought that if he received a jaghir in some 
distant part and a percentage upon the collections of the district, he 
might be made as useful as at present he is hurtful to the Maharaja’s 
interests. He promised to consider the question. 

jrd May — Noorpoor Shaht . — Jaafir Khaun and his cousins 

attended to be reconciled together. They are peaceable zumeendars and 
incensed at the mischief and confusion he has in past times occasioned. 

It may be questioned whether it was very wise to call him on promise of 
provision, but having been admitted to such terms it is highly neces- 
sary that they should be inviolate. The reconciliation was not very 
cordial. Both parties are in fear of one another. The cousins fear 
the restless habits and violent disposition of Jaafir Khaun and he 
dreads the retribution due to his former excesses. I insisted upon his 
immediately disbanding all his followers excepting five (he has about 
50). The five may be really necessary for his security and as he has now 
some stake in his jaghir, I trust he may become a good subject. Should 
he again take to the mountain as a marauder he should be hunted 
down without remorse. It would perhaps be a better arrangement 
if his jaghir were exchanged for one in the plains and he made to 
reside on it, retaining at Goorreh his hereditary rights as a zumeendar. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 


47 


^th May — Noorpoor Shahi . — Had a conference to-day with 
Shaikh Sowdagur, the Jumboo representative, to discuss the arrange- 
ments for a quiet settlement of the hills and their skirts. I proposed 
the employment of Raja Shahb Ali Khaun, Gukka, as collector of 
the refractory villages hereabouts those bordering the mountains, as 
his influence and fear is very great over the inhabitants. This, 
however, was objected to as quite contrary to Maharaja Goolab Singh’s 
policy. They were sure he never would willingly consent to a Gukka 
having any fiscal authority, and they begged I would arrange for his 
provision by jaghir and military service. It was settled therefore with 
their full consent on part of their master that Shahb Ali Khaun should 
have a jaghir in the plains, remote from his old haunts, of 2,000 rupees 
value, of which F,ooo are to be his own and 1,000 the pay 
of foot soldiers of his quota. I think that if his son remains always at 
the jaghir he himself may be usefully employed in controlling this part 
of the country. It was also arranged that Zemaun Ali Khaun, Gukka, 
should have a jaghir of 1,000 rupees, of which 500 to be his own, 
500 the pay of foot soldiers, to be also in the plains ; that Buhadoor 
Khaun, Gukka, is to have a jaghir in land of 500 rupees, 300 for self 
and 200 for foot soldiers. And the collectors for the mountain States 
recommended by the Jumboo agents are — 

For Nurraie, Rs. 6,300, — Nusroo AH Khaun, chief zumeendar. 

For Potah, Rs. 6,000, —Zubrdust Khaun. 

For Kurrore and Charhun, Rs. 4,000, — Hydur Khaun, Sutti. 

Mountain Skirts, — Peer Bukhsh, zumeendar of Phoograon, the chief 
village. 

They assure me they are certain of the Maharaja’s acquiescence in 
these arrangements, although they at first tried to beat down the jaghirs 
to something too paltry to tempt men, who have been deeply wronged 
and are sensible of their present strength, to return to obedience. It 
must be remembered that the representative of each of these decayed 
families is expected to maintain all his relations. This he does, partly by 
employing them in his quota and partly by gifts from his personal 
jaghir. It is very necessary that he should maintain them, otherwise 
they will become plunderers in his old haunts. I shall defer, however. 



jfi JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847- 

communicating these arrangements to the Gukkas for a few days in the 
hope of receiving final instructions as to the proposed frontier line 
on the Jelum. 

§lh May i 8 ^j . — Marched to Syudpoor three miles west by south. 
This range of mountains, here about 1,500 feet higher than the plain, 
forms a triple barrier, about 25 miles in length, after which (at Margulla) 
it becomes single, and having dwindled into hills of about 500 feet 
continues west by south, ten nides farther, continually diminishing. 
There are many paths over it which are practicable to bullocks and 
ponies and might be made so for camels, but Margulla is the only gun 
pass, though at Shaul Delta I am informed that the road is convertible 
into a gun track. The villages at the western foot of these mountains 
enjoy a delightful climate as compared with the neighbouring plains, and 
where the water springs from the sandstone strata are tolerably salu- 
brious, but when the springs ooze from the limestone, as at Syudpoor, 
they cause indigestion and inaction of the viscera, being impregnated 
with lime. Amongst the trees are found the box, the oleander, the wild 
pomegranate in great beauty, impenetrable thickets of wild korounda 
which scent the atmosphere with their blossoms, the wild fig, the burgut 
(up to the summit) and on the crest the fir tree of small size. Springs 
of water are found close to the sum.nit and a dwelling there would enjoy 
complete exemption from the heat of summer months. But at present 
they are infested with robbers, and it may be some time before tranquil- 
ity is permanently established The abundance of water near the 
summit renders the establishment of castles there easy, and the abun- 
dance of wood, soft stone and lime gives facility to their erection. 

6 th May — Visited the old site of Sohaun, formerly the capital of 
this district, in the hope of gleaning some particulars of its past history. 
But nothing is known of this country previous to the Muhammadan 
dynasties, and all the traditions of Alexander extant here are manifest 
inventions to account for the erection of old buildings whose history is 
lost. Still no news from Lahore. My work proceeds slowly amongst 
these rugged mountains, the zumeendars of which pay little attention to 
a summons to attend, although they are very civil to my people. 

On the fourth, news was brought me that a Gukka named had 

driven off a hundred head of goats and some bullocks to the mountains. 



JOURI^ALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 49 

I sent for the Gukkas with me and told them their cause was lost if the 
cattle were not immediately restored ; that I was heartily ashamed of 
having taken any step in behalf of a race who were evidently mere 
thieves ; that I supposed they were the opprest, but found them to be 
in fact the oppressors of the industrious ryutts, and therefore my 
enemies. They hung their heads, and Buhadoor Khaun started 
instantly with his followers in pursuit of the marauder. This day he 
came to report his success : all the cattle had been restored, and 
he hoped I would pardon and admit to my presence the offender. 

I replied that I must first hear from the owner’s lips that his cattle are 
restored. 

"jlh May — The owner of the cattle attended and declared that 

he had received back all his property and I have consented to allow 

to wait upon me to-morrow. He is of Shahb Ali Khaun’s family, and 
must be fed from his jaghir. A younger brother of Shahb Ali Khaun, 

by name, surrendered himself with 15 armed followers, a few 

days ago, I have directed him to dismiss all but two. The number 
in my camp now is considerable and all dre receiving daily rations from 
me as guests. These men dwell under bushes and caves, continually 
shifting their haunts in the dread of apprehension. Those with me, 
when their tails {sic) are on, muster 1 fancy about 200 armed men, most 
of whom are ryutts of the mountains and not exclusively robbers like 
themselves. On calling the mountaineers of Nurraie to arrange pre- 
liminaries for the settlement, I found that Zubrdust Khaun is not a 
zumeendar of Potab, the district designed for his collection, and that 
therefore he could make his collections only by aid of an armed force, 
which is precisely what the present arrangement aims at avoiding. It 
was therefore agreed to summon the most influential of the Potah 
zumeendars, Shah Ali Khaun, No. 2, and for this purpose I have despatched 
apurwanawith aChuprassie. Nasroo Ali Khaun was anxious to under- 
take the collection of Potah as well as Nurraie, but I think they are 
better divided. It is less offensive to the people to be taxed by 
their own chief zumeendar than by that of a neighbouring district, and 
two securities are better than one. I have sent also for one of the 
Kurrore zumeendars, Unfortunately in that district all are pretty 
nearly equal. 


7 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 


SO 

8th May 184.J — Syudpoor. — Still no news from Lahore. The 
work is now considerably ahead and I am anxious to get on, but 
consider the settlement of the mountain districts of greater importance 
than the exact regularity of the boundary pillars, especially amongst the 
mountains, where there is seldom cultivated land. 

^th May — Syudpoor . — Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud to-day read me 
a Roobakaree of the Resident at Lahore, from which it seems that the 
question of the Jelum frontier remained in suspense and that Dewan 
Joala Sahaie had turned against his own proposition and urged in 
preference others which would utterly ruin the Jumboo frontier. 

The Potah zumeendar has not yet arrived. 

loth May — Syudpoor. — I have been busy the last two days with 
the papers relative to lands eastward of the Husseli Canal in Pathankot 
and Shoojanpoor, about to be made over to the British Government. 
Full particulars will be found in my official correspondence. The 
zumeendars of Potah and Kurrore arrived late last night. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 9 . — From Captain James Abbott, Boundary Commissioner , to Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Henry M. Lau rence, C.B., Resident at Lahore , — 
No. lifi, dated Camp Oosmaun Qatar, Punjaub, 22nd May idif.'j. 

I HAVE the honour to forward my Journal from nth to 20th 
of this month, the contents of which will, I trust, meet with your 
approval. 

2. I beg to solicit your attention to the importance of the mineral 
productions of the mountain chain called Serra, dividing Khaunpoor 
from Rawul Pindi and intersected at Margulla. There is carriage 
road from Lahore to their foot, and the presence together of lime, 
iron and fuel in such abundance affords great facilities to the establish- 
ment of an iron foundry. The distance by carriage road from the 
Jelum, where water carriage is available, is about 60 miles, and the 



JOURNALS OR CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


5 * 


large town of Rawul Pindi is in the immediate neighbourhood. Good 
water is abundant. The climate at the eastern foot of the mountains 
is extremely temperate, the hot westerly wind having to pass through 
the higher strata of the atmosphere in its passage thither, and on 
the mountain itself are many sites in which heat is unknown. The 
mountain itself enjoys a salubrious atmosphere. At the foot some 
villages are afflicted with sickness, and others are reputed healthy, 
a difference attributable seemingly to the water. Syudpoor is of the 
former ; Noorpoor of the latter class. 

3. The effect of any establishment of this kind would be beneficial 
in thinning the excess of jungle which at present harbours robbers 
and in bringing the half wild tribes of the mountains and their 
skirts into more immediate contact with civilized life. 


Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary Commis- 
sioner, Punjaub, from lltb to 20th May 1847. 

nth May 184.^ — Syudpoor near Rawul Findi . — Although the Potah 
zumeendar is unable to attend and has sent only a deputy in the person 
of a Syud, I find it is impossible to delay the settlement of the Suttees 
of Nurraie, and have had them in my tent with the Jumboo agents, and 
declared to them the terms upon which the Maharaja of Jumboo is will- 
ing to forgive the past and the terms he has guaranteed for their future 
protection. These are, briefly, the surrender of all arms belonging 
to the Government ; their peaceable return to their homes and duties, 
there to continue good subjects paying their rents and molesting 
no one ; the re-edification of the principal forts, to be occupied 
by Government troops ; and the attendance of a hostage or of 
hostages for the payment of the revenue. Upon these conditions the 
Maharaja entrusts the fiscal and judicial duties of the districts of 
Nurraie and Kurrore to the principal zumeendar of Nurraie, Nusroo Ali 
Khaun, assisted by his family ; the revenue to be paid in three kists each 
season, or six kists per annum, to Jumboo;* the judicial causes to 
be tried by Punchayut according to immemorial usage, and the crimes 

1 The following remissions are granted : — To those in arrears five seasons, three are 
omitted ; to those in arrears three seasons, one-half \ to those whose bouses are plundered 
or burnt, all, including the present. 


if Sit 



52 


JOURNALS OF CAPTA/N J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 

involving blood to be referred for final sentence with the prisoner 
and the proceedings to Jumboo. Nusroo Ah Khaun, in considera- 
tion of the faithful discharge of these duties, will be secured in the 
possession of his jaghir of Alliote, and will receive a jaghir in land, 
value 500 rupees, in Kurd or Meerpoor. 

Nusroo Ali Khaun made many difficulties; pleaded hard against the 
occupation or re-edification of the forts; that his jaghir miglit be in, or 
contiguous to, Nurraie ; that all arrears should be remitted and the 
land tax abated. But he was answered upon all these heads by unan- 
swerable countei -objections. The presence of small garrisons obviates 
the necessity of large armies and all their attendant mischief. The 
jaghir is a species of hostage for good conduct; if close to the hills, 
when resumed for any offence, it would certainly be plundered by the 
late possessor. 'I he remissions are handsome, and as for abatement 
their own statements cause me to believe the assessments light ; at any 
rate none can be made until some proof of their undue weight be 
afforded. He then begged the coining night to consult with his rela- 
tions, expressing his doubts of being able to answer for the collections 
unless he had their solemn promise of assistance. This I am obliged to 
grant, although anxious to strike my camp. 

I2tlt May iSj’j —Syudpoor . — This day the covenant after much 
discussion, and many difficulties on the part of Nusroo Ali Khaun, was 
duly sealed by the Jumboo agents in my presence. The particulars will 
be despatched to the Resident at Lahore, and need not therefore be 
recapitulated. Nusroo Ali Khaun positively objected to his own son 
being a hostage, and the whole of the terms were about to be nullified, 
by his obstinacy, when it was arranged that three hostages, one 
from each of the principal tribes, should be substituted, to be 
relieved at pleasure every six montlis. This, as he cannot find any 
merchant to be his security, is absolutely necessar3^ His relat'ons 
also solemnly covenanted with him to aid him in the execution of 
his new duties. I did not make the non-interference of the garri- 
son enter into this bond, reserving it for a separate assurance to be 
given to the British Government that the garrisons be not allowed 
to interfere in any manner with the people, so long as the revenue 
is paid, and as the people are orderly, in their conduct. Nusroo 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


53 


Ali absolutely refused the jaghir in Kurri, and the article of grant 
was omitted. But after the assembly was broken up he entreated 
me to pardon his refusal, and to have it sanctioned to him in Meer- 
poor. I believe it will be better to give it him, because the fear of 
forfeiting it will always be a restraint upon his conduct. 

ijth May i8^y . — Marched to Goolreh, seven miles. 

i^h May . — Marched to Shaul Detta under the mountains. There 
is a singular recess in the cliffs, which are one huge mass of Tufa. The 
spot has been planted with beautiful trees, and a cistern when completed 
will receive the spring as it wells from the foot of the cliff Niches are 
excavated in the cliff and a Hindoo faquir presides over a little temple. 
Shaul Detta is also celebrated for the tombs of some reputed saints. 
From Shaul Detta two foot-paths practicable to camels cross the 
mountains, the one direct to Khaunpoor, the other to Oosmaun Qatur. 

i^lh — Marched over the mountains, the road having been 
previously cleared to Khaunpoor on the right bank of the Hurro Nuddi. 
The camels with their loads a little lightened came over with facility 
and Field Artillery could be carried over on elephants. The other 
road is said by Lieutenant Robinson to be much easier and suscep- 
tible of conversion into a gun road. A thick jungle occasionally 
infested with tigers accompanied me to Khaunpoor (sic), where my tent 
was pitched on the left bank of the Hurro opposite Khaunpoor, upon a 
turf shadowed with damson, bullace, and apricot trees of enormous size, 
festooned with beautiful vines. Khaunpoor is, however, a disagree- 
able place, in and after the rainy season, wrhen mosquitoes swarm and 
fevers are abundant : and even now the temperature is perceptibly 
higher than I found it on the eastern foot of these mountains. The 
Hurro, a beautiful stream unwholesomely loaded with lime from the 
pebbles in its bed and the limestone rocks which it drains, becomes in 
the rains a river of amazing power, which, however, like most mountain 
torrents, speedily becomes fordable. It is at present entirely consumed in 
irrigation, and the villages below Khaunpoor are reduced to the greatest 
distress by the stoppage of its current. 

i6th and lyth May . — Halted at Khaunpoor to enable the Dewan’s 
and Vuzeer’s camps to join me ; explored the river Hurro, and the 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 


S 4 

mountains over which the boundary runs. They are of old sandstone 
surmounted by primitive (apparently) * limestone ; at least I have detect- 
ed in it no remains of organized life, although at Nurr Topa there is a 
spring of asphaltum. Iron ore, the black oxide, is abundant at the eastern 
foot, and to-day I have picked up some beautiful specimens of the black 
oxide of copper. The limestone is of a deep steely blue, beautifully 
veined and susceptible of high polish. It is found in blocks of great size 
at Noorpoor Shahi and Syudpoor, and a fortune might be made here by 
any enterprizing individual who should set up an iron foundry and a 
marble warehouse. The abundance of lime and of wood would render 
the fusion of the metal easy : and natives are soon taught to work with 
the saw and chisel as well as Europeans. The presence of copper, if it 
prove abundant, is very important. 

I hear of streams of mineral water in the neighbourhood, and of a 
spring of yellow water ; I have sent for specimens of both. 

i8th May 184.J . — Marched to Oosmaun Qatur, nine miles, and sent 
to offer a visit to Mr. Vans Agnew, who is expected at Hussun Abdal. 
Plotting, receiving razeenamahs, etc. I have stopped the further progress 
of the Todah bundie, as it has reached Gundgurh and Huzara, and as it 
seems improbable that this boundary will be confirmed, it appears to me 
inexpedient to set up amongst those excitable people boundary columns 
that are not to stand fast. 

ipth and 20th May. — Mr. Vans Agnew rode over to my tent on 
19th, and we had a conference upon the state of the country and the 
measures to be immediately adopted. It seems highly advisable that the 
precautions he has recommended be promptly attended to, and that the 
Sikh Troops enter upon possession as soon as possible after the conclu- 
sion of the new Treaty of exchange. All my operations from the 
Jelum hither are rendered null by the new frontier ; but it is impossible 
to describe in adequate terms the advantage gained by the people of 
the country west of the Jelum by the exchange, nor to the relief it 
affords to the Jumboo Government, by whom they never could have 
been held in hand. I purpose proceeding at once to Moozuflferabad 

^ The spring of asphalt leads me to question whether this limestone can be 
primitive, and to hope that it may contain coal. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 55 

and laying down the new frontier to the Indus. After which should it 
appear to Mr, Agnew, and myself, advisable that I should accompany 
him into Gilgit, I will endeavour to make arrangements to that effect. 
If otherwise, I will adopt the option granted me by the Resident at 
Lahore in his letter this day received. 

The Trigonometrical Survey has just reached the Indus, and I have 
sent Lieutenants Robinson and Voung to measure the base of verifica- 
tion. They will afterwards start from that base and run up the 
triangulation toward Cashmere, as far as the approach of the monsoon 
will permit. But I rather fear it may be necessary to defer the survey 
and delineation of the Jelum until the cold weather, as the unhealthy 
season in those parts is close at hand. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Boundary Commissioner. 


P. S . — The universal cry of the people is when will the British 
interfere to save us from the oppressive system of begarie. It certainly 
is ruinous alike to ryutt and to Government, for it is the consumption of 
capital in the place of interest, and I am of opinion that it would be worth 
the while of any Government to establish upon the main roads relays of 
porters paid by Government and hired out by them to travellers. The 
expense would be repaid tenfold by the increase of cultivation, the 
happiness of the people, and the occupation by villages of the high roads, 
which this system has utterly desolated, so that no part of the jungle is 
so insecure to travellers as are the high roads of the Punjaub. 


No. 10.— Journal of Captain Janies Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, from 21st to 31st May 1847. 

2ist May — Oosmaun Qatur . — The triangulation has now 

reached the eastern border of the Indus, about 15 miles above Attock, 
and I have given instructions to Lieutenants Robinson and Young to 
measure carefully a base of verification. To prevent suspicion of the 



56 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 

meditated exchange of territory, I am continuing the Todah bundie, but 
have arrested the Surveyors on this side of Gundgurh, deeming it unwise 
to set up a Todah bundie, which is likely to be cancelled, amongst that 
excitable clan. Meanwhile I am collecting alt possible information res- 
pecting the country and the revenue, and bringing up arrears of work. 
Although I think it probable that the Jelum will become the boundary, I 
cannot march towards MoozuflFerabad whilst a doubt remains, because 
such a move would be regarded as a proof that the Huzara country no 
longer appertained to Juniboo, and, in the event of disappointment, might 
occasion commotions. But I am preparing for the hill journey, by hiring 
mules, and making up packing cases suited to their backs, which will 
prove the more necessary if I go into Gilgit with Mr. Vans Agnew. 

32 nd, 2jrd, 2^th May — Oosmaun Qatur . — Engaged as above 
detailed, and anxiously expecting the announcement of a decision upon 
the negotiation pending at Lahore for an amended line of frontier. 

26th May , — Marched to Sooltanpoor, seven miles under the Gund- 
gurh mountain, a precipitous ridge of rock about 1,000 feet higher than 
the valleys of Huzara, Kote and Chuch. The Gundgurries have ceased 
plundering since the arrival of Mr. Vans Agnew and their consequent 
hopes of recovering the possessions to which they lay claim in the plains- 
The whole revenue of Gundgurh, amounting to about 1,500 rupees per 
annum, is given up to this family with the view of preventing them from 
indulging in their established habits of rapine. But the members of the 
family, being very numerous, are not contented with this concession, but 
live upon the property of their neighbours of the plains, asserting that 
the whole country at the foot of this mountain belonged to their ances- 
tors and was wrested from them by tyranny. They are probably right, 
and, if so, form a few of many hundreds who have similar grievances. 
Mr. Agnew informs me that he has recommended that an additional 
jaghir of 8,634 rupees be added to their present jaghir of 1,500 as the 
sole method of keeping them quiet, short of extermination. 

2jth, 28lh, 2gth May — Sullanpur. — Employed as on previous days. 

On the 29th I received authority from the Resident at Lahore for laying 
down the new boundary upon the Jelum and to make over to the Jumboo 
Government at once about 1^ lacs of rupees of land about Jumboo. It 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847, 57 

is not possible, without a survey, to make over more than about i lac 
or 1,20,000 rupees worth. 

joth May — Issued a Roobakaree directing the Kardars of the 

Lahore Government to make over to those of Jumboo, on the 1 5th of the 
month of Harr — 


Rs. 

The lately transferred villages of Kurri ... 22,000 


The ditto 

ditto 

of Koolut 

• a a 

2,000 

The ditto 

ditto 

of Devigurh, 

Keerpind 

12,500 

The Sikh purgunnahs 

1 of 

Runjeetgurh, 

roughly 


estimated at 

... 

• * a 

... 

45,000 

Joora 

... 

« « a 


4,500 

Urniya 


• •a 

... 

6,000 

Soochaytgurh Burra 


Total 


9,000 

1,01,000 


But the value of the three latter purgunnahs may prove considerably 
in excess of this estimate. 

jist May . — Purposed marching this morning for MoozufFerabad, but 
have halted to accommodate Mr. Agnew's movements, who diverges to 
visit the countries bordering the Jelum and rejoins me at Moozuffera- 
bad. I have directed Lieutenants Robinson and Young to march to 
Wuzzeerabad on completing the base of verification, as it will not be 
possible for them to work up with me any further this season without 
imminent risk of fever. At Wuzzeerabad there are buildings 
unoccupied, where they may find shelter whilst preparing a map of our 
operations. They have both been working most zealously and cheer- 
fully, and often at the risk of their health ; for the work of more than a 
single season has been effected by them this year under many circum- 
stances of difficulty, from having no second theodolite nor any instru- 
ment by which very correct levels can be taken. I march to-morrow. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


8 



S8 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, tS^T- 

No. 11.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, Punjaub, from 1st to 11th June 1847. 

1st June i8ijj—Kote, Huzara . — Marched to Kote in progress to 
Moozuflferabad, surveying the road en route. 

2nct June — Hurkishengurh . — Marched to Hurkishengurh, or Hurri- 
poor, the latter being the name of the city. It is very slowly recovering 
from the plunder and violence it received owing to the infamous 
conduct of its Governor, Moolraj. Confidence is not yet restored. The 
walls are still in ruins and it is not protected by the fort, simply 
because the garrison must not be expected to sally for its rescue. I 
begged the Dewan, Adjoodhia Pershaud, to take immediate steps to- 
wards repairing the walls and gates. The people will fear to return to it 
in its present defenceless condition. Hurkishengurh, the fort, is a smart 
little castle of earth with the most formidable of military obstacles, 
a wide and very deep ditch, which can be flooded at pleasure. It is 
in tolerable repair standing about a quarter of a mile east of the city. 
The temperature here is very pleasant, and this valley must be high. 
Unfortunately during the rains fever prevails here to a frightful extent 
and pervades all the rice valleys from hence to Moozufferabad. 

3rd June . — Halted here to make enquiries and arrangements, and 
rode over the valley which is in parts dep>opulated by the forays of the 
said Moolraj. Notice came to-day that Dewan Kurrum Chund having 
disobeyed the most positive prohibitions to move his troops further 
into the country of the Dhoonds, which Mr. Vans Agnew is actually 
en route to settle, had met with a shameful defeat from the armed peas- 
antry. He of course himself was not engaged, as it is not the fashion 
for Sirdars to run any personal risk. The event is most unfortunate, 
for there is no dealing with a people flushed with victory, and the inci- 
dent is sufficient to cause a general rising. 

y««z.— Marched to -lo miles. 

5//; y««c.— Marched to 10 miles. 

Marched to Nowa Shihr, 17 miles, a town of huts in a singularly 
beautiful and fertile valley, of considerable elevation. The wheat is still 
standing, although some of the rain crops are in ear. This would form 
a most desirable residence but for the fever with which it is visited 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


59 


during the rains and the swampiness of the soil at that season. I 
sought in vain for a quarter of an acre of ground near the town free 
from cultivation as a site for a shed to shelter me during the rains. 
I have ordered the erection of one, however, upon ground to be rented 
during occupation. The fever here seems to be less universal than in 
Pukli and Hurkishengurh. 

Halted to make enquiries and arrangements. The Corps here is in 
a state little short of mutiny, owing to its being eight months in arrears of 
pay. This leads inevitably to cruel extortion and oppression on the 
part of the soldiery. The Indians, however, are doves compared with 
the Rohilla Corps (as it is called) composed of Eusofzyes, etc., from 
beyond the Indus. These men are brutal and rapacious to a degree, and 
should not be entertained in any country under any circumstances, as 
they make the rule of any Government who employs them hateful to the 
people. I have represented to Dewan Kurrum Chund the pressing 
necessity which exists for satisfying the just claims of these men, whose 
revolt at this moment would cause inextricable confusion, and he has 
promised that two months’ pay expected immediately shall be issued t(^ 
them. I rather hope, than expect, that this promise may be fulfilled. 
Avarice has no reason. Heavy complaints are brought of the daily^ 
hourly, breach of the solemn convenant made by Joalla Sahaie, the Dewan,. 
of the remission of past offences, and the abolition of the begarie system. 
It appears that numbers are fined or imprisoned as concerned in the past 
disturbances, and that begaries are carried forty, fifty, a hundred miles 
from their homes and detained 20 and 30 days from their ploughs at the 
most busy season of husbandry. 

The people are evidently determined not to submit to this, and 
they lay their complaints before me as a last peaceful resource. Their 
method of procedure is cool and determined, and little exactions prac- 
tised by all native Kardars they resent as breach of faith. This fine 
spirit, whilst it assures me of the impossibility of the Jumboo Govern- 
ment retaining long their present possession, makes me anxious for the 
future under the operation of the late exchange ; for the utmost vigilance 
does not prevent the crimes of native agents, and the people are 
confident in their own resources. Much may be done by the presence 
of a British Officer, if empowered to remove and appoint Kardars. But 
if these functionaries are not under his control, his interference may 



6o JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J, ABBOTT, 1847. 

only forfeit for us the high estimation in which at present they hold our 
justice and our power. 

8 th June i 8 ^y — Marched to Maunseera, 16 miles. Found a regiment 
of Jumboo troops in the town, quartering themselves not only in the 
bunnia’s shops but in the houses and amongst the women of the unfor- 
tunate inhabitants. The troops have no tents, had brought no cooking 
utensils, and of eourse were exercising the right which might confers to 
make use of the zenanas and cooking utensils of their fellow-subjects. 
Can it be wondered that any people possessing means of resistance 
should revolt against such tyranny? Rain came on after noon and 
lasted all night. 

gth June.— The. rain of yesterday prevented the exchange of 
carriage from camels to bullocks and mules, which here becomes neces- 
sary. Up to Maunseera the route lies through long valleys bounded by 
mountains. The last stage is rather rugged, but a gun road might be 
made so far. Assailed by numberless complaints of extortion and 
oppression, of all which I have taken memoranda. I have begged the 
zumeendars to prevent all commotions, as in such circumstances my 
power of redressing their wrongs will be forfeited. Meanwhile the 
erection of a bungalow or rather shed for my accommodation at Nowa 
Shihr, and arrangements here for similar accommodation, assure them 
of my return amongst them. They hail me wherever I appear with 
beaming countenances, which would be very gratifying could I hope to 
fulfil a fourth part of their expectations. 

/o/A /««<?.— Marched to Hubeeb-oolla ke Gurhi, a mud castle on 
the eastern bank of the Koonhar river. This stream of small span is just 
now 10 feet deep and racing past with great velocity. It cannot be 
passed by boat nor is there any ford, but an excellent bridge has been 
constructed across it, passable by loaded bullocks, the abutments 
being formed of piles of fagots supporting projecting beams of timber 
over which the stems of trees are laid. These are boarded for the 
causeway, and the projecting timbers of the abutments are held down 
by large heaps of boulders. This bridge, which is common in the moun- 
tains for streams of small space, might at small expense be made 
durable ; but at present it is generally swept away by the floods of the 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1X47. 6t 

monsoon. The boundary here is not easily arranged owing to the 
estate of the Jaghirdar, Sooltan Hooseyn Khaun, lying across the 
Koonhar and the Jelum, whilst that of the Jaghirdar, Umeen Khaun, 
lies on both sides of the Koonhar. 

These men are very tenacious of ancestral possessions and would 
not willingly take any exchange. Umeen Khaun's jaghir might be 
disposed of by bringing it all into tbe Lahore boundary and making 
his eastern boundary (a mountain ridge well defined) the boundary 
of the kingdoms ; but Sooltan Hooseyn’s lands westward of the Jelum 
will, I fear, occasion much difficulty, as the resumption or forced 
exchange would be an unpopular act in these parts, and it would 
be difficult, if possible, to ensure to him bond fide possession of anything 
given him in exchange by the Jumboo Government. The Jumboo 
Government claims Hubeeb-oolla’s castle, but so far as I have yet heard 
it seems to me part of the dependency of Huzara. From hence north- 
ward the road is so extremely difficult that I fear I must retrace my 
steps as far as Pukli, in order to find a traversable path northward. 

Iiih June 184’/ — Hubeeb-oolla's castle . — Halted here to-day to 
allow Mr. Agnew to rejoin me. I can, however, hear nothing of his 
movements. Rode out to explore the boundary of Umeen-oolla's jaghir. 
Eastward a high spur projected from the snowy mountains. 

I believe the Huzara boundary from that point westward will 
prove to be a .snowy ridge. But nothing certain can be learnt at 
this distance. Some of the tribes have never paid tribute, and others 
have been brought to pay even an assessment last year (sic). None of 
the countries yield a revenue worth the expense of collection, but it is 
important to obtain tribute for Lahore from as many of them as possible, 
to prevent their being invaded or oppressed by the Jumboo Govern- 
ment. This narrow valley is hot and is said to be unhealthy during 
the monsoon . 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 


Boundary Commissioner, 



6a 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


No, 12. — Journal of Captain Janies Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, Punjaub, from 11th to 20th June 1847. 

nth, 12th and jjth June — I remained at this spot to enable 

Mr. Vans Agnew to rejoin me. During his absence all intercourse 
was cut off between us, for the Dhoonds, with whom that gentleman 
was negotiating, are too divided amongst themselves to be able to aid 
in the transmission of letters. I became rather anxious at Mr. Agnew’s 
protracted absence and silence, but on the evening of the 13th he 
joined my camp and gave me the particulars of his negotiation. 

From this it would seem that the Dhoonds and Kurrals, two tribes 
occupying the strongest country of Huzara and separated by blood and 
hereditary prejudices from the Pathan, Mogul, and Gukka tribes of 
that country, live in a state of equality, acknowledging at present no 
ruler and being amenable to no authority ; that they settle their 
political dealings by assemblies called jirgahs, and from their isolated 
position amongst wild mountains and fastnesses have little idea of any 
world but their own petty province. Three Syuds, Shurff Shah, 
Syud Shah and Mhaitab Shah by name, exercise some influence over 
the Dhoonds, but it is limited and uncertain. Amongst the Kurrals, 
Hussun Ali is the hereditary chief of one clan and Fatteh AH Khaun 
of another. The country of the Dhoonds is a small tract lying between 
the right bank of the Jelum and a huge spur from the predominant 
summit of Mochpoora, then turning westward by south and occupying 
the valley of one of the feeders of the Hurro river. The Kurral country 
lies at the south-western foot of the Mochpoora summit in the corner 
formed by the Dhoonds of the Jelum and those of the Hurro. The 
country of both tribes is very difficult, and a large force is requisite to 
give certainty to any attack upon it. Mr. Vans Agnew recommends 
that roads be made along the ridges leading in two directions into the 
heart of the country so as to render the passage of an army compara- 
tively certain. This appears to me very sound advice ; of its feasibility 
I can better judge when I shall know more of the country. 

The Dhoonds and Kurrals were brought under subjection by the 
Sikh Government. Hussun Ali, in addition to his jaghir of about 
3,500 rupees, was allowed half the actual revenue of the Kurral country 
for keeping up a force to overawe the people and ensure the Kardar 
from molestation. It would seem that for this consideration, amounting 



JOURNALS OP CAPTAm J. ABBOTT, 1847. 


63 


to about 6,000 rupees, he was expected to exercise this influence over 
the Dhoonds also, and that until the whole country fell into confusion 
he was tolerably punctual to his engagement. At present the tribes 
are in a state of rebellion and the diflSculty will be to cause Hussun 
All to make the proper submission. Should he do so, I am of opinion 
that he should be reinstated in his former possessions (the chowth) 
as the simplest, and indeed only, method, not involving loss of control- 
ling so strong a country. He has not come in to Mr. Vans Agnew, but 
has sent messages. It appears that he is extremely suspicious. The 
Syuds of the Dhoonds were conciliated by the Sikh Government with a 
jaghir and a yearly pension of 500 rupees, but this salary was extended 
to only two of the houses, and the third, Mhaitab Shah, was not 
provided for. He has come in to Mr. Agnew and lent him all the aid in 
his power, and I think it will be wise to follow Mr. Agnew’s suggestion 
and give him a salary of 250 rupees a year from the revenue of the 
Dhoond country on their return to allegiance. 

lifth June iS^.'j—Shinkiari, ij miles . — Marched hither en route for 
the northern boundary of Huzara. The state of things in the Jumboo 
Army is very perilous. The troops are in great distress for pay, 
and so great is the want of money that I am informed that 250 rupees 
which I have borrowed from the Government could not be raised 
until the Dewan, Kurruni Chund, had pledged his bracelets for it. I 
am discouraging complaints as much as possible, and assuring those 
who complain of having been made pay in excess of their rents, 
that the balance shall be placed to their credit in the succeeding . 

15th June . — 15 miles. Marched up the mountains to Ull, belonging 
to the Pukli Collectorate. 

i6tk and lyth June . — Made an excursion to inspect the boundary 
northward, which is here formed by a low range of hills circling 
two sides of an elevated valley of Chuttur, these hills being spurs 
from the mountains walling the right bank of the Koonhar valley. 
Here we were met by Moozuffur Khaun, a refugee from Pukli and a 
zumeendar of the Nundihar valley, the people of which are independent 
and anxious to retain their independence free from all molestation. He 
himself has some requests relating to former farms and lands held by 
him in Pukli. This line of boundary is clear and well defined so far 



64 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 

as I can ascertain in my hurried examination. It depends as usual 
upon drainage. When the boundary of Balakote is settled, it may be 
expedient to define it by a landmark upon the river, but these terminal 
indications may, I think, generally be dispensed with amongst the 
mountains where brick and mortar masonry has never been seen. 

18th June — Owgka . — Marched down the Baee valley to Owgha, 

14 miles. These valleys have an easy slope, and might be made practi- 
cable for field artillery on elephants at no great expense. This valley is 
tributary to the valley of Agrore, the head of which meets the hills 
dividing Nundihar from Chuttur and forming the northern boundary 
of Huzara determined by the drainage of the hills. The valley of 
Agrore belongs to Huzara and the boundary lies upon the ridge 
of the mountains of its western or right side until they reach the river 
Indus. 

igth June . — Rode to the boundary in the Agrore valley and then 
returned and ascended a small valley on my return southwards. 

20th June . — Marched to the Pukli valley and camped at Khahi on 
the river Sirrun. Sent to desire Vuzeer Roop Chund to move his camp 
hither for a conference, as it is now necessary to give orders for final 
arrangements. No news as yet of the progress of the relieving force, 
although Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud has been desired to ascertain and 
report it. It is desirable that the Jumboo troops should get clear of 
the rivers before the heavy rains shall have set in. I had directed 
the building of sheds at Kote to shelter my camp, but am answered 
that no building materials are procurable there. 

I have omitted to mention under date the 14th June that upon the 
suggestion of Mr. Vans Agnew, in which I concur, I have paid in 
advance to the Syuds, Syud Shah and Shuiff Shah, one half of their 
yearly pension commencing with the rain crops of the current year not 
yet collected and given them a purwana assuring them that, on the 
return to allegiance of the Dhoonds, their salary shall be punctually 
paid them. I have also granted a purwana to the Syud Mhaitab Shah 
promising him a salary of 250 rupees yearly on return of the Dhoonds 
to allegiance. These will, I trust, meet with approval and confirmation. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT 1S47. 65 

No. 13— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, Punjaub, from the 21st to the 30th 
June 1847. 

2ist June iS-j-J — Pukli, Husara . — Halted here to-day to arrange for 
the evaeuation of Pukli by the Jumboo Troops. Directed Dewan 
Kurrum Chund to march out the force by regiments at intervals of 
two days, both to enable the troops to cross without confusion the 
Jelum, which is not bridged at Moozutferabad and also to prevent the 
chance of mutiny of regiments in such a state of destitution. I 
should be reluctant to denude Pukli of troops even for a few da3’s 
were it not that their position here is becoming critical for want of 
pay, and that the crossing of the Jelum and even of the Koonhar 
may a few days hence be an operation of danger. Mr. \'ans Agnew 
recommended that the measure should long since have been carried into 
effect. But his arguments did not convince me. 

23 nd June . — Marched to Mansera. where I expected to find the 
Nowa Shihr Regiment (Nathoo Shah’s) as it was generally believed to 
have marched hither from sheer famine. They were, however, still at 
their post, although they have vainly sued for i rupee per man, prom- 
ising to stand fast 1 5 days upon that allowance. I have given orders 
for their march to Moozutferabad. Here I found, in spite of the strictest 
orders to the Jumboo agents not to levy any more revenue, that the 
houses qf the zumeendars were still besieged by their soldiers, and have 
therefore desired the Vuzeer, Roop Chund, to remain here to prevent this 
breach of authority, which the people would be likely enough to resist 
now that the}' know themselves transferred to the Lahore Government. 
Heavy rain. 

2jrd June — Billing . — Marched to Bilhug. a village of Tunnawal, 
passing through the open and fertile valley of Mansera, which joins 
that of the river Sirrun. Heavy rain. 

2jli JuneShir-Mann . — 'Marched at i p.m., first over undulating hills 
and then over some of the wildest specimens of mountain ridge and 
ravine, to the table summit of Shirwaun, divided on this side from 
Mansera by the torrent Muhuguli. This road, or rather footpath, is not 
practicable to elephants. But it might be made so, the slopes being 
not very abrupt and the formation a clay slate easily worked. The 
ascents and descents, however, are very exhausting to cattle, and I 

9 



66 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J- ABBOTT, iSf7. 

rather fear I must relinquish the purpose I had sketched out of making 
this the main depot for the troops, as the country around produces no 
spare food and the expense and difficulty of lifting it up hither 
would be great. Artillery also would meet with many extra difficulties 
in their movements. It appears to be the most salubrious atmosphere 
in Huzara, a superiority arising from its height and sterilit}' — a small 
fort with a garrison of 1 50 men is here. The scenery is squalid ; 
houses without windows built of dingy clay slate ; a fort of the same ; 
mountain tops naked and wretched ; and a people miserably poor ; the 
very fields a shingle of the same clay slate. But the water is the first 
pure fluid I have tasted since entering Huzara, and the air is equally 
delicious. The range of the thermometer just now from 60 to 78’ ; 
and the altitude, so far as my imperfect thermometer allows of 
calculation, about 5,500 feet. 

and 26th June — Shinvaun. — Halted here under torrents 

of rain. Laid down a plan for a small bungalow on the hill top to serve 
as an asylum during the rains. The collections I found going on actively 
here in despite of my prohibition and the people loudly complaining 
of injustice and extortion, They do not comprehened the justice of 
the extra items, russoom and nuzzurana, although they have been 
subjected to them some time, and in many cases no allowance has been 
made for the rents actually paid to Nawab Khaun, and for which they 
had a promise of indemnity. This I have ascertained by careful 
enquiry. I have reprimanded the Kardar for his unjustifiable conduct, 
but he pleads the orders of Hurri Singh and assures me he has 
received from that functionary no intimation of my order to cease 
collecting. 

27th June — Khaki. — As soon as the rain had ceased, I started for 
the plains passing over two ridges, the 2nd ^Bilhiari) being the main spine 
of this isolated cluster of mountains. The patli susceptible of conver- 
sion into a good mountain road. Was benighted in the ravine of Khaki, 
where the rain again came on ; distance 12 miles. 

28th June — Hutkishengurh. — Passed down the smooth ravine by 
Shingari to Hurkishengurh, 15 miles. This ravine seems to enjoy 
more exemption from fever than others in Huzara. The descent is 
very considerable, but very gradual, and the ravine expands into an 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^T. 


*7 


open valley, joining the level amphitheatre of Huzara proper. Here 
I found the Cavalry Regiment from Peshavvur and got intelligence 
of the near approach of Bhoop Singh’s and Bahadoor Singh's Regiments 
with six field pieces. I therefore desired *Bukshi Hurri Singh to 
prepare for his departure. Finding that he has neglected all my 
instructions, I have declined his visit until he shows some symptom of 
compliance. I beg, however, to state that the Kardars are in a 
difficult position, besieged by troops, long in arrears, whom they 
have no prospect of being able to satisfy ; and that however I may deem 
it necessary in explanation of facts to notice their disobedience, or to 
evince anger towards them, I should regret to see them singled out for 
the displeasure of higher authority for having acted as most natives 
would act (or perhaps a little better) under the same trying circum- 
stances. Their sloth is born with them and nourished by their 
education; and they are placed at present in a formidable strait. 

2gth and joth June 18^’j — Uurkishcugurh . — The Gundgurrias, for 
whom so much interest has been made, have recommenced plundering 
and murdering on a large scale. About ten days ago they carried off 60 
head of cattle and one bunnia from Kote and three days ago were 
caught in the act of plundering by an ambush of zumeendars who 
killed five, hand to hand, receiving themselves many wounds, and last 
night, in dastardly revenge of this check, the Gundgurrias crept down 
upon the defenceless village of Bukka and murdered in cold blood 
three sleeping women and several children. It seems therefore highly 
expedient that an example be made of them. They had full assurance 
from Mr. Agnew and from me that their claims were under favorable 
consideration, although from the first my hope was slight that any 
kindness unpreceded by severity would prevent the lawless and 
murderous habits in which they have lived from infancy and from 
generation to generation. 

jolli June. — Hurkisheugitrh . — The two Infantry Regiments above 
named arrived here this day. The guns are one march in the rear. 

I find, on ordering Bukshi llurri Singh to move out all but a single 
regiment, that he is utterly unprovided with carriage, seeming to 
have depended upon carrying out his baggage upon begat-ies, which 
I assure him he cannot have: some delay therefore will be necessary. 



68 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iSpi. 


Meanwhile I have posted two companies at Kote, and directed 
the construction of a tower, to contain 50 men, at the foot of the moun- 
tain on their principal sally port, so that it will be difficult for them to 
venture into the plain to plunder as they leave an enemy in their rear, 
who on the alarm will sally out between them and their retreat. I 
begged Goolab Singh to erect this tower last cold season, and he prom- 
ised it should be immediately done. But not a stone was ever laid, 
although I was at great pains to impress upon him its importance, the 
whole valley thereabouts being depopulated by the depredations of the 
Gundgurrias. This i.s, however, but a temporary measure, and it seems 
to me that there are but two expedients offering any hope of suppres.s- 
ing this scourge of the countr}', either to seize and transplant the entire 
clan to equal pecuniary advantages in the wide plains, or to establish 
a fortified cantonment in the very midst of them. If the latter should 
prove feasible, the force which is generally at Hussun Ubdal might 
canton on the Gundgurh mountain, where the whole hill and plain 
around would be under its control. This 1 think, according to my 
present experience, preferable to vexing and exasperating the Srikotis 
by re-establishing the Fort in their mountain as they never plunder and 
are respected for their good faitli far and near. The Srikote garrison 
does not obviate the necessity of ;i loicc at Uuasun L'bdal, but I think 
the Gundgurh Fort would be quite sufficient to protect the whole circle 
of country. I have, however, yet to .see the ground. 

J. .\BBOTT, C.-\piAiN, 

Buundary Coiniitifsioui r. 

No. 14. — Journal of Captain Janies Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, from the 1st to the 12th July 1847. 

1st July iS.fj — Hill k/stuiiir/u /i. — Colonels Bhoop Singh and Bahadoor 
Singh with their respective Corps of Infantry and six guns arrived. 

2nd — Inspected the guns and called for returns of ammu- 
nition, etc., from the regiments and Artillery. The guns I shall be 
able to make very serviceable, but they have been sent in a crippled 
condition. The carriage of one is mere touchwood, that of another 
belongs to an entirely different gun. A third is at present unserviceable 
lor want of cup squares ; none of the ammunition boxes are water-tight 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 69 

and most of the wheels require instant repair. But there is nothing that 
cannot speedily be remedied, the guns themselves (excepting the vent 
of the cast-iron piece) being sound. 

The want of ammunition is a more serious matter. They have but 
half a dozen rounds made up and only a few maunds of gun-powder 
in reserve. The Cavalry Corps is wholly without ammunition. The 
Infantry Corps have the one 30, and the other, 40 rounds per man with 
no reserve. I have sent emergent orders on all the neighbouring towns 
for lead and gun-powder, but it may be some time before the deficiency 
is made up. The arrival of the guns has had a happy effect. The 
Torbaila zumeendar, who had shut himself up in his fort on the Indus, 
this day came to tender his submission and was followed by him of 
Srikote. 

jrd July —Si-tkok . — As great complaint is made by the Srikote 

zuraeendars of the over-assessment of their lands, I made this the excuse 
of a sudden visit to their mountain, being more particularly anxious to 
ascertain the feasibility of compelling obedience and the necessity, or 
otherwise, of re-edifying their detested fort, as also to get a view of 
the Gundgurh mountain in reverse. In all these objects I succeeded 
completely. The people looked at me sulkily at first and seemed aston- 
ished that I should be found there, but I speedily convinced them it was 
better I should visit them alone than with an army, and I have promised 
that if they pay their rents duly and do not harbour robbers they shall 
have a bungalow instead of a fort. I tliink the experiment worth trial, 
for Srikote Fort does not command Gundgurh, and the Srikotis arc 
upright, inoffensive people. I believe that the frequent appearance 
amongst tliem of a British Agent would be sufficient to ensure regularity 
of collections, if the assessment be properly reduced. Hill districts 
cannot pay at the rate of half produce which is rack-rent in tlie plains. 

.A plough in the mountains is restricted, not as in the plains by the 
limits of physical power of man and bullocks, but by the bare rocks, 
and the number of ploughs is no criterion of the extent of culture. 
Many ploughs are not working onc-fourtli of the area for which a plough 
is calculated ; many not one-eighth. The number of hands and with 
them the number of ploughs is continually on the increase, but the 
arable area remains -straitened as at first and the revenue ought to be 



70 rOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184.7. 

lowered in proportion as the ploughs increase. The arable land of 
Srikote is miserably confined and produces only Indian corn and those 
not the best crops. It is wholly dependent upon the rains, which in 
Huzara are very uncertain I think its present estimated assessment 
of 5,000 rupees at least double what is just, and do not wonder at the 
difficulty of collecting it. Hill lands in Huzara can never be justly 
made to pay more than one-fourth of their produce. This supposes 
them comparatively rich and not wholly dependent upon the rains. But 
generally speaking one-fifth or one-sixth is a fairer estimate, and in sonic 
cases both policy' and justice would be consulted if only nuiuinina were 
taken from them. The Fort of Srikote has been built with unusual care. 
It is supplied with water in a cistern and crowns a small eminence upon 
the table summit of the mountain overhanging the village. 

The ascent from the plain is up a deep ravine of easy acclivity 
which leads to within one-third of the entire height from summit. The 
pathway is afterwards steep, but there is no very formidable impedi- 
ment. Returned in the evening. 

ph July i 8 .fj—Hurkislicuguyli . — Lieutenant Lumsden favored me 
with a visit to-day to discuss the Gundgurh question. His sentiments 
agree with mine upon the impossibility of dealing with them until they 
shall have been cliastised. In answer to his summons of attendance they 
have insolently replied that they will come when they have received the 
terms they dictated to Mr. Vans Agnew, but not sooner; meanwhile 
they lose no opportunity of plunder and wholesale murder. 

jtli and 6 th /«/>'.— -On the second of this month I sent Bahadoor 
Singh's corps to take post at Mansera and Noashira, and on the 4th 
transferred the custody of the fort of Hurkishengurh from the Jumboo 
to the Lahore Government. My time is occupied in receiving petitions, 
registering complaints, emjuiring into the state of different districts, 
with the view to a just assessment. But the country is in a disagree- 
able state without Kardars, and I am anxiously expecting the arrival of 
these functionaries. 

7^/;, Sth, Qlh July . — 'J'liC-e days were almost a blank from an 
attack of bilious fever. 

loth July . — Feeling recovered, 1 rode down to Barookote to examine 
that place in iclercncc to its capabilities as a cantonment. The fort 



JOURNALS OP C.IPJ'AIN /. MUlOl I. iS/^. 71 

stands upon an eminence commanding a beautiful view of the valley of 
the Sirrun. There is abundance of wood, water and grass, and only the 
universal drawback of all the vallej's of Huzara, — fever in the rainy 
season. I purposed marching ne.vt da^^ to Torbaila, but a letter from 
Khaunpoor advised me of the outbreak there of one Ata Ali, Gukka, who 
with too men is threatening the town and plundering the villages. I 
therefore sent orders to Colonel Reeclipal Singh at Kote to hasten to 
Khaunpoor (12 miles) with a wing of his corps and to attack Ata Ali 
wherever he should hear of him and provide for the protection of the 
country. Meanwhile not feeling over-confident in the promptitude 
of native agents, I at once took saddle for Torbaila, making the new 
garrison I had brought with me follow, and, in some little apprehension 
of a rebuff from the garrison I was about to exclude, rode to Torbaila. 

I met, however, with no difficultj’. The garrison admitted me and turned 
out at my requisition, and as soon as my people arrived, I duly installed 
them. This was some relief to my mind as the castle is a very import- 
ant post. I then rode back to Barookote. 

iilh july. — Marched to Kote and found that the wing of Dhara 
Singh’s Regiment had started for Khaunpoor the previous night. 

I3lh July — Marched to Khaunpoor j arrived just in 
time to witness the e'scape of Ata All’s banditti over the high mountains 
and the last dropping fire of the detachment sent to apprehend him. It 
appears that Reechpal Singh, Colonel, on getting my purwana started 
promptly enough for Khaunpoor, a distance of 12 miles, but that on the 
way it appeared to him more prudent to halt and lose a da}’. Meanwhile, 
Ata Ali and his gang came down to plunder Khaunpoor, set on fire and 
plundered the village of Sudhan and commenced firing upon the little 
town from the opposite bank of the Hurroo. There was a garrison of 
40 men in the gtirhie, and two of the Gukka Jaghirdars with about 15 
soldiers were present, hut all were overawed, until at length a Jemadar 
of the army of Jumboo, who had rome hitherto make purchases, stepped 
forward and invited the others to follow him. All remaining silent he 
went down alone, when the cry of shame set up by the bystanders 
induced the Gukkas and a few others to follow him. Shots were ex- 
changed, and in a short time Ata Ali commenced a retreat in spite of his 
numbers and was in full retreat, when Colonel Reechpal Singh and his 



72 /OUA'JVJZS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 

wing came up and commenced manceuvring very sj'stematically and 
slowly in his rear. Of course every man escaped. The Colonel pleads 
sickness on the road, but this was no excuse for keeping back the whole 
of his party. A single company would have sufficed to save the town. 

Unfortunately it is difficult to proceed summarily against Ata Ali 
without bringing on prematurely a campaign with the Dhoonds, upon 
whose country he falls back, but I am endeavouring to organize some 
means of apprehending him. He came in on Mr. Van Agnew’s invita- 
tion and was offered a moderate jaghir, but he retired again suddenly 
from some ill-grounded apprehension and is now joined by many of 
the hill zumeendars, who are too weak to resist him. I purpose halting 
here to-morrow to complete arrangements for the protection of thi.s 
district and then to return to Kote. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Boundary Commissioner. 

No. 15.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, Punjaub, from the 13th to the 27th 
July 1847. 

ij^th July iS fy —Khattnpoor . — Halted here to make arrangements for 
tlie protection of the town. The wildest mountains commence at 
this point and run back into the still wilder country of the Dhoonds and 
Kurrals, who are ever ready to assist in mischief, and this renders the 
protection of the mountain villages difficult ; any freebooter who can 
muster 30 or men can compel the mountain villagers to join him, 
however disinclined they may be, and only the establishment of chains 
of forts can effectually control such irregularities. 

r /Hi Returned to Kote, leaving two companies of 

Reechpal Singh's Regiment to protect Khaunpoor. I have also sent a 
summons to the zumeendars to separate themselves from Ata Ali upon 
pain of sharing his fate, and have supplied the garrison of Chujjia 
(farther in the mountains) with pay. 

/ ,-/;) Lieutenants Lumsden and Nicholson came over to see 

and consult with me, and Sirdars Chuttur Singh and Jhundur Singh this 
day arrived. The former is less old and emaciated than I had been 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


73 


given to suppose. The Kardars have not yet arrived. It is very un- 
fortunate that the country should thus be left for nearly a month 
vrithout any visible rule ; and I cannot imagine why the Kardars could 
not proceed dak on business of such pressing import. During all this 
interval the glimpse of liberty is unsettling the minds of this most 
excitable people. Jirgahs have been assembled at Torbaila, the result 
of which was the refusal of the bunnias to sell food to the garrison. 
Fortunately I had foreseen this probability and already sent a supply 
of wheat etc., and ammunition, and strengthened the garrison by fifty 
more hands. 

i6lh July — Lieutenants Lumsden and Nicholson fully agree with 
me in all my views regarding the Gundgurrias and in the expediency of 
a speedy settlement; but Lieutenant Nicholson is expecting another 
corps at Hussun Ubdal and thinks it advisable to wait for it. Sardar 
Chuttur Singh has proceeded to Hurkishengurh, where he will occupy 
the fort. I have issued purwanas to the officers and zumeendars to 
yield obedience to all his instructions. The weather continues sultry in 
the extreme ; the hot winds are unabated. 

lyth July . — The rains recommenced to-day with violence. Many 
irregularities are going on in the district for want of Kardars. Murders 
and robberies which at present there is no means of effectually 
punishing. 

i8tJi July . — Continued rain. A report from the Commandant at 
Novva Shihr states that the zumeendars have been holding jirgahs and 
that the bunnias in consequence refuse to sell grain to the garrison. I 
have directed him to send me, under a guard, any bu«nia guilty of such 
conduct, but do not implicitly credit the report. However for securitj' 

I have ordered up a supply of corn for the garrison. There are, how- 
ever, ample assurances that those who think Huzara can be ruled with-’ 
out a constant exhibition of force are not acquainted with the spirit of 
the people. At present the people have everything to hope from the 
new Government and are not, I think, in any way molested. Yet at 
Torbaila there were undoubted symptoms of a disposition to resist 
authority. At Mansera the same complaint was made of bunnias being 
prevented selling grain and now a similar report is brought from 
Nowa Shihr, the two latter forts lying in the principal granaries 
of the country. 


10 



74 


JOUXNALS OF CAPTAm J. ABBOTT, 1847. 


igth July i 8 ^y — Kote — Rain all the morning. I have this day issued 
a purwana to Khaun-i-Zeman, Chief of the Tarkhailees (Gundgurrias), 
to the effect that, as he is not himself implicated in any of the recent 
forays or murders, and as I am vested with full authority to settle his 
claims with equity, it is necessary that he should attend for the purpose, 
promising him safe conduct to and fro, and denouncing him, in case of 
disobedience, as a wilful rebel. He is at feud with the Simulkundies, 
the authors of the latter cruelties ; and should he comply with my sum- 
mons it may be good policy to mark the distinction between them. But 
he has never yet attended any summons, and the general belief is that he 
will not come. The open purwana from the Durbar to Bhaee Mow 
Singh has had the effect which might be calculated. The Gundgurrias 
have sent over their property and families beyond the Indus and are 
themselves ready for a start, such at least is my latest intelligence ; 
some, as I have witnessed, have left their mountain to take refuge in 
the villages hereabouts, in dread of suffering with the guilty. These I 
have assured of protection. But I greatly fear it will not now be 
possible to catch the chief offenders 

20th July — Kott. — I have been collecting together garrisons'^' ^'^7 

« 1 r • . ^ tnc 

unoccupied forts, entertaining as many of the old garrisons as apj. 

free from sinister bias. But have carefully excluded all Rohillas wht^ 

habits of plunder, contempt of discipline and want of gallantry ar., 

notorious. 

In Hurri Singh’s time there were 4,000 troops in garrison occu- 
pying 80 forts and .towers ; not much more than a third of this nutabef* 
of forts will be requisite. But the more I see of the country the more 
satisfied I am that my first impression was correct, viz , that its military 
tenure must be by forts, or at least, if these be not garrisoned, that four 
times the numerical strength of field force will barely suffice to hold 
the country. Every mountain calls for several strong detachments 
around its roots, to prevent its becoming the stronghold of plunder- 
ers, and as these plunderers are often joined by the people in numerous 
bands, no small detachment without walls would be in safety. 

2isl July. Khaun-i-Zeman, Chief of the Gundgurrias, has 
answered my purwana submissively, assuring me that he has made the 



journals of captain J. ABBOTT, 1S4J. fS 

first march to join me ; but begging me to go half way to meet him. 
He has never attended any Governor or Prince, and prides himself 
much upon this reservation, and quotes instances of Governors and of 
Mr. Vans Agnew going to meet him. I have replied that, if he wishes 
to establish his pretended rights, he must attend to show that he 
is a vassal and worthy of consideration ; if he does not attend he 
must abide the consequences as a rebel. I sent to-day a chuprassie 
and an escort to meet and give him assurance ; but they found that 
he had not descended the mountain to the village appointed by him as 
the rendezvous, and they returned at night without him. 

July iS^J. — Khaun-i-Zeman having sent other messages beg- 
ging me to send to meet him Goolam Khaun of Huzara, I sent for that 
Chief, but he did not arrive until evening when he started at once to 
meet the Gundgurria. Lieutenants Nicholson and Lumsden came over 
to see me to-day and to arrange the measures of coercion which it seems 
probable we must resort to and which I confess I prefer in the 
present case to conciliatory measures, the Gundgurrias being over- 
confident in their numbers, the supposed strength of their mountain 
and the sympathy of their brethren, the Eusofzyes, over the Indus. 
Indeed, although all the Chiefs condemn them, none would like to 
see this nest of hornets crushed or dispersed, because in case of 
an outbreak with the existing Government, their alliance becomes 
most formidable. 

23rd July . — The party yesterday sent to Khaun-i-Zeraan returned 
to-day without him : but he sent at night to say that he would positively 
come, having been alarmed I believe by Goolam Khaun’s warning to 
decide at once either to come or to provide for the safety of his 
wives. I rode over to Hurkishengurh to return the visits of Sirdars 
Chuttur Singh and Jhundur Singh : returned in the evening. 

24.th July. — Khaun-i-Zeman this day actually came in to the aston- 
ishment of all and rather to my perplexity, for his affairs were more 
easily and satisfactorily to be settled had he continued contumacious to 
the last, than can be the case now that he is entitled to consideration 
with such pretensions as he urges upon the revenue. He is a large 
man with prominent and fine features : but is disfigured with a large 



76 .JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS-fl. 

goitre. I received him with much attention, for although there is 
no great complaisance in a zumeendar waiting upon his superior, 
yet it had cost the old man a very severe struggle and was contrary to 
the advice and feeling of most of his tribe, who pride themselves upon 
their Chief’s exemption from all attendance. I am persuading him 
to go to-morrow and pay his respects to the Sirdars and Dewan at 
Hurkishengurh. 

2jth July 18^7. — Khaun-i-Zeman is gone to pay his respects at 
Hurkishengurh, to my great relief. I have vainly endeavoured to procure 
from the Lahore authorities there any particulars relative to his claims : 
and I have now written for such to Bhaee Mow Singh of Punja Sahib. 

I have but an indistinct impression of Mr. Vans Agnew’s statement, as I 
did not imagine the settlement of them would have fallen to me, 
Gundgurh proper belonging fiscally to Chuch, though geographically 
to Huzara. 

26th July. — Khaun-i-Zeman returned last night, but as yet I have 
no papers on either side. Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud denies positively 
having received any particulars from Lahore, such as the Durbar 
intimated having- sent him. Every day numberless small causes are 
brought for my decision, but the non-appearance of the Kardars (except- 
ing the one destined for Khaunpoor) renders it difficult to settle 
anything. 

2pli July . — Bahadoor Khaun, Gukka, has commenced plundering in 
Furwala. Phis man was offered by the Jumboo Government a jaghir of 
500 rupees, but refused it and has returned to his old habits, so that 
he deserves no mercy. No troops have arrived at Khowta, nor can 
I learn of any destined for that post. I have therefore begged 
Lieutenant Nicholson to order the Rawul Pindi Regiment thither and 
send with it 200 sipahis and a Thannadar for the garrison. This 
step has become the more necessary that the zumeendars were begin- 
ning to rise against the thannas of the Jumboo Government. But the 
regiment from Rawul Pindi can ill be spared from that neighbourhood 
just now. The Kardar of the place, Bhaee Dil Singh, writes that Baha- 
door Khaun had planned a chiippao to seize him, and that he, the 
Kardar, instead of meeting him manfully or manoeuvring to catch 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 77 

liim, had run away in all haste. What can be hoped for a turbulent 
district the Kardar of which makes such confessions. Bhaee Mow 
Singh’s statement on the Gundgurh case has just arrived. It is manifest- 
ly unfaithful, yet to my astonishment the Gundgurrias confess that 
they at present are in actual unmolested enjoyment of 7, too rupees 
worth of jaghir. This is quite startling to me, who had supposed that 
1,500 rupees was the extent of their possession. 

They claim in Hurroh about 8,000 rupees niore. It seems that 
there are about 150 Jaghirdars, who are prohibited by public opinion 
from any employment (theft excepted) by which bread can be earned. 

I offered them military service on favorable terms, but they decline it. 
Had I been aware of the extent of their possessions I should more 
strenuously have argued against any conciliatory settlement with them. 
But they declare that Mr. Vans Agnew promised them that the whole of 
their claim should be accorded, and although I believe this to be 
impossible, yet they certainly were encouraged in tlieir hopes. 

The strongest feature of their claim is that the right for which 
they contend is sanctioned by a Sunnud of the Maharaja Runjeet 
Singh and that the resumption is the work of a Kardar merely. 

The coming in of Khaun-i- 2 eman has caused great sen.sation ; and 
a great shock to our credit will be felt if his claims are not allowed, 
for every one knows how much it has cost him, and his compliance 
is considered by himself and people as filling up his title. The case 
is most awkward. Injustice had been done long ago, but it was a 
species of injustice to individual right by which the public weal was 
advantaged : our means of compelling obedience were complete, and had 
the Gundgurrias not been meddled with until their excesses called for 
retribution, a clan of troublesome and useless Jaghirdars would have 
been compelled either to labor for their livelihood or to quit the country. 
But having once been encouraged to hope for the recovery of their 
forfeited right, it is impossible without much odium to refuse judgment, 
and if their title is valid for one village it is equally so for another 
and for all. 

When the old man saw the effect which his acknowledgment 
produced upon me, he turned pale and all his attendants were 
deeply affected. 



78 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847- 

They are in fact in great distress from the law which, whilst 
it makes honest industry unlawful, renders the most liberal hospitality 
a sacred duty, and they had felt sure that when their Khaun took 
a step in their eyes so detrimental to his dignity everything must needs 
be conceded. I dismissed Khaun-i-Zeman with a handsome Khillut. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 16.— Journal of Captain Janies Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, Punjaub, from the 29th July to the 
9th August 1847. 

2glh and joth July — Camp, Kote, Huzara . — I have written to 

Lieutenant Nicholson to beg him to move on one of his regiments 
to Huzroo, as it is impossible from Hussun Ubdal to make any sudden 
move upon Simulkund, the distance being between 20 and 30 miles. 
Accordingly, on the 31st he purposes moving to Huzroo with one 
corps and some cavalry. 

Meanwhile, I have formally summoned the Chiefs of Simulkund, 
accused of the cruel murder at Bukka, without indeed any hope of 
their obeying the summons, and I have issued a proclamation to the 
zumeendars and others cautioning them not to aid or abet their Khauns 
upon peril of sharing in their punishment. This morning, I climbed the 
Gundgurh mountain with a few matchlockmen to ascertain the nature 
of the ascent and to what portion of the Gundgurh territory the footpath 
conducted. The ascent is most painful and the heat of the sun was 
intolerable : but there is nothing to prevent the ascent of troops at 
night. I purpose however attacking at a point further north and 
opposite Bukka, as that path leads, I am told, to the head of the moun- 
tain spur, beneath which Simulkund is situated. In the evening visited 
the detachment, Sikh Infantry, encamped here, and informed them of 
the provision made for them whilst under canvas and for their families 
after death, as well as the rewards purposed for merit, by the late 
orders. The Nazim does not acknowledge the receipt from the Durbar 
of this important order. 

^ote. Wrote Lieutenant Nicholson, in Political charge 
Sinde Sagar, desiring him to move by a night march from Huzroo 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 79 

upon Simulkund on the night of Monday, the 2nd proximo, bringing 
up his reserve that afternoon to Huzroo, so that it might refresh and 
join in the attack next morning, and informing him of my purpose to 
pass the same night over the mountain ridge with about 350 bayonets, 
whilst Sirdar Jhundur Singh led a column of about 250 bayonets 
with zumbooruks and a brigade of Cavalry by the easier ascent of 
the Phuggoteh Durra (or ravine) upon the same point. I am not 
sure that I remembered in my past Journal to note the despatch to 
Pukli, about the 20th instant, of Colonel Bhoop Singh’s Regiment foot, 
with 2 troops Dragoons, 150 Irregular Horse, 35 ziunbooruks and 3 field 
pieces, which had been previous!}' delayed that it might join in the 
contemplated expedition, and which I deemed it imprudent longer to 
defer. There are left at Hurkishengurh i weak regiment Infantry, 
say 450 bayonets, about 3 troops Dragoons, about 200 Irregular Horse, 
and 9 guns field with about 40 zumbooruks ; at Kote 3 companies 
Infantry or 200 bayonets; at Chumba 2 companies or 150 bayonets ; at 
Khaunpoor 2 companies or 150 bayonets; at Bukka 2 Troops of 
Dragoons. 

isl August 184.J, Sunday . — I was occupied this day in the usual 
attention to urzees and claims and in maturing the expedition for to-mor- 
row. To this moment, I have hinted to none but Lieutenant Nicholson 
the movements in prospect. But to-morrow it will be necessary to inform 
Khaun-i-Zeman lest he take the alarm. This renders very faint the 
chance of capturing the murderers, for however inclined just now to 
submission and co-operation he is too nearly related with the offenders to 
wish them taken, however glad he might be to get rid of them. Still I 
see not how the expedition can be deferred without risk of worse conse- 
quences. In October I shall have my hands full. Every day I am 
anticipating a summons to the northern purgunnahs, whither indeed 
I must speedily depart to settle disputes and introduce the Kardars 
to their new duties. I have sounded those capable of apprehending 
the Simulkund Chiefs, but have met with evident reluctance. If left 
at large, fresh murders will weaken the authority of the British 
name, and, as they cannot be included in the boon destined for the rest 
of the Tarkhailis (Gundgurrias), it seems necessary to dispose of their 
case at first whilst Khaun-i-Zeman is upon his good behaviour in the 
hope of our indulgence and before he has become careless by success 



8 p JOURNALS OR CAPTAIN J, ABBOTT, 1847. 

and the additional strength and influence which the enlargement of his 
revenue will afford him. But I have intimated to Lieutenant Nicholson 
that as I cannot possibly spare troops to occupy that part of the 
country, the expedition can be attempted only under the supposition 
that his troops can remain to see forts, etc., e.stablished. 

2n l August iSjjj, — Kotc, Huzara . — Early this morning wrote to 
Sirdar Jhundur Singh that, as he had expressed a wish to be my com- 
panion in arms, the time was now come and I begged him to move to- 
night at 9 o’clock on Simulkund, by the Phuggoteh Ravine ; that I would 
be near to assist him in any difficulty. At noon I informed Khaun-i- 
Zeman's brother of the enterprise, and demanded the co-operation 
of Khaun-i-Zeman and his people to apprehend the murderers, all 
which was readily and cheerfully promised. I sent off early this 
morning Ushruff Khaun of Torbaiia, with a purwana, to close the 
roads by the river Indus. I sent the Sirdar Jhundur Singh staunch 
guides who have a death feud with the Simulkundies, and ordered a 
chief of the Mushwanis also to join him as the road leads through 
some of their villages. This, however, by some neglect of the parties 
was not done, and in the evening, on discoveiing the error, I despatched 
the Mushwani Syud to Srikote to stop the road through his country. 
At noon I ordered the two companies at Chumba to be ready for 
service by the evening. At i p >1. Sirdar Chuttur Singh came to visit 
me, and spoke very gravely and anxiously of the enterprise. I 
comforted his heart and assured him that it was the interest of all 
parties not to oppose us ; that even if refractory, I had not left them 
time to man tiieir pas.ses, and that once master of these the day was our 
own. He wished the column were 10,000 instead of 250 bayonets. 

I assured him that for the purpose in hand the 250 wmild suffice. The 
Kardai lias at length arrived. 1 have expressed to him my extreme 
displeasure at his needles.s delay, by which the country has already 
suffered much. At 4 p.m. I despatched a purwana to Chumba to 
bring up from thence to Bukka the two companies on picquet duty, 
and another to Bukka to move one of the troops of horse from thence to 
Bukka, I also sent for Colonel Rkhpal Singh, and instructed him to 
have his three companies under arms at nightfall, and I ascertained that 
all were well ‘supplied with ammunition, and one day’s supplies. I gave 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 81 

orders also to send on in our rear an abundance of all necessary food, 
as none is procurable at Simulkund. 

The difficulty of communicating with Lieutenant Nicholson is 
great, as the distance between us is now some 36 mites with bad roads, 
and thus, until 4 p.m. to-day, I was not favored with Lieutenant 
Nicholson’s memo, of proceedings. These, however, are satisfactory, 
though not quite in accordance with my plan. On the approach to 
Simulkund of Lieutenant Nicholson’s force, I had intended that a 
detachment should diverge towards Ghazi to close the river escape ; the 
rest to attack on reaching Simulkund, but that there should have been 
no halt at Ghazi. Lieutenant Nicholson, however, considers the halt at 
Ghazi expedient to arrange matters, and give orders that may insure 
success. At p.m.. Sirdar Jhundur Singh sent to say that Colonel 
Dhara Singh of the regiment, a wing of which was to follow him, had 
just reported his regiment wholly destitute of flints and ammunition. The 
regiment has been a month in Huzara, and warned the whole time for 
immediate service. I sent him an order upon Colonel Jodh Singh, who?e 
returns show 420 flints The answer returned is that Colonel Jodh Singh 
declares he has not one. I therefore went over to Richpal Singh’s 
regiment and procured and sent the Sirdar 300 flints : he had procured 
ammunition elsewhere. But several hours were lost in this arrange- 
ment, the Sirdar being at Hurkishengurh, 8 miles distant. I therefore 
could not start at 8 p.m. as I had purposed, lest I should be too 
far separated from the Sirdar. But at 10 a.m. I marched the three 
companies to Bukka, and there was joined by the other two, I then 
marched on by the Phuggoteh ravine, instead of climbing the path 
lower down, for I had discovered that during the whole distance there 
was no water, which with such a mountain to overcome was a serious 
matter. Just at starting a storm came on, and gave me some anxiety 
lest Lieutenant Nicholson should suppose I would not advance. It soon 
blew over, and I threaded the ravine without opposition, no one capable 
of resisting being in fact aw’are of our approach. About three hours 
of very severe climbing brought me to the summit. I led the advance 
guard myself, and gave the main column to Colonel Richpal Singh, 
for whom I halted, from time to time, until I saw him actually up tome. 
What, then, was my vexation on reaching the top of the pass to find that 



82 


JOURNALS OF C API AIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 


I had with me only 100 bayonets, the remaining 250 having in some 
unaccountable manner got separated, although we had moonlight. I 
knew not what to do, for morning began to dawn. To defer was to 
render my co-operation with Lieutenant Nicholson impossible. To 
advance with such a handful of men was to risk too much, as, in the 
event of delay to his movements, I should have to attack perhaps double 
my numbers in a strong village, besides that the wanderers had probably 
gone the Srikote path, and might alarm that people and be cut off by 
them. 

I was obliged therefore to wait, but it was broad daylight before 
my messengers brought back the wanderers. We now pushed on at my 
best speed ; but I found it impossible to make the Sikh troops keep up 
with me. They scattered themselves over three miles of footpath, and 
when I shortened my pace, I could not keep them nearer. Thus, with 
infinite delay and vexation and an assurance either that the officers had 
no relish for the operations, or that the men could not be depended upon 
for any attack requiring celerity and order, I reached Simulkund, and 
perceived that the whole of the housetops were crowded with Sikh troops 
who had arrived nearly an hour before me, and found the place aban- 
doned. It appears that, until late the preceding night or early that 
morning, there had been 150 matchlocks guarding the place, the women, 
cattle and property having long since been sent away. The Tarkhailis, 
followers of Khaun-i-Zeman, had in nowdse aided to prevent the escape 
of the murderers, and seem now to take the whole matter very quietly. 
Lieutenant Nicholson has taken precautions to prevent injury to the 
dwellings, and I have exerted myself to prevent destruction to the crops. 
But to the latter, mischief must needs ensue as the zumeendars are not 
here to watch them. 

I have also invited back the zumeendars upon assurance, and 
ordered the Tarkhailis and Mnshwanis to search diligently for the 
fugitives. But there is a feeling of honor amongst this people, which 
will prevent their betrayal of them, even should they not aid them. 

jrd and ^th /August i 8 ^y , — There are still no tidings of the fugitives 
and it seems absolutely necessary to establish here a fort and garrison 
(for some time at least) to prevent their return. I have therefore sent in 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, JS4J. gj 

all directions for workmen. It appears to me that, as the Srikote people 
(Mnshwanis) were embroiled with Government almost exclusively for 
their giving refuge to culprits from Simulkund, the extinction of this 
nest of robbers will leave the Mushwanis good subjects, and perhaps 
prevent the necessity of rebuilding the expensive fort of Srikote. 
But Srikote itself would not be sufficient to suppress the Simulkundi 
habits of plunder, it being separated by seven or eight miles of the 
wildest ravines. 

^th and 6th August — Lieutenant Nicholson expressing great 

anxiety to move in the direction of Hussun Ubdal, it is agreed that 
I remain here in charge of the place, a week if possible, although 
I am most reluctant to be separated from my district, and that 
he then return and relieve me. He leaves me two regiments of 
Infantry (very weakl, one here and one at Ghazi, and takes away 
the Cavalry. Various reports of the fugitives are brought, but it is 
evident that no effective search is made by those who alone could 
have a chance of apprehending them. Wilder ravines and jungles 
can scarcely be imagined. 

"Jlh August . — Lieutenant Nicholson marched to-day to Goorgooshti. 
We have as a last resource taken a formal bond and oath from the 
Tarkhailis and Mushwanis not to harbour or aid the fugitives. 

A report came this evening that they have crossed the Indus into 
the Eusofzye country high up at the Towi ghaut and are at Khubul on 
the opposite side. 

8th August . — Seeing tents still at Ghazi, I concluded all was right 
and that Lieutenant Nicholson’s order to the regiments to halt there had 
been obeyed. But to-day I am perplexed with tidings that the regiment 
marched back yesterday and that the tents belong to a corps here. 
This is most unfortunate as the Chuch bunnias no longer dare to bring 
us supplies from Chuch, and I cannot spare men from this place to 
guard the Ghazi road. I have written to Lieutenant Nicholson begging 
the regiment may be sent back, but the daks are uncertain. I shall 
therefore detach as many men as I can spare to keep open the Ghazi 
road. 



84 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 


pth August 184J. — I find that the regiment though not at Ghazi is 
within 12 miles of me at Goorgooshti, which Lieutenant Nicholson 
considers a better position. My detachment will therefore, I trust, 
suffice to guard the road. Busily engaged in collecting stones for 
the fort. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 17. — Journal of Captain James AblJott, Boundary- 

Commissioner, Punjaub, in charge of Huzara, from the 
13th to the 29th August 1847. 

ijtU August iS.f.'j — Simulkund. — A letter from Lieutenant Nicholson 
states in reply to my communication regarding the removal of the corps 
at Ghazi, that it was done with my sanction. I have a faint recollection 
of having been consulted upon the subject, but had imagined that the 
post of transfer was to have been nearer to Ghazi and that the movement 
of the corps was in prospect, subject to a report to me from the Colonel 
Commanding. I, however, probably misunderstood the communication, 
for I could scarcely believe the report of its removal when first brought 
me and supposed that tlie Colonel had acted without instructions. I am 
quite certain that Lieutenant Nicholson acted in supposed conformity to 
my wishes, as he has always done, and my notice of the removal in my 
Journal was written under the impression that the regiment had been 
moved unknown to him, it being necessary to notice a fact of which the 
after-consequences might have been important. This day like others 
was spent in reading and answering urzees and hearing complaints. 
The walls of the fort are rising apace. Sirdar Jhundur Singh proposed 
that all the troops should help to carry up stones for the edifice, and 
this they are cheerfully doing. 

/.///;, iSth, idth, lyth, iSlh, iplh Attgust — Simulkund. — Employed 
daily in receiving and answering urzees and petitions and in superin- 
tending the erection of the fort. Neither mortar nor clay being 
procurable here, the walls are formed, like those of other parts in these 
mountains, of large stones braced together by branches of trees imbedded 
in the layers. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


85 


20ili August 18^’jSimulkiind. — Kliaun-i-Zeman, the Tarkhaili 
Chief, has just sent to say that if I insist upon his restoring stolen proper- 
ty, wherever recognised, his honor will be forfeited; that I have granted 
him a certificate of remission of past crimes and that to make him restore 
property to the owners is a breach of this remission. I have replied 
that forgiveness of his crimes is widely different from the bestowal upon 
him of other's goods ; that whenever any man sees his own property 
I cannot prevent him from taking it ; that I have refused all cases in 
which the property was not actually forthcoming ; but that the rule by 
which I listen to his claim upon property wrested from him in Hurroh 
obliges me to listen to the claims of those from whom he has wrested 
property. He states that, if it is my intention to carry out these views, 
he begs I will give him a boat and he will quit the country and retire 
beyond the river. I have begged he w'ili do so, and assured him the 
country will be well rid of him. This, however, is only a threat. But 
it is probable that upon this point the measures for accommodating his 
claims will yet miscarry, for he seems to think that justice is a com- 
modity made for the exclusive use and benefit of the Tarkhailis. I have 
carried through the cause upon which this representation was founded 
and seen the property (a horse) restored to the rightful owner. This is 
not the first time I have had occasion to lament that the claims of this 
people were ever meddled with, or that they received such encourage- 
ment to hope as rendered it impossible, consistently with our reputation 
for good faith, to reject their suit. Employed as on other days in 
building the fort and listening to petitions. 

2ist, 22nd, 2jrd, 2ph, 2jlh Attgusl— Simulkuud. — Employed as 
above. Lieutenant Nicholson relieved me to-day, 25th, and I purpose 
returning to my district to-morrow b\' the Torbaila route. The Simul- 
kundi fugitives are still at Khubul, an independent village beyond the 
Indus. It would be easy to have the village chuppaowed by the enemies of 
that people, but I have refused this cruel and unjust method of procedure 
and must, I believe, patiently await until tliey are starved into surrender 
or in some other way fall into my hands. I hear that Lieutenant Lums- 
den is on his way hither from Peshawur to endeavour to apprehend 
them, but I have already been away from my district longer than I 
wished or intended. 



86 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4I. 


26th August i8^y — Ghazi . — Marched to Ghazi on the Indus. 
This is a most important post, and if it cannot be made a convenient 
cantonment must be occupied by a small fort. It keeps open the 
communication between Simulkund and Chuch and cuts off the retreat 
of robbers from Gundgurh towards Torbaila. The Chief (Muhmood 
Khaun), a Gundgurria, is also held in hand by a garrison here, and 
perhaps the most complete arrangement were to build here a fort and 
plant the Chuch cantonment at Nagharchi on the Indus, about eight miles 
below Ghazi, threatening Kutera and Khurbara and sustaining Simul- 
kund and Ghazi. No control whatever can be held over the Gund- 
gurrias whilst the Chuch force is located as at present at Hussun 
Ubdal. I may have expressed a different opinion before I became 
acquainted with the geography of this unexplored tract and found how 
impossible it is from Hussun Ubdal to molest the Gundgurrias. 

2jth August — Torbaila . — Marched to Torbaila in a heavy storm. 
The scenery is of great beauty and interest. The river, at least a mile 
in breadth, is walled on either side by mountains. But the road is open 
to beasts of burden, although for about a mile and a half the heights 
must be crowned during any military expedition. Khubul, the retreat 
of the Simulkundi fugitives, is opposite Torbaila and could be battered 
from this side by Artillery, unless I miscalculate the range, for the river 
grows narrower as we advance up the stream. 

28th August -Hurripoor.- A heavy storm prevented my moving 
this morning. Meanwhile Mookurrub Khaun, Chief of Punj Tarr, an 
independent district, came over with 30 followers to pay his respects. 
Several of his horsemen are clad in chain armour with small caps of 
brass and steel, said to have been captured from the Sikhs during the 
wars between Sirdar Hurri Singh and Paynda Khaun. Nuwab Khaun 
also of Shingan, whom hitherto owing to his treacherous and restless 
character I have prohibited returning from his exile into Huzara (the 
Karaars not being established in the district), has now returned with 
permission, the said objection no longer existing. He has committed no 
offence against the existing Government. At noon I rode to Hur- 
kishengurh. Sirdar Chuttur Singh, with his usual politeness, called upon 
me. The crops are most luxuriant-cotton and maize and bajra. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


87 


2plh August /<?^ 7 — Kote. — Rode to Kote to arrange my marching 
establishment, etc , for a tour through the district. The expedition to 
Gundgurh, though failing, as was inevitable from circumstances, in one of 
its main objects, the apprehension of the murderers, has produced I think 
a beneficial effect, in showing the Hill Chiefs that the strongest of their 
mountain fortresses are no protection for them from invasions. Jehandad 
Khaun (son of Paynda Khaun), whose ancestors have handed down to 
him an oath never to wait upon mortal Governor or Prince, is now all 
anxiety for permission to attend. All three of the Kurral Chiefs have 
sent brothers or sons to tender allegiance and invite me to take posses- 
sion, and Syud Zeman Shah of Khagan begs permission to attend. 
Khaun-i-Zeman of Gundgurh had never attended upon any Governor 
or King, several of the former had gone to meet him in his mountains, 
and Mr. Vans Agnew himself was obliged to comply with this cere- 
mony. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 18.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, in charge of Huzara, from the 1st to 
the 13th September 1847. 

1st September — Hurripoor, Huzara.— KoAe over from Kote. Jehan- 
dad Khaun has actually reported arrival at a village in this neigh- 
bourhood. I have appointed the morrow for his reception. Employed 
in receiving urzees and making the revenue settlement. 

2nd September— Httrripoor. — Jehandad Khaun, Chief of Bhowgree 
and heir of the celebrated Paynda Khaun, a Chief who, from the 
resources of his little circle of mountains yielding a revenue of about 
10,000 rupees yearly, contrived to keep the Sikhs under Sirdar Hurri 
Singh at sword point for about 20 years, and who, when the whole of his 
little territory aforesaid was covered with Sikh Forts and garrisons, 
reaped his revenue or great part of it in their despite — the son of 
this extraordinary man, who has always professed great reverence for 
the British, called upon me to-day and was received with honor. He 
has an hereditary oath to wait upon no Prince or Ruler, and he 



88 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


strove hard to elude what I conceived essential for the dignity of 
the Government. I informed him plainly that, if he did not attend 
in person, his jaghirs would be confiscated ; that his conduct during 
the late confusion had been so exemplary that I trusted he would 
not force me upon a line of policy so contrary to my inclination ; but 
that I could not understand the anomaly of a Jaghirdar too proud to do 
fealty for his lands. On hearing of the Gundgurh expedition, he suddenly 
became as anxious, as previously he had been reluctant, to attend. 
He is a small, spare, and good looking man with a gentle voice and 
expression of countenance and a slight hesitation in his speech. Goolab 
Singh, son of Sirdar Chuttur Singh, whilst Governor of Huzara bestowed 
upon him lands contiguous to his own, to the amount 10,000 rupees. 
Part had been previously given him by other Governors, but none of the 
Sunnuds are legally authentic, wanting the confirmation of the Maha- 
raja. The case has become a delicate one There are numberless 
grants equally unauthentic, which if repealed would throw the whole 
country into confusion, for the authority to make these grants grew 
naturally out of the possession of the first Governor, Hurri Singh, of a 
right, generally acknowledged to be vested in Jaghirdars of the Punjaub, 
to give away portions of their jaghir. At the same time, the grant 
in the present case has tended to strengthen hands already too strong, 
and some of the villages along the Indus cannot conveniently be spared 
on account of their value in guarding the river passage. It is true that 
the cost of the garrisons necessary to retain possession is treble or 
quardruple the revenue they yield, and that a rupture with Jehandad 
Khaun would be a serious extra item of expense. Mookurrub Khaun, 
Cliief of Punj Tarr beyond the Indus, joined my bridle as I rode in from 
lorbaila some day ago. He has amongst his guards three horsemen in 
siiirts of mail, and steel or brass skullcaps, -whose appearance is very 
picturesque. These suits of armour are, I believe, part of the booty 
won by him or his father in the war so long waged against Hurri 
Singh. Jehandad Khaun has many such, but has prudently forborne 
displaying them on the present occasion. 

Jfd, jih September iSifp — Hurripoor . — Busily engaged in the 
settlement of the revenue. I am distributing books, duly sealed and 
signed, to all the zumeendars and malgoozars, and receiving, examining, 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. S9 

registering and countersigning the grants, a tedious business, for the 
petty grants of land and coin are almost numberless. I have slightly 
reduced (z>., by 5 per cent) the whole assessment, as I am assured it is 
unduly heavy, and I have given assurance that nothing in the shape of 
nitzitirana, russoom, or any other name, shall be taken beyond the nominal 
assessment. It is possible that some villages may still be over-assessed. 
But in all cases where distress is exhibited I have given the malgoozar 
the choice of kunkool (or assessment in kind) for three years. 

6 lh September iSijp — Hurripoor . — Jehandad Khaun was dismissed 
to-day with a handsome present. I told him that I feared I must retain the 
river villages given to him by Goolab Singfi, as necessary to secure the 
river ferries. I dismissed also Mookurrub Khaun with a khillut suited to 
his rank. News has been received from Khowta that Raja Hyatoolla 
Khaun of that place, whose Jaghir was seized by Maharaja Goolab Singh 
some years ago ajid who himself has been ever since a prisoner with the 
Maharaja, having been suddenly set at liberty, instead of being made 
over to the Lahore authorities, has collected the disaffected and set the 
Government at defiance. I have represented to the Jumboo Agent the 
impropriety of this procedure on the part of their Government. Have 
issued a purwana to Hyattoolla calling him to submit himself upon 
pain of being treated as a rebel and have instructed the Kardar to seize 
him or to slay him if he desists. But the timidity of the Sikh officers 
will probably prevent my orders being carried out, and 1 shall be obliged 
to go to Khov/ta myself as soon as I can settle the Kurral and Dhoond 
country. Employed as previously. 

yih, 8 th and gth September — Hurripoor . — Hussan Ali Khan, Kurral, 
has at length, after trying every method to elude attendance in person, 
written to say he is on his way to wait upon me. The other Kurral 
Chiefs had previously submitted on hearing of the expedition against 
Gundgurh. The Syuds of Khagan, Zamin Shah and Futeh Ali Shah, came 
in some days ago. They have been in rebellion hitherto. Upon the 
whole, the Gundgurh expedition, the failing of one main point, viz., the 
apprehension of the murderers, which circumstances had led me almost 
to despair of previously, has hitherto produced good fruits, for those 
mountains have never previously been assailed, I believe, by a force of 
less than 8 or 10, 000 bayonets, and we had not in all more than 1,600 
of all arms, 


12 



90 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184J. 


loth September 184.^ — Hurripoor . — Hussun Ali Kbaun, Kurral, of 
Nara came in to-day. He is an exceedingly shy and timid character. His 
father was murdered by Futeh Ali Khaun, Kurral. The Kurrals and 
Dhoonds are accounted a treacherous race. The arrival of Hussun Ali 
Khaun, which I did not expect, has rendered it necessary to anticipate 
a military move upon Nara and Mukhole in the Kurral country, but it 
is difficult to collect a sufficient force just now, and I would not entangle 
a small detachment amongst those wild mountains. Dhara Singh’s Corps 
is only 400 strong and a wing is engaged at Simulkund. I hope, how- 
ever, to be able to collect about i,ooo bayonets in a few days, when 
I will start for Nara. Employed as on other days. The cry for blood is 
great ; scarcely a man was sitting in my Kutcherry to-day, where some 
60 or 70 were assembled, but had the blood of one or more victims on 
his hands, and the relatives of these coming in raised a general clamour 
for justice. It was difficult to put it down by referring to the late proc- 
lamations of amnesty and the terms of assurance upon which the 
Chiefs have surrendered themselves. And indeed it is a delicate question 
how to proceed in case of the sons and brothers of the murdered 
rendering themselves the justice denied them by the laws. Ata Ali 
Khaun, Gukka, has committed a fresh murder, but I trust we shall soon 
have such possession of the Kurral and Dhoond mountains as to render 
his retreat there impossible. 


nth, J2th September — Hurripoor . — Engaged in the revenue settle- 
ment as on other days. 12th, the Eed of the Moosulmans. 

13th Engaged in the revenue settlement and answering 

the numberless urzees upon petty subjects which I cannot persuade the 
zumeendars to make to their own Kardars. I dare not leave these 
urzees unopened lest they contain by any accident matter of importance, 
but their reading is a serious task upon my time. Ordered Richpal 
Singh s Regiment and Colonel Ummir Singh with two guns to be ready 
to march to-morrow morning. I had yesterday withdrawn the detach- 
ments from Khaunpoor and Torbaila. Of the gun elephants five are 
inefficient from galled backs. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner, 



journals of captain /, ABBOTT, 1S47. 


91 


No. 19. — Journal of Captain Janies Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, in charge of Huzara, from the 18th 
September to the 3rd October 1847. 

i8th, igth September 1847. — Sirdar Jhundur Singh having expressed 
his desire to assume charge of the detachment which I purposed march- 
ing to Nara to rebuild the mountain castle there, I consented to the 
arrangement, and he marched this day with 1,000 bayonets and 3 guns 
upon elephants, with about 20 zumboorahs. My object in altering my 
first intention is to render it more difficult for the Kurral Chiefs to 
practise treachery if so disposed, for had I marched to their country I 
must have taken them with me. They would not have felt safe here in 
my absence and whilst I was leading troops through their country, 
whereas under the present arrangement they remain here with me as 
hostages. The officer whom I sent to Mari with 200 matchlocks, 
to repair and garrison that castle, reports it in a very ruinous state. 
But the repairs are proceeding. As the people of the country destroyed 
these forts, I had purposed, on entering the country in force, to rebuild 
them at their expense ; but as I have not yet a sufficient force to compel 
such obedience, the operations being hurried by the sudden submission 
of the Kurral Chiefs, I have ordered that the ryutts employed in the 
work shall receive rations but not pay as at Simulkund, where the work 
was new. Busily employed in the Revenue Settlement. 

20th September. — Employed in the Revenue Settlement. The 
Dhoond zumeendars of Dunna came in to-day, and I purpose sending 
a party immediately to rebuild that mountain fort, retaining here as 
hostages half the zumeendars. The disposition of the remainder of the 
Dhoonds remains to be seen. They have not yet made their submission. 
Their country is a mass of lofty mountains covered with jungle and 
cannot be safely entered by small detachments, but the possession of 
Dunna is very important and will simplify operations should such 
prove necessary. 

2Jst September. — Employed in the Revenue Settlement. The 
works of Simulkund proceed slowly- Clay and sand are brought from the 
distance of four miles and the water has to be raised about 200 feet. 

22nd September. — Despatched an officer of Sikh Cavalry with 500 
matchlocks to Dunna to rebuild there the ruined Hill Fort which was 



92 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 

rased to the earth by the zumeendars* I retain some of the zumeendars 
and one of the influential Syuds as hostages. 

2jrd September iS/py. — Employed in the Revenue Settlement. 

2^th September. — Employed as above. In the evening Lieutenant 
Reynell Taylor arrived from Cashmere on his way to Peshawur. 

2^th, 26th, 2'jlh September. — Employed in the Revenue Settlement. 
The works of all the forts are proceeding without molestation from the 
hill tribes. Two of the Simulkund Chiefs, not I believe implicated in 
the late murders at Bukka, have surrendered themselves. The rest are 
in a state of partial blockade. The poor bunnia’s son, who had been 
kidnapped by them, has been set free by the two Chiefs who have come 
in as a peace offering. This is a relief to my mind, for I felt my honor 
concerned in his liberation. 

28th, 2plli, joili September. — Lieutenant Taylor has received instruc- 
tions from Lahore which have determined him to return to the Jumboo 
frontier for the settlement of the hill tribe called Siddun, and he has 
written accordingly to Cashmere to have a force in readiness to back his 
mediation. Employed in the Revenue Settlement. 

1st, 2nd and jvd — Employed as above. All is proceeding 

prosperously. Published the abolition of the internal transit duties, 
which are a great relief to trade and to agriculture. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 20.— Journal of Captain Janies Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, in charge of Huzara, from the 4th to 
the 20th October 1847. 

pth October — Rode out to the village of Nara to see whether 
the people had obeyed my injunction to quit it and return to their 
several villages in the plain, they having taken refuge in Nara from the 
wholesale cruelty of Dewan Moolraj and the Lahore Government being 
sensitively averse from the re-occupation of a village which in the time of 
Sardar Hurri Singh cost them so much blood. I found that my orders 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 93 

had been but imperfectly obeyed, the village being still occupied and but 
a few of the inhabitants having returned to the plain. I therefore remon- 
strated with the Chief, Mir Zeman Khaun, and assured him that if the 
people did not instantly comply with the order, I should resume the 
grant made them in consideration of their houses in the plain having 
been destroyed. Mir Zeman Khaun is himself building at Kullabutt. 
He assured me I should have no farther occasion to find fault. 

The village is exceedingly strong against any imperfectly organized 
attack. It lies at the foot of a high, rocky hill, the spurs of which have 
some rude breastworks. On three sides a deep chasm separates it from 
the ground sloping down toward the plain, so that an immense body of 
fire can be poured upon an enemy approaching from that side, and the 
stones rolled down would be more effective than musketry. But it can 
be turned. Sardar Hurri Singh, at the head of a strong force, was 
several times repulsed here by the peasantry, about ten of the Sikh Sirdars 
were slain, and he narrowly escaped with life. 1 here are hundreds of 
villages or posts of equal strength in Huzara ; but it seldom happens 
that so large a body of peasantry is collected to defend them as were 
found at Nara, the people of Srikote and Torbaila being combined on 
that occasion with those of Kullabutt. 

On my return, employed till evening as usual in the Revenue 
Settlement. 

5</;, 6 i/i, ’/th October . — Sirdar Jhundur Singh having reported the 
completion of the castle of Nara (a different place from the village just 
referred to), I have begged him to send a party to repair the walls of 
the small castle of Migra Numbi in the mountains of that neighbour- 
hood The castle of Mari has been some time finished, and the Fort of 
Dunna is far advanced tovrard completion. The reservoir of the Simul- 
kund castle still detains a larger force there than can well be spared. 
European superintendence being impossible, there is no avoiding such 
delay. Employed daily in the Revenue Settlement. I have remitted 
15 per cent, of the village assessments in Nara, the scale being certainly 
at least that much too high. And I have promised the Kurral Chief, 
Hussun Ali Khaun, that so long as the revenue is regularly paid and 
irregularities are prevented, I shall leave him in possession of his 
ancestral residence at Mukole, otherwise the castle there will be rebuilt. 



94 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 

I have reinstated him also in his old jaghir, of which he was deprived, 
by Dewan Moolraj. The only value of the country of Nara is the 
power its possessor has of preventing raids and apprehending outlaws, 
otherwise the expenses are about three times the revenue. 

8lh, gth, loth October iS^y . — Employed in the Revenue Settlement. 
I am not sure whether I noted on a previous date that two of the outlaws 
of Simulkund, being reduced to the greatest distress by the measures I 
have taken to annoy them at Khubul, had surrendered themselves to Lieu- 
tenant Nicholson and had been transferred by him to me. I have placed 
them under restraint until their case can be tried. I rather hope they 
are not concerned in the murders at Bukka. I have seized one of the 
two boats which were at Khubul and have closed the ferry there. 
Several skirmishes have taken place between the Khubulites and the 
guards at Torbaila, as the former have crossed over once or twice for 
the purpose of theft or annoyance. I have directed Fuzl Khaun, who 
has charge of the detachment, not to attack Khubul without support 
from Peshawur and not to molest the innocent inhabitants, but to 
confine his operations to the person and property of the influential 
zumeendars, the harbourers of the murderers. 

nth, I2th, ijth, jph i^th, i6th, 17th October . — Employed in the 
Revenue Settlement and in the investigation of a charge of murder, 
which I commenced previous to the arrival of the Sirdar. The circum- 
stantial evidence is damning, but no direct evidence seems possible. 
The case is the deliberate murder of a sleeping comrade by two Rohilla 
soldiers. The Fort of Dunna is now built up and the reservoir is filled, 
and it only remains to plaster the exterior with mud. Two murderers 
apprehended by Jaafur Khaun of Goolreh, a reclaimed robber, whom I 
prevented from being ousted out of the jaghir granted him upon 
condition of reform, were brought in on the nth and placed in custody. 
Some more petty thefts in this town have obliged me to change the 
Kotwal or rather to persuade the Sirdar to do so. The office, however, 
is kept in the same family, as the head of that family, Gholam Khaun, 
Tarin, has rendered the most essential service to the Government 
in conciliating and bringing in rebellious subjects. He is heir by right 
to all the country properly called Huzara, of which he was dispossessed 
by Hurri Singh. I have made up his jaghir from 4,000 to 5,000 rupees 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 55 

as his expenses are very great and scarcely covered by even this 
allowance. 

Lieutenant Taylor, having finally received instructions to hasten 

toward Peshawur, left me on the . He was detained by delay 

in procuring carriage. I borrowed with great difficulty from the Sirdar 
some idle camels belonging to Government to carry him on a few 
stages. 

iSth October — The two principal outlaws of Simulkund, 

Sirdar Khaun and -gave themselves up to-day, being 

driven to the greatest straits at Khubul. This is something gained. But 
I would rather they had been apprehended. I have solemnly assured 
them that I can deal with them only through the sentence of the law : 
that I have no power to forgive the innocent blood shed at Bukka. 
And I have from the first empowered none to offer them any terms but 
those of a fair trial. I have lodged them in the Fort, and begged the 
Sirdar who resides there to act according to his judgment as regards 
their security and not to put irons upon them unless it seems absolutely 
necessary. Unfortunately there is no prison-house in the country. 
Employed as on other days in the Revenue Settlement and in visiting 
lands where failures in the harvest are reported. The season has not 
concluded so favorably as it promised. Many of the lands lying 
between two mountain ridges have been burnt up for want of the after 
rain. And I perceive that extensive tanks are much wanted in several 
parts of this valley, where irrigation in all cases and even the water 
necessary for existence in many cases is wanting. I believe the under- 
taking to be quite feasible, as the declivity of the valley is considerable. 
But the simplest process, that of damming up the courses of torrents, 
is for the most part impracticable here owing to the porosity of the 
beds of the torrents in which the stream disappears and again wells 
forth repeatedly in the course of a mile. 

igth and 20lh October. — Employed as above in Revenue Settle- 
ments and in visiting village estates, also in arranging the affairs of the 
Gundgurrias, for whom it is difficult to assign lands in lieu of their 
lost rights, owing to the multiplicity of claimants. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Boundary Commissioner, in charge of Huzara. 



96 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 

No. 21. — Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, in charge of Huzara, from the 19th 
October to the 3rd November 1847. 

ipth, 20lh October i 8 jj. — The 19th being the Dussara, I received 
a visit of ceremony from Sirdar Chuttur Singh, Nazim, his son Aotar 
Singh and the Devvan Adjoodhia Pershaud, accompanied by the officers, 
Civil and Military, remaining here. The Sirdar’s niizzur being passed 
round my head as Sirwarna could not be rejected, but the other mtzzurs 
I refused according to custom. In the afternoon I accompanied the 
Sirdar and Dewan to the spectacle which, owing to the smallness of the 
detachment left here, was not very imposing. On the 20th engaged as 
usual in the revenue collection Upon overhauling the statements of 
actual collection in tlie time of Dewan Moolraj, and comparing them 
with older puttas in the possession of the zumeendars, two things 
become manifest. First, that an already heavy assessment was increased 
throughout Huzara. from 8 to 25 per cent., by an order from the 
Durbar in the years 1899 and 1901, to meet the increased expenses of 
the army. 

Secondly, that in the kunkool collections, which become inevitable 
from this and other oppressive acts, not above one-third of the Govern- 
ment assessment was actually realized. 

I have therefore resolved upon acting upon Mr. John Lawrence, the 
Officiating Resident’s suggestion, to modify into a lease the kunkoot of 
the deteriorated lands wherever the zumeendars prefer this arrangement. 

2isl, 22nd — Engaged in the Revenue Settlement and 

registry of grants of all kinds. 

2p-d, 3 p.lh October. — Engaged as above. I have also commenced 
the alteration of kunkoot for a moderate assessment, regulated according 
to the best of my knowledge of their present condition. This entails 
fresh work, but it will be more satisfactory than the kunkoot, which is a 
losing concern to both Government and ryutt, and would not have been 
contemplated but for the assurance given by the late Government of the 
district, under British sanction. I find in almost all cases the zumeen- 
dars prefer a moderate, fixed rent. The country requires careful nursing. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 


97 


The whole of Huzara proper was plundered and burned by Dewan 
Moolraj, and about half the villages are still unroofed. This act was 
partly in revenge of the depredations of the mountain tribes, whom he 
had not the courage to attack and had partly, it would seem, in view 
the destruction of property which had lapsed, or was lapsing by treaty 
to the new State of Jumboo. It is, of course, impossible that the countr}' 
should pay an average rent until the villages are again inhabited. 

2jth, 26th October 18 — Employed in adjusting the revised leases 
of lands. 

2'/th, 28th October . — Employed as above. Received a letter from 
Major Lawrence, in charge of Peshawur, in answer to some queries 
respecting the advisability of punishing the Khubbulutees and establish- 
ing posts on the western bank of the Indus under the mountain, 
Mahabunn. Major Lawrence’s opinion is so decidedly opposed to this, 
or to molesting the people of that quarter from Peshawur, that, as 
I could not without great risk undertake an expedition at present across 
the Indus, and am reluctant to leave matters unsettled at Khubbul, I 
have intimated to the Khubbulutees that, on their chasing the outlaws of 
Simulkund out of their lands and giving me assurance that they will not 
again harbour such offenders, I will remove the blockade from their 
villages and admit them to mercy. I could have blown the village 
to pieces with Artillery from the hither bank, but much misery must have 
befallen the innocent from such a measure, which 1 would not resort to, 
until all others have been tried. Wrote to Colonel Baboo Pandah 
at Huzro directing him to meet me with his corps at Khaunpoor 
agreeably to advice from Lieutenant Nicholson. Wrote also to the 
corps which I had ordered from Khowta to Koori, ordering them 
up to Dunna to meet me there. I had warned the Colonel three 
weeks ago to exchange his camels for bullocks or mules on reaching 
Koori and to be ready to ascend the hills at a day’s notice. Wrote 
to Sirdar Jhundur Singh, saying that since the troops suffered so 
much at Nara, he was at liberty to descend the mountain and camp 
at Rujjooia in readiness to advance if necessary by the Nara route 
to the Jelum. Inspected the platforms or tressels prepared for the 
guns to be mounted on elephants and gave other necessary orders 
for the collection of supplies at Dunna 

«3 



98 journals of CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 

sgth and joth October 18 jj . — Marched to Kote, and halted there to 
carry on the corrections of' assessment and allow the corps time to 
advance. 

jist Marched to Khaunpoor. Employed in the revenue 

settlement as before. 

1st November. — Purposed marching this morning, but Baboo Pan- 
dah’s corps is arriving in so mutilated a condition that I shall be 
unable without fresh aid to form a corps sufficient for the enterprize in 
hand : a hundred men are absent on duty at Lahore. Four hundred 
and ninety remain, of whom 120 are reported inefficient from severe 
fever, and 1 50 convalescent. I have therefore been obliged to write to 
Colonel Boodh Singh in Chuch to bring up his corps with all speed. 

2nd November — — Marched with about 280 men of Baboo 
Paudah’s corps and 50 of Richpal Singh’s ; accompanied by two guns 
on elephants and 15 zumboors. The road ascends the bed of the 
torrent Hurroh, between abrupt and wild mountains. It admits of even 
camels under their burthens, but could not be prudently attempted, were 
the country in arms, by any small force, as it is everywhere com- 
manded by the overhanging mountains, which must be carried at 
the bayonet’s point before a force could advance. There is a 
higher road, but it is steep and difficult — still I should have followed 
it had not the Kurrals submitted. This torrent’s bed, after an ascent 
of about 40 miles, leads to the foot of the mountain, upon which Dunna 
is situated. A letter to-day from the Colonel of the Regiment at Koori 
states that in obedience to my orders he has moved to the foot of the 
mountain, but finds it impracticable to his camels. I have written 
to reprimand him for neglecting to e.'cchange, as ordered, his camels 
for bullocks ; and to do so immediately, or carry up his baggage 
upon hired coolies. This neglect of Colonels of Regiments is death 
to any concert of operations. It is in vain to prepare beforehand 
orders to meet foreseen emergencies when certain that such will 
be neglected by the officers. These men show generally alacrity 
in the execution of anything to be performed under my eye ; but if 
I am not present, are certain to neglect my orders. The fault lies 
rather with the system than with the individuals, and it will take 
time to introduce a better organization. 



JOURNALS OR CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, rS^j. 


99 


jrd Novi iiiher /<?-// — MitHi Shah. — to Mulli Shah, about 8 
miles, the road crossing and re-crossing the torrent, the bed of which is 
so smooth til it the field guns might be drawn up it. The mountains 
wall it on either side, so that we have not seen the sun the last two 
days whilst marching. The cold is felt by the men who have to wade 
knee-deep through the water, some fifteen times daily. One of the 
gun elephants died to-day. It arrived at Hurripoor in an emaciated 
state, as did many others. 1 believe the cause is that the mahouts are 
prevented from plundering as heretofore, and will not pay for the food 
necessary for their charge. Grain is very dear, — 24 seers of maize per 
rupee instead of 60 or 80 seers, the ordinary price, — and I will not suffer 
the standing crops to be cut for Government at the arbitrary price 
formerly imposed, but insist upon a valuation. As the zumeendars are 
anxious to pay this /««/ in kind, I have suggested to the Nazim that the 
elephants be fed upon the crops thus procured and that the allowance 
for food be stopped from the mahouts until the elephants recover their 
condition. The Khubbul Mulliks having sent me a deputation of their 
brethren, to assure me that they have obeyed my orders and chased the 
Simulkundees out of their lands, and to implore forgiveness of the 
past, I have taken from them a formal bond, to the effect that they will 
never again harbour outlaws of this Government, and have promised that 
if the person whom I have sent to ascertain the truth of their opera- 
tions shall find that the3' have really dismissed the Simulkundees, I will 
receive them to favor, remove the present blockade and release two 
of their party whom I seized more than a month ago. Under other 
circumstances I should have continued my blockade until I had forced 
them to surrender the Simulkundees ; but as duiing my absence the 
blockade would certainly have been mismanaged. I am glad to arrange 
the matter as at present. 

j ABlJftTr, Captai.v, 

Boundary Comniissiomr . 


No. 22.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary- 
Commissioner, in charge of Huzara, from the 4th to 
the 9th November 1847. 

4th Novptnher i84J . — Marched to Sherpoor, about eight miles, still 
threading the bed of the torrent Hurroh, but the ground is now much 



100 


JOURNALS OF CAF'j AIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


more open, the cliflfs have disappeared and are succeeded by the summits 
of mountains not elevated above five hundred feet above the valley. 
The bed of this torrent is unusually free from boulders. The formation 
is blue mountain limestone, beautifully veined with white, susceptible of 
a high polish and easily worked. There is no limit to the size of 
masses procurable. It apparently contains no vestiges of organized 
life. Dunna is visible from hence upon the highest of the summits 
eastward — a bare long eminence overlooking a sea of mountains. 
Occupied in the revised settlement. 

The answer of Colonel Fertab Singh to my reprimand arrived, 
assuring me that he has not received previously any order to provide 
himself with carriage for the mountains. On referring to my purwana 
to him I find that he is right and I am wrong, my Moonshee having 
mistaken my instructions and the purwana read to me during the 
distractions of the kucherry not containing the order, which not only 
myself but the whole umla supposed to have been sent him. I have 
written accordingly, approving of the exertions he is making to comply 
with my instructions. 

Several Dhoond zumeendars of the purgunnah Charrian came 
in this day. But theDhoonds of Daiwul show no disposition to submit. 

I have therefore desired Sirdar Jhundur Singh to march toward Dunna, 
there to join or to support me as may be. This is the more necessary 
that I know not whether the regiment of Colonel Boodh .Singh may 
be provided with mountain carriage in time, all my exertions having but 
very imperfectly supplied the trifling detachment which accompanies me. 

5//; November 1847— Dunna.— Marchtd hither about two miles and 
encamped at the foot of Dunna in a fine valley called Lora. I ascended 
at once to the fort of Dunna. It stands upon a very elevated ridge of 
limestone overlooking the whole country westward and southward, in 
the latter direction as far as Rohtass and the river Jelum. Its height 
above the sea’s level by my thermometer is 6,564 feet, and it is about 
1,900 feet higher than the elevated valley of Lora. It is accessible 
from Rawul Pindi as well as from Khaunpoor. Much importance is 
attached to this castle by the natives, who fancy themselves subdued 
the instant a position is taken by the Government upon commanding 
ground. It wa.s, however, attacked during the late disturbances, being 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. loi 

in fact far from strong. It has two reservoirs of water and there is a 
spring within musket-shot, but the walls are low and ill-built of stone 
and clay. The castle of Mari lies nearly north of Dunna and is visible 
from it, commanding the next considerable mountain ridge. Mari is 
succeeded by Nara on the succeeding ridge, same direction, but is not 
visible. The interval between the castles, as the crow flies, is not more 
than five miles, but twelve miles by the road. The mountain ridges are 
nearly parallel and there Is but a trifling difference in their respective 
elevation. The mountain of Dunna is very abrupt on the western face 
yet the ascents are easy and safe. 

6 th aud ’jth Novembi-r /Sy/. — On Sirdar Jhundur Singh reporting, 
that he could not advance by the Dunna route upon the Jelum and 
upon my finding the chances of being able to make up a respectable and 
efficient force from the regiments of Chuch [sic), I wrote the Sirdar begging 
him to hasten to Dunna with his detachment of about 1,000 bayonets and 
two guns either b}' the Sutora or the Khaunpoor road, as he might deem 
advisable In fact this is not a country into which small forces of any 
but the most efficient troops should enter, it being so easy for the people 
to cut off supplies and communications amongst lofty mountains covering 
a tract of sixty miles. The Sirdar prefers the Khaunpoor road. 

Colonel Pertab Singh's regiment arrived on the 6th, but the baggage 
is only arriving and that slowly owing to want of carriage; the sipahis 
have behaved most admirably on this occasion, carrying up their baggage 
upon their heads. The regiment is tolerably strong, mustering about 560 
bayonets, but I fear I shall be detained here longer than I anticipated, as 
the corps has arrived without carriage, and it is not easily procured. I he 
supplies too are collected slowl}' and with difficulty. 

Colonel Boodh Singh’s corps, which is coming up, will not muster, 

I believe, above 300 bayonets, making with Colonel Baboo Pundah’s regi- 
ment about one ordinary corps. I have sent to summon the Dhoonds of 
the Jelum some days ago. But no answer has been received, and it 
seems doubtful whether they will submit without force. I wished to have 
advanced into their country without halt, but the corp.s I am collecting 
are not sufficiently strong to warrant such a move, nor will their carriage 
be complete In less than two or three days, I have therefore resolved 
to await a junction with Sirdar Jhundur Singh’s force and move with it 
in parallel columns, occupying the higher and the lower roads. 



102 


/OURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 


8lh and gth Hovemher 18^'j — Loia. — \ am still halted, waiting the 
completion of carriage and arrival of Sirdar Jhundur Singh: although 
purwanas for supplies of attah were early sent to all the neighbouring 
Kardars, it arrives so slowly and in such small quantity as to give me 
uneasiness It is absolutely necessary to have a considerable depot 
at Dunna. No answer has arrived from the Dhoonds of the Jelum. 

I have intimated to them the painful necessity I shall be under to 
withdra w alt interference on their behalf and to allow the Sikh army to 
burn and destroy if they continue in rebellion, and I have represented to 
them the misery they will thus entail upon their houseless families when 
the snow lies heav}' on the ground. During my halt here I have carried 
on the amended settlement and settled claims of Dhurmurth and Inam. 

J ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner, 


No. 23. — Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, in charge of Huzara, from the 9th to 
the 19th November 1847. 

gth Xovcmhcr . — Dunna . — I am unable as yet to proceed owing 

to want of hill carriage. Colonel Boodh Singh's corp.s arrived to-day 
and Sirdar Jhundur Singh’s column is clo.se at hand. The regiment 
musters only 330 bayonets, but it is considered a good corps. My 
emissaries are summoning the Dhoonds of Daivvul and Potah on the 
Jelum, but although report says they will come, I place little dependence 
upon it. The men are flushed with their triumph over the Jumboo 
troops, and it may be doubted whether they will be amenable to 
authority, until they have met with a reverse. 

lolli November . — Sirdar Jhundur Singh's coluinn arrived to-day. 
Pie has about 1,100 musketa and matchlock.s, 4 field guns on elephants 
and 25 zuniboors; so that I ha\e now at Dunna about 2,300 men at 
arms and iS field guns with about 40 zumboors. Our carriage unfortu- 
nately is still imperfect, though the greatest efforts have been made in all 
quarters to complete it. Still 1 hope to march onward the day after 
to-morrow, giving Sirdar Jhundur Singh the lower and myself taking 
the higher road. Both roads meet at the second march; but both .are 
pronounced very rugged. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, rS^y. 


'*3 


I jth November i 8 ^y. — I am not idle although halting. The zumeen- 
dars have followed me in numbers from Huzara, and I carry on daily 
the amended settlement. 

1 2th November. given orders for marching to-morrow morn- 

ing. 

Jjth November. — Last night certain information reached me that the 
zumeendars of Daiwul and Potah are within a march of my camp. I have 
therefore consented to defer my march to receive them, and this evening 
they have arrived. 

i.j.th November — Dunna — Made the revenue settlement of the greater- 
part of Daiwul and Potah and directed Sirdar Jhundur Singh to march 
with his column to Daiwul to re-build the fort there, whilst I detain with 
me the principal zumeendars. I have reduced the rents one-third. As 
this district was subject to Raja Goolab Singh as a jaghir, it is certain 
that the utmost possible revenue was gathered fi-om it. I had, however, 
refused to make any promise of remission previous to the submission of 
the people, and to all their demands replied that I would answer when 
they appeared with joined hands before me. 

75//; November. — I wrote yesterday evening to Lieutenant Nicholson 
in charge of Sind Sagur, accepting his offer of the Infantry corps remain- 
ing in Chuch, which I have begged him to provide with hill carriage and 
to station at Khaunpoor as a reserve in case of hostilities, for although 
the Dhoonds have made their submission, they are reputed a slippery 
race, and when the snow falls they may yet be tempted to mischief, in 
■which case without a reserve I should scarcely be able to maintain my 
communications and make sure of my supplies in so deep a tract of 
rugged mountains. 1 ordered Colonel Baboo Pandah to march his corps 
to Charrian to re-build the fort there, and as its destruction was acci- 
dental, the magazine having exploded, I have ordered that the zumeendars 
be paid regularly for the work, whereas at Dunna, Mari and Nara I obliged 
them to renew what the}' had destroyed, giving them only rations. 

Mauzoolla Khaun, a notorious character, a man of extraordinary 
talent and great duplicity, was entrusted by me with a small party of 
piahdas for the apprehension of Bhadoor Ali, a Gukka freebooter. By a 
forced march he surprised some of his party at Kurrore and offered to 
re-build that castle. 1 gave him permission, but as I find that the people 
are afraid of him, having formerly been oppressed when he was their 



104 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847- 

Kardar, I have ordered the Kardar of Karoo Khowta to march his regi- 
ment to Kurrore and carry on the building. Kurrore is a most 
important link in the chain of forts. 

Sirdar Jhundur Singh's column marched this morning for Danaul, 
and I ascended the mountain of Danaul to be ready to support him. if 
necessary, with the right column, which is now about 900 bayonets 
strong. 

i 6 ili November iS^y — Diinna . — -Walked out the first eight miles of 
the onward road to explore, as native accounts cannot be at all relied 
upon. Saw Sirdar Jhundur Singh’s camp move from the first halting 
ground and pitch at the second, about miles ahead, in a most absurd 
position, where ten matchlocks might destroy his whole force; this too 
in spite of the most urgent caution on my part never to camp under 
heights which he cannot occupy. It is impossible to help it now, for 
were I to write the letter would reach him too late in the evening for a 
removal. Employed in revenue settlement of hill villages as the zumeen- 
dars come in. 

lyth November . — Sirdar Jhundur Singh explains by letter his short 
march, stating that in consequence of the ruggedness of the road he was 
obliged to wait for baggage. This he should have done at his first camp, 
which I had selected for him as defensible ground, instead of creeping 
on a mile and a half to an unmilitary and untenable position. 

The people, I believe, are well inclined at present, but in such 
mountains as these no precaution should be neglected. Employed as 
before. 

i 8 th and igth November — Dunnn , — I have set workmen upon all the 
roads or rather footpaths, to smoothen and widen them as much as time 
will allow. Employed as above The Charrian fort is commenced. The 
walls of Kurrore I see with my telescope are about breast high, and 
Sirdar Jhundur Singh will be at Baicoud to-morrow. 

I cannot close this journal without remarking upon the excellent 
conduct of the Sikh troops of the force acting under me. Colonel Pertab 
Singh s regiment reached the foot of the mountains with only 1 1 mules. 
Without hesitation the sipahis carried up upon their heads their own 
baggage, leaving behind much that was necessary for comfort in this 
lofty bleak region, in order to be punctual to the day I had appointed 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. loj 

for their arrival at Dunna. Colonel Boodh Singh’s corps followed their 
soldierly example under circumstances nearly similar, and atSimulkund, 
the Futteh Pultun, Colonel Richpal Singh’s corps and some troops of 

Colonel Singh’s Regiment cneerfully carried up the steep hill, from 

the ravines below, the stones necessary for the construction of the new 
fort there, a severe daily labour which lasted six weeks during the 
height of the rainy season, and so far from shrinking from the task as 
derogatory it was a point of emulation, which should carry up, upon his 
head, the heaviest burthen. Yet these are the same men who a few 
montlis ago were tying up their Commanding Officers in sacks and 
belabouring them with cudgels. Their conduct has been most exem- 
plary on the line of march. But a single instance of plunder has come 
to my notice, although I take pains to obtain information, and the people 
who once dreaded their appearance as much as they dreaded an army 
of locusts now regard them with indifference, or perhaps rejoice at the 
market for their produce which their presence occasions. 

I wish I could equally convey the impression I have received of the 
benefit already produced in the Punjaub by the presence of British 
functionaries ; my opportunities of observation have been wide, and 1 
believe that throughout the Punjaub the reverence for the British name 
is as great as in any part of our own Indian dominions. And now that 
the assessments are to be moderated, that the ryutt has an appeal against 
the tyranny of the Mullick and the Mullick against the grosser tyranny 
and extortion of the Kardar, the blessing conferred upon the nation will 
be solid and substantial. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 24. -Journal of Captain Janies Abbott, Boundary- 
Commissioner, in charge of Hazara, from the 20th to 
the 26th November 1847. 

2 oih November Dunna . — The onward road is now ready for 

about eight miles, and I purpose taking up a camp at that distance in 
advance to complete the communications. The elephants being ordered 

14 



lo 6 fOVmALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 

up the mountain accordingly, a male elephant, which was carrying its 
own fodder and two women, the wife and daughter of the mahout, having 
turned too sharp in the ascent, placed its hind foot upon the verge of the 
road, which giving way, the elephant was precipitated down the declivity 
and must have fallen 20 feet before he touched the earth, afterwards 
rolling about 1 50 feet, when the slope being less and some bushes in his 
path, he was arrested, but life was extinct ; one of the women was killed 
on the spot, the other is so bruised that there is little hope of recovery. 
Had the mahout been riding the elephant, this would not have 
happened, as the road was there amply wide and he would have 
guided the elephant to the right turning. I shall be obliged to leave 
one of my guns at Dunna in consequence. I have ordered the Thanna- 
dar to have the body of the elephant buried without delay. But 
there is so little soil that the matter is not easy. I sent men with 
hatchets and tulwars to dismember the body, but neither hatchet nor 
tulwar would make the slightest impression upon the skin. 

Zjst November — Marched eight miles to Busra. The path is 

still rather difficult for elephants. The elephants which started soon 
after sunrise did not reach camp until night had set in ; and I perceive 
that for hill campaigns they are not quite the thing, as long marches or 
forced marches become impracticable, and where so much depends upon 
seizing the vantage ground celerity is of the utmost consequence. 
They are the only animals, however, capable of carrying the field guns of 
this force amongst mountains. The forts of Daiwul, Charrian and 
Kurrore are rapidly progressing. 

22nd AWm/Sirr.— Walked out the march in advance to explore the 
road and select ground for camp. The road lies over the ridge of a 
mountain richly wooded with cedars, firs and oaks. The hoar-frost is 
heavy every night. It is the proper military route to Daiwul as it pre- 
serves the high ground throughout and comes down upon tliat place 
which is situated upon one of its spurs near the Jelum. 

2^lh, 26th November,— \ have halted here in preference 
to the camping ground in advance, because the latter is very much more 
elevated and of course much bleaker at this advanced season. Even here 
the sentries suffer something from the cold, as they are not furnished 
with woollen pantaloons. The forts are nearly finished, and I hope oon 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J ABBOTT, 1S47. 107 

to be able to withdraw the force to the Suttee mountains, of which one 
of the tribes is still in rebellion. Meanwhile I shall leave this force in 
position and move on myself to visit Daiv/ul and Potah. This ridge would 
form an excellent sanitarium. The scenery is very fine and almost any 
elevation can be commanded. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 25. — Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, in charge of Huzara, from the 27th 
November to the 4th December 1847. 

^71/2 November iSjJ.'J . — I had intended to move on alone to Daiwul to 
inspect operations there and acquaint myself with the country, but on 
rising this morning found the country covered with snow to the depth 
of several inches ; and as the snow continued falling, and I learnt by 
enquiry that the spot I had selected for my camp as the lowest military 
position within miles was especially liable, from some peculiarity of the 
air tides, to be buried deep beneath the snow, and as the onward path lies 
over a very elevated ridge for about 12 miles, I took the first opportunity 
of a pause in the shower to shift the camp two miles back to a lower and 
more sheltered spot. Short as was the distance, the elephants moved so 
slowly amongst mountains that it was near midnight before I could again 
get under shelter, the snow continuing to fall heavily all night. How- 
ever, I saw that none were left unsheltered and brought my guard 
whose pall had not arrived into my own tent. 

28lh November . — Morning broke under a heavy fall of snow which 
now lies six inches deep around our tent, yesterday’s fall having melted 
and made the earth one wide swamp. I waited until a pause in the 
shower, then calling the Adjutants of the two corps and of the Artillery, 
ordered them to strike tents at once and march back to Dunna, as I am 
anxious to renew my direct communication with Sirdar Jhundur Singh at 
Daiwul and find that no one will even convey a letter by the forward 
route. Moreover our cattle exposed in the snow by night and without 
fodder all day would very soon be destroyed in this spot. The poor 
shivering natives with naked feet and half-naked bodies are quite 



ic 8 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S47. 

paralyzed, as they splash about ankle-deep in the mud of half-melted 
snow, and it is only by lending a hand myself to the operation of tent- 
striking that they can be encouraged to do anything. After packing my 
own tents I waded over to the two regiments, whose position was 
screened by the ground, and found to my extreme vexation all the tents 
still standing, the elephants not even brought to the guns and the 
Colonels basking over fires in their tents. It was now 1 o’clock, exactly 
two hours having elapsed since I issued the order, and as it would be 
impossible to reach Dunna before dark, when the path would become 
impracticable, I was obliged to reprimand the Colonels and countermand 
the march, ordering it instead for the ensuing morning. 

2pth November i8^y . — Broke camp early this morning, snow having 
fallen all night, and marched back to Dunna, where another storm 
awaited us. The winter has set in 20 days earlier than it has been 
known during the last 18 years. I have multiplied my despatches to 
Sirdar Jhundur Singh that he may have more chance of receiving some 
one of them, directing him to retire as soon as he has completed and 
plenished the Fort of Daiwul. The road from Daiwul to Chanian is 
still open. There is a corps at the latter fort, and 1 shall make Colonel 
Pertab Singh’s regiment march thither, at once putting both at the 
command of Sirdar Jhundur Singh should he require any reinforcement. 
The tower at Potah cannot I fear be built this year. It is not easy to 
conceive the difficulty which snow occasions amongst the mountains ; 
our tents became quite unmanageable, saturated with melted snow and 
then frozen stiff. Many of them could not be carried by the mules owing 
to the excess of weight, and almost all the bullocks sat down with their 
burthen and refused to move. The latter are indeed of little use in 
the hills. The Sapper sipahis with me were helpless; being Hindoos 
they could not dress their food, and they would not exert themselves to 
procure wood or to bring up their pall which was lying a hundred 
yards off. The Sikh soldiers, on the other hand, had their tents up 
in a minute, and when the weight of the snow upon them drew the pegs 
and brought the tents down, the damage was instantly remedied. 
Under their tents they lighted fires and cooked their victuals in great 
content. I remarked this to an old Singh. He replied that he had been 
often before in the snow, and that the year in which Dunna was first 
built by Sirdar Hurree Singh, the same untimely winter had occurred. 



/OVRNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT 1S47. 109 

but that then they were purchasing attah at 8 annas the seer, whereas 
now thej' got 20 seers for the rupee. The difficulty of provisioning a 
mountain campaign is great ; but I had foreseen it and collected supplies 
from four different quarters. I could not, however, with all my exertion, 
procure a sufficiency of mountain carriage, and the men are burthened 
with more than a soldier should bear about him on the march. 

joth November and ist December — Burma. — Called for returns 

of property left behind by the several corps. Pertab Singh has left 1 5 
bipahis’ tents on the ground, beside other articles. Boodh Singh has 
left only two tents, yet the former had more carriage than the latter. 
This is most vexatious, as he never gave me a hint that he should be 
obliged to make such a sacrifice, and I must remain here a day to have 
the tents brought up. 1 have sent on Pertab Singh's corps on the road 
to Charrian and, as snow lies at Dunna, have sent the other corps and 
the Artillery lower down the hill, remaining here in a tower of the new 
fort, where I am obliged to burn lights all day and suspend an umbrella 
over head to keep off the melting snow. 

2nd December — Gruhnim (.sic). — Marched down the mountain to the 
village of Gruhnim, about six miles. Here news has reached me that the 
new walls of the Fort of Daiwul have fallen down under the snow and 
rain, and that Sirdar Jhundur Singh has left them in that condition and 
marched to Charrian. 1 earnestly hope this may be a mistake, as I 
know not how at this late date it will be possible to repair the mischief. 

1 have written to the Sirdar, reminding him that he was to quit Daiwul 
only when all there was finished, and asking what arrangement he has 
made for repairing the mischief; he had my strong injunction to write to 
me daily and a dak has been standing for the purpose. 

3rd December — Phoolgraon. — Marched to Phoolgraon, about nine 
miles. No news from the Sirdar, but report says he has left Daiwul. 

4.th December — Kutlar. — Marched hither and had scarcely arrived 
when the rain recommenced and has lasted until night. Another man 
from Daiwul confirms the evil news. But still no letter from the Sirdar. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Boundary Commissioner. 



no JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, 1847. 

No. 26.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, in charge of Huzara, from the 5th to 
the 29th December 1847. 

SHi December — Charrian. — Marched under rain to Charrian, 

but as my baggage could not reach this place to-day I have left it about 
four miles off, and am putting up in the house of a villager, which I 
reached at night 

6th December. — The castle here is finished, but the late untimely and 
very heavy fall of snow has brought down some portions of the bastions 
and greatly injured the work generally. 

yih December. — A letter from Sirdar Jhundur Singh informs me that 
he is bringing with him the Daiwul zumeendars. It is too true that all 
the bastions of the forts there have fallen down, the superstructure 
having been erected whilst the foundation was still moist and the frost 
having in consequence sapped the cement of the walls. 

8lh December. — Sirdar Jhundur Singh arrived to-day with his 
column. It is quite necessary that the Daiwul castle be repaired, as 
otherwise another field force will be necessary next April. I have 
therefore sent as many matchlockmen as can be accommodated at 
Daiwul and Fotah with a Kardar to repair the damage, and have taken 
an assurance of good conduct under security from the zumeendars, some 
of whom I detain with me pending the repairs. 

pf.h December — Burlah. — Marched to Burlah, leaving Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh to follow me. 

loth December. — Marched to Kurrore, starting at daybreak and 
arriving at sunset. 

ijlh, i 2 ih, I Jib, i.fth December — Kurrore, — The fort here is finished. 
The position is most important ; a high table-land, well cultivated, 
commanding the whole of the turbulent district in the amphitheatre 
of hills eastward of Rawul Pindi, and also the hill country of 
Nurraie. It seems to me the best position also for the Infantry corps 
on duty in Khowta, being centrical, commanding, salubrious, and 
having an abundant supply of wood and water. The mountaineers 
are like deer. They respect only those who have the command 
of ground, and it is singular how easily they are awed by a hand- 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847- 


III 


full of men in position above them. I am most anxious to open 
the road from hence to Nurraie and Khowta, which is at present scarcely 
practicable. I have therefore sent a party to work upon it, and shall 
wait to march by that route in order to be sure that my orders are 
carried out. Meanwhile I find that it is absolutely necessary to have a 
thannah, i.e., garrison, at Kotli, where Maharaja Goolab Singh had 
a hill corps cantoned, as there is a tract of about 35 miles of wild 
mountains bordering the Jelum, which otherwise would be without 
police, the people being amenable only to force and having paid no 
revenue during the last three years. Much rain. 

i6lh December — Kurrore . — Went to inspect the progress of the 

road to Nurraie and found that in spite of the most explicit instructions 
they are carrying it by the most difficult instead of the easiest line, so 
that I shall be detained here yet a-while. 

Jph, 18th, igth December — Kurrore . — Sent Sirdar Jhundur Singh 
back to Huzara with the Huzara troops, and wrote Sirdar Chuttur Singh 
recommending him now to take advantage of the leave of absence grant- 
ed him by the Durbar to repair his health, which is much shattered. 

Ordered Colonel Uttur Singh’s regiment to march to Kotli and 
remain there whilst the castle is built, and Colonel Pertab Singh’s to 
canton themselves temporarily at Kurrore in readiness to aid Uttur 
Singh, if requisite. I have been daily occupied whilst here in the 
revenue settlement of the Suttees and of the mooskukhsa villages at the 
skirt of the mountains. I march to-morrow to Nurraie if the weather, 
which threatens, does not produce rain or snow. 

2oik, 2ist December — Nurraie . — Marched two stages by the road 
just opened to Nurraie, a singularly picturesque valley walled in by sand- 
stone rocks and mountains of the same formation. The castle stands 
in a most happy position upon the crest of a rock so steep that 20 
men were found sufficient to defend it against the turbulent and armed 
population of the district. 

When Maharaja Goolab Singh’s Kardar, Dewan Hurree Chund, 
heard of the exchange which had been effected of Huzara for land 
eastward of the Jelum, he dared no longer remain in a country where 
he is so execrated, but evacuated the castle, which the people immedi- 
ately dismantled. I bad not been aware of this previously, and had 



lia JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847. 

hoped to be able to abolish this castle, but upon mature consideration 
the castle seems quite essential to the maintenance of order, and as it 
requires so small a garrison and as the Nurraie zumeendars were bound 
by me by solemn covenant to submit to it, I think it would be a bad 
precedent to suffer their breach of faith to carry the day. I have there- 
fore given orders to repair it. Nurraie is about 12 miles by footpath 
from Kurrore and about the same distance from Khowta. 1 here 
enquired into the particulars of the death of Nusroo Khaun, Suttee, 
which I could not comprehend last year from not having visited the spot. 
He was in attendance upon Dewan Hurree Chund, Kardar of Khowta, 
and deputed by him to bring his rebellious fellow-subjects to 
reason. Hurree Chund's army had previously entered Nurraie, had 
seized the castle by night and were in force in the village, which 
belongs to Nusroo Khaun. Nusroo Khaun had just passed this valley 
on his embassy to the insurgent army of the Suttees, which lay 
on the Nurr mountain at the distance of a mile, when he was 
shot from his own village by three bullets which the Suttees declared 
were fired by the express order of the Jumboo Officer Commanding 
the troops there, in perfect knowledge that his victim was Nusroo 
Khaun. Dewan Hurree Chund's advocates declare that he was shot from 
the fort by his own people when summoning them to surrender, but 
as the fort was at that time garrisoned by Jumboo troops, this tale is 
inconsistent with facts. Moreover, the house of Nusroo Khaun was 
after his slaughter burnt down and plundered. I saw its ruins, so that 
it is almost certain that his death is truly reported by the Suttees as a 
treacherous murder. The Dewan, however, never ventured beyond the 
walls of Khowta, so that he may not have commanded the deed which 
the Suttees so confidently attribute to him. The burning of the Nurraie 
villages seems to have been dictated by revenge, the hill people having 
the year previously burnt Khowta. It is difficult at this time to foim 
a judgment as to the necessity of this deed. In so strong a country 
occupied by an armed and turbulent people who are never tangible 
except when they have the vantage ground, and who have such number- 
less strongholds and places of refuge, this deplorable severity may 
sometimes be necessary to compel obedience. Without the establish- 
ment of defensible thannahs, it must be constantly necessary, for when 
an army advances, the people retreat to their fortresses, leaving only 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iSfl. 


«»3 

their houses in the power of the invaders. But so far as I can learn of 
the case before me, a little temperance and judgment would have 
restored order without any such infliction or its consequences, the 
bitter undying hatred of the sufferers, 

22nd December j8^y — Nurraie. — I was prevented marching to-day in 
consequence of the road not being ready, and I took advantage of the 
halt to climb the Nitu ridge of Nurr, elevated about 6,000 feet above 
the sea, in order to complete my rough sketch of the features of the 
country. It is a singular mass of sandstone, which has never felt 
the action of fires. The summit is a bare table of rock several 
square miles in area, descending by precipice and ledge to the 
south. The rocky summit has the sea brown hue peculiar to the 
rocks and its miserable burnt up herbage, but the lower ledges 
have soil and are well cultivated. The whole is sprinkled with 
habitations, which, however, are left for lower sites, whilst snow covers 
the summit. This Nitu ridge runs west by south from the Jelum, and 
as it decays in height becomes thickly wooded with the Nitu pine. 
The lands of the Nurr people, who are a branch of the Suttee tribe, lie 
to the south of the Nitu. The northern valleys and the western 
portion of the ridge belong to Nurraie. The Jelum sweeps sharp round 
the eastern foot of this mountain. I have ordered the tower or thannah 
at Sooah to be repaired, as during its ruin the people pay no tribute. 

It lies at the southern foot of the mountain. 

3jrd, 24.th, 25lh December — Khowla. — .Marched to Khowta by the 
path just opened. Khowta has a small fort and its position, opposite a 
pass in the Sutti Nitus (sfc) and in the centre of Kurro Khowta is good. 
Halted here for the revenue settlement of Kurro Khowta and for 
Christmas-day. Lieutenant Nicholson rode in to dine with me. 

26lh, 2'jth December — Kullur. — Marched to Kullur, starting at 9 .a.m. 
and arriving at 4 p.m. I am obliged to halt here to complete the bound- 
ary settlement of Khowta, as the whole of the 26th was consumed by 
the march The road henceforth being open 1 shall be able to march 
at night, which is impossible amongst the mountains. 

38lh December — Kawsia. — Marched to Kawzia, and completed some 
items of settlement. 


15 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1847- 


1 14 

2gth Decemhey . — Marched to Dummuk and dismissed the zumeen- 
dars who have been following me on business. In spite of repeated 
purwannahs I can get no authentic news from Daivvul and I cannot 
carry the zumeendars further with me. 

News from Daiwul has just arrived. All is well. The fort nearly 
re-built, and the revenue coining in. 

j. ABBOTT, Captain. 

Boundary Conimissioner. 



Journals and Diaries of Captain J. Abbott, 18^8. 


Captain Abbott was Boundary Commissioner and on deputation to Huzara 
until the 9th March 18^8. From the 23rd April 1^48 he was designated Assistant to the 
Resident, on deputation to Huzara, and later in the year Assistant Resident, Huzara. From 
the 4th May 1848 “ Diary” was substituted for ** Journal 



Period 



No. 

From 

1 

1 

j To 

1 

Page 

1 

j 

Remarks. 

1 

1 

1 

29th December 
1847. 

22nd January 
1848, 

1 123 

i 

2 

28th. January 

1848. 

1 2 th February 

1848. 

1 125 


3 

13 th February 
1848. 

22nd February 
1848. 

■ 127 


4 

23rd February 
1848. 

8th March 1848 

129 


5 

9th March 1848 

20th March 1848 

133 


6 

29th March 1848 

5 th April 1848 

135 


7 

6th April 1848... 

22nd April 1848 

137 


8 

23rd April 1848 

29th April 1848 

145 


9 

30th April 1848 

... 

148 


10 

2nd May 1848 ... 

! 

150 j 


II 

3rd May 1848... 

1 

i 

152 ! 


12 

4th May 1848 ... 

1 

! 

153 


13 

5th May 1848 ... 

• •• 

154 


14 

6th May 1848 ... 

... 

155 


15 

7th May 1848 ... 

... 

156 



Period 


No. 

1 

Page 

Remarks. 

From 

To 

i6 

8th May 1848 ... 

... 

158 


17 

j 9th May 1848 ... 

... 

IS 9 


18 

1 0th May 1848... 

... 

160 


•9 

nth May 1848... 

1 1 2th May 1848... 

i6o 


20 

1 3th May 1848... 

! 

162 


21 

14th May 1848 .. 

... 

163 


22 

Undated. 

i 

164 


23 

i6th May 1848... 

... 

165 


24 

17th May 1848 . 

•• 

166 


25 

1 8th May 1848... 

... 

167 


26 

19th May 1848... 

... 

168 


27 

20th May 1848... 


169 


28 

2ist May 1848... 


170 


29 

22nd May 1848... 


171 


30 

23rd May 1 848... 

24th May 1848 ... 

172 


31 

25th May 1848... 

... 

173 


32 

26th May 1848... 

28th May 1848 ... 

174 


33 

28th May 1848 .. 

29th May 1848 

174 1 


34 j 

30th May 1848... 

1 

176 j 

L 



No. 

Period 

I 

1 

Remarks. 

From 

To 

Page 

35 

1st June 1848... 

3rd June 1848 ... 

177 


36 

4th June 1848 . 


178 


37 

Sthjune 1848... 

... 

179 


38 

6th June 1848... 

1 

180 


39 

7thjune 1848... 

! 

181 


40 

9th June 1848 . 

... 

182 


41 

9th June 1848 

... 

184 


42 

lOth June 1848... 

1 

185 


43 

I ith June 1848,., 

I 2th June 1848 

185 


44 

I2th June 1848... 

13th June 1848 

186 


45 

I4thjune 1848... 

... 

187 


46 

iSthJune 1848... 

... 

188 


47 

i6th June 1848... 

1 8th June 1848 

190 


48 

20th June 1848... 

... 

191 


49 

2ist June 1848... 

i 

192 


50 

22nd June 1848 


194 


51 

24th June 1848... 

... 

194 


52 

24th June 1848 .. 

... 

195 


53 

2Sth June 1848... 

26th June 1848 

195 





No. 

] 

j Period 

Page 

Remarks. 

From 

To 

54 

27th June 1848... 

• • ■ 

196 


55 

28th June 1848... 


197 


56 

30 th June 1848... 

... 

198 


57 

2nd July 1848... 

[ 

198 


58 

4th July 1848. .. 

Sth July 1848 ... 

199 


59 

6th July 1848.. 

... 

200 


60 

6th July 1848... 

... 

200 


61 

7th July 1848... 

i 

201 


62 

7th July 1848... 

Sth July 1848 ... 

202 


63 

nth July 1848... 

... 

203 


64 

i2th July 1848... 


204 


65 

i2th July 1848... 


205 


66 : 

14th July 1848.,. j 

... 

205 


67 ! 

14th July 1848.. 


206 i 

68 1 

1 

1 6th July 1848... j 

... 

207 j 


69 

i6th July 1848,.. ' 

. . . 

208 


1 

70 : 

17th July 1848... ; 

... 

208 


71 1 

i8th July 1848... 1 


209 1 


72 i 

19th July 184S... ; 

1 

20th July 1848... 

I 

210 ! 



11 $ 



1 I'tRIOD 


1 

No. 

From 

To 

Page 

Remarks. 

73 

2ist July 1848... 

1' 22nd July' 1848... 

21 I 

1 

1 

U 

j 23rd July 1848 . 

24th July 1848 .. 

212 


75 

25th July 1848 .. 

26th July 1848 .. 

213 


76 

28th July 1848.,. 

29th July 1848... 

213 


77 

29th July 1S48 

JOtli July 1848 .. 

214 


00 

1st August 1 S48 

... 

216 


79 

2nd August 1848 


217 


80 

3rd August 1848 

... 

218 


81 

Without date 

(Received 8th 
August 184S). 

1 

219 


82 1 

5th August 1848 


220 


«3 I 

6th August 1848 


222 


84 1 

6th August 1848 

1 3th August 1848 j 

223 



13th August 1848 

1 5th August 1848 j 

228 


86 

1 6th August 1848 j 

j 

231 1 

The Diaries 
from the 

1 

29tli August 1 848 1 

... 

232 1 

i 

17th to the 
28th August 

88 1 

4th September i 

... i 

236 i 

and the 30th 

\ 

\ 

1848. i 


t 

idem to the 

89 1 

1 

6th September ! 
184S. I 

... 

237 

3rd of Sep- 
tember 1848 

90 1 

1 

6th September i 
1848. : 


237 

are missing. 

91 ; 

7th September \ 
1848. j 

• 

23S 



Period 







No. 

From 

1 To 

Page 

Remarks. 

92 

7th September 
1848 

1 3th September 
1848. 

239 

i 

93 

13th September 
1848. 

14th September 
1848. 

243 


94 

1 6th September 
1848. 


244 


95 

17 th September 
1848. 

19th September 1 
1848. 

244 


96 

20th September 
1848. 

2 1 St September ! 
! 1848. j 

246 


97 

22nd September 
1848. 

23rd September j 
1848. 1 

247 1 


98 

24th September 
1848. 

j 

00 


99 

25th September 
1848. ^ 

26th September I 
1848. 

249 


100 

27th September 
1848. 

28th September 
1848. 

250 


lOI 

29th September 
1848. j 


251 





1 



121 



Period. 


No. 

1 

I F rom 

1 

To 

1 

1 

Page 

1 1 1 

i5tli December 
1848. 

... 

265 

II 2 

1 8th December 
1848. 

... 

267 

I13 

19th December 
1848. 

... 

268 

II4 

2 1 St December 
1848. 

... 

270 

II5 

26th December 
1848 

... 

271 

II6 

29th December 
1848. 

... 

272 

II7 

30th December 
1848. 

... 

273 

I18 

31st December 
1848. j 

... 

273 


Remarks, 


i6 





JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


No. 1. — Journal of Captain Janies Abbott, Boundary Com- 
missioner, in charge of Huzara, from the 29th Decem- 
ber 1847 to the 22nd January 1848. 

2ptli December 184.']. — Marched from Kawzia to Dummuk in con- 
tinuation of my progress toward Jumboo. 

joth December. — Marched to Bukrala. 

1st January 1848, — Marched to Rohtass. 

2nd January. — Marched to Jelum. 

3rd January. — Halted at Jelum to arrange the new boundary on 
the river of that name, but found the disputes so numerous and 
intricate that nothing could be made of them in one day. The islands 
also are in such number and their lands are so vehemently contested 
that a most particular survey of the river will be necessary. This was 
left by me for one of Lieutenant Robinson’s assistants, Corporal Smith, 
last year, but by some error he commenced the survey higher up, 

4th January. — Marched to Sookchynepoor and set afoot a survey 
of the river. Dressed the new boundary along the river Sookaytur. 

5///, 6th and yth January. — Halted here and went over the whole of 
the river islands, sketching in the ground from the elephant’s back whilst 
the survey is proceeding. The contests of the zumeendars exceed any- 
thing I have previously witnessed. They color every thought, and 
shape every answer upon the most opposite subjects : appointed Moon- 
sifs to settle the disputed points. 

8lh January. — Complaints are made of Mr. Leeson, a young man 
who is Just appointed to assist in the survey of Huzara. The Bunnias 
state that he insists upon taking their goods at his own arbitrary price. 
He complained to me that he had difficulty in getting begaries. Suppos- 
ing of course that he paid his coolies, I told him that a very stringent 
order had been issued against the employment of begaries and that the 
people probably did not understand that he wanted muzdoors ; that if he 
would apply for them under the latter name, I doubted not he would be 
successful. I did not at the time know liis name. 

gth January. — Marched to Bullanichuk. 

I oth January. — Marched to Sumarala. 



124 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, J84S. 


iith January jS^8. — Marched to Rujooal. 

1 2th January. — Marched to Kurrianwala. 

ijth January. — Halted at Kurrianwala and commenced the new 
Todah buttdi -whKh gives to Jumboo the northern moiety of Minawur. 

I ^th January. — Marched to Minawur. 

Marched to Nujwal on the Bijwat border. 

I yth and 16th January. — Halted at Nujwal to allow my Surveyor 
and Todah biindi establi.shment to make way. Endeavored to cut ofl' the 
northern corner of Bijwat which runs far into the Jumboo frontier, but 
found that I could not do this without ruining the purgunnah by depriv- 
ing it of its irrigation. The soil is light but good, and the crops have a 
never-failing and ample supply of water from the canals of the Chenab. 
The rental is 35,000 rupees, but Raja Tej Singh is not very unreason- 
able in estimating it at 50,000 rupees, for it is worth land of that 
assessment in unwatered soil. 

lylh and i8th January. — Marched to Poole on the Chenab, crossed 
the Chenab and marched to Kateli. 

Marched to Goolbehar. 

2 lit and 22nd January. — Halted at Goolbehar to survey two new 
lines of boundary in Soochaytgurh. 

Marched to Sialkot. 

During the whole of this interval I have been occupied in arranging, 
correcting and comparing the accounts of Huzara and of the boundary — 
a work of time and requiring unbroken attention. The new assessment 
of Huzara and the extensive grant by the Jumboo officers and by 
myself of jaghirs to outlawed chiefs on their return to allegiance, has so 
reduced the net revenue that the Jumboo share will not, I think, e.xceed 
1,12,000 rupees, the half of 2,24,000 rupees, so that I shall have to take 
back part of the land made over last year by express order to Jumboo. 

It was impossible then to foresee this diminution, because the reduction 
of the assessments in the Lahore territory had not been announced. My 
Surveyor has not yet rejoined me from the Jelum, and the Todah 
bttndi establishment is in the rear. 

J. ABBOTT, Captai.n, 

Boundary Commissioner. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S48. 135 

P. S . — I should note the receipt to-day of the Resident’s letter 
No. 32 accompanying charges preferred against Mr. Leeson of altering 
arbitrarily the bazar nerricks at Jelum, Hurripoor, etc., and of defraud- 
ing the coolies of the latter place of their hire. It will be seen by 
reference to date January 8th of this Journal that Mr. Leeson was 
informed by me that a stringent order prohibiting brgaries was in opera- 
tion. The alteration of a bazar nerrick without sufficient authority and 
for selfish purposes is as dishonest an act as refusal of hire to a coolie 
and complaints have been sent me from Huzara chargitig Mr. Leeson 
with the latter offence. This is the first occasion in which any com- 
plaint has reached me of the conduct of Europeans in the Punjaub, 
although the Sapper Sergeants have been constantly on detached duty, 
and I need not say that one British functionary, whose ideas of justice 
are lax, may most seriously injure the respect and reverence the people 
are prepared to render us. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 2.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, from the 28th January to the 12th 
February 1848. 

28lh January 184.8 — Bijnoia. — Marched from Sialkote to Bijnora 
after having set the Native Surveyor and Todah hundi Moonshee their 
work upon the boundary. Occupied in the accounts and in receiving the 
razeenamahs of zumeendars of the boundary villages. 

2^th and jolh January. — Detained by continued rain. Occupied as 
above. 

yist January. — Marched to Jhund. Occupied as above. 

1st and 2nd February. — Marched to Charwa, and detained one day 
by heavy rain. Employed as above, and in surveying the boundary 
pillars of masonry which have been set up here by the Lahore Govern- 
ment, although not so reported to me. I had given an order at the 
transfer of Huzara to arrest the progress of the boundary pillars west- 
ward of the Busuntur rivulet. The Kardar of this district says the pillars 
were constructed previous to the receipt of my prohibition, but this is 
scarcely possible as there are several hundred between the Busuntur 



126 


JOURNALS OF CARTA LN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


and Chenab, and I rather imagine the object was to prevent an alter- 
ation of frontier in this quarter, where it was known to be desired by 
the Jummoo Government. 

jid February — Marched to Buggiarie. Engaged as above. 

4.th, jth and 6 th February. — Mnvched to Nungah and halted to settle 
a formidable boundary dispute, which the Moonsifs could not arrange 
last 3'ear. So man3' arbitrary changes were made in villages hereabout, 
during the Vizarut of Raja Dhyan Singh, that the confusion is often 
ine.xtricable. Occupied in this matter, with the accounts, and in receiv- 
ing razeenamahs from the boundary zumeendars. Detained here on the 
5th hy heavy rain. 

Jlh February. — Marched to Bheyroo Nath, surveying the boundary 
pillars on the way. Those only of Laliore are yet erected. Employed 
with the accounts and in receiving razeenamahs. 

8 th February.— y[ 3 .\-c\\tA to Chuchwal, surveying the boundary 
pillars, an operation which keeps me in the saddle daily until 12 or i 
o'clock. Employed afterwards with the accounts, etc. 

gth February. — Marched to Bekee-ke-chuk, surveying the boundary 
pillars. Employed afterwards as above. 

loth February .—Mo.rc\\ed to Musroor, surveying, etc., as above. 

iilh February. — Marched to Mooti ditto ditto. 

I2th February. — Marched to Purrole ditto ditto 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 

P . S. The boundary pillars of both Lahore and Jummoo are erected 
with a few e.xceptions eastward of the Busuntur. But although every 
one of the pillars of earth was inspected by me last year, and corrected 
where erroneous, at the cost of much care and exposure, there are 
several chasms in the permanent columns, and I have been obliged to 
fine several zumeendar- for preventing their erection on lands of which 
the disputes hav?* been formally setMed by .Moonsifs of their own 
nomination. 



JOURNALS OR CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


127 


No, 3. — Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary Com- 
missioner, on deputation to Huzara, from the 13th to 
the 22nd February 1848. 

ijth Ftbiuaiy iSjS. — Ran up to Jesrota, as tills may be my last 
opportunity of fixing the latitude. Got a meridian observation. 

The palaces built by the young and gallant Raja Heera Singh, 
who in fact founded also the town, are since his death utterly neglected 
and will speedily fall to decay. His untimely fate seems to have attached 
a superstitious gloom to the spot. The palaces form an important 
feature in the country, being visible at the distance of many miles and 
are one of the stations of the trigonometrical survey by which the 
boundary has been regulated. I had not previously visited them. 

ijth February — Nurrote. — Returned to Nurrote, inspecting on the 
way about I2 miles of boundary pillars. 

This forms the commencement of the Todah bundi of the boundary, 
and owing to the inexperience of all the establishment a large number 
of pillars of masonry are deficient, although I last year reported every 
one of the earthen pillars and rectified what I found amiss. It seems 
absolutely necessary that the whole of the boundary pillars should 
again be inspected very carefully, when reported complete, by a British 
Officer. No dependence whatever can be placed upon native supervi- 
sion. Reached my camp after sunset. 

Jjth February — A'a/oo/w.— Marched at daybreak to Katooha, 
inspecting the boundary pillars by the way. Those which are in the 
river channel I have ordered to be sunk 7 feet in the shingle, project- 
ing only 3^ feet above. Reached camp at 2 p.m. ; employed the rest of 
the day in plotting boundary surveys, receiving razeenamahs, etc. 

i 6 lh February — Katooha. — Detained by verj' heavy rain. Engaged 
in plotting boundary surveys and with the accounts. 

j 8 th Fehruarv — Madoopoor. —Reiwnei from Katooha to the point 
at which the boundary meets the Ravi and marched up the Ravi to 
Madoopoor. The Ravi is here the boundary, and my object W'as to 
ascertain whether there is any confusion of claims to land affected by 
an alteration in the Ravi’s course. Ordered the zumeendars on either 
hand to attend with their depositions ; reached camp at i p m. ; employed 



larf JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 

the rest of the day in taking razeenaraahs, and with the accounts. 
Here commences the British and Lahore boundary, and the Todah biindi 
here is only just set up in earth, the boundary having been altered 
by the exchange to Jumboo of the British lands trans-Ravi, for the 
tribute of Chumba cis-Ravi. 

jglh February i 8 ,f. 8 — Shoojanpoor.~Us.vc\\&di to Shoojanpoor, sur- 
veying the boundary pillars which are very correctly set up in earth. 
All the canal villages including Shoojanpoor Khas remain with Lahore. 
Engaged the rest of the day in plotting the boundary survey and in 
receiving razeenamahs and adjusting claims to land on the river. 

20th February. — Marched to Pathankote, surveying on 
the way the rest of the boundary pillars to the river Chukki. Reached 
camp at 2^ p.m.; engaged the rest of the day with the accounts. Major 
Napier was kind enough to pay me a visit that we might consult upon 
matters connected with the survey operations in Huzara, As he states 
that funds for such purposes are rather scanty, I have offered to 
complete the survey of Huzara myself without interruption to my civil 
duties there, and without more aid than half of my present survey 
establishment. 

I have already nearly all the materials for a map — every mountain 
first {sic), every large village and the course of nearly all the streams — 
and it remains only to sketch in a little more accurately the ravines and 
spurs of the mountains, which can be done only by descrying the 
highest summits. My duties lead me into every corner of the district. 
The survey of Huzara was announced to me as a thing determined 
upon, so that I did not like to say anything to discourage the undertak- 
ing, not knowing the reasons upon which it had been determined to 
undertake it, and not being aware that the finances were so cramped. I 
calculate that I can complete it in a year without interruption to my 
duties, the cost of the native establishment being about lOO rupees 
per mensem for 12 months. 

20th February — Pathankote,. — Halted to receive depositions of 
boundary zumeendars and to settle claims upon lands in the Ravi on 
either hand. They are not very important. Each zumeendar whose claim 
is established is furnished with a duplicate of the roobukari to that effect. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848 IJ9 

21st and 22nd February i8j.8. — Adeenanugur . — Marched to 
Adcenanugur, 16 miles, and halted to settle the claims upon lands in 
the river Chukki : otherwise occupied with accounts. 

J. ABBOTT, CAPfAiN, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 4.— Journal of Captain J. Abbott, Boundary Commis- 
sioner, on deputation to Huzara, from the 23rd Febru- 
ary to the 8th March 1848. 

2jyd February i8j.8. — Mukora . — Marched from Adeenanugur to 
Mukora. Occupied with the accounts, and in taking the razeenamahs of 
zunieendars upon the British and Lahore boundary, left arm of the 
Chukki river. A Seikh freebooter, named Hurri Singh, is said to be 
plundering the country near Adeenanugur. The news came from Lahore. 
No complaints have been made to me, although I must have passed 
very near the spot which he is said to infest. A party of too horse 
have been sent, says the same news, from Lahore to apprehend him. 
The intelligence has probably been known to Dewan Ajoodhia Pershaud 
several days, but was not communicated to me until my arrival here. 

2j.lh February— Soojoowal . — Marched to Soojoowal, crossing the 
Ravi. Occupied in plotting native surveys and in arranging the 
accounts. 

2yth and 26th February — Soojoowal. — DtisimtA here by a torrent 
of rain which has deluged the country. Such a fall I have seldom 
known, excepting in the monsoon. 

2jth February. — Shukkurgurh . — Marched hither. The place is a 
large village with bazar. The mud fort, now in ruins, held out against 
Rajah Dhyan Singh, until that Chief seized the wives of many of the 
soldiers of its garrison, which was a good plea for surrender. It must 
have been a respectable little gurhi, having a deep ditch, and a double 
line of defences. Employed as on the former day. 

28th February — Sumrala . — Marched hither, passing a smart little 
mud fort, called •••••• having a deep narrow 

diteh, and a parapetted fausse-braye. It is however failing to decay. 

*7 



*30 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184S. 

Gumrola is a large village with a bazar Employed in plotting maps 
and in arranging accounts. 

^pth February i8p.8 — C/iarwa — Marched hither, where I rejoin the 
boundary. Employed as yesterday, and in settling boundary disputes. 
Charwa is a large village with bazar and a single tower of mud, with 
double line of defence.s and a hedge of prickly pear. All these mud 
forts, or rather castles, have a natural glacis, being built upon the tumuli 
of old village sites. 

1 st March — Muhrajki. — Marched to Muhrajki, inspecting the 
boundary pillars on the way; reached my tent at I 5 p.w. Only half of 
the pillars, viz., those which fall to the share of Lahore, are as yet set 
up. They are generally rather less solid than I had ordered they 
should be built, and in spite of the most particular instructions mud lias 
been substituted for mortar in the foundation, so that their duration 
will often be brief unless they are yearly looked after. The further 
erection of the masonry pillars was prohibited last year, owing to the 
contemplated change in the boundary by the transfer of Huzara. This 
is a large village with bazar and a mud castle. The whole country 
from the Chukki to this place is one sheet of green corn. The soil is 
sandy, light and poor, but water is generally abundant Employed the 
rest of the day with the accounts and in transacting current business. 

2 nd March — Marched to Bejoora, a large village with 
castle of mud in a sea of rich cultivation, inspecting the boundary 
pillars by the way. These are newly elected by the Todah hundi 
establishment in my passage eastward. Engaged the rest of the day 
in settling disputes, receiving razeenamahs from boundary villages, etc. 

jrd March. — AVmu/rrf/rw/iciw.— Marched hither inspecting the new 
boundary pillars. Arrived at 1 1 a.m. Engaged the rest of the day in 
plotting boundary survey and in receiving razeenamahs. The fort 
and purgunnah of Runjeetgurh arc at length surrendered to the Lahore 
authorities by those of Jummoo, and 1 have ordered the zumeendars to 
attend for the boundary settlement, Mr. John Lawrence’s instructions 
having this day reached me. This is a small village with mud castle. 

^ih March— Runjeetgurh. — Deferred my march until afternoon 
to enable the Jodah bundt establishment to get ahead of me. Then 
started and inspected their work. Employed before noon in plotting 



JOURNALS OF CARTA /N J. ABBOTT, tSfS. 131 

the survey of the Jelum, for which previously I have had no leisure. 
Runjeetgurh is a village with a pretty castle generally of mud, but 
having two bastions of masonry. It is a place of no strength, but stands 
picturesquely upon the high bank of the basin of the Chenab, being nine 
miles from the stream of that river. It was founded by Runjeet Deo, a 
celebrated Raja of Jummoo. 

§lhand 6th March 18^8— Runjeetgurh . — Halted for the boundary 
settlement of Soocheytgurh and Runjeetgurh, etc. The business is longer 
than I had anticipated, for I found the basis submitted to me as a guide 
unfairly taken, and as this district is subject to periodical visitations of 
locusts from the neighbouring hills, no settlement can be just which has 
not one or more of these seasons embraced in the calculation. As this 
purgunnah was liable to transfer to Jummoo in payment of Huzara, 
efforts had been made to raise its estimated rental. It requires a more 
intimate knowledge of the country than can be acquired in one or two 
seasons’ experience, to balance between the rapacity of Kardars and 
Governors, and the effects of bribery upon Kardars, Moonshees and 
Sepahees- The former become manifest in the Khusrahs, but the latter 
are not the less certain that they are invisible. I speak of the Kunkoot 
system which has prevailed here. The Mooshukhsa settlement will be 
a real blessing to the country if conducted upon sound principles. But 
a just aver.age is never obtainable in less than 9I years’ retrospection of 
jummas, and 19 years are necessary to give great accuracy. In fixing 
a Mooshukhsa the calculation of two years’ produce, it is absolutely 
necessary to lean to the side of lenitv, or the ruin of the zumeendars may 
be the consequence 

yth March — Chuprar — Marched to Chuprar surveying the bound- 
ary pillars. Arrived at loi a.m. Engaged the rest of the day in 
completing the settlement of villages of which the zumeendars were not 
previously in attendance. A canal was formerly led from the river 
Toh to Wuzeerabad, so at least I am informed. The Toh is probably 
sinking its bed, and to reopen this canal would require some amount of 
excavation. I think that a grander work, viz., the junction of the Toh 
with the Ravi, westward of Lahore, is quite feasible, leading it out 
eastward of the basin of the Chenab and keeping the high land, the 
slope being from N.-E. to S.-W. The head in this case must be in the 



132 


journals of CAPI'AIN J. ABBOTT, 1S48. 


Jummoo territory which would benefit by the canal for about 15 miles. 
I doubt whether there be fall sufficient from the eastern limit of Chuprar 
to enable the canal to emerge from the basin of the Chenab until at 
least it should reach the longitude of VVuzeerabad. If therefore the 
canal head must needs be in the Lahore territory, it might better be led 
out of the Chenab near Chuprar, but not exactly in the sinus which 
the Chenab there forms, because the forward impetus cf the river is 
there sufficient to endanger a change of its course. A canal is much 
wanted in tiie arid but highly capable soil of this Dooab, of which large 
tracts on the road from VVuzeerabad to Lahore are so desolate as to be 
dreaded by travellers. Chuprar is a large village, with a very large 
bazar, standing in the rich basin of the Chenab. The soil is sandy, but 
the heavy dews render it productive. 

8th March 18^8 — Thoob . — Marched hither inspecting the boundary 
pillars by the way, and crossing the river Toh by a ford and ferry. 
The bottom is often dangerous from quicksands. Here the Toh for a 
mile, and afterwards the Chenab, becomes the boundary of the two 
States — a boundary liable, I fear, to future disputes from the ever 
shifting nature of this river, which has nine or ten streams at its issue 
from the mountains. The inconvenience, however, is inevitable, and 1 
have done my utmost to effect a more eligible line. Engaged the 
remainder of the day in boundary settlements and in the examination 
of accounts from Huzara. In continuation of my remarks under yes- 
terday's date I learn that the canal above referred to was called Ali 
Murdan’s, a name which it still retains ; that the canal head is at 
Simbhul, about eight miles from mouth of the Toh in Jummoo territory; 
and that it was confined to the basins of the Toh and the Chenab. 
There is also a natural water-course of considerable breadth and depth 
called Ihk, rising at Buggulia Bohgna, not many miles from the Toh, and 
running past Sialkot to Bulluggun seven coss westward of that town 
where it ends in the earth. At the same place, Bulluggun, where 
the Ihk terminates, two small streams rise from a tank ; one runs to 
VVuzeerabad, the other courses south-westward by Sheikhoopoora into 
Burr. It strikes me that the Toh water might be led into the Ihk, and 
the Ihk be prolonged into the channel of this small stream An 
immense deal of excavation would thus be saved. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissiontr. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 133 

No. 5.— Journal of Captain Janies Abbott, Boundary Com- 
missioner, from the 9th to the 20 bh March 1848. 

gth March i8:f8 . — Marched to Khana-ke-Chuk. Employed for 
the rest of the day with the accounts. The son and nephew 
of Raie Kesrie Singh, Vuzeer of Raja Dhyan Singh, called upon 
me, complaining that Maharaja Goolab Singh had resumed all their 
father’s lands and left them only a miserable pittance quite unsuited 
to their rank. It is a pity that the Maharaja takes such measures 
to alienate from him the hearts of his most faithful followers. 
These are the sons of men who have served himself and family 
to purpose and whom he might have depended upon in any crisis. 
The father of Pritwee Singh was for one year Governor of Huzara, and 
gave satisfaction in that difficult position. Khana-ke Chuk is a village 
with large bazar on left bank of the Chenab, remarkable for the 
Hindu temple, over which presides tlie Gooroo of Maharaja Goolab 
Singh. 

loth March— Nujwal . — Marched hither, following the boundary, 
and correcting errors in the T'jdah btiniii : distance by boundary about 
i6 miles. In saddle from daybreak till p.m. The sun is becoming 
painfully hot. Engaged the remainder of the day in arranging the 
accounts, receiving razeenamahs, etc. Nujwal is a small village of 
Minawur. 

Hill March — Khitnoo Show . — Marched by the boundary correct- 
ing the work. In saddle from daybreak till i p.m. Engaged the rest of 
the day in settling boundary disputes, receiving razeenamahs, etc. 

I2th March — Nidala . — Marched hither inspecting and correcting 
the boundary pillars, this being one of the portions altered by the 
transfer of Huzara In saddle until 1 O 5 a.m. Employed till night 
in the revenue settlement of Minawur. The work is perplexing on 
account of the limited number of seasons of which a record is obtain- 
able, and the great price borne by grain during the last five years. The 
basis therefore offered me is false, and is to be modified by circumstances 
of which I have only a general and imperfect knowledge. I feel therefore 
far from satisfied with the settlements, and regret that greater leisure 
has not «been allowed to collect data. The system here employed is 
Kunkoot, and the produce by this estimate is received partly at a price 



«34 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOT!', 1848. 


arbitrarily imposed by the Government from 40 to 60 per cent, higher 
than the bazar price, partly in kind. Cotton and sugar lands are esti- 
mated by the area at a fixed valuation. Against this exaction of the 
Government is to be weighed the peculation of Kardars and Moon- 
shees, and the effects of bribery upon the same. Still when the 
bazar price of grain is unusually high, as has been the case for 
some years throughout the Punjaub, the result forms a basis very 
disadvantageous to the zumeendar and ryutt, and the remission of 10 
per cent, is quite insufficient to cover their loss by a fixed rent adjusted 
thereon. But to-night, after having made manj’ settlements, with all 
these considerations in view, I learnt another secret which has caused 
me some uneasiness. It was brought to light by the evident alarm 
which the settlements, after a deduction of 17 per cent, upon this false 
basis, had inspired in those villages which depend solely upon the 
heavens for irrigation, the consequence of which was a closer investi- 
gation of circumstances. It appears that the estimate offered me is from 
the collections of Maharaja Goolab Singh, who had charge of Minawur 
for some years, and as that Prince levies the revenue very extensively 
in kind, he takes about 25 per cent, more than the computed half levied 
by the Seikh Government. When therefore the five-eighths levied by 
Jummoo are thrown into a cash estimate 50 per cent, higher than the 
bazar rate, the case of the rj’utt is most forlorn. Some of the settlements 
just made must therefore, I fear, be modified. 

r ph March iS^S — Mnltaiiwala . — Marched inspecting and correct- 
ing the boundary pillars. In saddle from daybreak until ti a.m. Engaged 
the rest of the day in forming estimates of the alterations necessary 
in the assessment from the information attainable. Rain at night. 

i^th March— Jullalpooi . — Marched to Jullalpoor tv/ /‘o/z/c for Goojrat 
to enable the Hindoos and Seikhs to pass their Holi at the latter city. 
Rain during day and very heavy rain at night. Baggage not up until 
dark. 

/yt// March — Ghq/'n//.— Marched in rain to Goojrat. Engaged the 
rest of the day with accounts and in settling boundary disputes. 

i 6 th, iph and iStli March . — Halted at Goojrat. Commenced the 
revenue settlement of Kurriali, the zumeendars meeting me here. Jullal- 
poor is a small town celebrated for its sword blades. Goojrat one of 
the best built towns in the Punjaub. It has a large bazar, and a castle of 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, tSfS. 


•35 


brick, the latter in the midst of the town. The country is very highly 
cultivated, the soil light but favourable to wheat when rain is abundant. 
The Sirdar, Ram Singh, Udaluttee, called upon me with a surwarna 
of 5 I rupees, the Naib offering lO. 

iplh March 18,^8 . — Continued the revenue settlement of Kurriali. 

30 th Zf/rtrc//.- -Closed the revenue settlement of Kurriali, and made 
a strenuous effort to obtain a settlement of accounts between the 
Lahore and Juminoo Moonshees. The unreadiness of the latter to 
produce authentic documents is a source of the most provoking delay. 

1 have waited now about eight months for those of villages in this 
neighbourhood. Only copies of documents are furnished, and when 
these differ from the authentic documents produced by the Lahore 
Government, to the extent of 120 per cent., the Lahore authorities 
naturally object to receive them as valid. Large numbers of the zunieen- 
dars of Huzara have followed me out hither in spite of my remonstrances 
and assurances that I am returning to their district- I fear from their 
complaint that the Kardars are doing their best to disgust the people by 
their injustice and corruption, and this makes me doubly anxious to 
return to Huzara. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 6.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, from the 29th March to the 5th April 
1848. 

Rjth March 18^8 — Fulwiil . — Marched by the boundary inspecting 
the boundary pillars of last year. For though in haste to get back to 
Huzara, and although all this work was minutely inspected by myself 
last season, yet one monsoon has made alterations in work intended 
only for a few months' duration, and a few more hours of exposure 
daily are well bestowed in satisfying myself that all is right. I never 
go forth without finding sufficient to- rectify, and have never repented 
of my precautions. In saddle from daybreak until 12 noon; the sun 
painfully hot. The hot winds set in several days ago. Yesterday observ- 
ing two men limping along under a guard each with a log fastened to 
his leg, 1 instituted an enquiry and found them to be two of the 



136 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN /, ABBOTT, iSJS. 

subjects of the Jumboo Government seized by Colonel Noorooddeen (of 
the Artillery, winch has iiist left Jeluin) upon suspicion of theft, one of 
his Golundauze having been robbed; a woman also was prisoner, as 
being the sister of a man suspected by the Colonel aforesaid, a Jumboo 
subject also ; of course I released her instantly. The others I have made 
over to the Vuzeer of Jumboo begging him to produce them for trial should 
any evidence be found; at present there is none. One of the prisoners, it 
appears, last year produced stolen property and begged off the thieves ; 
and upon this ground he is now in durance, I -^hall write to the Colonel 
upon the impropriety of his conduct. 

joth March iS^ 8 — Sugi . — Marched hither inspecting the boundary 
pillars. Under canvas by lo .v.m.; employed the rest of the day receiv- 
ing razeenamahs, investigating boundary disputes, which here are rife. 

y/sf March —Giisseclpoor . — Marched to Gusseetpoor in order to 
cross the Jelum at the Findi ferry. Employed the rest of day in plotting 
the surveys of the establishments, settling boundary disputes, and 
comparing accounts. 

1st April — Pindi Ghaut. -~Q\-os%zA at the Pindi ferry, and inspected 
the river with the map ju^t completed, to make corrections I purpose 
halting here, for I find that ow'ing to the large number of cultivated 
islands it is impossible to form a boundary without pillars of masonry 
which generally I dispense with where a river forms the bound. 

The Jelum, having three principal streams continually varying in 
relative depth and power, affords no clear terminal line. Engaged until 
evening in settling disputes, plotting surveys, etc. 

2>id and jrd April ~ Puidt Ghaut . — -Halting whilst the fodiih bundiis 
effected and the disputes are settled Employed these two days in appoint- 
ing Moonsifs, settling disputes which the Moonsifs could not or dared 
not decide, plotting surveys, etc. 

ifth April — Pindt Ghaut. — To-day a purwannah of the Durbar, 
countersigned by the Resident at Lahore, is exhibited directing Dewan 
Adjoodhia Pershaud to call upon me to demand compensation to the 
Durbar for loss sustained in the transaction by which Lahore received 
the Talooqah of Rungpoor in exchange for Talooqahs Ulla, Charwa and 
Solukur. I have accordingly devoted much of the day to the investigation, 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4.S. 137 

upon which I need only here remark that the bargain was made before 
I came upon this frontier ; that it has repeatedly been quoted to 
me by the Lahore Agents as a case in which they were the losers, but 
which, of course, being a bargain could not now be litigated, and the 
estimates of value on both sides are always so utterly unworthy of trust 
that I could not form even an idea of the real revenue of the several 
Talooqahs without returning to the spot, which I have left 60 miles 
in my rear, a retrogression which would detain me two or three months 
longer from Huzara ; that I have six times passed through the Talooqahs 
in the course of ray duties accompanied by the Lahore Vuqueel, and to 
this moment no claim whatever has been made relating to them. 

jlh April i 8 j. 8 — Pindi Ghaut . — Went over this morning to one of 
the islands to settle a boundary dispute. On returning to the main land 
and remounting my horse the people thronged me so that the horse was 
excited and sprang back, throwing me forward upon his neck. My pistol 
fell from the belt and lighting upon a boulder went off and pierced the 
ankle of a youth of about 16, who was one of the crowd, and then lodged 
its bullet in the ankle of another bystander, a zumeendar. I could not at 
first imagine what had happened, having myself received a stunning blow 
from my horse’s head. I then hoped no one had been struck, but after 
a little while the wounded lad began to cry, and the unfortunate accident 
became manifest. I had the parties conveyed to a village and saw the 
wounds attended to. No bone, I am thankful to say, is broken. But the 
circumstance has caused me great distress. I have been in the almost 
daily habit of handling fire-arms since the age of seven, yet never before 
met with an accident. And I had hoped that my care for other’s safety 
would ever have saved me from so afflictive an occurrence. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 


No. 7.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Boundary 
Commissioner, from the 6th to the 22nd April 1848. 

6th April 184.8.— Jelum — Marched from Pindi to Jelum, ten miles 
Employed the rest of the day in winding up the various accounts, 
settling boundary disputes, etc. 

iS 



'38 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1 S 4 S. 

Jlh Apnl iSif. 8 — Jelunt . — Halted at Jeluni. Engaged with the 
accounts and in plotting surveys. 

Pending an answer to my official report upon the claim of Lahore 
to compensation for loss in the exchange of Rungpoor, etc., which 
must determine my future movements, I have made arrangements to 
drop down the river to Find Dadun Khan, to inspect the salt and 
antimony mines, with a view to acquire a knowledge of the phenomena 
under which minerals occur in this formation. 

8 ik April— River Jeluni . — Dropt down the river Jeluin to Find 
Dadun Khan in one of the large and solid flat-bottomed boats of this 
river, starting at 4 p.»i. and arriving at i p.m. the ensuing day. 

The river is full of islands. For about 20 miles it occupies a highly 

cultivated and pleasant valley. Then the salt hills appear upon the 
west and a boundless flat to eastward. The people of the villages 
often ran to the bank and implored me to settle their boundary 
disputes, which of course was impossible. They have great confidence 
in the superior eloquence of the female tongue, and send their old 
dames and little girls chanting in chorus to attract my attention. It is 
difficult to resist such an appeal. 

gtk and I oth April.— Vmd Dadun Khan consists of three small 
towns clustered together, the most considerable containing a very large 
and thriving bazar. The tomb of the founder is a small ruinous 

platform of stones under a large tree. Its celebrity is owing to the salt 

mines in its immediate neighbourhood. The salt lies strewed around 
in large masses of nearly 200 lbs. each, exactly resembling blocks of 
white and pink quartz. It is excavated from the mine at the rate of 
20 maunds the rupee, transferred to the Find on camels at a cost of 
about I anna per maund, and sold here to merchants at 2 rupees. 
From these mines and others under the same farm are yearly 
extracted 600,000 maunds of salt, or about 60,000,000 lbs. Of this one- 
third is sunk in Dhurmurth jaghirs, expenses of working, and loss 
from weather and larceny, leaving 400,000 maunds which at an average 
of 2^ rupees per maund yield 9,00,000 rupees. The farmer gives 
6 lacs of rupees to Government, This year he has lost something by 
the sale of salt, which had previously been laid up by the retail merchants. 
The salt is a remarkable deposit of solid crystal, in strata about 10 
inches thick laid one above the other to the height of some 20 feet. 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184S. 139 

The strata have been set on edge by some convulsion, and are now 
nearly vertical. The entrance is an aperture in the sandstone 
formation, elevated some 250 feet above the basin of the Jelum. The 
passage is narrow and enters about 300 yards into the hill. No salt is 
visible until near the termination, which is a circular space of nearly 
30 feet diameter, walled and roofed with rock salt. A deep pit is 
here worked. No attempt is made to secure the vault by pillars, nor 
by giving it a curvilinear face, and it will some day fall in. It is so 
ill-ventilated that respiration is painful to a person at rest. I pointed 
out to the Kardar that his people would do much more work if they 
had more air, and that a perforation upwards was necessary. But it 
would never be made willingly by any native. 

The formation in which it occurs is very remarkable. It appears 
as if nature had made this the depositary of all the odds and ends of 
her workmanship ; the red sandstone and its debris form the base, 
intermixt with crumbs of several kinds of limestone, flints, indurated 
iron clay, pieces of pudding stone, quartz and jasper ; higher up, the 
limestone rocks, thickly studded with flints and agates, form cliffs 
and tables and rounded ridges sprinkled with thorny shrubs. The 
summit is an extensive table, hilly to the south, the long ridges of white 
limestone forming pleasant and highly cultivated valleys, well watered 
with springs and sometimes wooded. 

The highest pinnacles are the Kurrungli and Domailia, if indeed 
the supereminent and solitar}' mountain lillah belong not to the group. 
After leaving these hills the limestone terminates and the sandstone 
recommences, forming an undulating surface of rather poor soil, 
often broken by the most rugged and desolate ravines. It thus reaches 
the roots of the Serr ridge of Khaunpoor and falls from Rawul Pindi 
to the basin of the Indus. The Serr ridge is of blue limestone beauti- 
fully veined with white, occurring in the largest masses, and admirably 
adapted to pavements, slates, chimney pieces, etc. ; beyond it again 
rises the sandstone, not red but white, showing nowhere the action 
of fire, yet, so far as I have seen, destitute of organic vestiges. It 
seems to have been formed by the adhesion of its particles under the 
simple pressure of its own gravity, and the solution by rain of the 
minutest quantities of silex and their subsequent deposit in the inter- 



140 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, 1S48. 


slices as the water has oozed through. The loftier pinnacles I have not 
yet visited ; but I have reason to think that up to 10,000 feet they are 
sandstone. 

The salt mines have been worked time out of mind, but I believe 
Lieutenant Daniel Robinson of Engineers was the first to bring to the 
notice of Government the existence of a coal mine in this neighborhood. 
It had been some time known to the natives, but fuel is there abundant 
and the coal is ill-adapted to their primitive cookery ; so that it is quite 
disregarded by them. The coal, considering that only the superficial 
strata have yet been opened, offers very fair promise, and its proximity 
to the Jelum will render it a valuable mine. 

iilh April 184.8 . — Marched to Tehoah, a pretty, wooded valley 
under the Kurrungli mountain and upon the table-land. Long strings of 
pilgrims encumbered the road on their way to the sacred fountain of 
Kuttass, one of the Eyes of the World. Here, all who wash at the 
propitious hour are supposed to be cleansed of their sins and healed of 
their diseases, and the fallacy of the second clause in their faith does 
not seem to have suggested in the course of thousands of years any 
doubt of the double efficacy of so sovereign a remedy. The Khuttrees, 
who are in the Punjaub the mercantile class, are especially sedulous to 
blot out their yearly score of trespass. They are thronging in thou- 
sands — their wives and daughters unveiled, seated upon ponies and 
mules, and occasionally in kujawahs upon camels, and themselves leading 
on foot. It is a pleasure to meet so many smiling faces and an unexpect- 
ed pleasure as regards the class of shop-keepers, whom I supposed 
incapable of content, but even they appreciate the protection afforded 
them, and I never saw more undoubted proofs of satisfaction. Several 
times, when people approached to make profound salaams, and I, 
supposing they had some petition, asked what they required, the 
answer was “ Razi Sahib, bhote razi.” Employed in plotting surveys 
and arranging papers. 

12th April.— This being the second day of purification, I went to 
tlie Kuttass fountain, intending merely to sketch the scenery if interest- 
ing and to return. But the sight of so many thousands of people 
innocently happy was so fascinating that I could not quit the spot and 
was insensibly beguiled into a holiday. In a deep hollow formed by two 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


141 


crags of limestone, the spring rises from a cleft in the rock which is of 
considerable depth ; the water fills a nearly circular basin of rock, about 
60 feet in diameter, and then escapes down a dell richly wooded with 
mulberry, seesoo and palm trees. The pool is entirely waited in with 
large and substantial dwellings of modern date belonging to the Chiefs 
and Nobles of Lahore. Above them rises the most sacred of the edifices, 
also a modern building and with a Saracenic cupola, but of elegant 
proportions, and above that an antique obelisk attributed to the Pandoos, 
but evidently not many centuries in age, the Saracenic ornaments 
upon the body of the building, and the very perishable nature of the 
tufa with which it is constructed, contradicting the tradition. The 
building itself has been plastered recently and the summit is crowned 
with a very modern cupola, which' although out of keeping architec- 
turally considered, is not discordant in effect. The stones of the 
subordinate buildings, which have not been plastered, have acquired 
deep furrows from the weather, which gives the idea of antiquity. 

The whole of this picturesque retreat was crowded to profusion 
with natives in their holiday attire and holiday faces. For the first 
time in my life I saw whole families together, — father, mother, husband, 
wife and children, — all enjoying themselves together without constraint. 
The women unveiled and drest in their gayest attire, — crimson, blue, 
yellow and white, —with head ornaments of the purest gold, occasionally 
beaded with pearls and rubies. These ornaments are often elegant and 
always becoming to the native face. Few of them could have been 
worth less than ^30 and many must have been worth /"lOO. It is 
difficult to imagine the senseless shopkeeper, who sits in an Indian 
bazar weighing out ghee, the master of these gay and gilded butter- 
flies. But it is pleasing to see the attention they receive from their 
masters, and the appearance of domestic happiness amongst them. 
In no instance did I see a woman or a child on foot whilst the male 
was mounted; and I observed husbands attending upon their wives and 
mothers by a most pleasing reversal of Indian etiquette. Every roof 
was covered with cx tempore tents and awnings. Every tree was 
crowded with gay figures reposing under its shade, and strings of men, 
women and children were passing along the narrow lanes and alleys, 
whilst the water itself was crowded with swimmers and dippers. In 
so crowded a space it is impossible for the fair bathers to escape all 



142 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S48. 

intrusion of curious eyes, but the utmost that innate modesty can effect 
is attempted, and there is no voluntary exposure. The fuquirs approach 
them as they bathe and present their dishes for alms, and no woman 
resists the appeal. But I observed one, who could not otherwise get 
rid of an importunate beggar, toss the water of the pool into his face. 

About 20,000 people were here collected. Thanks to the excellent 
arrangements of the officer in charge of the district, all was order and 
harmony ; such an instance is scarcely on record, the rival sects of 
friars, Gosaiens and Sunyasees breaking one another’s heads yearly for 
precedence in dipping. A single instance of theft occurred, a man in 
the dense crowd caught a little boy's earring, and cutting the ear with 
a small clasp knife carried off the prize, but he was caught with the 
booty upon him 

This fountain, sa3's tradition, formerly poured forth poisonous 
waters, and all who drunk were destroyed. But Raja Judisthr and his 
four Pandoo brothers coming hither, purified it by prayer, and now it 
is only equalled in efficacy, moral and physical, by the fountain of Poos- 
gurh, which is the other eye of Prithivi, However we may call in 
question these miraculous properties, we cannot deny that it is a foun- 
tain of pleasure to thousands yearly. The sight of their happy faces is 
a refreshment to the spirit which I shall bear with me for many days 

— April i 8 ^S — Tehoah — I this day climbed the Kurrungli mountain 
to inspect the stratum in which antimony is found. The height above the 
valley is I suppose about 1,000 feet, a limestone rock of sparkling te.xture 
and often of a reddish hue i^ovving I think to an intermixture of sand) 
is the matrix. It crowns the summit of the mountain, forming a preci- 
pice of considerable height. The miners roast the rock and toss water 
upon it wiiilst heated. It scales away in masses about two inches thick, 
exhibiting tlie antimony pure in cubic crystals, seldom larger than a 
finger nail. By tlie present process the profit is so inconsiderable that it 
is not ta.xed, but it might be worth while to test its value by working it 
scientifically for a couple of years. The largest masses seem to be 
found in the loose debris of the limestone. As a scientific geologist 
has just visited it, I shall not further describe it. It is my opinion, 
however, that this formation possesses mineral riches not yet developed; 
and any process for working the known mines will, I think, lead to 
more valuable discoveries. The name Kurrungli is Turkish, and almost 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBO'l 1\ 1 S 4 S. M3 

justifies the tradition that it was discovered by a fuquir from Cashmere, 
although we may not allow that he came thence by a subterranean 
route. Engaged the rest of the day in plotting surveys and adjusting 
papers. 

— April i 8 _f. 8 — TV/ma/i. — " I hisday an answer came from the Residency 
which enables me to return at once to Huzara. I had ordered my march 
accordingly for the morrow, and went meanwhile to visit a site, from 
which dressed stones were said to be dug. 

Having often been disappointed in such researches, I anticipated 
little from this. What then was my gratification to find that I had 
lighted upon the site of an Indo-Greek I'einple to Jupiter Ammon, or to 
Ale.xander as his offspring. The proofs are beyond all question. I 
have carefully packed all the sculpture that 1 could in my hurried visit 
collect, and have sent it upon two camels to Lahore to be thence for- 
warded, if the Resident approves and with permission of the Durbar, to 
the Asiatic Society. Whilst engaged in this search, I heard that a 
temple of the same character was yet standing at the distance of 16 
miles from Tehoah, and although anxious to hasten back to Huzara 
I thought I should be deemed blamable to pass it by. I therefore have 
put oflf niy march for a couple of days. Employed the rest of the day 
in winding up accounts, signing and comparing documents. 

i 6 lh April— Mullok, ij iiitles.— Marched to Mullote by a westerly 
course, and found the temple sited upon an isolated table of limestone 
rock at the southern verge of the high plateau of Potowar. It is a most 
singular structure, in which the decaying genius of Greece has been 
fairly over-mastered by the barbarism of Scythia. The statues are all 
truncated, and otherwise so weather-worn that only general ideas can 
be formed of its intention. But what remains is full of interest, and 
suggests many and strange ideas. I made a sketch, so far as the glare 
of the sun and the high wind of the mountain would allow'. But 
there are no loose relics that can be removed. The jumble together 
of fluted Grecian columns, with trefoil arches and Boodhist obelisks is 
most singular and disagreeable. No record remains of this edifice. It 
is attributed like all old buildings to the Pandoos. The hill has been 
fortified recently. It presents to the south sheer precipices of 200 feet 
which meet the roots of the table-land. The inhabitants have become 
MoOBulmans. 



144 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, /S4S. 

I'jth April iS/j-S — Tehoah, 75 wiles.— \ returned to Tehoali this 
morning, and employed the remainder of the day in comparing papers 
and passing accounts. 

i8th April— Tahlia, g miles.— U.avch.td to Tahlia, a small village 
in the more open ground of the table-land. On the road, a singular ridge 
of sandstone is said by tradition to be a gigantic furrow ploughed up by 
Ram Chunder. Engaged the rest of the day as yesterday. Being 
about to separate from Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud and Vuzeer Roop 
Chund, there are many papers to be arranged and compared. 

iglh April — Chnkkoowal, ij miles. — Marched to Chukkoowal, a 
town of some consequence in this neighborhood. Engaged as on the 
two preceding days. Received the farewell visit of Dewan Adjoodhia 
Pershaud, whom I have begged to return to Lahore, the field work in 
which his presence was necessary and the accounts being brought up. 
The boundary pillars are not all completed in masonry, but parties are 
employed in carrying on the operation, and the accounts are not actually 
closed owing to my uncertainty as to two items regarding which I have 
as yet no official answer; but it appears quite needless to expose him 
and the Vuzeer longer, on account of these matters, to the hot winds 
under canvas. I carry with me a Moonshee of either party to make 
the final arrangements. 

20th April — Doodial, // miles. — Marched to Doodial and there 
received the farewell visit of Vuzeer Roop Chund. Employed in mapping. 

2ist April — PunjgraoH, 10 miles. — Marched to Punjgraon, a small 
village as is Doodial. The plateau undulates : a soil poor but pretty well 
cultivated. The heavens here are not very bountiful of rain, and the 
crops are in many cases failures. Elsewhere they are the finest I have 
ever seen. 

22»d April — Durgali, ii miles. — Marched to Durgali, a small village 
in a ravine; country broken, crops generally failures. Engaged to-day 
with my own affairs. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Boundary Commissioner. 



JOURl^ALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184S. 14S 

No. 8.~Journal of Captain James Abbott, Assistant to 
the Resident, on deputation to Huzara, from the 
23rd to the 29th April 1848. 

2jni April i8p.S — Nihrali. — Marched to Nihrali. Engaged the rest 
of the day in mapping. 

April — Moorut. — Marched to Moorut. Here I learned that the 
Pathans upon the Indus north-western frontier of Pukli were collect- 
ing armed men for the molestation of the Uggrore valley. I have 
therefore determined to ride in the remaining 50 miles dak to make 
arrangements for the discomfiture of this clan. Meanwhile as Jehandad 
Khan, the most considerable of the Huzara chiefs, is supposed to have 
excited this disturbance with a view of getting credit for good service in 
repelling the aggressors, I have written him a purwannah warning him 
that his jaghir is for the defence of that frontier, and that if he fails to 
secure it against attack his estates are liable to be attached. I have also 
written to other Jaghirdars of Pukli to the same purpose. But I have 
not thought it expedient to allow Colonel Bhoop Singh, Commanding the 
Pukli Frontier Force, to make any demonstration at present, because I 
doubt the disturbance being more than a petty quarrel between indivi- 
duals, and a false step amongst those wild mountains might produce ill- 
consequences. I have written, however, to the chiefs of the Pathan clan 
warning them that if they molest without cause the people of Uggrore, 
they will probably subject themselves to the severest retaliation, the 
extinction of their independence and the establishment of garrisons 
in their land ; but that if tliey have any ground of complaint I will hear 
it and adjust it equitably. 

2§th April — Kole. — Rode dak to Kot Nujeeboolla, about 42 miles, 
in a violent wind and drizzling shower; arrived at night. 

26th April— Hurripoor. — Rode to Hurripoor. Received toward 
evening a visit from the two Sirdars. Just before their arrival the Ukbar 
Nuwcese brought me some particulars of insurrection in Mooltan, in 
which it is stated that Mr. Vans Agnew had been wounded by a sipahi 
of the garrison of Mooltan on visiting that fortress and that the whole 
army was in mutiny. Whilst the Sirdars were with me a second budget 
arrived stating that the supplies around the British camp at Mooltan had 
been cut off and that the guns of the fortress had opened upon them. 
This man brought also purwannahs of the Durbar ordering the march 

19 



146 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848. 


upon Mooltan of Colonel Bboop Singh's and Colonel Dhara Singh’s 
Regiment in Huzara, as well as of the guns of Colonel Noorooddeen and 
the horse of Sirdar Lai Singh, Kaliawala, at Hussun Ubdal. The Nazim 
and Naib-Nazim strongly remonstrated upon the danger of withdrawing 
at this moment Colonel Bboop Singh's Regiment from Pukli, where it 
may possibly be actually engaged in hostilities, and I fully concur with 
them that such a retrograde movement at such a moment would raise the 
whole country, it being the season of collection when such disturbances 
are most probable. I have therefore ordered Colonel Pertab Singh's Corps, 
which is at Khowta and can better be spared, to march without delay upon 
Mooltan. It is a strong and effective regiment. Colonel Dhara Singh 
will march also as directed and the Dewan Dia Ram will accompany with 
SO horse of Sirdar Chuttur Singh’s contingent. The Artillery and horse 
at Hussun Ubdal will move as directed by the Durbar. As there is a violent 
superstitious prejudice against marching southwards on Friday, and as it 
seems advisable that they should commence the expedition in good heart 
and as their preparations will be more complete than they could be by 
starting to-morrow, I have at their earnest request consented to their 
remaining fast on the 27th and starting on the morning of the 28th. I 
have diligently enquired as to the several routes to Mooltan, and find that 
it is on all hands agreed that the route which holds throughout the Sinde 
Sagar Dooab is difficult to troops marching from dearth of supplies and 
of water. I have therefore directed them to take the route via Rawul 
Pindi and Pind Dadun Khan. This involves three crossings of rivers, 
but it seems to me, as to all whom I have consulted, the preferable route 
under ciicumstances. The troops will have orders to report progress to 
the Durbar on approaching every Dak station and whilst on a Dak road 
to report every three days. 

2jth Aptil 18-j.S Hmripoor. — 1 have halted here to-day in the 
hope of receiving tidings from Lahore which may perhaps affect my 
movements, otherwise I should have proceeded on to Pukli without 
delay. Employed in making enquiries, issuing orders, etc., relative 
to the movement of troops and the settlement of the affair in Pukli. 

iStli April Hurripoor. — Yesterday closed without a line from 
Lahore. Wiote the SiidarLal Singh, Mooraria, begging him to relieve 
Colonel boodh Singh s company at Ghaybi with a Rissala of his horse; 
to the Kai dar of Gha^ hi directing him to send the said company to • — — ■ 



JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


»47 


on the Indus to meet the regiment dropping down that river; to Colonel 
Baboo Pandah at Hussun Ubdal directing him to send a company of his 
regiment to Attock to relieve a company of Boodh Singh’s there ; to the 
Kardar Thannedarof Attock advising him of the arrangement and direct- 
ing him to supply funds for tlie necessary expenses of the embarkation; 
to Colonel Boodh Singh advising him of these arrangements and recom- 
mending him to carry his camels in boats with him. This will require 
10 or 12 boats, which are abundant at Attock. It will enable him to 
march at once on landing and prevent the risk of seizure of his carriage 
should the disturbance spread to that district. I have directed him 
if in time, to join the march of the Dera Ismail Khan force ; if 
too late, to follow in their track. I wrote to Colonel Noorooddeen, Com- 
manding a battery of heavy brass guns, advising him of having 
suggested to the Durbar the embarkation of his battery at 
Jullalpoor, where boats will be in readiness, and informing him that 
if approved he would receive the Durbar’s orders at Jullalpoor or at 
Find Dadun Khan ; to the Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud, at the town of 
Jelum, and to the Kardar, Find Dadun Khan, begging them to have 
boats in readiness at Jullalpoor in case of this arrangement being adopt- 
ed; to the Resident at Lahore informing him of these arrangements and 
of the saving in time which they were calculated to effect. The guns 
being of some weight may be useful in the event of a siege. The regi- 
ment of Dhara Singh marched this morning toward Mooltan vid Rawul 
Pindi, Gori Gullah and Jullalpoor. This day's dak is in, but not a line 
for me. Istahars from the Durbar came yesterday and to-day. I consider 
it advisable not to leav.e the Fort of Attock without a slight admixture of 
Regular Troops, otherwise the company from Baboo Pandah's Regiment 
can be ill-spared. Ghaybi has lately been in a state of disorder. I shall, 
if possible, defer my departure from Hurripoor a day or two as it is the 
best spot for the transaction of important business. Yesterday s news 
from that quarter confirms my impression that it is a dispute susceptible 
of settlement by adjudication. 

2ptli April iSpS — Hurripoor . — The news from Pukli to-day makes 
me feel anxious to be near that frontier as I cannot here ascertain 
the state of affairs nor interfere for their arrangement. I have 
accordingly sent off my tent or rather have given all the orders for my 
march. 



148 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


At noon the Sirdars called upon me. I had proflfered them a visit, 
but they insisted upon coming to me. They had apparently received no 
fresh tidings. 

At 2 p.M. I received the Resident’s note of 26th instant, detailing the 
state of the commotions in Mooltan and referring to a former letter which 
has never come to hand, although the daks themselves do not appear to 
have been stopped. I would now willingly remain at Hurripoor, but 
having made my arrangements for march to counter-order them might 
occasion ill-surmises. I have begged Lieutenant Robinson to remain at 
Hurripoor until matters wear a more secure aspect, as I think that his and 
Mr. Ingram's wanderings with small guards amongst the mountains not 
advisable and in case of demand his services may be valuable. I post a 
dak of horses to enable me to return with speed should my presence be 
desirable. The Durbar's purwanas countermanding the march of Colonel 
Dhara Singh’s and Colonel Bhoop Singh’s Regiments and of Colonel 
Noorooddeen’s heavy guns are duly received and put into force. The 
heavy guns I had thought could be useful at the siege, for in fact there 
are scarcely troops enough left at Hussun Ubdal to take care of two 
batteries, Colonel Ameer Chund’s light battery being also there. 
Colonel Baboo Pandah's corps is the only regiment in Chuch Qatur. I do 
not however apprehend any serious commotion in that quarter. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assislcint Resident in Hiizara. 

No. 9.- Journal of Captain James Abbott, Assistant to 
the Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 30th 
April 1848. 

jolh April The Nazim and Naib-Nazim and Sirdars Chuttur 

Singh and Jhundur Singh came over to my dwelling (whicli is a bastion 
of the town of Hurripoor, they themselves inhabiting the citadel, Hur- 
kishcngurh). They brought the news-writer with the budget from 
Lahore, stating that in consequence of the murder of the two British 
Officers and of the defection of their guards, the field force sent to their 
rescue had been countermanded, and that it was proposed to the Resi- 
dent by the Durbar that a light force from Huzara under Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh should scour the Doab of the Indus and Jelum, 
enforcing the collections and scattering insurgents. Upon this Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh proposed that he, the Nazim, and myself should make 



JOURNALS Of CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 149 

over Huzara to the youth, Sirdar Aotar Singh, son of Sirdar Chuttur 
Singh, and proceed as suggested at the head of a thousand horse, a 
battery of light guns and half a regiment of Infantry. I could not agree 
with him as to the wisdom of my leaving Huzara at such a moment, for 
if anything can prevent rebellion here, it is the influence of a British 
Agent. But I think Sirdar Jhundur Singh himself might be thus 
employed -with advantage. Sirdar Chuttur Singh’s health will scarcely 
admit of such exposure at this season. They had not heard until this 
day the melancholy tidings which reached me yesterday. A letter from 
Major Lawrence at Peshawur reports all as yet quiet, and that the 
officers of the Sikh force felt confidence in their men. I have sent under 
cover to the Resident copies of Major Lawrence’s letters to him, as a 
precaution, in case of the interception of the originals. 

Last night, when about to start dakforPukli, news arrived that the 
Pathans had been driven back. I have therefore recalled my tent and 
establishments and purpose remaining here at present for the transac- 
tion of business The whole matter appears to me a plot of Jehandad 
Khan, Chief of Bhaingra, in order to enhance his value as a faithful 
servant of Government. I long refused to believe there was any inroad 
whatever, and it was only when repeated letters from Colonel Bhoop 
Singh, Commanding the field Force in Pukli, announced the movement 
that I gave it serious attention. I wrote, however, to Jehandad Khan 
expressing my opinion that he had originated it, and I informed his 
Vaqueel that I gave no credit whatever to Jehandad's reports of num- 
bers slain on either side, but would visit the scene and form a more 
perfect judgment. The dread of my doing so and of his consequent 
exposure seems to have recalled him to his senses. He is in tribula- 
tion at the want of formal sunnuds from the Lahore Government con- 
firming his jaghirs, and is consequently anxious to gain a great name 
with the Government. His younger brother is in attendance upon me. 
The messenger I despatched to the frontier to gain intelligence has not 
returned. I do not know whether the Resident is aware that all the 
most secret orders and reports of the Durbar are sent open to the news- 
writer, who reads them himself or he hands them to the Nazim or to me. 

I need not pass any remark upon this arrangement. 

A letter from Peshawur dated 29th April arrived to-day. The seal 
had been broken open. Another for Lieutenant D. Robinson from 



150 JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 

Lieutenant Young at Amritsur had also been opened. All was then 
quiet in Peshawur. Sir Fredrick Currie’s first note to me on the out- 
break, dated 23rd April, came to hand this day. The bearer declared he 
had ridden with it from Find Dadun Khan, and brought a note from the 
Sirdar there. As m3' daks had several days previously been arranged 
to pass by the direct route of Jelum and Rohtass, this has probably been 
intercepted here or at Jelum and sent back to Find Dadun Khan. 
The confusion of the Dak Moonshee here, who is also news-writer, was 
so great when I insisted upon it that a letter of mine must have been 
intercepted, that he was probably privy to the arrangement. There was 
no appearance of its having been opened. 

The Ukbar brought no intelligence of moment. 

Closed at daybreak. May 2nd, 1848. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

The dak here starts at 8 a.h. and generally arrives here at about 
noon. 

No. 10.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Assistant to 
the Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 2nd 
May 1848. 

2nd May 18^8 . — Despatched my diary of yesterday addressed to 
the Resident at Lahore. 

Colonel Canara, Commanding a Horse Battery of which four guns 
are in Pukli, came with complaints against General Maimood Shah of 
Artillery. I have begged him for the present to avoid clashing with 
the General, and promised to consider his request to have his camp 
shifted to another quarter. Fie exhibited his purwanas which do not 
place him in words under the General’s command. The strange sus- 
picion of influence from the Valley of Roses in the present revolt of 
Mooltan, haunts this Colonel’s mind, acquired probably from his perusal 
of Major G, Smyth s volume of which he has lent me a copy, the 
information in that volume having been gleaned from Colonel Gardner, 
his comrade and countryman. 

The Nazim and Naib called upon me with the Durbar purwanas, 
directing Sirdar Jhundur Singh, the Naib, to proceed, with Colonel 
Dhara Singh's corps, Colonel Bhoop Singh’s Regiment of Cavalry, and 
Colonel Ameer Chund’s Field Battery to Mankera, to enforce collections. 



«51 


JOURNALS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848- 

and preserve tranquillity. Other purwanas direct that all the rest of 
the mounted troops in Huzara (50 horsemen excepted) be sent to join 

Raja Sher Singh with Colonel — -field battery also here, supposing 

that they can be spared. I have with the Nazim’s concurrence ordered 
all these troops to march as directed, excepting one Ressalla (Troop) of 
Regular Cavalry and 60 horse on the frontier at Pukli, which it 
seems imprudent to withdraw and 50 more Horse of the Nazim’s own con- 
tingent. I deem it desirable that the Nazim should have around him 
at least too followers upon whom he can depend. In lieu of the troop 
of Regular Cavalry detained in Pukli, I have given Sirdar Jhundur 
Singh a company of Pertaub Singh’s corps, and I have called in a 
troop of horse from Rawul Pindi to Huzara, the position of Colonel 
Pertaub Singh’s corps on the mountains at Kurrore sufficing, it appears 
to me, to secure tranquillity at Rawul Pindi. 

The disturbance in Mooltan is now the common topic of discussion 
amongst the troops and people here. A very general impression seems 
to prevail that the Dewan must have been tampering with the troops 
ere he ventured upon such atrocities. 

The Nazim and Naib, however, think this improbable, no hint of 
it having ever reached them. A Sapper of Lieutenant Robinson’s com- 
pany having some words with a Sepahie of Colonel Pertaub Singh’s 
corps, the latter said “ in the month of Jayt nos vestros trucidabimus 
principes, vosque hac regione expellemus.” 

Lieutenant Robinson reported the matter to me, I being then at 
Puthankote. The impossibility of investigating the case at that 
distance prevented its being noticed further. I had no proof that the 
man had thus expressed himself, and had seen no symptoms elsewhere 
that could give importance to such an expression if uttered. 

The troops thus ordered to march are expected to be at their 
several destinations in 20 days. This I fear will scarcely be practi- 
cable, as the artillery stores are not borne by camels but in carts ^ 
but the utmost expedition will be enjoined. I have written Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh an order upon the Treasury at Find Dadun Khan for 
Rs, 20,000 to frank the current expenses of his armament and have 
desired him to apply to the Durbar for further advances should they be 
necessary. The pa3’ of his troops will of course be provided for by 
the Durbar. 



152 


JOURNALS OF CARTA IN J. ABBOTT, 184S. 


I have also directed that each Jaghirdar in Huzara furnish a small 
quota of men to accompany the Sirdar. These will be useful to him 
as soldiers and serve at the same time as hostages for the tranquillity 
of Huzara. I have no news to-day from Peshawur. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

Closed morning of 3rd May. Sirdar Call Singh, Kaliawala, writes 
to say that he has received a Durbar purwana remanding him to Hussun 
Ubdal with his 500 horse. 

No. 11.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 3rd May 
1848. 

jrd May j 8 .^S — Hurripoor, Huzara. — •! have been enquiring about 
the fortress of Mooltan. All agree that it is a strong place. The strength, 
however, is rather apparent than actual, high and solid walls of masonry 
(brick). It is founded upon an elevated mound, the site of some ancient 
town or village. The walls are of solid earth, faced with brick and 
mortar. They require much battering, and it was not until the 
Bhungiwala Tope, a 64-pounder, arrived that Runjeet Singh effected a 
breach. The presence of this gun, which miglit drop down by water, 
would probably tend much to facilitate operations by the confidence it 
would inspire in the besiegers and the dismay it would strike in the 
garrison. For such walls as those of Mooltan the breaching bullet 
cannot be too large and 24-pounders were preferable to 1 8-pounders. 
The strongest feature of the place is the dearth of water around it. An 
extraordinary establishment of pnkkals and bheestees\VP\ be required, and 
camel pukkah would be found economical. If, however, 50 or 60 small 
mortars and howitzers are available, the garrison may be shelled out in a 
day, and it is of such importance that the operations be rapidly closed, 
that I would venture to recommend some efforts in order to procure a 
sufficient number of this species of ordnance. The exceeding careless- 
ness of natives with their ammunition greatly aids the effect of shells. 
But they should be thrown in an incessant shower, and for this purpose 
I should prefer small to large mortars. 

The town is walled and will almost certainly resist. The two 
stand about 400 yards apart. Precautions are advisable on entering 
such a town owing to the well-known gallantry of the people. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184S. iS 3 

Despatched my Journal of yesterday with my monthly papers. 
No news of importance has arrived nor has any letter from Lahore 
to-day come to hand. The Durbar’s purwanas seem to arrive regu- 
larly. 

Sirdar Lall Singh, Kaliawala, has received fresh instructions to 
march upon Chichee Wutnee, and made his first march to-day, coming 
here to call upon me en )onte He has actually present 450 horsemen. 
My messenger from Pukli returned to-day.- The dispute was between 
the Pathans trans-Indus and an independent clan called Daysie on this 
side. After some fighting and loss on either hand a Syud effected a 
reconciliation. There were no designs upon Uggrore, and Colonel 
Bhoop Singh, Commanding the Pukli Force, seems to have taken little 
pains to inform himself of particulars. 

J. ABBOTT, Captai.v, 

Assistant Resident. 

No. 12.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 4th May 1848. 

///( May i 8 .f. 8 — Huzara, Hurripoor. — No Ukba is in to-day 
from Lahore, nor any news from Peshawur. Sirdar Jhundur Singh is 
still detained for want of camels. I have given him those of Colonel 
Bhadoor Singh, but the latter being at Nowa Shihr and Pukli, they 
are not procurable on a moment's notice and have not yet arrived. 

The Nazim and Naib called upon me towards evening; the latter 
to take leave. I have thought fit to add another company of Infantry 
to his force, owing to the weakness of Colonel Dhara Singh’s corps. 
This company I have taken from Colonel Baboo Pandah's Regiment 
at Hussun Ubdal. His little brigade is still weak and, should the 
Mankera District be much disturbed, will require strengthening. He 
will be obliged to make a long detour by Julalpoor, there being no nearer 
route for guns. I have desired him to report daily to Lahore and every 
two or three days to me. His force is not calculated to carry the castles 
which abound in the Mankera District, yet as it is of the utmost con- 
sequence to get possession of these, I have permitted him (unless he 
receive counter-orders from the Durbar) to remit revenue to the amount 
of 25 per cent, to ryutts who surrender the country and the keys of 
their forts, and in other cases to remit as far as 10 or 1$ per cent., and 


20 



'54 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, jSfS. 


to make good to the garrisons, on submission, their pay with suitable 
rewards. I have authorized the usual expense of Khilluts and of food 
to natives of Huzara accompanying the force, an establishment of four 
Moonshees, etc. It may be well worth the while of the Durbar to increase 
the reward for forts surrendered without resistance. In the event, 
however, of their disapproving of the remissions, I would beg that 
orders to this effect be promptly sent to meet Sirdar Jhundur Singh. I 
have instructed him to keep open a dak from his camp to Find Dadun 
Khan and another from his camp to Dera Ismail Khan. 

He is a clear-headed good soldier and does not need more than 
general instructions. 

I touched in yesterday’s Diary upon the importance of small mortars 
to the siege of such a place as Mooltan. I speak of course of the 
fortress— not the city. It appears to me that the bullock train might 
be employed to hand up ammunition should the supply at Ferozepoor 
be insufficient. 

Mankera is said to be a town in the heart of a sandy desert 
defended by lofty battlements of sun-dried brick, and girdled with a dry 
ditch. Its strength consists in its isolation, it being two very long 
marches from the Indus and it being necessary to dig wells at the 
intermediate camp. I have written and fowarded to the Kesidency a 
letter or a Diary daily since the 26th April, I have as yet received only 
the Resident’s two notes of the 26th and 23rd April. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

Closed 6th May 1848, daybreak. 


No. 13.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 5th May 1848. 

j/A May — Hiirifiuoi, I/itsaia . — The daks yesterday and to- 

day have brought letters from Lahore to others, but none to myself or 
my companions. The Peshawur dak is equally unfruitful. 

A strange rumour of disturbances at Lahore has thus acquired power 
to give some uneasiness. Sirdar Jhundur Singh with the Chowrinjee 
Regiment of Cavalry, Dhara Singh’s Infantry Corps (strengthened by 
two companies from Pertaub Singh and Baboo Pandah’s Corps), with 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 


'55 


Ummeer Chund's Horse Battery of 6-pounders and 40 Zumbooras, 
marched out of the station this morning en route for Mankera. 
The only existing gun road thither from hence passes through 
Julalpoor. In yesterday's Diary I particularised my instructions to 
the Sirdar, which were to give remissions from 10 to 15 per cent, to the 
zumeendars, who should come in readily, and 20 to 25 per cent, to those 
who also should surrender their castles ; to guarantee the arrears of 
garrisons ; to keep open a communication (dail}’) with Lahore and 
every third day with Huzara and Dera Ismail Khan. I begged that in 
the event of these remissions being disapproved by the Durbar counter- 
orders might be sent to meet the Sirdar at Julalpoor, my instructions to 
him being conditional. I have written daily since the outbreak in 
Mooltan, but have as yet received only the Resident’s notes of the 23rd 
and 26th April. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

Closed at daybreak 6tb. Dak not yet in. 


No. 14.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 6th May 1848. 

6th May 18^8 — Hurripoor, Huzara . — Received the Resident’s 
letter No. 182 of 3rd instant, acknowledging the receipt of my covers of 
26th and 28th ultimo. A note also from Captain Nicholson, Peshawur, 
giving a favourable report up to the 4th instant. These letters relieve 
me of some anxiety. 

Colonel Canara, who commands a light field battery, waited upon 
me this morning with the strange report that Colonel Bhoop Singh’s 
corps was recalled from Pukli with all the cavalry at that place, and beg- 
ging for permission to bring his guns with them, as they would other- 
wise be lost. I assured him the order to which he alluded had been 
cancelled several days ago It seems that this month in the opinion of 
the Sikhs is singularly auspicious to enterprize, containing five Thurs- 
days. Dixit, Colonel Dhara Singh cujus legio ad Mankeram progressa 
est ad eum, multa tribulatione venisse, ingemens, “ ire, certe, a castris 
apud hostem discedere, et Britannis praeliari, certam esse cladem.” 



156 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, rSfS. 


That this was the feeling of more than one I have good assurance, 
and the troops generally departed from Huzara in depressed spirits. 
I have not hesitated to part with nearly all the troops required by the 
Durbar's purwanas. I should of course have preferred the retention of 
the Huzara f ield Force in its full strength for several years, until their 
late unresisted license were forgotten by the people. But the people 
are happier than they have ever been for 4*^ years. 1 hey are well 
aware that they owe this wholly to British interference in their behalf. 
Their rents have been greatly lightened, all their rights (beef-eating 
excepted) restored. The harvest is most plentiful, and there is not 
left a single cause of just complaint against their rulers if we except the 
severe punishments for cow-killing. Linder these circumstances I feel 
justified in hoping that my influence will be sufficient to preserve order, 
and were it not the season of collection should have no uneasiness what- 
ever upon the subject. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

I have written daily since the outbreak in Mooltan, excepting I 
believe the second day of my intelligence, 27th. 

I have received — 

The Resident’s note of 26th April; 

Ditto ditto 28th ditto; 
and Resident’s letter No. 182, 3rd May. 

The impression of concert between the Nazim of Mooltan and the 
Army seems very general and very strong. 

J. ABBOTT. 


No. 15.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 7th May 1848. 

7//. May iS^ 8 — Uiirripoor, Huzara . — Reports have reached me this 
morning of some disturbance having occurred at Kussoor near Lahore, 
but I have no authentic intelligence. The impression continues strong of 
meditated treachery on the part of the Sikh forces sent against Mooltan. 

The name of the village is even given on reaching which they are 
to declare [themselves (Mulla). I cannot discover whence these reports 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S48. 


'57 


arise, and they are important only in case they be confirmed by 
observed facts or symptoms. I have ever considered that the greatest 
danger threatening the Lahore State was its army and I have regarded 
the possession of the e.xpensive province of Huzara in the light of a 
safety-valve for it. 

Khan-i-Zeman Khan, Chief of Gundgarh, came in voluntaril}' to 
pay his respects yesterday I had not sent for him on my return, know- 
ing how much his first visit had cost him. 'I’he whole clan is involved in 
disputes about possessions which seem to def}' adjustment. Jehandad 
Khan also has volunteered another visit, and the young son of 
Sooltan floseyne Khan of Moozuflferabad has arrived to represent the 
Beerungulli Estate, as a subject of the Lahore Government. At the 
earnest request of the zumeendars of Jehandad Khan’s jaghir, I am 
fixing their settlements, a precaution quite necessary to prevent oppression. 
I have ordered in three guns of Colonel Noorooddeen’s battery 
from Hussun Ubdal and two companies to be relieved by two of Pertaub 
Singh’s Regiment at Karoo Khovvta. There are no symptoms of disaffec- 
tion. But the Chiefs have been making up their several parties to await 
the event of the commotions in Mooltan. After rendering the service of 
the Church I held Kucherry as usual. So many cases have accumulated 
during my absence that I do not feel justified in indulging in the rest of 
the Sabbath at the expense of the interest of hundreds of the people over 
whom I am placed and who have come from a distance for justice. 

J. ABBOT r. Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

Excepting on the 27th April I have written daily since the outbreak 
in Mooltan. 

Received since then — 

The Resident’s note of 23rd April ; 

Ditto ditto 26th ditto; 

Tne Resident’s letter No. 182 of the 3rd May 1848, 

J. ABBOTT. 

Whilst closing this a letter from Sirdar Jhundur Singh from 
Chyloo Jhungie near Raw'ul Pindi complaining of the rotten and 
unserviceable condition of the gun hackeries made over by Colonel 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S48. 


158 

Tara Singh to Colonel Umeer Chund. I was always opposed to the 
transfer of Umeer Chund to Tara Singh’s Topekhana. The men of the 
battery have a kind of feud with him and the establishments which in 
his own Topekhana he had been labouring to get into order have been 
replaced by the rotten carriages of another battery. My views, however, 
were overruled, my orders cancelled, and the immediate consequence 
was tlie disaffection of the Topekhana at Karoo Khowta, a matter 
still under investigation. I have issued purwanas to the Kardars to pro- 
cure mules or camels in exchange for the carts, but delay seems to 
be inevitable. 

J. ABBOTT. 

No. 16.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 8th May 1848. 

8ih May 18,^8 — Hurripoor, Htisara . — All the Chiefs to whom I 
have proposed the sending of some of their followers with Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh have readily acquiesced. Mohyooddeen Khan, Gund- 
gurria, has volunteered himself to accompany, and I have accepted the 
reluctant offer of Nuwab Khan of Tunnole to the same effect. The 
presence of these men may be useful to the Sirdar on emergency. 

The uncle of Jehandad Khan, the Bhaingra Chief, fled to me this 
day for refuge. He was preceded by a letter from Jehandad saying 
that his uncle was coming to attack him with all the levies of Tunnole 
and that report said the Sikh Troops in Pukli had joined them. He 
himself is to be here to-morrow. His confidant, Mir Zetnaun Khan of 
Gundgurh, dictates to him the most cruel, lawdess and impolitic acts 
which have alienated all hearts from him. I long ago recommended 
him to discard this man, but he makes himself too necessary to the 
Khans pleasure. 

There is a rumour to-day of some meditated commotion in the 
district, but I cannot ascertain whence it arises, or what is the nature of 
the apprehended movement. A man who seldom goes abroad left his 
house to give me the warning. Nuwab Khan of Tunnole complaining 
of the insufficiency of his jaghir of 1,200 rupees, and volunteering to go 
with Sirdar Jhundur Singh, I accepted his offer to his great dismay. He 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


59 


afterwards went to Sirdar Chuttur Singh and without informing him 
(probably) of what had passed got his sanction to remain here and send 
his brother. I have insisted upon his holding by his first proposition, 
and assured him it is his only hope of an increase of income. 

Captain Lumsden's note of the 5th instant came to hand to-day. I 
have answered it by this day’s dak, 9th May 1848, daybreak. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 17.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 9th May 1848. 

gth May i 8 g. 8 — Hitriipoo)\ - Received Captain Lums- 

den’s note of the 6th instant. I had previously sent an express to Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh to inform him of Captain Edwardes’ critical position and 
urge him to hasten his march. I shall now let him know the altered 
aspect of affairs in that Dooab, as it is highly desirable that his troops 
arrive in an effective condition. Whatever orders are necessary should 
be sent without delay to meet the Sirdar at Find Dadun Khan. If there 
be the slightest chance of defection it is far better they were recalled. 

I have already given the surmises of the people of this neighbourhood 
and the feelings of the officers upon the subject, and these are not 
encouraging : a single bad example is to be avoided. I have no late 
news from Peshawur though I write daily. Report says that Ursulla 
Khan has fled thither for refuge from his son. Jehandad Khan, the 
Bhaingra Chief, has arrived in this neighbourhood. His uncle fled to 
me the day before yesterday. I should have preferred his remaining in 
his own country just now ; but he professes to be alarmed and was urgent 
tocome hither. Khan-i-Zeman Khan has not yet departed. Received 
a visit from Sirdar Chuttur Singh, who is sending a confidential servant 
to his son. Raja Shere Singh ; endeavoured to settle some of the contro- 
versies amongst the Gundgurrias, and heard the case of alleged mutiny 
last January of the Golundauze of the Khowta guns The Jemadar 
appears tome to be the culprit and the Golundauze seem wholly innocent. 

1 defer judgment however pending the arrival of two witnesses called for. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 



i6o DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS-fS. 

No. 18. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 10th May 1848. 

loth May iS-jS — Hurripoor, Htaara . — The post from Lahore has 
arrived this day without a letter for me. Mj' letter has therefore been 
intercepted. I heard, however, from Peshawiir, where all was right on 
the 8th. ‘‘ Fertur sed mihi incredibile videtur, exercitum Brittanicum, 
dum ab humo implorat civium sanguis ininierite perfusa, dum ultionem 
gentes expectant frementes, sese a hoste in Lahorem firmare. Ita in 
Caburam fuit. Ita hie si sit. Natio nos contemptu evomeret ” I spoke 
very seriously to Jehandad Khan upon the necessity of dismissing his 
evil genius, Mir Zeman Khan, Gundgurria, assuring him that he had 
already through that man’s counsels alienated the hearts of both subjects 
and neighbours, and that 1 should not interfere to prevent the conse- 
quences unless he were sent away. He is infatuated and will probably 
not listen to advice. It is highly necessary that any orders intended for 
Sirdar Jhundur Singh be sent him without delay to Find Dadun Khan 
whether to halt, to advance, or to return. The risk is great of bring- 
ing troops into contact with treachery, the more especially if delay is 
meditated. 

J. ABBOTT, Capt.mn, 

Assistant Rcsiikut. 

Closed at sunrise. Post not in. I have written daily (27th April) 
since the outbreak in Mooltan. I have receipts for onl^’ one or two 
covers. 

No. 19.— -Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 11th and 12th 
May 1848. 

Jith May iSpS—Hurripoor, Hurjara —No letter to-day from Lahore. 
The chilaun also is blank, so that if Captain Lumsden wrote his 
letter must have been intercepted at Lahore. The chilaun has, however, 
neither seal nor signature. Some receipts for my letters came by 
this post. But the signature is illegible, so that I am quite ignorant 
whether my letters reach their destination or are intercepted. The 
Thannadar at Dunna writes that the detachment of 10 Zumbooras at 
that fort have deserted their post to join the rest of their troop marching 
with Sirdar Jhundur Singh. They had the strictest orders to stand fast. 


DIARIES OF CAPl'AIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 161 

It is much to be doubted whether Sirdar Jhundur Singh’s Brigade should 
be allowed to advance further than Find Dadun Khan. I have 
written several times to beg that further orders may be sent the Sirdar 
to that place, I still indulge the hope that vigorous measures will be 
taken to put down this revolt and that the Resident will not wait until 
the meshes of treachery are inextricably woven around us. 

I have written urgently this day upon the subject to the Resident. 
The 27th April is the only day since the outbreak on which I have 
not written. 

Z2l/t May 18^8 —Hnrripoor, Huzara . — The post has brought me a 
note from Captain Lumsden after two blank posts, It is unfortunately 
not dated. It mentions the capture of General Kaun Singh for 
conspiracy. Yesterday, the Dunna Thannadar informed me of the first 
symptoms of disaffection in those mountains. The Kurrals had 
sent to the Dhoonds, telling them not to pay their rents as the Sikh 
Empire was over in Mooltan. The country is very strong and the 
weakened field force of Huzara could not spare a column sufficient for 
its subjection. A letter from Major Lawrence of the 9th gives favourable 
news to that date. He has enclosed me a copy of his note to the 
Resident which I have sent on under cover, lest it be lost. His 
arguments are of great weight, and I most earnestly hope the Resident 
will attend to them. I cannot believe that any two men acquainted with 
military matters and beyond suspicion as fearless and conscientious 
public servants could be found to advocate delay at this crisis. 

News from Moozuffurabad states that Maharaja Goolab Singh is 
gradually strengthening that post (since the outbreak). The force 
amounts at present to 3,000 men. Rumour says he has thoughts of 
visiting the spot. He has always kept up a regular correspondence 
with the Barukzye chiefs at Cabul. Aid fro.n him is confidently relied 
upon by the disaffected. But his operations are secret and I have 
no proof of machinations on his part in the present conspiracy. Three 
heavy guns which I ordered in from Karoo Khowta arrived yesterday, 
and fired a salute according to custom. The officers have not 
Waited upon me, the first instance of neglect which I have experienced. 

I have sent for them therefore. 

Closed daybreak, 13th May. J. ABBO IT, Captai.v, 

AAsislant Resident. 


7.1 



i 62 diaries of captain J. ABBOTT, rS^S. 

No. 20.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 13th May 1848. 

I Jill May 184.8 — Hurripoor, Hunara — No news by the Lahore dak 
to-day, although Captain Lumsden gave me to suppose he would write 
daily. I have also no certain information of the letters I write ; a few 
receipts are returned with illegible cyphers ; others never reappear. My 
letters from 1-ahore rarely acknowledge receipt of any cover and often 
the seals appear to have been opened ; all this causes needless anxiety, 
and it is impossible to take fresh precautions unless I know how 
far the past have failed. I have written daily (27th April excepted) 
since the outbreak at Mooltan and since Captain Lumsden opened 
his correspondence I have daily sent two covers, one of them to 
him. I hope it will be found possible to let me have a single line, 
if but of ten words, daily as then the failure of a dak will be manifest. 

I have had three blank daks since Captain Lumsden’s correspondence 
commenced. News from Peshawur up to the nth favorable. We live 
in the hope that the only measure which can avert the threatening evil 
has, even thougli late, been adopted, and that the British Army has 
advanced upon Mooltan. Had this measure been taken at once the Sikh 
Army had been paralyzed and had awaited to see the first results. The 
Chiefs of Huzara have made up their several parties, as usual when 
changes are expected. All the intelligence I can collect from the Sikh 
Army tends to the same impression at which I have often hinted and 
which Major Lawrence has plainly stated. The poor of this country look 
to me for protection, and so long as we maintain our ancient reputation 
the Chiefs also will look to me for further advancement and for protection 
against their Government. My great object is to prevent any excitement 
in the minds of the most excitable people in the world. At present 
the country is still enjoying a measure of peace, prosperity and protection, 
unknown for forty years. But any outbreak of the Huzara Field Force 
would arouse the discontented throughout the land. In spite of reports 
and impressions I indulge the hope that the Peshawur and Huzara 
Brigades would stand fast, not from disinclination to join, but from 
consideration of the hazard of deserting those important posts. The 
Kurral Chief, accused of having incited the Dhoonds to stop payment, 
has come in upon my summons. I have no reason, however, to discredit 
the report, but at present my evidence is not sufficient for his convic- 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184S. 163 

tion. He is the most treacherous and cowardly of all the chiefs of 
Huzara. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 21.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 14th May 1848. 

i^ih May i 8 ^S — Hurripoor, Hunara . — Having to-day taken the 
precaution to open the dak bag myself, I drew out the Resident's 
official letter of 8th and Captain Lumsden’s notes of loth and nth 
instant. There cannot be a doubt from the bearing and evasive attempts 
of theMoonshee that this establishment is in the interest of the conspira- 
tors. 

A report was yesterday brought, requiring confirmation, that 
Captain Edwardes had fallen upon and defeated with slaughter a large 
army of Mulkeeas upon the borders of Bukkur ; another report, elicited 
from a boasting Sikh soldier, stated that the 151^ Jayt (25th May) 
is the day appointed for the reunion of the whole Khalsa Army. Two 
Sapper Sergeants and 12 Pioneers arrived to-day to relieve the 12 on 
duty with the survey. I have detained the new arrivals pending 
reference, as their presence may be of the utmost value in case of 
commotions. They enable me and Lieutenant Robinson to sleep under 
a British sentry. The wisdom of Lord Hardinge provided me with an 
escort of British sipahis- The jealousy of the Military authorities 
deprived me of it. But the late officiating Resident and General Command- 
ing the Division allowed me to retain 30 men of the company. These by 
some measure were reduced to 12, a number insufficient for the 
current duties. It seems to have been accepted as a matter of course 
that no tumults were to arise in the Sikh Army, whilst our justice had 
disgusted every predatory official in the Punjaub. 

I have ever calcutated upon commotions and have only wondered 
they were so long deferred. 1 arrived this evening at a musjid of the 
city just in time to prevent collision between the Moosulmans and 
Hindoos. 



t64 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 

The musjid and temple are in the same neighbourhood and the 
Azaun and Sunk are sounded together. This is most provoking to the 
Moosulmans, as no human beings can vie with a conch in discord. I 
had previously endeavoured to arrange that the sounds should be 
differently timed. An uproar of this nature might be attended with 
consequences fatal to the peace of Huzara as the Sikhs of the army side 
with the Hindoos. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident, 

Closed at daybreak, 15th. 


No. 22,— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, without date, received 
on the 11th May 1848. 

This day’s post has brought no letter from Lahore. But the news 
from Peshawur up to 13111 was favorable; all here continues quiet. I 
have let the Kurral Chief know that I shall visit upon him any demur of 
the Dboonds to pay their rents. I have had many hearty assurances of 
devotion from the Chiefs of Huzara, and with timely intelligence should 
not fear being able to annihilate the Field Force here in the event of 
treachery ; my great anxiety is to prevent excitation of the minds of 
the people. The condition of the country at present is so happy and 
smiling that it would wring my heart to see it disturbed. I have made 
this reply to all who have pressed their services upon me, assuring them 
of my confidence and that if I need their aid I shall gladly summon 
them. Reports are less rife the last few days. General Sooltan 
Maimood sent an offering of quail and came over to wait upon me. 
This man has of late utterly neglected the etiquette prescribed by 
military discipline, which I have not noticed because I have had 
occasion to report him unfavorably. The present symptom is 
indicative either of news unfavorable to the discontented or of a 
desire to lull suspicion. He is in correspondence with Mooltan. I 
took occasion to sound Colonel Richpal Singh as to the temper of his 
corps almost wholly composed of Sikhs. He assures me that he believes 
their fidelity unshaken. I told him that if the Sikh Army played any 
tricks we must destroy it to a man ; that we had spared it because the 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184S. 


165 


sovereign was a minor, but that rebellion would oblige us to annihilate it ; 
that tne regiments, however, who continued faithful would be cherished 
and honored. The corps has been much on service under my own eye 
and is I think kindly inclined towards me. When I was about to run 
up to Uggrore I ordered the company of my escort to be relieved. But 
the whole of the men begged permission to remain saying that they had 
enjoyed the plains with me and would now take the toil of the mountains 
with pleasure. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No, 23.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 16th May 1848, 

i6th May 18^8 — Hurripaor, i/r<3ara.— To-day’s post has brought 
no letter from Lahore, nor any acknowledgment of my daily double cover. 
News from Peshawur of the 14th is favorable. Rumour is again busy 
and it is confidently believed by the troops here that the whole of the 
Sikh Force sent against Moolraj are engaged to desert to his standard. 
It is very certain that the Cavalry do not fight, and I never could com- 
prehend the object of their mission. I was beginning to entertain some 
hope of the staunchness of the Huzara Field Force, but this evening I 
learn from Peshawur that Pertaub Singh, Commandant of a Missal of 
Sikh Horse of Sirdar Goordutt Singh’s Gola, has deserted its post at 
Pukli, in spite of the repeated orders of Colonel Bhoop Singh, Command- 
ing, and is in full march to Join the Sirdar at his bidding. I have written 
a strong remonstrance but without much hope of success, and the e.xample 
is likely to produce the worst consequences. I have written so much and 
so strongly in my journals, notes and public despatches upon the absolute 
necessity of an instant advance of the British Army, that were I 
assured all my letters had reached their destination, I should not repeat 
advice in wliich I am so warmly backed by every person acquainted 
with the Punjaub and the Sikh Army. Delay, when a fearful and 
instant retribution is everywhere expected, will be attributed to timidity. 
We hold our position in the Punjaub wholly by the force of opinion, 
by the general belief in our superior courage and resources. Our 



i66 


DIARIES OF CAFFA/NJ, ABBOTT, iS^S. 


Empire in India has the same foundation, and one or botli may pass 
away if we evince any symptoms of hesitation. By delay, every 
traitor from the snowy mountains to the Sutlej will have time to com- 
plete his web. The army already faltering will, it is to be feared, 
succumb. Scinde may probably join in the rebellion, and the large British 
Force at this moment available may be necessary to preserve tran- 
quillity ill our own dominions. As to the danger from sun and flood it 
is a mere shadow compared with the peril of quiescence. We have every 
boat of the five rivers at command. Report says that the Jumboo Ruler 
is increasing his army quietly. It has been strengthened at Moozuffur- 
abad, but this is nowise extraordinary, as the mountaineers there have 
received much wrong at his hands. We have no news from Edwardes 
or Taylor. Report again speaks of an engagement in that quarter, but 
the former report of Edwardes’ victory over the Mooltanies is uncon- 
firmed. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 24.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 17th May 1848. 

ijlh May i 8 .^ 8 . — After three barren posts from Lahore Captain 
Lurasden’s notes of 13th and 14th instant have this day arrived together. 
From them I find that on the 14th fourteen of my letters, viz., seven to 
the Resident and seven to Captain Lumsden had been intercepted. 
The Dak Moonshee produced chilauns signed by the Lahore Moonshee 
acknowledging the receipt of all. He has from the first been so dis- 
concerted when asked about missing letters that strong suspicion has 
been inevitable. The whole post is manifestly engaged in a conspiracy, 
which is far wider spread than seems to be believed at Lahore. The 
prevailing report of the day is the participation of Maharaja Goolab 
Singh. He is said to have summoned many of the mountain chiefs 
of Huzara and to be in close correspondence with members of the 
army here. From Captain Lumsden’s notes I gather that about ii or 
more of his letters to me have been intercepted. This is a matter of the 
first importance and deserving vigorous measures of correction. The 
chilauns accompanying the Lahore post do not exhibit any notice of 



D/ARTES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


167 


the letters so that they are probably stopped at Lahore, though certainly 
not without knowledge of the Moonshee here. The soldiery still speak 
with confidence of the purpose of Sirdar Jhundur Singh’s and Raja 
Sher Singh’s Brigades to go over to the enemy. News from Peshawur 
up to 15th favorable. They have the same report there which prevails 
here, viz., that a day of this month is fixt for the general assembly of 
the Sikh Army, Their report, however, makes it 1 3th Jayt, ours the 
iSth. Sirdar Chuttur Singh paid me a visit this evening. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 25.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 18th May 1848. 

i8th May 18.^8 — Hnnipoor, Huzara . — This day’s post brought me 
the Resident’s letter No. 192 of 15th instant and Mr. Cock's note of same 
date, together with receipts for my letters of , This is some satisfac- 

tion, but it is not the less manifest that the Post Ofifice establishment is 
devoted to the conspirators. I am somewhat comforted to learn that a 
powerful army is being assembled. But speed is of extreme importance, 
every hour of delay increasing the difficulty. From the consternation of 
the Jumboo Prince’s people I gather that the reports of his participation 
are not unfounded. Colonel Canara called upon me to-day and informed 
me that an Adjutant named Urbail Singh had been sent to join his 
battery, who is noted as the most mutinous officer in the Sikh Army and 
as the principal instrument of Colonel Foulke’s murder. I beg that a pur- 
wana may be sent recalling this man without delay; he has probably been 
sent here as a firebrand. A man who has returned from Sirdar Jhundur 
Singh’s Brigade declares that the soldiers speak openly of their intention 
to side with the rebels ; at Peshawur all was in statu quo on i6th. The 
Missal of Sirdar Goordut Singh Burhania’s Gola of Horse, which deserted 
its post at Pukli, arrived here to-day in spite of my purwana to them to 
return. '1 hey have, however, promised to go back to their post to-morrow. 

A serious complaint of the grossest abuse is preferred against General 
Sooltan Maimood by the Native Officers and Golundauze of Colonel 
Canara’s Battery. I long ago begged that this man might be removed 
from Huzara, where he had created one mutiny in the Artillery, but my 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


168 

request was not complied with. This battery is now so disgusted 
with his conduct that there is reason to apprehend desertion. I have 
taken the evidence of the plaintiffs and will do my best to make some 
settlement, but it is a perplexing case. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

Closed at daybreak, 19th May. 


No- 26.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Besi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 19th May 1848. 

igth May 184.8 — Hm ripoor, Huzara. — This day’s post has brought 
me the Resident’s letter of the l6th instant, informing me of the depor- 
tation of the Queen-Dowager of Lahore, and Mr. Cocks’ note of the 
same date. Yesterday I received the Resident’s letter and Mr. Cocks’ note 
of the 15th. Intelligence from Peshawur of the 17th reports matters in 
statu quo. ' I write daily two letters to Lahore. The chilauns returned 
from thence acknowledge the receipt at Lahore of all the letters sent; 
yet they seem not to come to hand. I have no authentic intelligence 
from Jumboo. Here all is still quiet. Adjutant Urbail Singh has arrived. 

I have elsewhere in yesterday’s note mentioned him. It is highly 
advisable that he remain not here, as there are elements of strife in the 
Artillery and Infantry here stationed, which may turn into something 
worse. I have mentioned one of these. General Sooltan Maimood, whom 
I could wish removed to some honorable office elsewhere. Here he has 
almost created a second outbreak. I think it would tend to soothe the 
irritation of the Sikh officers were they assured that in the corps which 
prove loyal the officers shall be reinstated in the rank of which they were 
deprived after the occupation of Lahore. I do not think they will ever 
heartily serve the Government whilst this is withheld. I have no news 
of Sirdar Jhundur Singh of late date. The chief officers of his force are, 

1 think, loyally inclined, but some of the privates speak openly of an 
intention to desert. The Cavalry Regiment is perhaps the best inclined. 
Had Colonel Umeer Singh retained his old company and battery it might 
have been depended upon. But he has no knowledge of his present 
company, and they are probably disgusted at his reluctance to join them. 
All the chiefs here are warm in their professions of loyalty and several 



diaries of captain J. ABBOTT, 1848. 


i6g 


have begged permission to plant their sentries and sleep themselves 
around the tower which I occupy. But I have steadily declined any 
exhibition of diffidence toward my Sikh guards, who still furnish my 
sentinels. I am beside, most anxious not to unsettle people's minds by 
the prospect of change. The country at present is enjoying rare felicity 
and it must not be disturbed without the most urgent need. They 
assure me that in the course of a night from five to ten thousand armed 
men would gather under my banner were there any alarm of treachery. 
Reports have become less frequent of late. The last is that Raja Sher 
Singh had been defeated. There appears, however, no foundation for the 
rumours. I am truly happy to hear that a large British Force is assem- 
bling for Mooltan, and I trust that no more overtures will hinder its 
advance as it is a great object of the insurgents to gain time. I am 
obliged to make many repetitions because my letters seem to be inter- 
cepted. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


Closed at daybreak, 20th May. 


No, 27.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 20th May 1848. 

2oih May 1848-HHnipoor, H>ioara.-Th\s day's post brouglitme 
the Resident’s letter and Messrs. Cocks’ and Hodsons notes of the 17th. 
Reports have been less frequent for several days past. The army await 

with anxiety the result of Raja Sher Singh’s advance and the conduct 

of his troops on the occasion. Colonel Canaras Golundauze Conipany 
here is almost disorganized by the insulting demeanour of General 
Sooltan Maimood, and in Richpal Singh’s corps the most serioub discon- 
tent has been evinced at past exactions of that officer. I am endeavour 
ing to heal the wounds with the least possible agitation. Sirdar Goordut 
Singh’s Missal of Horse returned to-day towards its post at Pukli. I 
had arranged with the Nazim to seize the principal officers should they 
persist in their mutiny. They plead the order of their Sirdar and 
their want of funds. I have ordered an advance to be made them on 
their return. From Peshawur the news continued favoiable to the 8th. 
Major Lawrence is most anxious that the pay of the troops at Peshawui 


22 



170 DIARIES OF captain J. ABBOTT, 1848- 

and Huzara should not be entrusted to Sirdar Mehtab Singh s 01 Sirdar 
Gooniut Singh’s Horse. I he latter has just arrived at Hussun Ubdal. 
It is certainly a matter of the first moment, and it seems advisable that 
drafts upon the neiglibouring treasuries should furnish the needful 
funds instead of the cash being sent from a distance just now. 

I write and send daily a diary and a note. 

J. ABBOTT, CAPrAi.v, 
Assistant Reside nl. 

News from Pukli states that Moolraj has applied to Cabul for aid to 
be sent him by the lower route. 


No. 28.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 21st May 1848. 

2ist May iS^S — liutripoor, Huzara . — Tliis day's post has brought 
me a duplicate of the Resident’s letter No. 197 of i6th May, the partic- 
ulars of which I have e.xplained and published. Tlie armj' and garrisons 
here continue in the hush of c.xpectation, waiting to shape their conduct 
with the tide of coming events. The merciiants and shopkeepers have 
taken alarm and dare not purchase the grain of the cultivators ; the tide 
of travelling merchants has ceased to flow into Hurripoor ; confidence 
is at an end and can be restored only by a general clearing up of the 
political horizon. I dare not mention the remote time to which our 
forward movement is deferred. Unfortunately the public prints make 
no secret of it. In tlie present state of affairs in Mooltan the advance 
of our army would dis.solve the conspiracy. The settlement of the 
case by quiet measures appears to me far from desirable. A terrible 
e.\aniplc is required and nothing less will restore our reputation to 
the brilliance it had acquired after the battle of Subraon. The 
punishment of two 01 three ntiserable instruments will not be accepted 
by the natiics as tlie letiibution due for the butchery of our Political 
Agents b} such unparalleled treachery, and the peaceful surrender of 
^loolt.an w ill leave out position in the Punjaub w'eaker than ever. News 
of the lOth fiom Peshawur, all still quiet. 



nrAR/ES OF CAFTAFV/. A/IFOTT, iStS. I7t 

I believe Maharaja Goolab Singh is still in Cashmere and that the 
reports of his military movements have been distorted. 

He is not likely to take any overt part in a rebellion so little ripened. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

Should any Vuqueel from Moolraj come to Lahore, he will be 
entrusted with the task of seducing the army. 


No. 29.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 22nd May 
1848. 

22nd May iS.f. 8 — Hurripoor, - Yesterday’s post brought 

me Captain Lumsden's note of the 19th and a letter from Peshawur of 
the 20th. From the latter place there is no news. I have written daily 
to Lahore my diary and a note to one of the Assistants ; the latter is 
sent through Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud. My letters have been pretty 
regular of late, but the irregularity will recommence whenever it is of 
importance to the conspirators to cut off our intelligence, as no one seems 
to have been punished for the former loss or detention of letters, of which 
Captain Lumsden once reported 12 to be due, which had not then arrived. 
There are many reports in circulation ; that of greatest importance is the 
intense interest with which the whole army and the Sikh population 
still look for the 15th of Jayt as the day for the appearing of their new 
Gooroo at Lahore. 

I purpose moving out for a few days into a cooler and healthier 
spot, about 14 miles north of Hurripoor. All my people are getting ill 
here owing to the impurity of the water. 

I have ordered Adjutant Urbail Singh back to Lahore. He has been 
sent here for mischief. The accusations against Colonel Richpal Singh 
have been investigated and I hope to settle the matter quietly. Those 
against General Sooltan Maimood are under investigation. It were far 
better that he were removed. At Jeluni, Rohtas, Rawul Pindi and 
Ghaybi it is said (I know not by what authority) that Moolraj has agents 
enlisting soldiers, and that the Kardars wink at their proceedings. 



173 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iSfS. 

The absence of Captain Nicholson is much to be lamented. 

It is also rumoured that the Ghaybi people have invited Moolraj to 
take possession. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 30 — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 23rd and 24th 
May 1848. 

2 pd May iS.i.8 — Hurripoor, Huzara . — This morning I received 
Captain Lumsden’s note of the 20th and news from Peshawur of the 
2 1 st, when all was in statu quo. I have sent out my tent to a valley 
north of Hurripoor, which is cool and shady. I myself and all the 
establishment are getting ill and require change. The water here is 
extremely unwholesome, coming from the flooded fields, and the heat is 
very great. A letter for Captain Edwardes from the Resident has been 
sent me by to-day’s dak, evidently on purpose that it may not reach 
Captain Edwardes to whom it is distinctly addressed. In the chilaun they 
have had the precaution to note “ i letter for Captain Abbott, ” accord- 
ing to the testimony of the chuprassie. Such shallow artifices cannot 
avail, and I trust one or two of the establishment will be hanged or sent 
beyond seas ; or there is no hope of any important letters arriving 
safely. The whole establishment is in the pay of Moolraj or rather 
of Moolraj s employers. I have no news from Bunnoo. I sent my 
journal and note of yesterday by this morning’s post as usual. 

2 q.th May Camp near Hun ipoor . — I left Hurripoor last night 
and am encamped in a shady cool spot in the neighbourhood. The 
whole dak of to-day has been intercepted. I wrote last night a few lines 
in pencil to Captain Lumsden that he might not receive a blank dak, 
but I sent no journal. I write also daily to Peshawur, from whence I 
heard to-daj' ;date 22nd) all as before. This country remains quiet. 
But the army and the Sikh sect are all in an.xiety to know whether 
Raja Sher Singh and Sirdar Jhundur Singh’s Forces will desert to the 
enemy or continue staunch. Lieutenant Robinson and Mr. Ingram are 
here with me employed upon the map, I have one Sikh company and 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABSOTT, rSfS. 


•73 


12 horsemen as an escort, and the chiefs are in attendance or repre- 
sented by sons or brothers. We have also 24 sappers and two sapper 
sergeants. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident 

No. 31.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 25th May 
1848. 

2^th May 18^8 — Camp near Hurripoor . — The post of to-day has 
brought me the Resident’s letter No. 214 of 22nd May (to which I will 
reply at length) and Captain Lumsden’s note of same date ; all continues 
here as before. The letter bag due yesterday arrived when all hope 
of it was past ; not, however, until I had ordered the dak Moonshee at 
Hurripoor to join my camp It brought me Captain Lumsden’s note of 
the 2 1st. As the insertion of prevalent reports has been blamed by the 
Resident, I shall insert no more without specific orders. I had supposed 
that such would be of the utmost value at the Residency, where all 
rumours from all quarters of the Punjaub can be compared together 
with a view to ascertain their probability. As a straw shows the action 
of an otherwise imperceptible current, so do these reports when com- 
pared together show the current of public feeling and very often are 
the only indications of deeply laid conspiracies. I regret to find that 
they are not only deemed unimportant, but that blame is attached to their 
simple insertion in a diary, which, if it be of any use whatever, is to 
convey a picture of passing impressions which time does not allow us to 
investigate or confirm. All continues in Huzara as before. The return 
of the Missal, which left its post in spite of repeated orders to stand fast, 
will I trust have a good effect. It could not be removed from Pukli 
without risk both of dispiriting the weakened brigade there and of 
encouraging the armed population to refuse payment of their rents. 
The position of the troops in Huzara is a great check upon their defec- 
tion. The weakening of the Huzara Field Force by rendering their 
present position perilous would strengthen any di'iposition to desert it. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

I wrote and sent yesterday my diary and a note to Captain Lums- 

den. 



•74 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS-/S. 


No. 32.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara from the 26th to the 
28th May 1848. 

26th May 18^8 — Camp near Hurripoor, Huzara. — Employed the 
whole day in Kucherry reading urzees and settling disputes until sunset. 
News from Peshawur of the 24th favorable. The post came in late, 
bringing Captain Lumsden's letter of the 23rd. 

28th May — Camp as above. — Employed as yesterday. The disputes 
concerning landed property in Dumtour are so virulent that I am 
obliged to send an especial Commissioner to settle them I would 
adjourn thither myself but for its distance from the dak line, a matter 
just now of some consequence. 

The dak is in to-day in good time, and brings me Captain Lumsden’s 
note of 24th and a note from Captain Nicholson, Peshawur. Also a 
note from Captain Taylor, Bunnoo, without date, giving a good account 
of the army and people up to the hour of writing. Captain Edwardes 
was on the right bank of the Indus opposite Leiah, and General Cort- 
landt had gone to take possession of the Ghazee Khan ilaquah. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 33.~Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 28th and 29th 
May 1848. 

2Sth May — Camp near Hurtipoor. — After divine service I held 
Kucherry until sunset. Instead of forwarding my diary of to-day I 
have addrest an official letter to the Resident upon the subject of 
intelligence received from Cashmere that a Jumboo Force of 4,000 men 
is about to march to Moozuffurabad, where there are already 3,000. 
Ibis report may be a feint of the Maharaja to overcome the hill tribes, 
who, though quite peaceful at present, have been much opprest and are 
icady enough to lise when opportunity offers. It is, however, quite 
needle-^s for I have with me the son of Sooltan Hoosayne Khan, and 
our influence has previously been quite sufficient to keep them in 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848- 


>75 


order. It is highly desirable therefore that this report, which has 
greatly alarmed them and may drive them to desperation, be con- 
tradicted; and I have accordingly addrest the Maharaja disclaiming 
belief in such a rumour, and assuring him that any movement of troops 
in this direction at this moment will not have a friendly aspect. 
The assembly of any force upon the frontier were an encouragement to 
the insurgents in Mooltan and to others who are disposed to join them. 

sgth May jSg.S — Camp as above . — Addrest another official letter 
to the Resident upon the subject above noted. I had not understood 
yesterday that another Jumboo force was said to be about to march from 
Cashmere upon Kurnao, a district between the Cashmere river and the 
Kishengunga. This Force is rated at 6,000. The mountaineers anxi- 
ously enquire of me whether they may not defend themselves from this 
invasion. I have declined putting any restraint upon their measures of 
self defence, assuring them, however, that any rising, excepting to resist 
invasion, would subject them to the displeasure of the British Govern- 
ment. If they can act in concert, the}' ought to be able to destroy this 
force, large as it is, their country being strong and the whole popula- 
tion bearing arms. 

If these militaf}' movements are really contemplated, they are highly 
objectionable at this season, and of a most suspicious character. The 
information is the best I can command, and agrees perfectly with the 
manifest apprehension of the Jumboo Moonshee in my camp. 

The Maharaja would plead his right to move his troops where- 
soever he pleases within his own kingdom, but he is perfectly well 
aware of the sensation they will create in the Punjaub. 

This is one of the many dangers to be apprehended from delay 
in avenging the innocent blood in Mooltan. I have written so often and 
so strongly and so vainly upon the subject, backed by the authority of 
every officer in the Punjaub acquainted with the people and army, 
that I can scarcely hope my voice will avail at the eleventh hour. But 
there shall at least be an_ official record that I have fearlessly recommend- 
ed such a policy as would save the British name from degrading 
imputations, abate the courage of our enemies, and restore the confi- 
dence of our well-wishers. 



176 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848. 

The people of the Punjaub honor and love us. But every 
Kardar, every Moonshee, every Thannadar, in short every creature that 
can write or cast accounts, is our bitter enemy ; and as all business 
must be transacted through them, their power is very considerable. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

I have written Captain Lumsden by this day’s post through Dewan 
Adjoodhia Pershaud. My official letter No, 5 accompanies this. 


No. 34.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 30th May 1848. 

jo/A May i 8 .f.S — Camp near Hunipoor, Huzara . — News from 
Moozuflurabad strengthens the information received from Cashmere. 
The Maharaja Goolab Singh is either marching a considerable force 
toward this frontier, or he has contrived that such should be generally 
believed. The whole valley of Pukli is in expectation and dread of a 
tyrant so abhorred by them. It is well known that a close intimacy 
subsists between this Prince and Sirdar Chuttur Singh, Nazim of Huzara, 
and it is generally believed that the intercourse by letter is frequent; 
yet 1 can get no intelligence of the state of affairs in Cashmere from 
this quarter. Yesterday I sent to Lahore an official letter and my 
diary addressed to the Resident and a note to Captain Lumsden, the 
latter through the Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud. I received by the post of 
this day Captain Lumsden s notes of 26th and 27th ; the former was 
inserted in the chilaun of the former day, but a private note from 
Umbala was afterwards substituted for it. The fraud was detected by 
their incautiously leaving the memo. *• Kar-i-sirkar ’’ uneffaced. News 
from Peshawur of the 28th favorable. A report from Candahar states 
that the brothers there are fighting, and that the city is invested. 
Afghan news however is always to be distrusted. I have news of Cap- 
tain Taylor as late as the 23rd. All was well. The people still obedient 
thiough the admiiable arrangements made there, and the army quiet. 
But one and the same impression pervades all classes and regions, viz., 
that the Sikh troops will not fight in this cause. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848. tjj 

The post is just in with the news of Captain Edwardes’ victories 
at Dera Ghazee Khan. J propose publishing the tidings and firing a 
salute of 21 guns, which 1 trust will be approved. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

I have written as usual to Captain Lunisden by this post. 


No. 35. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 

Resident, on deputation to Huzara, from the 1st to the 
3rd June 1848. 

1st June i8.f.8 — Sherieaun, Huzara . — Marched toSherwaun, a table 
summit about 20 miles north of Hurripoor ; there I have a small bunga- 
low and purpose remaining until summoned in any other direction by 
the state of affairs. The spot is centrical and the climate more healthful 
than any other part of Huzara. 

Reports from Pukli state that much alarm is felt there at the 
supposed advance of a Jumboo Force. Eixcepting, however, the 
intelligence received from Sooltan Hoosa3ne Khan, who has the 
best means of information, all the accounts are vague and at any 
other time would attract no attention. At tlie present moment even 
false reports cannot be neglected owing to the effect they are calculated 
to produce upon the minds of the people and of the army, who receive 
them greedily. The dak came in in good time. News to the 29th from 
Peshawur favorable. 

3nd June — SherwauH . — Much of my time is unnecessarily spent 
in collecting intelligence, giving private audiences, preparing the daily 
bulletin for Lahore and Peshawur. The rest of the day is consumed 
in reading urzees and giving orders upon them and in arranging petty 
appeals in Kucherry. My power in this country is nothing if estimated 
by the troops at my command, but in the assurance the people have 
that I am their friend it is very great ; and were I to deny myself to 
their appeals it would speedily be impaired. I have no authentic 
intelligence of consequence. Many reports are spread designedly to 
Unsettle men's minds. 

3rd June — SherwauH.—lL o-^diy I have been assailed by a host of 
rumors which turn into thin air the instant their authority is questioned. 

33 



178 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 


That they are believed by the people I perceive from their anxiety on 
my account, and the enquiries they daily make whether I am sure all is 
right at Lahore. 

The reasons for proclaiming Meean Jowahir Singh Raja of 

Bhimbur not having been communicated to me, I am unable to 

conjecture how that step may affect the loyalty of the Maharaja of 
Juniboo. The general impression here is that it must cause him and his 

eldest son alarm ; and, if so, double vigilance is requisite upon all his 

movements. The disaffected look to him as their only hope. But I 
imagine that the Sirdars in general have had enough of him, nor does it 
seem probable that he would under any circumstances, save those of 
apprehension, yield more countenance to rebels than would suffice to 
entangle them in their own toils, and lend additional lustre to his own 
fidelit}'. Although Sooltan Hoosayne Khan has command of the best 
intelligence of his movements, which in fact is necessary in his own 
safety, yet the reports which have reached me the last day or two 
dispose me to question the accuracy of his report. Tlie alarm continues 
in Pukli and in Kurnao, but there is no consistency in the estimate of 
the numbers of the army, and all this alarm might have place equally 
were the Maharaja to whisper the project of an invasion which he did 
not really contemplate. 

J, ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistaiit Resident. 

No. 36.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 4th June 
1848. 

.///; June i8.f.8 — Sherwaun . — There is little variety in the reports of 
this day, wliich veer north-east, but are not traceable to any substantial 
basis. The Sooltan's people sent a messenger for fresh intelligence, 
who has just returned, and insists upon the correctness of the first 
report, but adds that the two columns have not yet moved, and that the 
Moozuffui abad Column is called a mere relief, a designation belied by 
the appointment to it of Dewan Kurrum Chund, who wms long in Pukli 
and curried favor with Umeen Khan, the principal Chief there, by 
supporting him in all his feuds and oppression. He is a fit instrument 
of intrigue, and should he really take command at Moozuffurabad, it 



DIARIES or- CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 


■79 


will be far more than his apparent office would indicate. In spite, 
however, of his influence over the Chief aforesaid, the dread and 
detestation of his master is so great and universal that I doubt not to be 
able to nullify his projects should their existence be manifested. 

The letter bag came to-day without seal and contained no letter 
for me. An English writer on Lieutenant Robinson’s establishment, who 
had been absent for some weeks, returned yesterday. It remains to be 
seen whether Captain Lumsden wrote. 

News of the 2nd from Peshawuris favorable and that from Bunnoo 
of 28th equally so. Held Kucherry as usual. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 37.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 5th June 
1848. 

^th June 18^8 — Sherwaun, Huzara . — The post bag to-day arrived 
open at bottom, whether accidentally or by design I know not. The 
chilaun corresponded wi th the contents, but as the chilauns are never 
sealed it is easy to change them. I received the Resident’s two letters of 
the 1st and 2nd and an envelope containing a receipt, but no letter from 
Captain Lumsden has arrived either yesterday or to-day. The news from 
Peshawur is of the 3rd and favorable. I have also news from Captain 
Taylor of the 28th, when all was tranquil in his neighbourhood, Captain 
Edwardes being on the 23rd about 30 miles north of Pind Ghazee Khan. 

The Resident’s letter of the 2nd instant rebukes me for the tone 
of rny communications as deficient in respect. I trust there shall be 
no further cause of complaint upon this score. The haste in which my 
despatches are penned may occasionally have begotten carelessness 
in the wording and more than once, had time allowed, I should have 
altered sentences in letters for which the post was waiting I am 
fully sensible of the necessity of decorum in official correspondence. 
But the subjects which have lately engaged attention have been of the 
most exciting character in which it is difficult to soften down expressions 
Without awakening the force of argument,— at least I, who write always 



i8o DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 

in haste and have no means of making copies of my journals, have found 
it so, and have regretted it. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

Since yesterday there is no authentic intelligence from Cashmere- 
Reports have been Industriously circulated in Huzara that British 
influence has but a month more to run. But with a single exception, 
viz., a boundary dispute, they have produced as yet no injur}’ to my 
influence. 

J. ABBOTT. 


No. 38.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 

Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 6th June 
1848. 

ddi June 184.8 — Sherimun, Huzata — The post of to-day brought 
me a cover from Mr. Skinner, Head Clerk of the Residency, enclosing 
letters from the post, but no letter from Captain Lumsden. I hear, how- 
ever, that he has been absent from Lahore. The news from Peshawur is 
of the 4th and favorable. From Cashmere 1 have no very recent authentic 
intelligence. I have reason, however, to believe, upon comparison 
of the various reports that the Sooltan’s first information is substantially 
correct excepting as to the numbers. It is probable that the calcula- 
tions are made according to custom by the number of corps, reckoning 
each at the old strength of 1,000 men. What the real strength may 
be it is impossible to conjecture. On the peace establishment the 
Jumboo regiments do not average above 250 men per corps. But 
they are filled up according to the nature of the emergency to 500 or 800 
men, seldom I think to 1,000. These regiments w'ith a few exceptions 
are almost undrilled Being miserably paid and wholly without motive 
to gallantry, they were on two occasions defeated by the armed 
peasantry of Huzara with great loss, and in one case under circumstances 
reflecting great discredit upon the troops. Nothing but the presence 
and interference of British Officers prevented their annihilation. They 
are of course in the plain vastly inferior to the Sikh troops. But 
in mountain campaigns, where the paths admit of but one abreast and 
evolutions are out of the question, the disparity is not so manifest and 



rilARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. i8i 

the material of many of the corps is excellent, viz., Dogra and Chibb 
Rajpootras. On these occasions numbers generally prevail or the hill- 
men are wearied out by delay and return to sow or to reap their crops. 

A Sikh Gooroo has arrived at Hurripoor and has been received 
by the Sirdar and troops with extraordinary honor. I have not yet 
learnt who he is, from whence come, or whither bound. 

The reports hinted at in former diaries continue prevalent. I can- 
not, however, find any solid basis for tlieni, nor comprehend what can 
be hoped by the Sirdars from intrigues with the Dogra. 

J. ABBOTT, C.-tPTAi.x, 

Assistant Resident. 

No. 39.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 7th June 
1848 

yth June j 8.^8 ~ ■S/ierwaun, Huzara . — Umeen Khaun, Chief of Pukli, 
whom I had summoned to consult with me upon the state of the frontier, 
has just arrived and brought more authentic intelligence. He says that 
six regiments have certainly marched upon Kurnao, but that no force 
had advanced upon Moozuffurabad. The strength of the regiments is 
unknown. He agrees with me that on my invitation they would to a 
man desert their master owing to the ill-treatment tliey experience. 

The four regiments which are said to be camped upon the 
Moozuffurabad road, have very possibly been so posted merely to 
overawe the Sooltan, and, if so, their advance will be prevented by 
the letters adressed to the Maharaja. The whole army is contemptible 
as a foe, but the moral effect of its location upon the frontier at 
this moment would be favorable to the insurgents in Mooltan, as the 
disaffected persist in hoping for aid from Jumboo, and the power of 
the Dogra is greatly overrated by them. I have refused the present 
of a horse tendered by Umeen Khan, but at his earnest entreaty have 
accepted a small ^mule and have sent him the price (Rs. 6o) from my 
own purse as a portion of his zecafut. 

The post from Lahore has not brought me a line from that city. 
The Peshawur post, for the first time during several weeks, has brought 



i82 diaries of carta hi J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 

me neither letter nor Ukbar. I am therefore four days without intelli- 
gence from Lahore. 

J ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

I have written daily to Captain Lumsden. Whilst closing this the 
Sooltan's Vuqueel has brought me a letter from Moozuffurabad stating 
that the Kurnao Force has not advanced. That report says the Jumboo 
General, Nutteh Shah, has been slain in Gilgit by Gohr Rehman, Chief of 
half Gilgit, others that he has fled to Husora and is besieged there, and 
that the force destined for Moozuffurabad has been sent to Gilgit to aid 
him. These reports must be received with caution, but are too important 
to pass unnoted. The advance of Raja Sher Singh, upon whom the 
attention of the Sikh Army is fixed, gives weight to every rumor at this 
moment, and it appears to me that some secret agitation is going on 
amongst the troops in Huzara. 

No. 40.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 

Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 9th June 
1848. 

9th June i8if.8 — Shemjaun, Huzara . — My diary of yesterday contains 
all the authentic intelligence I possess of the movements of the Jumboo 
power. The dak of yesterday brought me a note from Major Napier 
describing the unsuccessful efforts to capture Bhae Maharaj Singh. I 
cannot forbear here recording that in February last I strongly urged 
to the Officiating Resident the importance of this man’s immediate 
seizure, pointing out how inadequate was the detachment sent to effect 
such a purpose, and that the Ukbars had published the march of that 
detachment and its purpose a week before its arrival at the scene 
of action. What was easy then has proved impossible since the revolt 
in Mooltan and the escape of this robber, whom the army are anxious 
to canonize, will, I fear, strengdien the cause of the insurgents. The 
wide blank left without British influence since the withdrawal from 
Potowar of the vigorous superintendence of Captain Nicholson affords 
extensive advantages to the insurgents. I have hoped that this 
blank would have been filled up and the chain of connection repaired. 

But I am ignorant of the causes which have hitherto prevented this and 
therefore offer my opinion with some hesitation. The people of Poto- 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iSfS. 


.83 


war flock to me for protection from their Native Rulers. I issue 
purwanas, but there is no one on the spot to see them enforced. 
Gradually I fear the impression will be confirmed that our power to 
protect the helpless is at an end. My own presence in Huzara is 
some restraint upon the native functionaries here and my Kucherry 
exhibits three petitioners from Potowar for every one of my own 
people. There are in Potowar several hardy tribes of Moosulmans, 
who being armed could be formed into a most serviceable militia and 
might turn the scale in favor of Captains Edwardes or Taylor, should 
those officers be hard prest. I beg most respectfully to urge the 
importance of this subject. That the brigades pushed forward are not 
to be relied on. That six weeks have past since the commencement of 
this revolt and that up to this moment no effectual aid has been rendered 
to those officers, no link of connection has been effected between 
them and our main force. Captain Lumsden possessed almost patriar- 
chal power amongst the Eusofzyes. His presence at this moment 
amongst them would be a check upon the disaftected in Peshavvur. 
Desertion from that post would be difficult in face of the wild horsemen 
and armed sowars who under such an officer would harass their retreat. 
The whole Muhammadan population of the Punjaub look upon us as 
deliverers ; many of them are armed and are warlike ; all hate the Sikhs. 
Levies of these men could be raised on short notice, and were there a 
complete chain of British officers over the Punjaub, each with a small 
body guard of Muhammadans, it were difficult for any extensive con- 
spiracy to concert its operations. Whether it were prudent to establish 
such links in posts not heretofore occupied by British officers were a 
matter for consideration. But the two posts I have above referred to 
might be reoccupied without any appearance of mistrust. A complaint 
IS made to-day that the Killadar of Mansera has stopped the Azatin and 
maltreated the Moolla. 1 have sent for him and will put him in 
irons, if the fact is proved. Such conduct is sufficient to create a 
general rising in Huzara and would not have been attempted six weeks 
3go. But our influence has greatly declined. 

My news from Peshawur is of the 6th and favorable. I have no 
very recent intelligence from Bunnoo. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident, 



184 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, 1848. 


No. 41. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 9th J une 
1848. 

gth June 18^8, closed on lolh. — Sherwaun, Huzara . — The post 
of to-day brought me Major Napier’s notes of the 4th and 6th and news 
from Peshavvur of the 7th. All quiet. The pay for the Regular Troops 
reached Huzara without accident. Sirdar Jhundur Singh writes 
from Deriah Khan on the left bank of the Indus, stating that he 
has settled the country so far and collected some of the revenue and that 
the army of Moolraj is 30 koss south of him. He also advises 
me that he is raising some levies. Sirdar Jhundur Singh is a spirited 
and good soldier, a man of excellent sense and sound judgment. When 
he left Huzara I considered him quite loyal, and as he has scope 
for his ambition on the right side, I trust he will remain so. New 
levies if selected with judgment will render his brigade far more 
efficient than at present it can be considered. I trust therefore 
they will be sanctioned to him. He has barely 2,000 fighting men and 
is liable to come in contact with a force of three times that amount. 

I would suggest also that a letter of commendation for his cheerfulness, 
zeal and conduct be addressed to him, and the assurance of honor 
and favor if his future career correspond with the outset. The heat 
and toil of his march must have been very great. There is no fresh 
authentic news from Cashmere. The report of the defeat of the Jumboo 
Troops in Gilgit is still believed. The Gooroo who was received 
at Hurripoor with so much ceremony and respect by the Nazim lives in 
the Nazim’s house and never appears abroad. He is said to be a 
Soodhi. His name and purpose, the place whence he has come, and 
his destination, are all profound secrets. The Sirdar's Vuqueel pro- 
fessed to be ignorant of his arrival. He is deep in conference 
or in religious e.xercise with the Sirdar to the e.xclusion of all other 
business. Such at least is the report sent me from Hurripoor. He 
arrived about six days ago. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

I have written to-day to Major Napier through Devvan Adjoodbia 
Pershaud. Two covers for the Resident are sent daily. 

J. ABBOTT. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848, 18S 

No. 42. —Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 10th June 1848. 

loth June i8,f.S — Slieiioaun, Huzara.— 'Yht reports which were so 
active a few daj’s ago have failed the last few days. If they ever had 
foundation astonishing skill is exhibited in the correspondence. No fresh 
authentic intelligence has been received from Cashmere or from Gilgit, 
nor has the Maharaja’s answer to my letter yet arrived. In Huzara 
all is tranquil in spite of the efforts of several instruments to get up 
a spirit of resistance. The Sirdar in answer to my query regarding the 
Baba who has arrived at Hurripoor says that he is merely the chaplain 
of Colonel Richpal Singh’s regiment, but does not mention either his 
name or from whence he has arrived. I shall learn more of him in a 
day or two. The dak of to-day brings no news from Lahore, but the 
Peshawur news is of the 8th. All well. 

J . ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident, 

In hac hora inveni intelligentiam secretam inter principem Bursoe 
et centuriones exercitus Huzaroe, cave precor. All right I 


No. 43.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 11th and 12th 
June 1848. 

nth June— She nthtun, Huzara — The post of to-day brought no 
news from Lahore, but from Peshawur the news reaches the 9th and is 
favorable. I have also intelligence from Bunnoo to the 3rd when all was 
well, although reports of a meditated inroad of the Wuzeerees and 
another tribe had become strong. All is quite here ; intrigues and 
movements have been detected, but I am inclining to think they have 
proceeded from fear. My position is so strong that barring treachery 
the field force is at my mercy. I have no recent news from the Cashmere 
frontier. No force has yet advanced to MoozufiTurabad, nor has the 
Kuruao Force, I think, yet broken camp. The reports relating to Gilgit 
are not contradicted. If true, the incident is seasonable. Amongst the 
Sikhs there is a general belief that Maharaja Dhuleep Singh has 
disappeared or has been translated to Mooltan, 1 incline to regard these 
prophecies as the shadows, not always of coming events, but of meditated 
movements. This repoit was circulated here the same day as that 

-4 



,86 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, rS^S. 

which translated Bhae Maharaj Singh to Mooltan ; and I would venture 
to bUggCbt unusual care for the safe-conduct of the j-oung Maharaja. 
The Gooroo whom Sirdar Chuttur Singh received with so much distinc- 
tion is confidently said to be from the Jiilundhur, his name Achara 
Singh, his family Soodhi. Great mystery is preserved respecting him, 
the Nazim affecting to know nothing of him. and his name being 
ascertained with the utmost difficult\'. He is in a few da3's to proceed 
to Feshawur, and doubtless is not without his mission. I presume he 
is one of the priestly jaghirdars who were deprived of their lands for 
treason. A descriptive roll of Bhae Maharaj Singh is verj’ desirable. 

j 2th June i 8 ^ 8 SIterwaun, Huzara. — To-day the dak brings me two 
letters from Captain Lumsden, and a note from Peshawur of the lOth, 
when all was quiet. An intercepted letter from the pen of Goolam Hyder 
Khan recommends a massacre of the British officers, and promises aid. 
News from Captain Edwardes reaches the 28th. It is from Dera Ghazee 
Khan. A leader of 80 horse had just come over to him from the other 
side of the river. I can learn nothing of the movements of Raja Sher 
Singh’s Brigade. The Sirdar Chuttur Singh, his father, assures me that 
he never hears of or from him. I replied that the eyes of every Sikh in 
the Punjaub, with one e.xccptiou, arc watching his movements; it was 
marvellous that that e.xception should be the Raja's father. 

I have written as usual daily an official and a private cover. 
Yesterday I sent two private covers, one for Mr. Cocks and the other 
for Captain Lumsden. Mr. Cocks’ note was inclosed to Mr. Skinner. 
Captain Lumsden’s was sent through Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 44.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 12th and 13th 
June 1848 

1 2th June iS^S— Skcrinaitn, llmaia . — I sent in my diary yesterday 
and a note to Captain Lumsden ; 1 received by to-day’s dak Captain 
Lumsden’s letters of the 8th and 9th All continues quiet. 

I :^th June —Sherwatin . — I sent in my official letter No. ii and a 
note addre.=--ed to Mr. Cocks. I received b}’ this day’s post Captain 



O/AR/I-.s ,1/ CAI'IAIN J. AHHii/'l, jS/i 187 

Luinsden's note of the roth instant. In Mr. Cocks' note I have trans- 
lated the passages of an intercepted letter which led to the hint tin 
Latin) of a former day's journal. The Nazim has placed Moonshees at 
Hurripoor and at Kala Seraie to take lists of the letters which pass 
up to me. It is indeed easy to prevent dangerous letters falling into my 
hands. Jehandad Khan, Chief of Bhaingra and son of Paynda Khan, 
after his dismissal by me rode under cover of night with two sowars to 
the Nazim’s quarters and had a long conference with him. His Vaqueel 
denies the visit. He then mounted and rode 25 koss or about 40 miles, 
without drawing rein. He is said to have received Rs. 3,000 from the 
Nazim, but the nature of the treaty between them I do not yet know. 
Other intrigues are afoot and the Sikh priests are endeavouring to 
rouse the fanaticism of their people bj' pr.ayer and prophecy. The 
Asauti has been prohibited I am informed in three places. But the 
charge is as yet proved only in one case. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

My news from Peshawur is of the iith. All quiet there. 


No. 45 .— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 14th June 1848. 

i^thjune 1S../.8 — Sherwaun, Huzara . — I received to-day an answer 
from the Maharaja Goolab Singh to mj' remonstrance upon the assembly 
of a force upon this frontier. He denies that it is an army, and declares 
that its present position is dictated entirely by the abundance of grass^ 
firewood and water. At the same time the Khaganies having been 
applied to by the Kurnao Chief, Sher Ahmed, for aid to resist invasion 
have asked my instructions upon the subject. 1 have replied that the 
Maharaja has assured me no army of his is in motion or to be in motion 
without British permission. If therefore any army invades Kurnao 
it cannot be the army of our faithful friend the Maharaja, and the Kurnao 
Chiefs are at liberty to aid in resisting it. The two armies previously 
mentioned are confidently said to be camped still at the heads of the 
roads leading to Kurnao and to Moozuffurabad. Any advance without 
previous intelligence to British authorities may after the Maharaja’s 
letter be pronounced an instance of treachery. The Kurnao Chief has 



i88 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, rSfS 

not applied to me and I am glad that he has not. Colonel Canara wrote 
me to-day a budget of what is considered news at Huzara. The 
principal item is a report that Colonel Bal Singh’s Battery with Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh broke up and disbanded at a place called Loonmany. 
The post of yesterday brought me news of the 6th from Sirdar Jhundur 
Singh. Up to that time five men had deserted to the enemy, two 
sipahis and three horsemen. The corps had, however, not yet received 
their pay. He had reached a place marked in our maps Bahall, 
20 koss north of Leiah, where Mooltan’s corps are posted. He reports 
that some of the etiemy had offered to come over to him. My 
Moonshee. a Sikh, in answer desired him on meeting the enemy to 
unite with him. I asked what he meant. He replied that, if the enemy 
came over to him, he was to receive them. He had hoped apparently 
that the ambiguity would escape me. 

I received no letter j'esterday from Peshawur. The poor people of 
Chuch, Qatur, Rawul Bindi, Rohtass and Ghayb still throng my Kucherry. 
They have lost their best friend and protector. Captain Nicholson, and it 
is little that I can do to aid them. The loss of a just and devoted public 
servant is not easily supplied. 

1 received to-day Captain Lumsden’s note of the nth. 

J. ABBOTT, Captai.n, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 46. Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 15th June 1848. 

15^^ i 8 .f .8 Shernmun, Huzara . — I received to-day Captain 

Lumsden s note of the 12th and despatched my diary to the Resident 
and my usual note to that officer. The note written by Captain 
Lumsden on 14th Jayt came to hand to-day, having been sent to 
Captain Ta} lor at Bunnoo. The note written by the same gentleman 
on 15th Jayt, after being incautiously entered in the chilaun, was 
detained until the r6th, another private letter being substituted for it. 
Hence there is little doubt that some design was disappointed on 15th 



DIARIES or CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT. 1S4S 189 

]ayt, a da}' on which a Sikh prophet was to have appeared at Laliore. 
Hence also we may feel assured that the dak establishments were in 
the plot. It is a curious fact that whatever is to happen is to commence 
at Lahore. My Moosulman friends here always enquire anxiously 
whether anything has happened there, and are often incredulous when I 
assure them that all is right. The heart of the mischief is still without 
doubt centred there. The people laugh at the rising in Mooltan and 
say so long as all is well at Lahore everything will go smoothly. The 
most villainous reports are industriously circulated throughout the dis- 
trict. Last night Colonel Boodh Singh, who commands in Pukli, wrote to 
say that the Nazim had accused his corps and that of Bhadoor Singh of 
an intention to mutiny and of holding constant intercourse for the 
purpose. He complained bitterly of this accusation, declaring himself, 
his officers and men to be perfectly loyal. 

The object of this ruse may be to sound the depth of my knowledge 
of their designs and to exculpate the Sirdar from participation in them. 
The Sirdar has never hinted to me a word upon the subject. To-day a 
letter, without seal or signature or date, purporting to be from Raja Sher 
Singh, was brought in answer to my repeated enquiries and expressed 
astonishment that whilst the eye of every Sikh was turned with intensest 
interest towards the Raja, his father alone was utterly indifferent to his 
fate, and according to his own account neither received letters from his 
son nor made enquiries concerning him. The armies of Jumboo still 
command the roads to Kurnao and to Moozuffurabad. Vast quantities 
of provisions are being stored at the latter place — a necessary precaution 
when troubles are expected or when the local force is to be increased. 
The attitude of Jumboo belies the assurance of the Maharaja. But he 
is cautious and may lose Cashmere if he attempts to advance this 
way. Meean Jowahir Singh and Dewan Joalla Sahai have gone to 
Sireenugr, information sent to Sirdar Chuttur Singh for his comfort 
(lHs$nlli). The position of the young Prince appears to me rather critical, 
and I marvel that he should have dived into the stronghold of Jumboo 
whilst the affairs of the Punjaub are in so ricketty a state. I have news 
from Peshawur to the 13th, All quiet. 


J, ABBOTT, Captain, 


Assistant Resident, 



DTARIES OF CAPFA/N /. ABPOf l, iSjS 


i.p 

No. 47. -Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, from the 16th to the 
18th June 1848. 

i6lh June i8^S. — Sherimmt, Huzara. — News this evening reached 
me from Sirdar Jhundur Singh’s camp to effect that the Cherinjee Regi- 
ment of Cavalry (officers excepted) had deserted to the insurgents as the 
brigade was advancing toward Leiah. I have communicated particulars 
in an official letter to the Resident. Up to the moment of despatch, 
none of the other troops had followed the example of this regiment. 
But there is too much reason to apprehend further defection in regiments 
consisting of Sikhs, as I am aware that the corps in Huzara have been 
curiously watching the movements of Raja Sher Singh’s and Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh’s Brigades as likely to determine their own. 

At night one of the Hill Cliiefs came to inform me that the Kardar 
had been endeavouring to tamper with him, saying that all the army 
had declared against the British and that but a few days’ power was 
left to us. I receive these intimations with caution. But there is 
considerable correspondence and consistency in them. 

ijlhjuttc — Sherwauu. — At Peshawur all was quiet on the 15 th. 
They have not yet heard of the defection of the Cherinjee Regiment. It 
is singular that that regiment should not have waited for its pay, for two 
months of which the Sirdar was that day sending. The stability of 
the remaining regiments would be more satisfactory had it occurred after 
the receipt of pay. The corps must be nearly’ four months in arrears. 

iSth June — Sherwauu. — I have another letter from Maharaja Goolab 
Singh, denj’ing that he is moving any forces, and assuring me that none 
shall be moved without consent of the British, whose servant he is. The 
corps, so far as I can learn, still occupy the roads leading to Kurnao, and 
to Moozuffurabad ; but it is said that Dewan Hurrie Chnnd had been 
sent to Gilgit with part of the force destined for Moozuffurabad. The 
prevalent report is that the Sikhs are now looking forward to the 
month of F.hadnon for the appearing of their Gooroo and the reunion of 
their na'inn. They affect to have discovered the name of Dhuleep 
Singh in their canons, who is to have dominion as far as Delhi. All 
the.se prophecies may be regarded as the shadows of designs and are 
so far worthy of attention. The preparation of my daily packet and 



DIARTES OF CAPTATN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S 


191 

secret conferences with chiefs and others, who bring me intelligence, 
consume much of each day. The remainder is spent in Kucherry. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

I have been favored witli the perusal uf a very sensible letter from 
Mr. Potter, a Sikh officer, but an Englishman. He considers tliat the 
Sikh Troops are in a state of considerable excitement ; that the turn 
of a die would send them in thousands to the standard of Moolraj ; and 
that the Muhammadan troops in tlie Sikh service would scarcely have 
firmness to stand against a general defection. His observations agree 
perfectly with my own and with the accounts brought to me by others, 
and tally well with tlic opinion of other British officers in detached 
districts. 


J. ABBOTT. 


No. 48,— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 20th June 1848. 

2oth June iS.^ 8 . — Slutwaun . — A letter from Sirdar Jhundur Singh of 
loth June from Tibbee on the Indus, north of Leiah, gives further partic- 
ulars of the mutiny of the Cherinjee Regiment, It appears that whilst 
advancing upon Leiah, where Moolraj has a detachment of 500 men, he 
learnt that Colonel Dhara Singh’s Regiment of mountaineers and the 
Cherinjee Cavalry were in close correspondence with the insurgents 
and ready to seize his, the Sirdar’s, per.son, or to go over to the enemy. 
Thinking to disappoint by separating them, he told off three strong treas- 
ure parties for Pindi Ghayb, Pind Dadun Khan and J hung, pretending 
that the pay of the force had arrived at those places. In the night, 
however, about half the Cherinjee Regiment deserted, the officers 
standing fast. Hearing some days afterward that they were still in the 
neighbourhood, and that having received only 2\ rupees each in lieu 
of the 80 rupees ( or four months' pay) forfeited by desertion, they 
were half inclined to return to their duty, the Sirdar intimated to them 
that he could never again trust them unless they brought him the Kar- 
dar, alive or dead. Such wa^^ the state of things when the letter was 



192 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184S. 


despatched. Colonel Dhara Singh left Huzara in despair declaring that 
he felt assured his corps would desert, as certain that they would be 
defeated, and that ruin then awaited them all. The Sirdar had the 
same presentiment which appeared to be shared by all officers of higher 
grade. All this I liad the honor to intimate at the time of their depar- 
ture. I iiad more confidence in the Cherinjee Regiment than in the 
Infantry. The men are orderly and respectable, they have more to 
sacrifice than the Infantry, and I have always had some of them about 
my person. The Infantry may have been deterred from accompanying 
the Cavalry in their revolt by the obvious consideration that they could 
effect it at their leisure and after the receipt of their long arrears. It 
also appears that the Sikh prophets have deferred the period for the 
awakening of their Gooroo to the month of August next, so that the 
defection of the Cavalry was premature. The whole brigade, however, 
when it quitted Huzara (the Artillery perhaps excepted) was quite 
rotten. Yet it was no worse than the rest of the Sikh Army so far as 
I can learn. Dhara Singh’s corps is a hill regiment. The Cherinjee, 
although wholly Sikh, lias been remarkable for its orderly conduct and 
respectful demeanour, and its cheerful obedience to my orders. This 
and the Futteh Pultun readily assisted in building the Fort of Simul- 
kund, working as perhaps few regiments of British sipaliis would have 
done under similar circumstances. They have been with me through 
difficulties and privations without murmuring and their conduct to the 
last was faultless. 

J. ABBOTT, C.APTAi.x, 
Assistant Resident. 

I have strongly cautioned the Sirdar against receiving back muti- 
neers, who return in all probability merely to recover their pay and desert 
at some critical moment. I have recommended him to entertain about 
500 Moosulman recruits, which I hope will meet with the sanction of the 
Rc’ident. It is not for me to decide as to his further movements. My 
opinion ha.- been ever unfavorable to the advance of that or of Raja 
Slier Singh’s Brigade. 

No. 49.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 21st June 1848. 

-tst Jitnr — ''hd leann, Huzara . — The dak packet from Lahore, 
which arrived to-day, gives notice that a letter from Captain Lumsden 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848. 193 

should accompany. In the receipt, however, written at the Dak Office, 
Lahore, for mj' signature, no notice of this letter occurs, nor is the letter 
present. If therefore it was actually written it has been arrested in 
the Lahore Dak Office. I earnestly beg notice of these particulars 
because it is barely possible that the influence of Moolraj can extend 
to Lahore and yet the dak establishment of Lahore has been subservient 
to the views of the insurgents. 

In reconsidering the mutiny of the Cherinjee Regiment a few 
observations suggest themselves, which I humbly submit for consider- 
ation in the hope that if steps have not been taken to recall Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh’s Brigade some arrangements may instantly be made to 
cancel the baneful effect of its presence in that Dooab. The mutiny 
occurred when the troops were nearly four months in arrears and were 
in daily expectation of receiving two months’ pay. The Infantry Corps 
of Dhara Singh was supposed to have shared in the disaffection up to 
the moment of desertion. That they stood fast may be attributed, 
partly to their expectation of immediate payment, partly to the general 
impression prevalent that the awakening of the Gooroo, in other words 
the reunion of the Sikhs, is deferred. But had this mutiny occurred 
after the receipt of pay, in all probability it would have been more 
extensive and Captain Edvvardes would have had a formidable hostile 
brigade upon his left flank of which he could have had no suspicion. 

The mere accident of the delay in the payment of Sirdar Jhundur 
Singh’s Brigade has probably saved such ruinous consequences. But 
should any accident happen to Captain Edwardes’ Force there is too 
much reason to believe that the whole brigade would go over to the 
insurgents. 

I most earnestly recommend these considerations to your attention. 

1 he whole Sikh Army is in the same state of ferment if I may believe 
the information received from all quarters. In the game of war some 
chance inevitably mingles, but it seems to me that Captain Edvvardes' 
game just now is one in which hazard has the greater share. As a 
soldier I hope I may, without presumption, make these remarks. 

All is at present still in Huzara. Intrigues are in operation, but 
are conducted with the most extraordinary circumspection. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistani Resident, 


25 



194 


diaries of captain J. ABBOTT, i8f8. 

No. 50.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 22nd June 1848. 

22ii<i June iS^ 8 — Shrrjvntm, Huzaia — Goolam Rassool, a servant of 
the Peshavvur Agency, arrived lo-day en route for Cashmere, near which 
is his birthplace He brought many strange reports. Major Lawrence 
ordered (it appears) Boodh Singh’s corps to march from Attock to Hussun 
Ubdal, but as yet I believe it stands fast and no report of its movement 
has reached me. On the contrary a person recently from Attock repre- 
sents it as engaged in spreading far and wide reports of the discom- 
fiture of Captain Edwardes’ force, which I trust are wholly unfounded. 

I found the Kardar of this place engaged in intrigues with the 
zumeendars and have removed him. Sirdar Jhundur Singh assures me 
that none of my letters reach him. They are sent via Jelum and Find 
Dadun Khan. I have written to those officers, but, as I have often 
observed, the complete subservience of the dak establishment to the 
interests of the insurgents betrays a far more powerful and proximate 
patron of the insurrection than Moolraj. 

The state of the Rawul Pindi district is most forlorn through the 
oppression of the Naib Udaluttee, Sirdar Goordut Singh What that 
of Chukkowal is will have been learnt from Captain Nicholson’s former 
reports. 

The number of unfortunate plaintiffs who come from the distance of 
100 or 150 miles to my Kucherry in the hope (forlorn indeed) of getting 
redress here is a great embarrassment to the work of my own district. 

J. ABBOTT, Capt.-mn, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 51— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 24th June 1848. 

2jfth June — ShetwauH Huzara . — No new's from Lahore the last 
three days But all was well at Peshawur on the 21st. So far as my 
intelligence reaches the position of the Jumboo Brigades has not altered, 
but it is said that the remonstrances sent to the Maharaja are the cause 
of the inaction and there can be little doubt that he intended to have 
invaded Kurnao. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848. 


«95 


Huzara continues tranquil in spite of attempts to discredit our 
power with the people, and I feel sanguine of being able to preserve 
the present tranquillity, which depends little upon the presence of the 
Sikh troops of this Field force. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 52.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 24th June 1848. 

24.th June 18^8 — Huzara, Sherwaun . — A letter and messenger from 
Sher Ahmed, Chief of Kurnao, have just arrived stating the apprehension 
of that Chief that the Maharaja Goolab Singh is invading him without 
fault or provocation on his part and asking permission to resist and an 
accredited agent to be witness that he acts only in self-defence. I have 
replied that the Maharaja wholly disavows any intention of invasion ; 
that I trust therefore his fears are unfounded ; but that if nevertheless 
any army does assail his country, I shall not believe it to be the 
Maharaja’s, and that he can make his own arrangements. I do not 
believe the force has advanced since my first intimation of its position, 
but it is stated that the enemies of the Kurnao Chief and of Sooltan 
Hoseyne Khan have been summoned to Cashmere. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant RtHdent. 


No. 53 .— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 25tli and 26th 
June 1848. 

25th June 18^8 — Huzara, Sherwaun. — Received this day in a note 
from Mr. Inglis news of a victory gained by the Muhammadan levies 
under Captain Edwardes and the Bhawulpore force over the army of 
Mooltan : ordered as directed salutes to be fired at Hurripoor and in 
Pukli. This news will probably prevent more extensive defection. 

Colonel Bhoop Singh reports nearly 4 desertions from his corps 
Colonel Bhadoor Singh 21 and Colonel Richpal Singh 9. I have 
reason, however, to think the latter has underrated his quota. 



196 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848. 


26th June 18^8 — Sherwatin . — Evening closed without any appear- 
ance of the post bags of Lahore and Peshawur. I think it probable 
that rain has fallen to the eastward. All remains quiet. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 54 .— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 27th June 1848, 

2’jth June 1848 — Huzara, Sherwatin . — The missing post bag of 
yesterday was brought in to-day, one of the runners having been killed 
in a fray upon the road, at least such is the present belief. The 
Resident’s letter No. 280 of 23rd instant has been received in duplicate, 
the first copy not signed, and a note from Mr. Inglis gives a few 
further particulars of the late engagement. 

A messenger from Sooltan Hoseyne Khan of Moozuffurabad states 
that the Jumboo forces have advanced each one march towards Kurnao 
and Moozuffurabad, the latter force being at Bara Moola and the 
former under the Kurnao mountain. There can be little doubt that the 
object of these moves is to give confidence to the Sikh troops in 
Huzara ; but I think that the news of Captain Edwardes’ success will 
prevent any further advance at present and check an extensive move- 
ment of Sikh troops which my information led me to expect about this 
time. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

P- From further accounts just received there can be no doubt 
that the Jumboo troops are invading Kurnao — an expedient quite needless 
in my opinion as I could settle the matter peaceably by the interposition 
of British authority. I shall write again to remonstrate. 


J. ABBOTT, 
Assistant Resident. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 


197 


No. 55.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Besi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 28th June 1848. 

28th June 1848 — Sherwauu . — I hav'e recorded under yesterday’s 
date the report of the advance of the two columns of the Juniboo 
army to Bara Moola and to the foot of the Kurnao Mountains 
respectively. The latter column is said to be provided with an 
immense number of torches to enable it to thread the passes by 
night. It is well known that Maharaja Goolab Singh has long been 
bent upon the establishment of a fortress in Kurnao and the reduction of 
that province from a tributary to a dependent section of his kingdom. 
This is natural enough, but it is contrary to the terms of the settlement 
made by Mr. Vans Agnew so far as I can inform myself of them, and 
it appears to me contrary to sound policy to permit at this time such 
an usurpation. First, because the complete subjection of Kurnao will 
encourage all those hopes, which have been so industriously circulated 
amongst the insurgents in Mooltan and their friends in the Sikh army, 
of aid from Jumboo, and, secondly, because so long as Kurnao is free 
the British possess almost unlimited power over the fortunes of 
Cashmere. 

The intelligence comes from the best possible source — Sooltan 
Hoseyne Khan. It is however in direct contradiction of the Maharaja's 
repeated protests to the Resident and to myself. It is therefore im- 
possible that the purpose can be honest, and when compared with the 
feeling prevalent throughout the Sikh army, that the Maharaja Goolab 
Singh is marching to their aid and is the chief instigator of the Mooltan 
rebellion, little doubt can remain that the advance of these columns is 
designed to encourage the spirit of insurrection in the Sikh army, 
and which my intelligence led me to expect to betray itself about this 
time upon an extensive scale. Captain Edwardes’ brilliant success will 
probably obstruct, if not prevent, this movement. But it is doubtful 
whether the Maharaja will abandon his invasion of Kurnao. 

The whole of the hill tribes abhor his dominion and await but the 
slightest encouragement from me to band together for his destruction 
and were he even supported by the Sikh forces in Huzara, I have 
little doubt that, with timely permission to act, I could render his 
tenure of Cashmere very precarious. But there is no probability that 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


198 

SO wily an intriguer will ever betray himself into any step that could 
give plea for our direct coercion, and Kurnao unsupported by the other 
hill provinces could not long resist his arms. 

I have just written to His Highness reminding him of his protes- 
tations to the Resident and to myself and enquiring in what light I 
am to consider his violation of them ; begging him, if he has any- 
thing to arrange with the Kurnao Province, to trust the arbitration to my 
hands, and to withdraw forces which are alarming the hill tribes and 
leading to suspicions unfavourable to friendship. 

I do not detail the reports greedily received in these parts of his 
direct, though covert, aid to the Mooltanees ; such conduct were utterly 
inconsistent with his character, but the belief in his friendly intentions 
towards the insurgents could scarcely be so universal and so strong 
without encouragement received from him. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 56.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 30th June 1848. 

jo/A June 18^8 — Huzara, Sherwatin. — A note from Mr. Inglis was 
received by to-day’s post. On the 27th all was quiet in Peshawur. No 
fresh news has been received from the frontier ; but the alarm of Sool- 
tan Hoseyne Khan is great and he has begged an asylum in Huzara 
of which I have assured him, should he be more nearly threatened. 
The Mooltan news will, I think, render the Maharaja Goolab Singh 
more ready to listen to my suggestions. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 57 .— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzai’a, for the 2nd July 1848. 

2nd July 18^8— Huzara, Sherwaun — Matters remain as before upon 
the Cashmere frontier, so far as my intelligence reaches. The alarm 
is great, and it is impossible for me to recommend those not immedi- 
ately threatened, to take part with the invaded, or rather with those 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


199 


who expect invasion, and without encouragement from me Sher 
Ahmed's friends will, I fear, prove lukewarm. The cause of Moolraj 
is not despaired of by the Huzara Field Force, and unless he gives way 
to despair, he may receive succour. 

J. ABBOTT, C.APTAi.N, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 58.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 4th and 5th 
July 1848. 

ph July i 8 ^ 8 — Huzara, SherieauH.—yiy accounts of the Field Force 
in Pukli are very unsatisfactory. The salute in honor of the victory of the 
1 8th ultimo was scarcely fired before plots were set afoot to seduce the 
Sipahees of Colonels Bhoop and Bhadoor Singh’s Corps from their 
allegiance. Colonel Bhoop Singh confined two of the ringleaders, but 
they decamped in company with the sentinel who guarded them during 
the night. Colonel Canara has wmitten to his Commandant to put four 
more in irons and send them to Hurripoor. The development of this 
mutinous spirit seems to me rather desirable than otherwise ; its conceal- 
ment appears to me the danger. Six or seven more men have deserted 
from Colonel Bhoop Singh’s Corps during this week. The garrisons 
in Huzara being commanded generally by Sikh officers wink at their 
flight, notwithstanding the most stringent orders. Colonel Bhoop Singh 
is an officer distinguished for brave conduct and justice. He is a 
nephew of Khaun Singh, Maun. I fear from his deportment that he is 
disheartened. I have always hoped in his loyalty and have no reason 
to doubt it. If free from implication any assurance of favor might 
be well bestowed upon him. 

5th July — Sherwaun — Letters from Peshawur of the 3rd announce 
all quiet. Colonel Boodh Singh’s Corps, which, despite its order to 
march, was dallying at Attock, has marched since receipt of the victory 
on the Chenab. His excuse for delay is frivolous. He has also dis- 
covered, since the news aforesaid, that his jaghir is not, as he supposed 
resumed. Matters remain in the same state in Pukli ; at Hurripoor, 
there is less excitement. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 



200 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848. 


No. 59.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 6th July 1843 

6th July j 8 8— Huzara, Skcrwaun.—Th^ excitement in the Pukli 
Field Force, consisting of the regiment of Bhoop Singh, a wing of 
Bhadoor Singh’s Corps, a troop of the Churunjeit, another of — Missal 
and four guns of Colonel Canara’s Artillery, continues unabated. If 
confined to this Field Force it is of little consequence, but the cause 
being of a nature to affect the whole Sikh arm}', there is some reason to 
think it more extensive. In fact the Sikh army is alarmed at the extent 
of its implication in the Mooltan rebellion, and all of superior rank 
similarly implicated are naturally anxious to foment this fear and to stir 
up the army to another effort for the service of their puppet, Moolraj. 
If other branches of the army are as ripe for the undertaking as 
the Pukli Force, an immediate movement may be expected. But I have 
no news from Peshawur which can justify the supposition of excite- 
ment prevailing there, although the Sikhs in Chuch, previous to the 
late victory, were expecting a movement from that quarter. 

Colonel Bhoop Singh sent me, at my request, a confidential servant 
yesterday. But the man gave me no authentic intelligence, and the 
impression he left upon my mind is that Colonel Bhoop Singh, who was 
at first so opposed to the wild schemes of his soldiers, must have become 
alarmed and less earnest in his opposition. I have done my best to 
reassure him. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 60 — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 6th July 1848- 

6h July r8,fS — Huzara, Slierwatm. — I have no fresh authentic 
intelligence to record this day. Report says that the Jumboo army has 
retired a march from the Kurnao frontier since the despatch of my 
remonstrance to the Maharaja. In Pukli the samestrongexcitement prevails 
amongst the troops, and two regiments are, I believe, prepared to march 
upon Mooltan, if any check happen to our arms. This naturally induces 
me to survey the position of our forces in Mooltan. Captain Edwardes 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 


lot 


with an indisciplined army rated at 1 8 , 000 , faces the beaten army of 
Moolraj, which is safe under the walls of the fortress, and the steamers 
ought to give him command of the river. But, on the other hand, 
the brigades of Raja Sher Singh and of Sirdar Jhundur Singh are 
now almost in contact with this army, and it is impossible to say 
which side either or both will take in the contest, especially should 
the late disclosures have extensively implicated the Sikh aristocracy. 
I have ever entertained high hopes of Sirdar Jhundur Singh. But 
under the supposition above noted, the cause would become national 
and no dependence would be placed upon any Sikh, The Moosulmaun 
troops raised by Sirdar Jhundur Singh and by Dewan Jowahir Mull 
Dutt are wholly subservient to those officers. I have reason to know 
that those officers are subservient to the will of Sirdar Chuttur Singh. 
Thus the whole Sikh force now in motion is controlled by the latter 
officer, a bosom friend of Maharaja Goolab Singh, who has generally 
the credit with the insurgents of being the instigator of this rebellion. 
If the two advanced brigades go over to the enemy the whole Sikh 
army will follow their lead. Against this chance, which appears to me 
a probable one, I trust precautions have been taken. Sirdar Chuttur 
Singh obtained leave last night upon plea of severe and dangerous 
illness to change air by a visit to Baug Bootur, his residence in KuIIur. 

I was not aware in granting it of all I have since discovered. It is even 
reported by some that he is only feigning illness. He has preserved 
a profound silence as to the state of the brigade in Pukli which cannot 
be unknown to him. I offer these remarks with much submission. 
They seem to me too important to be withheld. 

J. ABBOTT, Captai.n, 

Assis/a»f Resident. 

The Jumboo Brigades, though withdrawn one short march to satisfy 
the British Government, still threaten this frontier. 


No. 61.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 7th July 1848- 

yth July i8^8—Hu3aia, Sherwaun. — I have this day received the 
Resident’s letter No. 303 of the 3rd instant, to which I hope to reply 

26 



ioi 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, iS-tS. 


to-morrow. I have despatched my diary of the 6th as usual, which treats 
of matter that appears to me of much importance. A note to Mr. Cocks 
accompanies and a note to Mr. Inglis is sent as usual through the 
Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud. The Pukli Brigade is in the same state of 
excitement, talking confidently of an immediate march to Mooltan. I 
trust precautions have been taken against the consequences of either 
Raja Sher Singh or Sirdar Jhundur Singh declaring for Moolraj, 
as their example would be followed by the whole Sikh army, who are 
far from giving up the cause of the Dewan, which, so far as I can judge, 
seems to have become national. I have the best possible reason to 
think Sirdar Chuttur Singh’s health as good as it has ever been for 
some years past, and that his wish to leave Huzara has no reference 
whatever to the state of his health. I yesterday wrote begging him to 
remain. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

I hope that as a soldier I may be permitted to observe that any 
operations against the fort of Mooltan upon a scale insufficient to insure 
success, even supposing a large part of the Sikh army to march to its 
relief, are likel}' to be attended with disaster. The fort is no contemptible 
place and requires a very powerful siege train as well as a considerable 
body of staunch and disciplined troops for its investment. 

J. ABBOTT. 


No. 62.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 7th and 8th 
July 1848. 

7th July 18^8 — Htizara, Slurwaun . — With reference to the contents 
of my diary of the 6th I am happy to find that Captain Edwardes has 
ordered back Sirdar Jhundur Singh’s Brigade to Leiah to the manifest 
mortification of that Chief and the probable disarrangement of the 
immediate plans of the conspirators, I cannot but think that an interval 
between the Sirdar’s Brigade and Captain Edwardes’ force is whole- 
some. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


ao3 

8lh July 18^8 — Sherwaun . — I received to-day Mr. Inglis’ note 
announcing Captain Edwardes’ second victory and have ordered salutes 
of 21 guns at Hurripoor, Hussun Ubdal and in Pukli. There is 
great dismay amongst the Sikhs of this neighbourhood. The 
seventh Rissala of the Churunjeit regiment is in much alarm owing 
to a report that the houses of men of that corps are to be destroyed. 

I have written to reassure them. The Rissala has as yet evinced 
no symptoms of disaffection. But it may be the policy of those 
concerned in the conspiracy to contrive that the houses of the innocent 
be molested to throw them into the arms of the insurgents, unless much 
care is observed. 

My news from Peshavvur is of the 8th. All was then quiet. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 63.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 11 th July 1848. 

nth July 1848 — Huzara, Sherwaun . — By advice from Major Law- 
rence in Peshavvur, I learn that the Sikh Gooroo, Achara Singh, whom 
Sirdar Chuttur Singh assured me he had not seen, and who had, he 
said, left Hurripoor for Lahore, was sent by the Sirdar secretly across 
the Gundgurh mountain to Peshawur, where he now is. The Gooroo 
allows that he received two visits from the Sirdar, and I have assurance 
that he was treated by the Sirdar with extraordinary honor. It is seldom 
that the extreme caution of Sirdar Chuttur Singh lays him open to such 
direct proof of intrigue : but his intrigues are not the less certain. 

In a letter from one of the Jumboo ministers to Sirdar Chuttur 
Singh, the Sirdar is begged to be of good cheer, for that Meean Jowahir 
Singh had that day departed in company with Dewan Joalla Sahaie for 
Sirinugur. The young Prince, it is well known, is an object of extreme 
fear to Maharaja Goolab Singh and his heir-apparent, and, as such, 
must be held in some awe by Sirdar Chuttur Singh, whose strength is 
in his intimate friendship with the Maharaja, and whose plans, 
supposing him to be engaged in this conspiracy, might be disappointed 



DIARinS OF CAPTATN J. ABBOTT, iSfS. 


304 

by the freedom of Meean Jowahir Singh. If the young Prince is not 
at perfect freedom, i.c., if he is in Cashmere, his safety may be 
worthy of attention. He is a favorite in his uncle’s army and has the 
sympathies of all the Dogra tribe in his favor. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assislanl Resident. 


No. 64.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 12th July 1848. 

1 2th July iS^ 8 — Huzara, Sherwaun . — I have received Mr. Inglis’ 
letter of the gth by to-day’s post. No post is in from Peshawur. An 
intelligent correspondent in Raja Sher Singh’s camp writes me that the 
Brigade of that Raja has from the first been bent upon joining the 
insurgents, and that none but Sikhs have been admitted to their 
consultation. The value of this evidence will be best tested at Lahore by 
comparison with other testimony. From a letter of Sirdar Jhundur Singh 
just received I gather that he has not marched back to Leiah, according 
to Captain Edwardes’ instructions, and as he assured me he would 
do, but is lingering for further advice at Kurgura, the position of which 
I cannot make out. There are, I think, strong reasons why his force 
should be separated by the greatest possible interval from Mooltan. 
He tells me he . has sent all the Huzara people, according to Captain 
Edwardes’ orders, to that officer's camp. This seems to me a wise 
arrangement. I would earnestly advocate the despatch of a powerful 
force of staunch troops with the largest possible number of small mor- 
tars. The cause of Moolraj is not despaired of yet by the Sikh army. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

P.S. By giving the day duties to the Sipahis, the night duties to the 
Europeans ; by digging deep the trenches in that light soil, and roofing 
them over with palm branches, much of the ill-effects of exposure might 
be '^aved, and the interval between the rity and the fort is trifling. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. aoS 

No. 65.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 12th July 1848. 

12th July 184.8 — Huzara, Sherivaun . — During the last few days great 
efforts have been made by the Sikh authorities to detach the Huzara chiefs 
from their devotion to British interests, and I fear not without success. 
Three of the principal and several of the lesser chiefs appear to have 
been bought over ; amongst the former, unless my intelligence deceives 
me, is Sooltan Hose3’ne Khan, who refused effectual aid by us had little 
option of refusing the promises of Sirdar Chuttur Singh. It is difficult 
to conceive why this chief should be secured, if the Jumboo armies intend 
not to quit their own frontier. His co-operation is useful only for this 
purpose, yet it were hard to suppose so cautious a man as the Maharaja 
capable of such a design 

The other chiefs have acted according to human nature. They 
see that we cannot spare a single regiment to avenge the blood of a 
British Governor shed in the very face of our armies, and they argue 
either that our Governors are lightly regarded by their Government or 
that the Government is powerless to avenge them. I would that my 
remonstrances could avail to secure the instant assembly of a powerful 
force and siege train around Mooltan. It is impossible to avoid the 
impression that otherwise another and vigorous effort will be made for 
its relief. There are 15,000 troops in its neighbourhood who may go 
over to his cause to-morrow: and I can answer for it that several of the 
regiments in this quarter would instantly march to join them. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain’, 

Assistant Resident. 

No. 66 — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 14th July 1848. 

14th July 1848 — Huzara, Sherivaun. — I have no fresh intelligence to 
record. The wing of Bhadoor Singh’s corps in Pukli is actually beginning 
to talk of carrying into effect my repeated orders to roof in their bar- 
racks for the rainy season, which ought to have set in fourteen days ago 
and is very severe in Pukli. If they actually complete this work I shall 
suppose they have given up for the present their purpose of marching 



3 o 6 diaries of captain J. ABBOTT, 1848. 

southward. I have no late intelligence from the Cashmere frontier and 
unfortunately can no longer depend as before upon that supplied by the 
Sooltan. I have no reason to suppose there has been an}- advance. But 
the Maharaja now informs me through his Vuqueel that he did intend to 
invade Kurnao to punish its chief for having ravished a Khuttrani, but that 
he had ordered his troops to desist in consideration of the Resident’s 
wishes. Greater consistency would tend to confidence. 

J. ABBOTT, Captalv, 

Assistant Resident. 

All was quiet in Peshawur on the i ith. 


No. 67. —Diary of Captain Janies Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 14th July 1848. 

i^-th July i8.j.8 — Huzara, Shenuaun . — 1 have just received the 
Resident’s letter No. 322 of nth July. 

My diaries will have shown that the ferment in the Pukli Brigade 
has subsided to outward appearance since news of Captain Edwardes’ 
second victory. It had never been my intention to suffer the mutineers 
to leave the country peaceably. But I have forborne to touch upon the 
subject because the most perfect secrecy is necessary to successful 
opposition. 

With a view to allay distrust on the part of the Sikh regiments, I 
have kept with me the company that had hitherto formed my body- 
guard, although there was much difficulty in accommodating them, and 
did not part with the sowars of the Churunjeit Regiment until they 
themselves represented that their horses would perish exposed to the 
heavy rain of the mountain and in absence of proper forage. 

The worst part of the mutinous disposition of regiments is that 
it is rarely if ever reported by the officers ; that the Nazim who has 
more ample means of information than I possess denies knowledge of it 
at seasons when it has become notorious, and that to this moment I have 
never received from him a hint that could tend to the security of the pres- 
ent Government. I have often asked myself anxiously whether 1 
were not wronging him by distrust ; but I confess I find it impossible 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


207 


to form from the premises which are undoubted any different deduction. 
If, however, he has never been directly implicated, he will probably 
shape his course according to the set of the wind and remain a pillar 
of the State. If he has been 103'al throughout he has wronged himself 
deeply by the veil of mystery and insincerity in which he has involved 
his conduct. 

J. ABBOTT, CaPTAi.N, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 68.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 16th July 1848. 

i 6 th July 1 8.^.8 — Huzara, S/icrwatin . — No fresh occurrences have 
to be noticed ; my news from the Cashmere frontier is less trustworthy 
than heretofore from causes already noticed. In Pukli there is less 
open excitement, but the disposition remains as before, awaiting only 
opportunity. The two Sipahis despatched from Huzara to escort the 
Gooroo, Bhaee Achara Singh, to Peshawur arrived to-day as prisoners. 
They now deny their having been the Gooroo’s companions, though 
they acknowledge that they quitted Huzara at the same time, the one by 
permission of Sirdar Chuttur Singh, the other by that of Colonel Richpal 
Singh, on pretence of visiting brothers. Both are Sikhs. Neither the 
Sirdar nor the Colonel had authority to grant this leave without my 
sanction, and it will be remembered that Sirdar Chuttur Singh pretended 
not to know of Bhaee Achara Singh’s presence in Huzara, where he had 
paid him marked attention, and that he afterwards informed me that the 
Bhaee had gone back to Lahore. Doubtless he supposed that by the time 
this deviation from truth could be detected, it would be too late to notice 
it' I have written to began explanation of him. The Bhaee must have 
reached Peshawur just about the date (15 Harr/i) fixed by the Sikh army 
for a rising, disappointed apparently by news of Captain Edwardes’ 
victories. 

All was quiet in Peshawur on the 14th. 

J, ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 



2o8 


DIARIES OF CADTAW /. ABBOTT, iS-/S. 


No. 69. —Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 16th July 1848. 

j6th July j8,^8 — Hitsata, Sherwaurt. —I have no fresh occurrences 
to record, and the inflamed state of my eyes prevents me from attempting 
as I had purposed, to touch upon the subjects mentioned in the Resi- 
dent's letter of the 1 1 th instant, I cannot, however, defer to observe 
that Sirdar Jhundur Singh seems to have expected his recall to Lahore, 
as he halted upon the Chenab instead of obeying Captain Edwardes’ 
order to return to Leiah, as he assured me he would. I am aware that 
it is a great object of the conspiracy to have Sikh troops at or near the 
capital and to see the British garrison diminished ; that Dhara Singh's 
Corps is not to be depended upon ; and that the cause of Moolraj is not 
yet abandoned, either by those who set him up, or by the army who 
consider him their champion. From the extreme anxiety of all our well- 
wishers that Lahore should be strongly guarded, and from the Sikh 
prophecies all hinging upon the capture of that city, I gather that from 
the first to the present moment it has been the rallying point of their 
designs. It must also be borne in mind that owing to the extreme 
facility with which Sikh troops move, upwards of 15 regiments with 
their artillery could be concentrated upon Lahore within a single week. 

I trust therefore that the garrison is not to be diminished, and that the 
presence of Sikh regiments is not to be encouraged. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 70. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 17th July 1848. 

lythjuly i8cf.8 — Huzara, Sheruiaun.~\ have no very authentic 
intelligence from the Cashmere border. Report says that regiments of 
Jumboo troops are marching from Cashmere to Jumboo — a report that 
should not be left in doubt as it would denote a change in the tactics of 
the conspirators, and that Lahore not Mooltan is now their object. 
That another and vigorous effort will be made by them, if the 
smallest avenue is left for hope, cannot be doubted ; and Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh seems to have been aware that he was to be recalled 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1 S 4 S. 2^9 

to Lahore, for he halted upon the Chenab many days after receiving 
Captain Edwardes’ order to return to Leiah. His brigade would certainly 
join any hopeful rising of the conspirators, if it is not much belied. 
One of his regiments, Dhara Singhs, is formed of Jumboo men, 
subservient to Maharaja Goolab Singh. 

I am the rather inclined to think this change of plans in operation, 
because the principal chiefs in Huzara have become alarmed and are 
anxious to smother up their late arrangements to forsake or betray me. 

I have no news to-day from Peshawur. 

J. ABBOTT, CA^TAI.^, 

Aisislant Kcfident. 

No. 71.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 18th July 1848. 

iSthJuly iS^S—Huzara, Sherwaun.—lhe Shub Rooz {sic) festival 
has been kept up the last three nights by the Muhammadans of my 
guard, and the zumcendars in attendance, with much merriment. 1 find 
my impression that Sirdar Jhundur Singh had received news of his pur- 
posed recall to Lahore, many days before he received the order, verified 
by fact. But although he reports his recall and sends me copy of the 
order he is profoundly silent as to the intelligence which preceded it. 
All- his real correspondence with Sirdar Chuttur Singh is carried on 
through confidential messengers, to my certain knowledge- The letters 
sent by post are purposely written to convey false impressions. This is 
the system throughout. The members of the Durbar trust none of theii 
really important orders to the dak. Private messengers are constantly 
passing to and fro between them and the oflficers of the army. A dak is 
maintained by the Sirdar, Chuttur Singh, with Cashmere, although he 
utterly denies it. Messengers are constantly passing from Cashmere to 
, Peshawur, if the testimony of hundreds is to be believed. The extieme 
quietude of the Peshawur force amid all the excitement of other branches 
of the army is a striking proof that the rebellion is no military 
movement, no chance complication of disorders, but a S 3 'stem wielded by 
onc master hand ; for any premature sy'mptom of disaffection there 
might suffice to ruin the cause of the conspirators, by arraying the 

27 



aio DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S48. 

Muhammadan population against them. Nevertheless, I have undoubted 
intelligence that the forces on this side of the Indus have ever 
calculated upon being joined by those in Peshawur. Another curious 
feature is that the only Native officer who has ever given a hint of 
the excitement of his men is one who, knowing that he was suspected, 
has endeavoured to stave off personal danger by reporting a partial 
mutiny in a brigade rotten throughout. 

I have news from Peshawur to the i6th ; all was then quiet. There 
is to-day some appearance of rain. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

The presence of a steamer in the Jelum at the city of that name 
would place in our power all the boats of one of the grand fosses which 
separate the Sikh army from Mooltan. Artillery can scarcely cross 
higher up. But the boats should be seized, if alarm is given, as high 
as the hill fort of Mungla, or eighteen miles higher up. At Mungla there 
are several large boats, but no ferry for artillery above it. Between 
Jelum and Pind Dadun Khan the crossings are difficult owing to 
the number of channels. Jelum itself is the best ferry. Two steamers 
were better than one. 

J. ABBOTT. 


No. 72.— Journal of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 19th and 20th 
July 1848. 

19th July i8.f8 — Huzara, Sherzcaun . — After despatching my official 
correspondence I held kucherry as usual. I forbear to notice the 
impiessions made upon my mind by symptoms almost too slight to be 
defined, because I gather that evidence is necessary for all reported in 
a journal. Whereas hitherto I have supposed it especially designed as a 
vehicle for tliose reports, rumors and impressions, which are all that the 
Sikhs ever afford of evidence of any purposed movement, which have 
never yti been falsified bj' the event, but which yet do not separately 
deserve a formal official report. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iSfS, 2II 

30 th July 184.S — After the despatch of my official correspondence 
I held kucherry as usual until sunset. Received a letter from Captain 
Nicholson, dated iSth, when all was quiet at Fcshawur ; there is no 
news either from Cashmere or from any other quarter that can be relied 
upon as authentic. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

No. 73.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 21st and 22nd 
July 1848. 

list July 18^8 — Huzara, Slicrwaun . — After despatching my official 
correspondence I held kucherry until sunset. The Vuqueelof Maharaja 
Goolab Singh waited upon me with a letter from that Prince, in which 
he allows that the armies assembled on this frontier were for the 
reduction of Kurnao. The Vuqueel on the part of his master consulted 
me about this Hill District, saying that the Raja had not come in 
upon summons. I replied that he had sent his son, who was long 
in attendance upon the Maharaja’s Dewan in Huzara, but that when he 
perceived that the Maharaja had failed to fulfil his covenant with Sooltan 
Hoseyne Khan, he kept aloft fearing treachery. Thte Vuqueel stated 
on the part of his master that the Kurnao Chief, Raja Shere Ahmed, had 
carried off a large drove of cattle. I replied that I had heard that 
he was not implicated in the robbery, and was willing to abide any 
judgment if it should be proved against him ; that I thought the 
matter had better be investigated, ere be was punished for what was said 
to be another's crime. The Vuqueel enquired what were my views re- 
garding Kurnao; stated that the Maharaja was desirous of re-establishing 
the fort there. I said that I thought it would be better to give Shere 
Ahmed a trial upon the settlement arranged by Mr. Vans Agnew ; that 
to the best of my remembrance this left Kurnao in the state of a tributary 
province, without garrison, yielding without expense one-fifth revenue 
to Government ; that the expenses of a garrison would consume 
double the revenue, and that I felt assured Shere Ahmed would abide 
by a settlement made by me, if the Maharaja desired such. He said 
that the Maharaja complained that the guilty hearts of Shere Ahmed 
and Sooltan Hoseyne Khan were always leading them to apprehend 



JU 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ATPol I, /S^S 


invasion, and to complain to the British Government, I replied that the 
lion saw the lamb trembling in his presence, and made exactly the 
same complaint of him ; that the chiefs in question had made no 
complaint, until armies were actually fitted out against them. 

22nd July i8if.8 . — Held kucherry as on the previous day. Sirdar 
Chuttur Singh, finding that I had discovered the presence in his Durbar 
of a messenger named Gunda Mull from Jumboo, thought it necessary to 
inform me to-day that the man had merely come to see his son and had 
been dismissed that day on his return to Jumboo. He is only one 
of many messengers from that Court ; but generally they are disguised 
and remain only to receive answers. There were nothing very 
extraordinary in this intercourse with a bosom friend, were it not 
solemnly denied by the Sirdar. 


J. ABBOTT, Captai.v, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 74.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 23rd and 24th 
July 1848. 

23rd July 18^8 — Huzara, Sherwaun . — After divine service held 
kucherry until sunset. We have no authentic intelligence to-day from 
any quarter, although there are many reports. As one of the latter speaks 
of part, if not all, the Pukli Brigade awaiting only their pay to march 
toward.s Mooltan, 1 have begged the Nazim not to disburse it at present 

2.^th July — Sherwaun . — After the despatch of official correspondence 
held kucherry until sunset. No authentic intelligence, but the old 
report of a design Xo chupew Captain Edwardes’ camp on the night of the 
15th Sawun still prevails and has been actively circulated at Pukli by 
a messenger purporting to have come from Mooltan The Moozuffur- 
abad force speaks of being immediately ordered to Jumboo when 
relieved from Cashmere. The rains have not set in. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident, 



DIARIES OE CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S 213 

No. 75.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 25th and 26th 
July 1848. 

2§th July 184.8 — Sherwaiin . — After despatch of my official corre- 
spondence held kucherry until sunset. Received a letter from Sirdar 
Jhundur Singh announcing his march towards Lahore. The Devvan 
Adjoodhia Persaud had previously reported that he had marched to 
Mooltan. The rumours referred to in former passages of my Journal 
are increasing in distinctness. There is certainly a very general 
impression amongst the Sikh force in Huzara and Qatur that a struggle 
for their old kingdom is at hand. I have however no authentic 
intelligence of facts Sooltan Hoseyne Khan has ceased to supply me 
with news. My own messengers report that the Moozuffurabad force 
was suddenly ordered to Jumboo and again as suddenly ordered to stand 
fast. A fortnight must, I think, exhibit the real nature of the game 
which the Sikhs are playing. 

26th July — Sherii'aun . — After the despatch of my official corre- 
spondence I held kucherry until evening. On the assurance of several 
of the Mulliks of Huzara I have delivered from their imprisonment 
the four Mulliks of Simulkund who gave themselves up for trial. 
They had been nearly a year imprisoned. But as they do not prove 
to have been the principals in the Bukha murder and cannot be proved 
to have had any actual share in that cruel business, 1 have deemed it 
better to pardon freely their past misdemeanours, whilst I retain 
this power, than to leave them as tools of disorder in the hands of the 
Sikhs. Their release has given great satisfaction to all parties. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

No. 76.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 28th and 29th 
July 1848. 

28th July 1848. — Sherwann . — After the despatch of my official 
correspondence held kucherry until sunset. A great effort is in operation 
to persuade the troops in Huzara and Qatur to join the insurrection. 
The most dismal reports are in circulation. The capture of two 
European officers is announced and the zumeendars are assured that the 
British have only eight days left of authority in this country. Accounts 
from Peshawur are favorable. I have no authentic news from Cashmere. 



214 


D/ARrES OF CAPTAIN /, AliFOTJ\ 104S. 


3gth July 184.8 — Sherwaun . — After tlie despatch of my official 
correspondence held kucherry until sunset The ferment in the Pukli 
Sikh Brigade continues. ^Mthough all this may as heretofore end in the 
troops remaining quiet, yet as there is a strong desire on the part of the 
Sikh army to march to the rescue, I trust precautions are not neglected 
to prevent their possible junction. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 77.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 29th and 30th 

July 1848. 

2gth July, or i8th Sawtni, 1848— Sherwaun. — I have previously 
intimated that the 15th Sawun was appointed, according to my intelli- 
gence, for some treacherous exploit at Mooltan. So certain do the Sikhs 
feel of its success that they have assumed in Huzara the tone of con- 
querors, and so far as I can learn are prepared to follow up the blow by 
marching in force either upon Mooltan or Lahore, the latter seems the 
more probable. The regiments that will most probably move from this 
neighbourhood, should the news be such as they anticipate, are Bhoop 
Singh’s, Boodh Singh’s, Bhadoor Singh’s, Pertaub Singh’s, and the four 
guns in Pukli with Syud Mahomed Shah, Noorooddeen’s heavy battery. 
Sirdar Mhaitab Singh’s horse. But unless I mistake, all the Bunnoo force 
would join ; whether all or any of the Peshawur force would move seems 
doubtful. The Sikh soldiery here expect it, and some of them lately 
demanding of Bhoop Singh to be marched off instantly were answered 
that they should move so soon as the Peshawur force moved. This 
however might be a put off. My intelligence does not admit of judicial 
proof. But it is reported to me that Bhoop Singh has since called the 
disaffected of his regiment around him and told them that he is 
now ready to lead them to Mooltan. Syud Mahomed Shah is by 
the same authority reported to have assembled his golundauze on 
Saturday last, and to have assured them that on intelligence of 
Moolraj’s expected victory each man should have a bracelet, and 
that they should march at once to Mooltan. Sirdar Chuttur Singh, 
according to another authority, which has never yet deceived me, 
being appealed to by some zumeendars whose sugarcane his borsemeo 



DIAKIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 215 

had trampled, replied : “ You are the servants of the English. If it 
please the seven Gooroos, in eight days I will break your necks.’’ The 
Kardar of Qatur on receiving one of my purwanas from another party is 
reported by him to have replied. “ Very well, to-day it is as the Sahibs 
will, but in eight days we will deprive you of all they have granted,” 
If Captain Edwardes received my warning in good time, I trust all these 
expectations will be frustrated. But according to my best intelligence 
troops arc marching from Cashmere to Jumboo, I presume to threaten 
Lahore or at least to give confidence to any who may be disposed to 
attack that city. A secret correspondence is said to be maintained be- 
tween Sirdar Chuttur Singh, Raja Ali Gohr Khan, Gukha, and Maharaja 
Goolab Singh, and Sirdar Chuttur Singh is said to have just received 
from the Ruler of Cabul a negative to his urgent entreaty to aid the 
Sikh cause, which else must come to shame. The impression amongst 
our well-wishers is general, that any attempt of the Sikhs will be directed 
against Lahore, where they are confident of co-operation from the 
garrison of the citadel. 

A report was implicitly believed a month ago at Moozufifurabad. but 
seemed to me too improbable for record, that Maharaja Goolab Singh 
had paid up and dismissed three battalions, privately instructing them to 
go and take service at Mooltan. This report gained some little strength, 
when the Maharaja's own servants informed me that he had heard some 
of the Jumboo troops had deserted and gone to Mooltan. The pres- 
ent is a season for the utmost vigilance, and the faintest and most 
improbable reports are often the most true- On the 1 st August it will 
probably be known here whether the insurrection is to assume an 
immediate head or to be quiet until a fresh opportunity I shall then 
know how far the chiefs of Huzara have been tampered with. My 
impression is that the corruption is c.xtensivc and that I shall be in 
a minority. 

If the precautions I iiavc suggested have been taken, any mo\c of 
the nature ajiprehended may be entirely frustrated. How important it is 
to Iiasten the fall of Mooltan I think 1 need scarcely prove. Until British 
colors wave above its bastions, the Sikh army will be ready to succour 
it. I formerly suggested the supply of a large number of the smallest 
sized mortars as calculated to bring the operations to a dose in a fev^ 



»i6 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 

days. I do not know whether these form part of the siege train, but 1 
know of no ordnance that can for the particular e.xigency supply their 
place. 

^oth July i 8 ^S — Shfi-waun . — I have little to add to the reports of 
yesterday which I have inserted reluctantly at the express command of the 
Resident. In insurrections of this nature where it is the object of the 
Chiefs to gain everything, but to state nothing, and especially amongst 
the Sikh nation, the most wily and cautious race on earth, little more than 
reports are ever procurable previous to the general demonstration. Bui 
when reports collected by persons who have no intercourse with one 
another, at distant quarters, agree exactly in their general bearing, it 
seems to me insane to neglect them. 1 cannot trust my authority just 
now to paper, with so strong a chance as there appears of the letter 
being intercepted. I have favorable news fro ti Cabul of the 3S’th. 

J .ABBOTT, C.'n.MN. 

Assistant Resident. 

I write daily to the Resident. 

No. 78.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 1st August 
1848. 

1st August iS^S — Hitzata, Shenvaun . — Last night intelligence was 
sent me from Pukli that the infantry of that force had positively deter- 
mined to march for Lahore this morning before daybreak. The 
news did not reach me until 9 .a-.m., and I immediately made such 
arrangements as seemed feasible. I await with some anxiety a confirma- 
tion or denial of these tidings, which cannot reach me until evening. At 
the same time I received intelligence from Hurripoor that the foixe 
there and in Qatur is expecting an immediate march to Lahore, and has 
received assurance of support from the Bunnoo force. By the same 
bearer came a report of a fresh victory won by Captain Edwardes on 
the 15th. If the latter be confirmed, it may yet prevent the march of this 
force. Nevertheless, precautions are desirable against the chance of 
their making a dour upon Lahore: for it is said that the whole Sikh 
population will join them. From Cashmere report speaks of the march of 
live regiments for Jumboo to act, I imagine, as an encouragement to the 
Sikhs. I wrote yesterday all the current reports upon this subject 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1&4S. 


ai7 

But it is probable that the daks will be molested if the movement is 
quite determined upon. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

Lahore will not be secure unless the citadel is completely in our 
possession. Tlie movement if it be carried out is National. 


No. 79. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 2nd August 
1848. 

2nd August i 8 ^S — Huzara, Sherteaun . — The news of yesterday is 
confirmed by several messengers from different persons. The Pukli 
force is preparing to march southward : it is generally believed to Lahore. 
News from Hurripoor is of the same comple.xion. It cannot confidently 
be asserted which regiments are preparing to move. But the belief is 
general that all in Huzara, Qatur, and Bunnoo are of the number, and 
that all has been arranged by Sirdar Chuttur Singh, who certainly sent 
General Sooltan Mainiood to Hussun Ubdal on the 28th ultimo to hold a 
secret conference with Colonel Noorooddeen of the artillery there, and 
allowed Colonel Noorooddeen to quit his post and remain a day or two 
at Hurripoor without informing me. It is also to be observed, as 1 have 
frequently before observed, that, up to this moment, the Sirdar has not 
given me a hint that could lead me to suppose any corps in Hurripoor 
or Qatur to be otherwise than loyal, although it is utterly impossible 
that he would have been ignorant of proceedings notorious to the whole 
country. If the news we have received of Captain Edwardes’ third 
victory be confirmed, it may possibly cause some delay. Nevertheless, 
I hope no precaution will be neglected, as the troops count upon being 
joined by the whole Sikh population, and there must almost certainly be 
treason in the citadel, which will not be secure unless garrisoned by 
British troops. In Pukli, the troops have sold their stores, broken up 
their bazar, and got ready by my last notice to move at a moment’s 
notice. They are probably now in motion. It appears that the deten- 
tion of pay, which for some da^-s I deemed expedient, has been made a 
cause of discontent by the conspirators, and accordingly when I wrote 
the Sirdar to issue the pay my letter was detained here by liis Vuqueel 

28 



2 i 8 diaries of captain J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 

for 24 hours, and probably would not have been sent for several days 
had I not discovered the artifice. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

All was quiet in Peshawur on the 30th. 

Whilst closing this I have heard again twice from Pukli. In 
consequence of the unwillingness of the golundauze to join in the 
march, but more perhaps from learning the reception awaiting them, 
the infantry is said to have deferred its movements for a few days. 
This intelligence I cannot certainly rely upon, and it will not throw me 
off my guard. 

J. ABBOTT. 


No. 80.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 3rd August 
1848. 

jfd August iS.f. 8 — Husara, S/termiun . — Intelligence from various 
quarters confirms the previous information recorded. The Gahndia 
(Pukli) Brigade was actually about to march on the morning of the ist 
when the movement was countermanded, I imagine, in consequence of 
information sent to Colonel Bhoop Singh from the people about me. The 
Colonel sent a Jemadar to me yesterday to ascertain the extent of my 
intelligence. This man confessed to one of my people that the force 
had actually arranged to march on that morning, but said that Colonel 
Bhoop Singh had put the ringleaders into irons. It is believed that 
they will actually move to-morrow, but intelligence is difficult of access, 
as the Sikhs have stopped the road. Sirdar Chuttur Singh, who has 
not to this moment given me a hint of the state of this brigade, has been 
thiee days and nights shut up with General Maimood and Colonel 
Richpal Singh in closest conference. It is said that he has written 
to Raja Slier Singh to delay no longer in declaring for Moolraj, and that 
the whole Huzara and Qatur forces are ready for a dour upon Lahore. 
This is what the soldiery themselves say. It appears so confirmed by all 
that is going on around, that I cannot leave it unrecorded. The intelli- 
gence 1 caches me through various channels, and agrees perfectly in all its 
pai ts. 1 ha\ c just heard from Huzara that the decision of the Pukli Brigade 
was made upon the arrival of an emissary from Lahore. The troops 
look confidently to being joined by the whole of the Sikh population* I 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, tS^S. 


219 


have written and will write daily to the Residency. General Sooltan 
Maimood, at Hurripoor, has been writing to General Elahi Buksh at 
Peshawar, it is supposed to arrange matters, Troops have marched from 
Cashmere in the direction of Bhimbur and not, I believe, to Jumboo. 
It is said that Maharaja Goolab Singh is casting a large number of 
cannon. This intelligence comes from Cashmere, and may be worth 
further enquiry. I cannot vouch for it. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident 


No. 81. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, without date, received 
8th August 1848. 

I WRITE daily to the Residency. All yesterday I was awaiting 
tidings from Pukli. But Colonel Blioop Singh has stopped the road, and 
all I could learn was that the Brigade is still at Gahndia with all the cattle 
collected together in the cantonment and everything packed ready for a 
march. As I imagine that owing to the cautious system of the Sirdars 
(who dare not themselves appear in the insurrection until at least there 
is certainty of success^ the march of the Gahndia Brigade is to be the 
leaven which is to raise the whole Sikh army, the position of that 
brigade in chancery may for the present disappoint their rising. Ammu- 
nition has been secretly serv'ed out to all the troops in Huzara. Their 
pay is also said to have been sent them secretly before my order for its 
disbursal arrived, and the Nazim is reported to have sent parties of his 
own soldiers to strengthen the garrisons of Torbaila and Barookote, 
without my permission and indeed contrary to my order. The belief that 
Captain Edwardes was victorious on tlie iSth of Sawtin, the day on 
wliich they had calculated upon his defeat, and that his victory was 
owing to bis having ordered Raja Slier Singh’s camp to separate from 
his own previous to the battle has become general, and has for the 
present abated their boasting. Meanwhile no efforts are neglected by 
Sirdar Chuttur Singh to gain over the people or rather Chief s of Huzara. 
His agents are going to and fro daily, and as he holds the purse, he 
has a formidable advantage. Five guns were fired at Pukli this morning, 
but I have no intelligence since from the cantonment there. I learn by 
to-day's dak that the Huzara letter bag of the zSth had not reached 



220 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, jS/6. 


Lahore on the 31st. It contained, if I mistake not, an account of the 
present agitation. As I have before observed, although there was 
undoubtedly an intention on the part of the Huzara and Qatur troops to 
march upon Lahore, it is impossible to calculate upon its fulfilment, aban- 
donment, or deferral, because the Sirdars dare not declare themselves even 
to those who are to be the agents of their enterprize, and the revolution 
must be carried on as the mere effect of mutinous spirit amongst the troops. 
At the same time I would humbly submit that precautions are advisable 
to render null a design, which certainly has existence, although possibly 
it may not be developed. The complete possession by our steamers 
of the stream of the Jelum is one of the simplest and not least effective 
precautions. I have already more than once adverted to it. 

All was quiet in Peshawur on the ist instant. 

J. ABBOTT. Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

The Commandant Syud Mahomed Shah had had difficulty in 
persuading his Artillerymen to act disloyally. He has been taking 
great pains to persuade Colonel Canara that they would carry him by 
force. This is the individual who was made Commandant -secretly 
through Rajah Deena Nath. 

I sign the Chilauns daily, and seal the collar of the letter bag to 
the bag with my Persian seal. 


No. 82.— Diary of Captain Janies Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 5th August 
1848. 

§th Angus: 18.^8 — Huuira, Sherwaitn . — The Gahndia (Pukli) 
Brigade remains in the same state of preparedness for instant march, and 
will move whenever it thinks my vigilance relaxed. Two Moosulmans of 
the 8th Company of Bliadoor Singh’s Regiment came to me yesterday 
with an urzee from that officer, declaring how entirely loyal he has been 
tlnoughout, and that all the blame of the present state of things rests 
upon Blioop Singh, Bhoop Singh's men slate the same of Bhadoor 
Singh. There is little doubt that the two Moosulman companies and the 
artillery, who are Moosulmans, were averse from the move. But it is 
certain that all were ready to start and prevented only by the discovery 
tliat the roads were guarded, ihe Hurripoor and Qatur and Bunnoo 



DIARIES OF CAFTAIN J. ABBOTT, iSfS. 


221 


forces cannot well move without this brigade. But the facts are now 
so widely blown that I think they will be afraid to defer the march many 
days. A messenger from Bunnoo slates that the rising there was in conse- 
quence of a letter from Sirdar Chultur Singh, and that the same hand 
caused the movement in Pukli. This man is wholly disconnected with 
others from whom I have heard the same report. Indeed excepting 
myself no one in Huzara has ever doubted theparticipation of the Sirdar. 
I long considered it improbable. News from Raja Shore Singh’s camp 
describes that Chief as using his utmost eftbrts to strengthen Moolraj 
and to win the people of Mooltan away from us. I fear from his 
account that Shere Singli must have cut oft Captain Edvvnrdes’ daks. 
By last niglit’s post I learn that another Huzara post bag is not forth- 
coming, and from Peshawur that one of my letters has been withheld 
or intercepted. I would earnestly press the importance of arrange- 
ments for making tlie dak independent of the Durbar and Chiefs of the 
Punjaub, or all intelligence will soon be cut oft'. I do not know what force 
has come to Ferozepore in place of that wliich has departed, but 
I trust there cannot be two military opinions as to the necessity of a 
strong reserve at that station. The Sikh movements are rapid 
beyond all calculation, and the design of marching upon Lahore 
is certainl}' not abandoned, although it is at present delayed by circum- 
stances. The troops calculate upon being joined by the whole Sikh 
population and of liaving friends in the citadel. I trust also that 
disarrangements in the dak are viewed in their true light. The inter- 
ception of a dak bag is strong presumptive evidence of a rising, for 
excepting the Sirdars there is no one who has authority for this. The 
interception of two successive post bags may be regarded almost as con- 
clusive. I know that at present the idea is to isolate the detached 
agencies and forces, as they find their designs discovered and reported 
as soon as made. A plot in which 20,000 or more participate is not 
easily concealed when once suspicion of it gets abroad. Tlie resolution 
to march upon Lahore was embraced by the Pukli Brigade, according to 
my intelligence, upon the arrival of a messenger from Lahore wiio was 
sent up from Hurripoor by Sirdar Chuttur Singh. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 



322 


DIARIES OF CAPTAW J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 


No. 83.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 6th August 
1848. 

6 lh August iS^ 8 — Huzara, Sherwatin . — I have written to the Resi- 
dency every day excepting one, and then I sent a message by Mr. 
Skinner. I have reason to think from Mr. Skinner's notes that some 
of my letters have been intercepted : this will account for occSsional 
repetitions of matter mentioned under previous dates. I have said 
that the Pukli Brigade of about Soo bayonets, two troops of horse, four 
field guns, and 20 zumbooras, had broken up its bazar, sold off its stores 
of grain, called in its cattle, packed much of its baggage and was actually 
about to march that morning for Lahore, when it found that I had 
manned all the roads with the armed peasantry of Huzara. It is still 
in the same state of readiness for an immediate start, and will be joined 
by the Huzara, Khowta, and Qatur forces and in all probability by that 
of Bunnoo. Sirdar Chuttur Singh seems to be the immediate mover of 
the whole. He has been in correspondence with Colonel Bhadoor Singh 
(who was an attendant of the war punches of the Sikhs and a diligent 
promoter of them), and to this day he has not given me a hint of the 
state of that force, although it has for the last month or more been 
notorious throughout Huzara. He shuts himself up in his house all day 
on pretence of sickness, whilst his letters and emissaries are being 
dismissed (sic') in all quarters, — to Cabul, Peshawur, Bunnoo, Cashmere 
and throughout Huzara and Qatur. Such at least is the information 
brought me by my spies, and it agrees with general rumor and with my 
own observation. At the same time, a degree of caution, quite uncom- 
mon, is preserved in consequence of two of his sons being in our power, 
and to the very last moment he will preserve the veil. I understand, but 
it wants confirmation, that he has sent some elephants towards Pukli to 
help the guns by the Moozuffurabad or Agrore routes which are imprac- 
ticable to carriages. The force calculates upon being joined by all the 
discharged soldiery and by the entire Sikh population and expects to 
muster 40 or 50,000 men by the time it reaches Lahore. Upon what 
grounds this expectation is based can be best judged at Lahore. I can 
learn nothing about the probable movements of the Peshawur force. 
My intelligence I consider quite authentic, as it is derived from a large 
number of separate testimonies of persons who have no intercourse with 
one another. From the Muhammadan soldiers of the Pukli Brigade, I 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, fS-/S. 223 

learn that a man brought two letters without signature from Moozuffur- 
abad addressed to the force in Pukli saj'ing, “Are you Sikhs ? if so, what 
do you here when your Gooroo is calling you at Mooltan, ’’ and that a 
man brought a letter from Moolraj addressed to the same soldiery to 
nearly the same effect, adding “I have commenced the fight at your call 
and you leave me to perish unaided.” From two different quarters I hear 
that the son of General Sooltan Maimood wrote his father lately saying, 
“ I have prepared all the troops for a start but my guns are imprisoned 
in the fort of Bunnoo. Nevertheless, I hav^e gained over some of the 
garrison, and we will murder FuttehKhan and set the guns free.” The 
General was a protege of Raja Taija Singh, but whether from policy or 
change of relations the General abuses the Raja. The soldiers of the 
Pukli force confirm the intelligence elsewhere received that they are in 
expectation of being joined by the whole of the Huzara and Qatur forces, 
and by the army of Maharaja Goolab Singh. If proper precautions are 
taken, this movement may save a world of suspense and uncertainty. It 
will show at once the state of the Sikh army and the steps necessary in 
consequence, but I am not sure that the force will venture to move unless 
the Pukli Brigade can make its escape, and (hat it is my study to 
prevent. I have not received a word of news from Lahore for many 
days, and know not whether my warnings have led to the adoption of 
any precautionary measures. 

J. ABBOTT, Captai.v, 

Assistant Resident. 

The intelligence elsewhere recorded of the Cabul Ruler’s refusal to 
join Sirdar Chuttur Singh is confirmed by intelligence from PeMiawur. 

No. 84 —Diary of Captain Janies Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, from the 6th to the 
13th August 1848. 

6th August Huzara, Sherivaun.—h?^s,\. evening Sirdar Chuttur 

Singh sent me a confidential Vuqueel to endeavour to lull my doubts 
of his most extraordinary conduct and at the same time to ascertain 
how much I knew of his guilt. His letter merely exprest the impossi- 
bility of a person so favored as he had been turning traitor. I replied 
to his Vuqueel that I hoped he was as true as he wished me to 
believe, but that it was most difficult for me to comprehend how a 



224 


DIAKIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


mutiny of his forces could be carried on for two months and the 
Gahndia Brigade be actually prepared for a march to Lahore without 
his cognizance, when it had long been notorious to the whole country : 
that the measures I had been obliged to take to coerce his soldiery 
were exactly such as I would have taken had his conduct been alto- 
gether free from suspicion, and that therefore if, as he said, he had 
no faith in the Sikh troops, it was the more necessary that I should not 
rely upon his power to order their movements; it was strange 
that whilst expressing this want of faith he should take upon himself, 
contrary to my orders, to order up three companies from Hussun Ubdal ; 
the consequences of this step might be most serious and I would 
not answer for them : that it would soon become evident who 
were innocent and who guilty, and that I suspended judgment until full 
evidence should be aftorded me : that he must march back the companies 
aforesaid and order all troops to keep their cantonments, otherwise 
I should consider any movement of troops as a signal of rebellion ; that 
as to his wish to send me his son as a proof of his sincerity, I could not 
place that son under restraint, and his being near me were no security ; 
in fact the presence of his son with a large retinue and a purse 
heavier than my own would be most embarrassing at the present 
moment, as nothing could be done without his cognizance, whilst at 
the same moment he would not be responsible for the movement 
of the army, and any measure of mine to arrest the march of mutineers 
would be frustrated by his previous knowledge of my movements, 
whilst his intrigues with the army would appear incredible because 
his son was in my power. 


Tiiis morning on my return from my walk, I received a note from 
Colonel Canara, saying that the Sirdar had ordeied the troops and his 
guns to encamp outside the city ; that he had remonstrated, saying that 
such a move at such a moment would subject them to the charge 
of rebellion, it being without my sanction; that the Sirdar had sent his 
conhdential .servants to win him over, but in vain ; that 1 he thought there 
would be a struggle for the guns that night and that he begged my 
instructions how to act. If he was to resist, he begged support. I had 
hardly read his note before his murder was reported to me. The 
Sirdar, it seem.s, sent two companies to seize the guns by force. Colonel 
Canara loaded them with grape and ordered his golundauze to fire. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT 1S4S. 


225 


They shrank from him, saying they were the Sirdar's servants. His 
Havildar still refusing to apply the match, Canara cut him down 
and applied it with his own hand. It burnt priming and he was 
immediate!}' shot by two sinahis; it is .said that h.e rose to c.jt down 
another ass.ail mt when his own neck was severed. Tims c’S'd a 
man who, whatever the defects of education and infirinities of nature, 
closed his career with an act of gallantr}' and iovaalty u.nr.urya.scd by 
an\’lliing I can r.emember in history I most carncrtly trust t’ait 
the famil}’ of tliis brave and faithful oSicer iri.a}- ha s'.dt rjiy provided 
for ; they live in Lahore. And I as earnestly trust that measures 
of retribution upon the brutal and wanton murderer will be speedily 
adopted. 

What his present design is can only be conjectured. I believe 
that he thinks his deep and treacherous conduct is laid bare and 
that liis onl}’ hope is to collect a force around him and t''u=t to support 
from Jumboo and union with Moolraj. I am confirmed in tins opinion 
by the arrival of a messenger from r.lajor Lawrence, who states 
that he met two emissaries from Sirdar Ciiuttur Singh, who said the}’ 
had been sent by him to excite a mutiny in Peshawar. They were 
Sikh soldiers. He has written also to levy large bodies of irregular 
troops, unless my information deceive me. The Pukli force is still in 
durance, but he is making extraordinary efforts to set it free and 
has gained over many of the chiefs and Mulliks. It is said that the 
cause of this rise in Pukli and Huzara was th.cfear tluat Sirdar Jhundur 
Singh, who has the credit of having been a great intriguer, had been 
ordered to Lahore for imprisonment and trial. I am aware that 
this idea was for a time prevalent and caused Sirdar Ciiuttur Singh 
some dismay. 

SlJi August iS^S . — I waited until evening for some explanation from 
Sirdar Chuttur Singh, but as none arrived. I collected the chiefs of I Juznva 
and ordered them to take measure.s for preventing the mai'ch of ti’oops 
to Hjrripoor. Unfortunately the valley is too open for the coutc't of 
zumcendars with regular troops. I also resolved upon cli.inging my 
position from Sherwaun to Gundgurh, tlicla'.tcv being nearer to liurri- 
poor and affording greater means of offensive operation.s. Accordingly 
on the night of the / th we left Sherwaun and readied Nara at the foot 

29 



326 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


of the Gundgurh mountain the evening following ; our baggage has not 
arrived. On the road Jehandad Khan put into my hand a letter 
just received from Sirdar Chuttur Singh, reminding him of a con- 
versation with the Chief’s Vuzeer in which he, the Sirdar, had promised 
him extension of jaghir upon condition of certain services ; that he 
now called upon him to fulfil his part of the covenant and assured him 
that the fulfilment should be mutual. I hope this Chief may be 
in earnest in his present profession of loyalty and that the night visit to 
the Sirdar formerly noted may not have been made by himself but 
by the Vuzeer, a man of the most profligate character. This is a 
tangible proof that Sirdar Chuttur Singh has been tampering with 
the Huzara chiefs for several months past, promising them extension of 
jaghir upon condition of their aiding him in some meditated enter- 
prize. The mistake under which so many people fell (according to 
this supposition), viz., of supposing that because the Vuzeer was of the 
party, Jehandad Khan was also there was easily made by night. 

pf/t Augnsl 18.^8 —Nara . — The Sirdar continues to summon troops to 
his assistance, although I have assured him that upon sending me the 
murderers and ordering back the troops I will settle the whole country 
by means of a couple of chuprassies. Strange reports have been abroad, 
but to-day we were favored with a dak which had escaped the hands 
of the Sirdar and learn with infinite relief that the Peshawur Agency 
continues peaceful. The dak contained no news from Lahore. Indeed 
it is very long since I have had any intelligence of what is passing 
in that quarter or at Mooltan and am wholly ignorant whether the 
many intimations I have given of secret proceedings here have led 
to precautions. 

10th August Nat a . — To-day a note from Attock informed me 
of Captain Nicholson s arrival there. He had turned out the Sikh com- 
pany with some difficulty and was in possession of that important fort 
and passage. This is an able and well-timed move; for his presence 
in Potowar is greatly needed. My chief deficiency here is in funds 
for the supply of which, I trust, arrangements will be made at 
Lahore. A report has just reached me from a good source that the Sikhs 
are thinking only how they may disengage the Pukli Brigade in order 
to march upon Lahore. They confidently expect to be joined by the 
Peshawui loice, and a messenger from Peshawur met two of the Sirdar’s 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. ^2^ 

emissaries sent, as they assured him, to raise a mutiny there. They 
also say, and I beg to recommend the subject for investigation, 
that a portion of our Native troops are in treaty to pla^' the traitor 
at Laliore. It has been a mistake from the first to regard tiiis 
insurrection as an isolated instead of as a national movement, in so far, at 
least, as the sect of Sikhs can be considered a Nation. The Hussun 
Ubdal force marched up toward Hurripoor by order of Sirdar Chuttur 
Singh, and in spite of the remonstrances of the Commanding Officers 
Colonel Boodh Singh, Maun, finding himself set at nauglit, left the corps 
and returned to his home. Unfortunately the intermediate space is too 
open for such a force to be coped with by peasantry. They will reach 
Hurripoor to-morrow. 

iith August iS^8 — Vara . — The Hussun Ubdal force reached 
Hurripoor to-day and there is a report that the cavalry of Mhaitab .Singh, 
Majitea, is in full march to join it, although that Sirdar has exprest his 
determination not to move without my orders. A report has arrived to-day 
stating that Raja Sher Singh has actually joined Moolraj. But weeks 
may elapse ere we know whether or not it has foundation. A letter from 
the Sirdar Chuttur Singh to Jehandad Khan came by chance into my 
hand. He calls upon him to remember the past and that he had 
depended upon the chief to aid him in emergency and enquires why 
his letters are unanswered. He concludes by saying, “ You must bring 
the Sahib with you to Hurripoor,” meaning of course that he is to 
seize me. 

I2lli August — Nat a . — This day I intercepted a bag of letters from 
Sirdar Chuttur Singh to Maharaja Goolab Singh, Mcean Kuabeer Singh 
and Raja Jowahir Singh, imploring them instantly to send him four 
regiments froiii Moozuffurabad and all the Meerpoor force and to write to 
the I'eshawur troops to join him. I despatched this evening, at his own 
particular request. Lieutenant Robinson of Engineers to Mahugul, the pass 
leading from I’ukli, to encourage the peasantry to cut off the retreat of 
the Sikhs, my departure from Tunnole having led to much defection. 

Jjl/t August. — To-day the report from Lahore states that the 
Gahndia force is actually free of its limbo and arrived at Nowa Shihr. 

I trust this is unfounded and from the statements of subsequent emis- 
saries am inclined to doubt it. The talk of the Sikh soldiery at 
Hurripoor is the old story of a march upon Lahore the instant the 



328 


DIAKJSS OF CAVrAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848. 


Fukli Brigade is disengaged. Captain Nicholson s possession of the fort 
of Attock v. ill, I irusi, iiisconcert such an intention. It is observable 
that tlie Sirdar whihA ciiarging upon me all the onus of tlie present 
state of the ariey and cew.ntry docs nor seem to have resorted to the 
obvious rcried}’. ii; , an appeal to the Resident, but launches at once into 
open rebehi.jn, int.iting the army to mutiny' and inviting foieign invasion. 
1 1 o'.v fiiiiv.y an e.tca.'e is las may' be argued from this circumstance 
In fact the prcscjtt .state of things is what has long been contemplated 
by the insurgents. €;tcept;.:g only the necessity of the chief movers 
appearing in person occasioned by the arrest of the Pukli Brigade 
and the brut.il murder of Colonel Canara. P'or the last two months' 
my intelligence has pointed to this result, but that e.xcessive caution 
which characterizes Sikh policy has from time to time deferred the 
event as other results have disappointed expectation. 

J. ABBOT!, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

12 A''oo;i.— Sirdar Chuttur Singh in his insulting letter to me of 
yesterday acknowledges having paid the murderers of Colonel Canara 
one thousand rupees. 

J. ABBOTT. 


No. 85. — Diai’Tf of Captain Ja.mes Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, from the 13th to the 
15th August 1S48. 

ijtfi August iSy8 — i\ara, Huzara . — I he last letter of Sirdar 
Cl.i’.lti.i -Su'ig.i i.> cou.chcd in terms admitting of no further intercourse 
oi a !iii.nd!y c.iir..cter. IScvcrthcIess previous to commencing a war of 
c.'.tcrminaticn with the mutinous troops whom he has called about 
lem, a i. ai i.ifiicang upon the innocent people of the country ividc and 
ia\ag,j. I Iiave allowed his \ uqiieel to depart witli a schedule of 
tel .Us i.p.. n wiiicii I will place the country in its former state of quie- 
t^.. c, .mu i.il.i a iCiUiation of the cliarges he prefers against me. The 
t..: ms a. e t. lO-^e dictated from the first, the surrender for judgment of 
the m utile! CIS e. Coimiel Canara and the dismissal to their cantonments 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS/S, 22g 

of the sev'eral corps. I have limited him until early to-morrow morning 
for an answer. Meanwhile as Captain Nicholson writes me that iic pur- 
poses taking post in Margulla Pass to arrc.st tiic march of Pertaub Singii’s 
Regiment from Kurrore. I liave sent him ail my iiiustered troops now 
available, consisting of 220 Foot and 60 Horse, depending inyseif upon 
the Mushwani Levy oi peasants, who have arrived to the number of 
about 300, but who object to emplo^-ment away from their own moun- 
tain. I was most anxious to start myseif for that pass, but all my 
people assure me that it would be mistaken for flight and tiiat the next 
day 1 sliould be without a follower. I fancy I might persuade the corps 
to return to its dut^' could I be personall}' present. I have desired Captain 
Nici'iolson not to attempt opposition unless pretty certain of success, as 
the stake is very great. Indeed I regret that he did not remain just 
now at Attock, the pieservation of which is of the utmost consequence. 

In Hurripoor there appears to be a division of feeling. The 
artillery generally are averse from tiie mutiny Colonel Noorooddeen 
writes that he resisted the march as long as he could, but that he received 
no answer to his many urzees. I received from him only one and 
wrote in reply ijumediately. A force is to be sent up immediately to 
open the Mahugul Pass for the escape of the Pukli Brigade. But their 
intentions on the rescue of this Brigade are variously reported. The 
Brigade, it is said, struck camp a da^' or two ago and was about to march, 
when deterred by the Nagarees beating to arms in the meuntains and the 
consequent assui'ance that the passes were still guarded. I have written 
Colonel Bhoop Singii that if he will give me any satisfactor}' assurance 
that his force will stand fast in cantonments, I will reopen tiie passes 
and send them up their pa^'. I iiave directed him to communicate with 
Lieutenant Robinson at Mahugul. 1 have also issued Ishtahar namahs 
assuring those of tlie troops returning to their dut^’ of forgiveness. 

I /.Ih ^ lu^usl iS-fS—Naia.— \ spent a most an.vious night, not being 
assured of the sufficiency of Captain Nicholson's levy. I find, however, 
that the Sikh Regiment linited at Jani kc Sungh with purpose to threaten 
the pass to-morrow, and I hear that Captain Nicholson's levy is swelled to 
a considerable bedy. Lieutenant Robinson writes me that be lias already 
about Soo men and expects soon 3,000. The Sirdar has sent no answ’er 
to the terms I have insisted upon. This leaves no doubt that he has taken 
his part finally as a rebel and relieves me of some anxiety lest his present 



730 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, tSfS. 


lawless conduct should have resulted from mere alarm, in which case I 
should have regretted the promptitude with which I had made my arrange- 
ments for coercion. As the Sirdar has command of an army of some 4,000 
Regular troops with guns and cavalry movable at an hour’s notice and 
with a rapidity seldom equalled, and as my levies require days and even 
weeks to collect, it is absolutely necessary to lose no time in my arrange- 
ments for acting with peasantry against regular troops. Sirdar Chuttur 
Singh has written, it is said, to Colonel Boodh Singh, Maun, saying, “I 
raised this mutiny for the family of Maun, and you, one of its representa- 
tives, are false to your own cause and to mine.” It will be remembered 
that two strong efforts were made to shake the loyalty of this fine officer, 
first by a false report of the resumption of his jaghir, and secondly by 
sending a Moonshee to demand 600 rupees said to have been illegally 
disbursed by him to his troops beyond the Sutlej. Toward evening the 
post of the iith came to hand, and I find with much relief that a Com- 
missioner has been appointed to examine and report upon matters in 
Huzara. This relieves me henceforth of a responsibility most painful. In 
obedience to the Resident’s instructions, I have written desiring Captain 
Nicholson to avoid, if consistent with honor, all collision with the Sikh 
Regiment, and have ordered Lieutenant Robinson to confine his opera- 
tions to the destruction of the Gahndia force should it attempt to march. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
/issMant Resident. 

15th August, morning . — I have reason to hope that Pertaub Singh’s 
Regiment will return to its cantonments; if not, in all probability it 
will be destroyed. I have just taken the evidence of a Sikh soldier who 
says that Sirdar Chuttur Singh has written Goolab Singh that if he be his 
son he must carry away Maharaja Dhuleep Singh, that he had given 
each soldier one rupee as a present and had settled with them to march 
upon Lahore so soon as the Gahndia (Pukli) Brigade should be free. I 
have all eady informed you that he has applied to Jumboo for troops 
and for a letter to stir up the Peshawur force to mutiny and for another 
to the Cabul Ruler. This is pretty good proof that he has himself 
attempted unsuccessfully to create mutiny in Peshawur. 


J. ABBOTT, 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABB 07 T, 1S4S. 231 

N o. 86— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 16th August 1 848. 

i6th August j 8^8 — Nara, Huzara . — I despatched my diary by yes- 
terday’s post, but the fate of the letter bags is very uncertain, as tlie instant 
after the murder of Colonel Canara Sirdar Chuttur Singh seized all the 
post bags and ordered up the troops, his conscience assuring him that his 
guilt was now manifest. Captain Nicholson rode, I have said, to the 
Margulla Pass to superintend operations for arresting Pertaub Singh’s 
Corps and guns. Finding his levy strong he did not wait for the mutineers, 
but marched to their camp at Jani ke Sungh and having hemmed them in 
allowed them half an hour to decide whether to obey tlie order of return 
or to stand his attack. After a very stormy debate discretion prevailed over 
valor and they returned. The affair was managed with Captain 
Nicholson’s usual skill and decision, and its results promise to be most 
important. The stake was great, for it was uncertain how soon his levies 
could be raised, and many of them were not famous for valor. But his 
own intrepidity seems to have inspired them all and bloodshed has been 
saved by it, which might have proved the hydra seed {sic) of further mis- 
chief. Whatever may be the opinion of Government as to my policy, I 
humbly opine there can be no question that the Government has received 
in this affair the most important service from Captain Nicholson. 

I have as yet no account of Mr. Cock’s approach. Sirdar Chuttur 
Singh is so far plunged in rebellion that it might not be prudent to 
place in his way a hostage for bis son at Lahore. Last night Colonel 
Noorooddeen attempted to execute my orders by marching back three 
of his guns to their cantonment, but live companies of Boodh Singh's 
corps seized and detained them. The Sirdar writes politely tome to-day, 
but avoids answering my two demands, — the surrender of the mur- 
derers and the return of the troops mutinously summoned to their 
cantonments. In Pukli the brigade is in despair. The passes are well 
guarded under Lieutenant Robinson’s supervision. All was quiet in 
Peshawur by the last account. Captain Nicholson’s masterly capture of 
Attock seems to have damped the zeal of the disaffected. But my news 
is not very recent. The Resident’s orders prevent active operations, 
otherwise this were the time to destroy the whole of this gang of 
mutineers, with their murderous leader. 

J. ABBOTT, Captai.v, 

Assistant Resident. 



232 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT. rS^S. 


No. 87. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 29th August 
1848. 

2gth A'/na^f iSgS — Htiznra. — A'; Sirdar Cluittur Singh’s force 
has been close to Wargulla, and my last posts may have been inter- 
cepted, I will endeavor to record from memoty the transactions of 
the last four days. 

When Sirdar Jhundiir Singh arrived on deputation from Lahore, 
the case of Sirdar Chuttur Singh was almost honeless. His brigade in 
Pukli and wing at Nowa Shihr were completely cut off from relief : Attock 
was in oiir possession ; tlie Margulla Pass was closed. Pertaub Singh’s 
corps had been turned back by Captain Nicholson and I was about to 
commence the investment of Hurripoor. All his applications for foreign 
aid had been negatived, and he was thinking only how he should leave 
his army and escape with his son over the mountains; but the arrival of 
Jhundur Singh, one of the most wily of intriguers and the best captain 
in the Sikh service, inspired fresh confidence. Living in the British camp 
and believed by Captain Nichols n to be sincere, he was master of our 
weakness, of ouropinionsandof ourviews. I indeed gave him liis dismissal 
to Lahore the second day of his arrival at my' camp, on Iiis distinctly refus- 
ing to attempt the task to which lie had pledged himself with the Resident, 
viz., to bring back the troops to their allegiance. This task was then 
apparently easy from the divided state of their feeling and their despair of 
being joined by the Peshawur Brigades ; and I was quite satisfied by 
Sirdar Jhundur Singh’s obstinate refusal to make the attempt to recover 
their allegiance that he had no wish to see this rebellion put down. But 
on his reaching Captain NichoHon’s Camp, he put in play all his e.xtraor- 
dinary address and frankness of manner and opened to that officer new 
hopes of settling by negotiation tin's unhappy' affair. The delay alone 
attending iiis mission was a circumstance most favorable to Sirdar 
Chuttur Singhs cause. I could not cut off the supplies and water of 
the IIuiTipoor force so long as negotiations were pending. In the 
midst of these negotiations and whilst Jhundur Singh was flattering 
Caj't.aiu Nichol.-on \' ,th hopes that the Siidar would submit to the terms 
cftcrcd liin. the Sikh force at Hurripoor made a feint to relieve the 
Pukli Ihv-ade, and I started across the mountains to gain the Sulhud 
and iluiiitour pa-'-.-'Cs before tiicni. Pherc the next day a verbal message 



D/JN/ES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iSfS. 


233 


from Captain Nicholson reached me to effect that Chuttur Singh 
with the whole Hurripoor force had made a dash upon Hussun 
Ubdal ; but had been met and stopt by his own levies on the 
northern side of the Moti ravine. In an hour my little force was 
in motion to join Captain Nicholson, and, after a march of 40 miles 
under a burning sun, came up with the rear of the Sikh camp, which 
next morning I passed, being prevented molesting them by Captain 
Nicholson’s promise to tliat effect as negotiations were still pending. 
Sirdar Chuttur Singh having promised to send his son Sirdar Aotar 
Singh to Captain Nicholson. Sirdar Chuttur Singh liaving failed in this 
his promise, I had on 24th instant Captain Nicholson’s consent to advance 
to the Moti ravine and to cut off the supplies of the Huzara Brig.ide, I 
then took an accurate survey of the ravine, which is about 30 feet deep, 
with many ramifications and considerable shelter for sharpshooters, and 
my impression was that I could either check the Sikli force there, or 
inflict upon them at least very serious damage. This I promised Captain 
Nicholson to attempt, but dissuaded him taking part in the affair as it 
seemed expedient that he should at present preserve his post to check 
the approach of Pertaub Singh’s Regiment from Rawul Hindi. On 
advancing to the Moti ravine and choosing a position for my camp in 
the midst of it, I received a note from Captain Nicholson, mentioning 
that Sirdar Aotar Singh had that morning waited upon him ; that 
Sirdar Chuttur Singh complained of my having advanced after tlie 
departure of his son (whereas it was the sight of my force within a 
mile of his camp which caused the young Sirdar’s departure) and of 
my having interrupted his supplies. It concluded by saying tliat he 
had promised my force should immediately retire and that the supplies 
should be allowed to reach his camp. I was greatly disheartened by this 
arrangement, which, had it not been agreed to previously, I would never 
have consented to. But I withdrew my force according to compact, 
amid the remonstrance and surprise of all my people, who I perceived 
lost their confidence in me by this appearance of vacillation. I pitched 
my tent upon a height in sight of the Sikh camp, and as Captain Nicholson 
had limited negotiations to the close of that day (the 26th) I observed 
from time to time with some anxiety the Sikh camp, being assured 
that treachery was meditated. Accordingl}' close upon sunset I per- 
ceived Sirdar Jhundur Singh returning from a mission to the .Sikh 

30 



234 


. Diaries of captain j. abboti\ 1S4S. 


camp and the Sikh camp busied in preparations for a march. I col- 
lected with all possible speed my raw levies scattered over the neighbour- 
ing villages and gardens (as having no tents') and marched to meet 
the Sikhs, hoping to be able to throw myself into the Moti ravine ere 
their heavy guns should have passed it. The Sikhs, however, were quite 
ready to march when first I observed them, and had not above one- 
fourth of the distance which I must traverse to the ravine. My people 
were fainting with thirst as they religiously observe this Fast. Many 
were preparing their food, and it was some time before I could get in 
motion any considerable portion of the 2,000 matchlocks under my com- 
mand These I encouraged as they advanced by showing them how 
ineffective is the fire of artillery in the dark, and never did men march to 
action in higher spirits or with greater apparent assurance of victory. 

The possibility of defending the passage of the Moti ravine is 
dependent upon previous occupation. If an enemy has time to pass 
over his advanced guards and get possession of the further bank and 
there establish his batteries, the defence by daylight is hopeless, and 
even now by night I could hope for little more than to inflict upon 
the columns such punishment as would be beneficial to our cause here- 
after 1 wilight was far advanced as I approached the ravine at the head 
of too Horse, the foot straggling behind in spite of every effort to 
consolidate them. Observing two dark masses which appeared to be 
elephants, and hoping to surprise the guns upon their backs, 1 galloped 
toward them, instead of lodging ni}' Horse under the slielter of a village 
as at first intended, pending the arrival of the Foot. I soon found, how- 
ever, that the two howitzers were in position, their fire raking the 
whole line of our approach. I therefore drew up the Horse under the 
shelter first designed for them, and returned to collect the Foot which 
had disappeared in a small ravine as the howitzers opened. This was 
a work of time. I threw them into the ravine and then following 
took the lead, purposing to return, when they were well advanced, to 
take command of the Horse. I do not think however that of all the 2,100 
matchlocks receiving pay or food, above 800 could ever have entered 
the ravine. Of these not above 20 or 30 could by any means be recov- 
ered from their first panic or persuaded to follow me in my repeated 
attempts to bring them hand to hand with the enemy. Before we could 
fight our way up to the gun road, the whole of the Sikh force had passed 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ATBOI T, /S4S. 


235 


over and was drawn up in an open plain, the intense darkness 
rendering it impossible to make out their position. Much ammunition, 
which I could little spare, was idly expended, and finding there was 
no hope of bringing the levies hand to hand with the Sikh piquets, I 
towards morning withdrew the whole force and marched to Captain 
Nicholson’s camp. Here we decided that his position was no longer 
tenable, Pertaub Singh’s Regiment with two guns and 400 levies having 
made its way through a pass little known. We resolved therefore 
to march to Hussun Ubdal, examine the ground there, and, if we 
found its strength sufficient, to make a stand together, and if not, that 
each should do the best he could in his own region — I to preserve 
my footing in Huzara and he to preserve Attock. The survey of 
the Hussun Ubdal rocks gave us no confidence in being able to hold 
that place above one day against 4 Sikh regiments, 400 irregulars 
and 8 guns, and it seemed far better that both our forces should 
retire from it with unsullied arms than risk the probable chance of a 
defeat upon ground where our levies could not fight to the greatest 
advantage and where our cavalry could not act. 

In pursuance of this resolution, I marched on the morning of 28th 
for Kote Nujjeeboolla, not however before Captain Nicholson and my- 
self had once agreed to dismiss Sirdar Jhundur Singh, the author of all 
our present difficulties, I liaving signed and sealed his letter of dismissal 
and Captain Nicholson having relented and, to my exceeding sorrow, 
suffered hiin to linger in his camp, a circumstance from which I 
augur the worst results to our cause. 

Sirdar Jhundur Singh having produced a letter purporting to be from 
Sirdar Goolab Singh urging that Sirdar Aotar Singh should be sent to 
Lahore, both Captain Nicholson and myself thought the motion advisable 
and, with full consent of the young Sirdar, sent him on his way. He, 
however, either voluntarily joined his father or was waylaid by him on 
the road. In either case there can be little doubt that Jhundur Singh 
either devised or conducted this fresh act of treachery. I am encamped 
near the Fort of Hurkishengurh, which will be invested to-morrow. 

I need not, I think, advert to the opinion I expressed on first learn- 
ing that Sirdar Jhundur Singh had been sent to settle the Sikh army 
in Huzara. Either I am gifted with prophecy or my estimate of Sikh 



236 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT. rS/S. 

character and intrigue is correct. In the latter case I earnestly beg the 
consideration of Government to the state of our affairs brought about by 
the mission of Sirdar Jhundur Singh and the urgent necessity of measures 
which previous to his arrival I hoped would not be required. 

J. ABBOT r, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 88 —Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 4th September 
1848. 

^th September j8.p8 — Camp Nara, Hazara . — The active duties in 
which I have been engaged have inevitably led to irregularity in my 
Journal. But only one day has passed without a note from my pen 
addrest to the Residency at Lahore. No post has been received from 
Lahore during the last three days, Chuttur Singh having contrived to cut 
off the daks. When Captain Nicholson and myself had determined 
not to make a stand at Hussun Ubdal, I retired to Huzara, and, on the 
march of the Sikh force for Hussun Ubdal, Captain Nicholson moved 
upon Attock, the Sikh army following. But on the 2nd Chuttur 
Singh, finding perhaps no hope of support from Peshawur, turned back 
and re-occupied Hussun Ubdal and 3’esterday retired about four miles 
toward Margulla Pass. Captain Nicholson's army followed and took 
post at Sooltanpoor, about eight miles distant, a station on the flank of 
any advance of the Sikh force towards Huzara. Such was the posture 
of affairs last night. The Pukli Brigade was still at Mansera, afraid to 
advance, the passes being closely watched under the supervision of 
Lieutenant Robinson. Still, were the people of Huzara wholly devoted 
to a work which is far more for their benefit than for that of any third 
partj’, the Pukli force must long since have surrendered or attempted 
to force the passes. Begirt as they are with armed levies, not an ounce 
of food should find its way to their camp. The report in the Sikh camp 
states that the Sirdar wants only the junction of the Pukli Brigade to 
march upon Lahore. I have frequently exprest my opinion that since 
the unfortunate result of Jhundur Singh’s treachery, matters cannot be 
settled in this region without aid of a British force and that not a regi- 
ment should be withdrawn from Lahore for this purpose. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, rS^S. 


237 


No. 89.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 6th September 
1848. 

6tli Scplcmber i8^S — Camp Nara, Huzara. — I despatched my Journal 
of yesterday by a bypath to the Post Office at Ravvul Pindi, but to- 
day I hear that Chuttur Singh arrests the post bag at Bukralla, and for 
four days no letter has reached me from Lahore. It is therefore 
necessary to find some other line of dak. Sirdar Chuttur Singh having 
marched as far as Huzroo, apparently to besiege Attock, turned back 
suddenly from thence and reoccupied Hussun Ubdal, which he again 
quitted as Captain Nicholson’s force arrived in the neigiibourhood. 
Chuttur Singh took post at Banbera, five miles eastward of Hussun Ubdal, 
and sent Aotar Singh (his son ; with 600 foot, some guns and horse to 
force Margulla Pass, which seems to have been accomplished with little 
opposition. Aotar Singh went on to Rawul Pindi, where the bulk of 
Sirdar Goolab Singh Poovindia’s horse have, 1 imagine, joined him. 
His detachment returned to Banbera, and Chuttur Singh having lodged 
his heavy baggage at Kala ke Seraie apparently meditates a return to 
Huzara to free his detachments from the passes. He has, however, I 
hear made a march onward to Kala ke Seraie to-day. Captain Nicholson, 
whose vigilance is incessant, turned his flank by a night march to 
Koorum in the Khaunpoor mountains, which has probably led to this 
advance of Chuttur Singh's force. It seems impossible that he should 
leave the Pukli Brigade in limbo. Lieutenant Robinson continues to 
guard the upper passes, and I am endeavouring to raise levies to act 
with either. I supposed it quite certain that Chuttur Singh would be 
employed for some time before Attock, and ad opus Robinsoni totum 
exercitum misi. I have several times expressed an opinion that since 
the treachery of Sirdar Jhundur Singli a British force will be necessary 
to quell this rebellion and that not a legiment should be drawn for the 
purpose from Lahore, 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

No. 90. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 6th September 
1848. 

6th September 18.J.8. — Nara, Huzara . — Yesterday Captain Nicholson 
attacked the bastion which guards the Margulla Pass with his usual 



DIARIES Of CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, i&fS. 


23S 

gallantry. He was, however, unprovided with scaling ladders and guns, 
and, Sirdar Chuttur Singh bringing up his whole force to the rescue, 
retired with the loss of about six men killed and several wounded. The 
attempt was bold but too hazardous. Were the Sikh force withdrawn 
the bastion might be forced without much difficulty. But men defended 
by walls do not lose heart whilst aid is within sight. Captain Nicholson 
was wounded slightly with a stone. Colonel Boodh Singh was more 
severely injured by a similar missile Captain Nicholson continues at 
Koorum in the Khaunpoor mountains, and Chuttur Singh's force is at 
Kala Seraie. The attack has had the happy effect of diverting the Sikhs 
from their purpose of succouring the Gahndia (Pukli'l Brigade which 
remains at Mansera. It is difficult to make out the views of Chuttur Singh, 
some say he wishes to march to Baug Bootur, but it is more probable that 
he will attempt to raise force enough to make his way to Lahore or to 
Mooltan. Our daks have been intercepted the last ^veek it is said at 
Bukrala, and we are endeavouring to establish a dak via Find Dadun 
Khan, I long ago noticed the importance of having the daks independ- 
ent, so far as possible, of Native supervison, and pointed out the impor- 
tance of establishing an agency in Goojrat. Had the Potowar and 
Goojrat agencies been in operation this rebellion had either never 
broken out, or had been put down in a few days. I should argue from 
the movements of the rebel force that Jhundur Singh’s influence is still 
felt, and that he is not far off, but I have no tidings of his movements. I 
trust the families of the rebels have been arrested and that the so often 
urged precaution of mastering the river Jelum has not been neglected. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

I beg to recommend with all deference that no troops be with- 
drawn from I.ahore for the force here requisite. 

R.S. — ij^th September . — Phi-s was accidentally left at Nara when 
I proceeded to Dumtour, no arrangement having then been made for our 
daks. 

No. 91.- -Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 7th September 
1848. 

ph September 18.^8 — Nara, Htmara . — Our daks have been completely 
cut oft lor many days. I therefore am obliged to try the route by Find 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT. 1S4S. 


239 


Dadun Khan. I hear that Chuttur Singh, having burnt the tower at 
Margulla and placed all his baggage with one regiment in the Kala 
Seraie, has marched to-da}! in this direction with the bulk of his brigade 
lightly equipped, in order to open the passes to the Pukli Brigade. I 
am making the best arrangements in my power to meet this movement. 
It would give my pai lizans great confidence to hear that a British force 
had marched toward Huzara; for it seems no longer an easy matter to 
cope with tiie forces collected together without such assistance. The 
people of Pukli and Dumtour have been bought over to Sikh interests, 
and with a divided people and without aid of guns it is hard to encounter 
regular troops in the plain. I have with my armed peasantry arrested 
for five weeks the march of a brigade of regular troops mustering Soo 
bayonets, 200 cavalry, 4 guns and 20 zumboorahs, and this in spite of 
low funds and insuperable difficulty in obtaining ammunition. This 
respite must I humbly opine have aflbrded leisure to the Government 
to meet the armed irruption with a suitable force and with promptitude, 
and I trust that it is owing solely to the arrest of our daks that I am not 
advised of the march of succour. The forts of Torbaila, Barookote and 
Ghazi of Mari, Chujjia and Kfiaunpoor have surrendered to me after 
short sieges : others are invested. It is not my wish to disturb the garri- 
sons of any but commanding posts, provided they profess loyalt}', but the 
possession of the plain by a Sikh arm}' with guns renders the possession 
of certain forts by my garrisons essentially necessary to security. The 
Fort of Syudpoor belonging to Chuttur Singh was besieged and reduced 
without my knowledge. It is just as well that the mistake was made. 

J. ABBOTT, C.rrTAi.v, 

Assistant Resident. 

No. 92. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, from the 7th to the 
13th September 1848. 

7th September 1S.78 — Xara, Husara . — Chuttur Singh having de- 
posited his baggage and heavy guns in Kala Seraie, and taking with him 
four regiments, six guns, some horse, say 600, and a considerable body of 
Sebundies, marched from the Seraie in a single march of about 25 miles 
to Hurripoor. I heard of his intention to march, but not until he was 
actually on his way. I made preparations to dispute the passage of the 



240 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, /S 4 S. 

Moti ravine, although the lightness of his present equipment rendered 
it a very hazardous experiment, but before my levies were collected we 
saw the head of his column several miles on the hither side. 

8th September 18^8— Nam . — Captain Nicholson on learning the 
march of Chuttur Singh started in pursuit and passed him during the 
night, by a most extraordinary march of some 35 miles, and I shall 
march instantly up to the Suihud Pass, as I see the Sikh force is again 
on the move upwards. 

gth September — Suihud . — I marched this day to Suihud and found 
both that Pass and the Dumtour Pass wholly undefended, at least there 
were not above 50 men at Suihud, where 700 or Soo are necessary, and 
not a fighting manat Dumtour, Hussun Ali Khan, Kurral, having in 
spite of stringent orders withdrawn his levies. I posted 700 men in Suihud 
and proceeded to Dumtour to make arrangements there. Captain Nichol- 
son came in with his force of 900 matchlocks and 300 cavalry whilst I 
was at Dumtour, and we had a consultation with the persons best ac- 
quainted with the country. The opinion of every man of rank in Captain 
Nicholson’s force is that they cannot hold so extended a line of defences 
with 1,100 matchlocks, our utmost array. Tliis too being Captain Nichol- 
son’s opinion, I have counselled him not to attempt it, but to fall back at 
once and allow the enemy to pass. This night, however, I received his 
final resolution, vis., that finding his people in better heart, upon the assur- 
ance that I would check a sally upon their rear of the Nowa Shihr garri- 
son of 400 bayonets, and would co-operate with them upon the enemy’s 
flank, he had finally decided upon making a stand. I confess I regret this 
resolution, which is one of self-sacrifice, because it is contrary to his own 
opinion, and because my power of resisting with two or three hundred 
matchlocks the sally of 400 bayonets, is something more than doubtful. 

lulh September — Early this morning, finding that the 
Sikh camp was breaking up, I collected all the defenders of the Suihud 
Pass, 700 in number, and marching after the Sikh army overtook it at 
Rujjooia, about six miles from Dumtour. The Sikhs halted and encamped 
at Rujjooia, and I pushed on to Dumtour and joined Captain Nicholson. 
As they cannot attack us to-day, I am apprehensive that they may turn 
back to the Suihud Pass, which I have left undefended. I have therefore 
scut 400 malchlocks thither. We have now all three portions of an 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT iSfS 


HI 

army of 4,000 men, with 10 guns and 40 zumbooras, in close proximity 
severed only by our own irregular troops. Whether these, inferior in 
number to the regulars and unprovided with artillery, will be persuaded 
to stand, remains to be seen. The risk is very great, and the conse- 
quences of failure may be most disastrous. 

I ilh September 18^8 — Dumtour . — The Sikh camp was under arms 
at a very early hour, and we turned out our levies an hour before 
dawn. But owing to the slowness and want of prompt obedience of 
these people (I cannot call them soldiers), my own levies which were 
not in position (having arrived last afternoon, starving and exhausted 
from their long and burning march) were late in getting into place, and 
I was detained in performing the office of Quarter-master, as the only 
person whom they will obey. When I had made my way to the front 
I perceived that a body of irregulars was pushing towards a path leading 
over the high mountain of Sirboon, to the head of the Sulhud Pass, 
Fearing it was still their design to seize that pass, I ordered fifty 
matchlocks to take possession of a village half way up. But there is 
no possibility of getting an order carried out by raw levies, and when 
every other attempt had failed, I got them forward by leading them on 
and, when well separated from their companions, pushing them foinvard. 

I was then retiring to tiie main body, when the people of Futteh Khan, 
Ghaybie, who occupied a spur of the Sirboon mountain in advance, cried 
out to me that if I retired they would all fly. Tliey were so evidently 
in earnest, and the importance of preventing their flight was so urgent 
that in spite of the importance of being with the main force, I felt 
compelled to remain, being assured that their retreat would be a signal 
for the flight of the whole army. I therefore took post with ray 20 
remaining followers upon another spur of the Sirboon mountain. The 
Sikh army was now within short cannon shot. Tliey opened their fire 
upon the spurs occupied by myself and Futteh Khan, and I imagine 
from the number of cannon shot passing over my head that they must 
have distinguished my person, perhaps by means of my red-coated order- 
lies. I looked at a high hill opposite the foremost of our barriers ; 
Captain Nicholson had planted 200 Peshawuries there. The hill was 
now quite naked ; the men must have been bribed to desert during the 
night. Captain Nicholson, seeing that a body of 1,000 Sikhs was rushing 
toward that hill, carried up about 50 men to strengthen it ; he could 



243 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J- ABBOTT, iS-fS. 


urge them forward only by presenting his pistol at their heads suc- 
cessively. On reaching the summit, he was in despair to find it wholly 
deserted, whilst the Sikh column had nearly gained the brow. He 
retired to make further arrangements at other posts, I he small party 
thus left behaved very well. They did not fly until the Sikhs were 
within ten paces of them, and their escape had become ver}^ precarious. 
Their flight was a signal for the flight of our entire force, most of whom 
had not even seen the enemy. They occupied the strong ground where 
we purposed making our stand when the advanced posts should become 
untenable. The Sikhs were 3,000 strong with si.x guns and 20 zum- 
booras. Their cavalry was principally dismounted, their arrangements 
were all good, but had the 200 Peshawuries not proved faithless, the 
column would almost certainly iiave been checked. Our force amounted 
to about 1,400 matchlocks, scattered over an immense extent of ground, 
requiring at least five or six thousand men to defend it properly. 

I was completely cut off by the advance of the enemy, and with 
much difficulty made my way to the spot where Captain Nicholson with 
his cavalry was covering the retreat. Long before I could reach him, the 
whole of our infantry had passed in their shameful flight. 

It is manifest that with such materials nothing but dishonor can be 
expected to the British name. Had the men fought and been beaten, 
we might have fought again with hope of better fortune- But I have 
now tried them twice, and met with the most dastardly conduct on both 
occasions. Captain Nicholson's experience agrees with my own They 
will not follow us into danger. They will not wait to see the face of 
an enemy. I had previously directed Lieutenant Robinson to be ready 
to withdraw and disperse his levies in case of our defeat, which from 
the first seemed too probable. We retreated by the Sulhud Pass and I 
sent 400 matchlocks to keep open the Khahi Bang Pass for Lieutenant 
Robinson. 

I2th September iS^ 8 — Nara . — Captain Nichokson separated from 
me to return to his own district. I marched to Nara. I have received a 
note from Sir Frederick Currie, which is the first news from Lahore for 
10 or 12 days. From this I cannot learn that any force has been or is 
to be sent in this direction, and I know not how this rebellion is to 
be otherwise quelled. Lieutenant Robinson joined me without difficulty 
to-day. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 243 

ij^lh Septfmbcr iSpS — Nara, forenoon. — The heav 3 ' rain of last night 
has probably detained the Sikh arm}’ at Nowa Shihr. Raja Deena Nath 
has arrived, it is said, at Rawul Pindi. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

No. 93 -Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 13th and 14th 
September 1848, 

ijth September i8j].8—Nara, Hiisara . — 1 have recorded in my 
previous diary the success of Chuttur Singh in forcing the Dumtour Pass, 
owing to the cowardice, and it is to be feared treachery, of our levies, 
who, excepting about 150 , fled without waiting to see the enemy and 
left us to our fate. 1 have mentioned that Captain Nicholson returned to 
his own district, and that I returned to Nara to see whether the people 
of Huzara were disposed to maintain the contest with any vigor. I 
learn to-day that the people of the upper districts have generally made 
their submission to Chuttur Singh, and I perceive that Jehandad Khan 
and Goolam Khan are anxious to follow their example. A single 
tribe alone can be depended upon not to betray me. Captain Nicholson 
writes me, and I hear from several other persons, that Maharaja Goolab 
Singh has actually given the regiments * which Chuttur Singh wrote for 
to my knowledge, and that they have reached Rawul Pindi with four 
guns and are to advance in this direction. Raja Deena Nath is said also 
to have been some days at Rawul Pindi, but he has communicated neither 
with me nor with Captain Nicholson. It is reported that Sirdar 
Mhaitab Singh and Sirdar Goordut Singh, after all their professions of 
loyalty, contrived to have their persons seized by Aotar Singh. 

i./.tli September — Nat a. — Chuttur Singh appears to have been 
detained at Nowa Shihr in reopening the roads and in calling in the 
people. I on my part have been anxiously consulting those whose 
fidelity can be relied on as to the chance of being supported in my 
footing here against the army of Chuttur Singh, and what is worse 
against the effects of bribery and treachery combined. The arguments 
of the most sanguine afford AnrAe wire of such ’S.vvnapT, 

There is a report that Chuttur Singh expects the Peshawur force 
to join him at Torbaila, and has arranged with Syud Ukbur for their 

* These regiments are of course declared to be mutinous. 



244 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S48. 


reception there. If this be true, his object is to overwhelm me with 
numbers. All was quiet by the last news from Peshawur. But the 
disaster at Duratour was not then known. I trust no hope has been 
built upon the mediation of Raja Deena Nath. If he had the will, he 
has not the power to effect any arrangement consistent with the dignity 
of the Government. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

It does not seem certain that Chuttur Singh will immediately 
advance. It is possible that he may retain Huzara until his cause is 
strengthened by the delay of our force. 

A private note accompanies. 

No. 94.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 16th Septem- 
ber 1848. 

j6th SepLmhcr iS.f.S — Nara, Huzara. — Our posts have come in 
regularly for some days past. But a new line may be necessary when 
Chuttur Singh moves to the soutii-ea.«t. The report that Chuttur 
Singh has bribed Syed Ukbur Shah to bring, over the ferries of the 
Indus, the Peshawur troops on their march, is so strong as to amount 
almost to certainty. I cannot distinctly ascertain how many of those 
troops are expected to mutiny. Chuttur Singh will return toward Huzara 
to-day I imagine, and probably be here to-morrow. His design seems to 
be to assemble his force upon the Indus, and march to Lahore from thence. 
But he will probably first make a strenuous effort to capture the 
British officers in Huzara. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 95. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, from the 17th to the 
19th September 1848. 

ipth, iSth, iglh September i8p.8 — Nara, Huzara. — I have already 
related that, after the shameful flight of our troops at Dumtour, Captain 
Nicholson and myself returned toward Hurripoor and separated, he 
for his own district and I for Nara according to agreement. At Nara, if 
anywhere, I may hope to be supported by the mountaineers in a stand 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, jS^S. 


245 


against the Sikh army. If they attack me, and my people stand, 
Chiittur Singh will in all probability be defeated with great slaughter, 
and his cause will fall to the ground. If he do not attack me, on his 
quitting Huzara he will leave me in possession of the district, which 
I imagine the Government must wish me to retain. The only persons 
who have gone in to the Sikhs are those zumeendars and Mulliks of 
villages of the plains who have scarcely an option. The whole people 
consider themselves especially under the protection of the British 
Government, They will not indeed back me in any military enterprize 
with the heartiness necessary to success, but they hate and dread the 
Sikh dominion. Were I to evacuate the country, the whole Punjaub 
would be affected by the movement. I have therefore sent Lieutenant 
Robinson to the upper districts to resume charge of them, so that if any 
accident befall me, our authority in Huzara may not be lost. The Sikh 
army apparently meditates an attack upon Attock from both sides of 
the river, if it fail to secure a passage higher up. My presence here 
has, I trust, enabled me to put serious obstacles in the way of the latter 
design. Twenty-four of the guns at Peshawur are said to be gained 
over. I trust this is not the case. But Chuttur Singh’s chief reliance 
is upon having, through his son Goolab Singh, successfully tampered 
with the Native regiments at Lahore. I most earnestly beg attention 
to this subject. It seems scarcely credible that Chuttur Singh should 
venture upon such an expedition with so small an army, unless he had 
grounds for this hope. A letter came from Goolab Singh this son) a 
few days ago urging him to hasten to Lahore, for that several of our 
Native regiments there were his. The letter was secured in the sole 
of the bearer's shoe. Maharaja Goolab Singh has paid as yet no 
attention to the Resident’s request that he would advance me 30,000 
rupees. But the request of Sirdar Chuttur Singh that he would send 
him certain regiments has been promptly complied with, according to 
my best intelligence, two corps, said to have mutinied, having come to 
the Sirdar's aid. Although I hope the report of our Native regiments 
at Lahore is untrue, yet the stake is so great tliat I would venture to 
suggest their being, if possible, so disposed of as to prevent the ill- 
consequences which their defection must occasion. Raja Deena Nath 
has communicated with Sirdar Chuttur Singh, but not with Captain 
Nicholson nor with me. He is raising troops at Chukkowal, who 
will of course join the insurgents. 



246 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, fS^S. 

A great effort was made by Chuttiir Singh to bribe the Juddoons 
about Khubbul, &c., to give the Peshavvur force free passage. I trust that 
my influence will prove sufficient to foil him here ; and if so it seems to 
be his purpose to attack Attock on the eastern side of the Indus, whilst the 
Peshawur mutineers attack it on the west, and if successsful the whole 
force will march at once upon Lahore. I should fear that Chuttur 
Singh must have received pecuniary aid from Maharaja Goolab Singh 
or he would be unable to keep together his army, all the treasuries in 
this neighbourhood being dry. 

J ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assisiant Resident. 

The last two or three days in place of a Journal I have answered 
the Resident’s notes. 

Received to-day a Roobakaree from the Residency announcing 
some advantage gained over Moolraj by General Whish’s force. 

There is every reason to believe that the agent of Sirdar Goolab 
Singh (son of Chuttur Singh) used all his influence with the Hurripoor 
troops to persuade them to persist in their rebellion, stating that the 
Native Corps at Lahore were rotten ; that there were only five Corps 
there, and that the British were sending away, in alarm, their vvives 
and baggage. 

J. ABBOTT. 


No. 96. —Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 20th and 21st 
September 1848. 

20th and 2 ist September i 8 ^ 8 — Nara, Huzara . — Chuttur Singh’s 
movements have been less rapid than was anticipated ; he and his force 
of six regiments of infantry, 6oo horse, i8 guns, 40 zumbooras and 
about 1,000 matchlocks arrived on 20th, and encamped at Hurripoor- 
They were busied all day with preparations for a march. The prevailing 
report says that if on reaching Hussun Ubdal or Huzroo they find the 
Sikh force at Peshawur on the move, that then they will simultaneously 
attack Attock from both sides of the river ; that if disappointed in the 
Peshawur force they will march at once upon Lahore. On the night 
of the 19th Chuttur Singh fired a salute, some say upon the death of 
Serjeant Denton, drowned in a captured boat off Attock, others that it 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 247 

was in honor of two despatches, the one from Cashmere assuring the 
Sirdar that 40,000 rupees had been despatched to him and that the 
Jumboo army should inarch on his reaching Jelum, the other from 
Mooltan informing him of a great victory to the united arms of Raja 
Shere Singh and Moolraj. Chuttur Singh is halted still on the 2ist at 
Hurripoor. Should he attack Nara, I have good hope that my people 
will stand, in which case I trust to break the neck of this rebellion. 
It is a season of much anxiety to me, as treachery is around my camp, 
and I have twice been deserted in the conflict by my men. I do not 
think there is much fear of the Peshawur force effecting a passage 
above Attock. 

J. ABBOTT. Captain-, 

Assistant Resident. 

No. 97.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 22nd and 23rd 
September 1848. 

22nd September 18^-8 — Nara, Huzara. — Chuttur Singh’s camp is still 
halted at Hurripoor within sight of my position, which is the foot of the 
Gundgurh mountain. We expected to be attacked last night or this 
morning and were on the qui vive. I trust my people will fulfil their 
solemn promise of standing manfully, in which case I trust to inflict 
upon the Sirdar a blow which will not be easily recovered. He has six 
regiments, about 600 horse, i,000 matchlocks, and ii guns and 40 
zumbooras. A couple of British regiments with three guns and 200 
horse would, I doubt not, rout them all. Had 1 a single regiment here 
to lead the way my people would probably follow. But they have no 
confidence in the plain against guns and cavalry. 

2j>d September — Nara — Chuttur Singh remains halted at Hurri- 
poor. Last night we were again on the alert. He made an unsuccessful 
effort to relieve the Sherwaun g.irrison, his party being driven back by 
the Tunnolees A party of his son, Aotar Singh, sent against Syudpoor 
were defeated a day or two ago. The head of their leader has just been 
brought me. I have ordered that it be burnt after Sikh usage instead of 
suspending it as my people wish. We war not with the widow and 
fatherless. Numbers of the people of the plain from fear of the Sikhs 
or from jealousy of my adherents have been aiding the Sirdar. This is 



348 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S48. 


what I have chiefly to apprehend. They ha\'e means and knowledge 
highly valuable to the enemy. But for this I should have little appre- 
hension. I destroyed another boat to-day with infinite difficulty. I 
hope I have succeeded with another. The independent tribes on the 
Indus are extremely jealous of their boats, and Chuttur Singh has been 
bribing royally to obtain them for his ow'ii or the Peshawur force. I 
read with much concern of the resolution of General Whish. I sup- 
posed that every one was prepared to see Raja Shere Singh take a step 
confidently expected of him by the Sikh army inHuzarafrom the 
outset. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

R • 5 . — A letter just received fiaapa^a yv\n^ a-ivy j/oTfO' 6r} drjaTraTX to 

pri o^) pvirrjtr XXVM . When it reaches me I shall be better able to appre- 
ciate the loan. 

No. 98.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 24th Sep- 
tember 1848. 

2.^i.h September 1848— Nora, Hunara. — We have been on the alert 
for the last three nights in expectation of an attack, and Chuttur Singh, 
it is said, speaks confidently of attacking my position to-morrow or the 
next day. When I returned from the shameful affair at Dumtour, I 
assembled the people of the Gundgurh mountain, and after reminding 
them that my presence in Huzara was solely for their protection, and 
assuring them I would not remain an hour longer than they desired, put 
it to them whether I should make my seat here or retire to some other 
place. One and all implored me to remain. I replied that I would not 
remain to be dishonored a third time by the cowardice of my followers, 
that if I staid and exposed my life for them, I expected them to stand by 
me, to the death. They all solemnly vowed they w'ould do so. and I con- 
sented to remain. This mountain is a haunted spot. It has been carried 
but once and then by an overwhelming army and the aid of treachery 
Could w’e be sure that treachery will not aid the intended assault, we 
might be pretty confident of successful resistance, for the people have 
their wives and families here. I think, I should be wrong to forfeit the 
chance, for if defeated Chuttur Singh’s cause is lost. If I fall, the 
loss to my country is one individual, the least worthy of her sons. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184S. 


249 


I have destroyed I trust another boat upon the Indus. There is 
a good deal of dissatisfaction in the Sikh camp, which is in sight. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 99. -Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 25th and 26th 
September 1848. 

2^lli September i8pS — Nara, Huzara . — The camp of Chuttur Singh 
remains at Hurripoor for the Sradh. Reports vary every hour. There 
has been great difficulty in providing a garrison for Hurkishengurh. 
No one will willingly remain in the assurance of being besieged the 
instant his force marches. In this dilemma the Sirdar summoned the 
punchayut, and explaining the difficulty put it to them whether they 
could quit Huzara without attacking ray position. The resolution seems 
to have been in favor of an attack and we have been on the alert in 
consequence. But nothing certain is known. 

26th September — Nara . — Bad news from Lahore or Mooltan is 
said to have reached Chuttur Singh. His troops are reported to be 
much divided by dissensions, and disgusted by the want of pay. The 
Peshawur force, I believe, shows no great readiness to move. It 
may be doubted whether they will move unless be take Attock, or 
whether he would venture to attack that fort without aid from Peshawur. 
Aotar Singh’s levies have been shamefully defeated by a handful 
of Gukhas. It is said that the letters urging him to march upon 
Lahore have been succeeded by others informing him that that move 
is now too late, owing to the large number of British troops arrived 
and arriving there; and counselling him to take post at Karoo Khowta, 
and there raise revenue for his maintenance. All my property left at 
Hurripoor, and that of Lieutenant Robinson, was plundered by the 
Sikhs a day or two ago. Two of my bungalows they had previously 
destroyed ; some Government instruments have 1 fear been seized. The 
camp is still at Hurripoor. 


J. ABBOTT, Captai.v, 

Assistant Resident, 


'll* ^ 

/ 


32 



aso DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J ABBOTT, 184S. 

No. 100.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Besi> 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 27th and 28th 
September 1848. 

2’/th September 18^8 — Husara . — The camp of Cliuttur Singh was 
not moved to-day, but remains at Hurripoor. Of two boats that were 
at Khubbul, one was seized and taken to Attock by a son of Ursulla Khan. 
For the destruction of the second I paid about 500 rupees to the owners, 
but instead of breaking up or burning the boat according to agreement, 
they merely sunk it. Syud Ukbur of Sythana fished it up again for 
Sirdar Chuttur Singh, but I rather hope the Khubbulites recovered it 
from his clutches. I am doing my best to destroy it. The Sikh camp 
is positively to march to-morrow, some say in this direction, others that 
it will move on Chuch. 

I deeply regret to have to record a most lamentable occurrence 
under this date. The garrisons of three neighbouring forts had sub- 
mitted to me, and had received certain advances of pay with purwanas 
upon the Chuch Kardar for two months more, and promissory notes for 
the payment of all arrears when the country should be settled, upon 
condition of their not taking service with Chuttur Singh. These men 
after the most solemn promises of compliance went with one accord 
over to the enemy. The circumstance caused great indignation in my 
camp. The garrison of Sherwaun being proved to be in correspond- 
ence with Chuttur Singh, it was necessary to relieve it, and I ordered 
it accordingly to Nara. Ten or twelve of the men were in the act of 
deserting from thence when I heard of it, and sent a party to arrest 
them. In an instant the report of treachery circulated through my 
camp, and that I had ordered the garrison to be plundered. My un- 
disciplined levies fell upon the unfortunate men who were cooking 
their food, or otherwise engaged, and they were stripped of their arms 
and property, which were carried up into the mountain. Several were 
mercilessly cut down, apparently unresisting. The confusion was such 
that my presence could not for a long time appease it, and all my efforts 
to recover property have proved hitherto but partially successful, the 
men having no barracks, camp nor lines, but occupying posts upon the 
mountains. This melancholy affair has opprest me with the most 
painful and anxious thought and proved in an impressive manner the 
misery of commanding an armed force which will not follow me into 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. *S* 

danger, but is ready at a moment’s notice to wreak its vengeance upon 
the helpless and unoffending. The men were not Sikhs but Hindoos 
of all castes. 

28th September i8p8—Nara. — Chuttur Singh, after destroying my 
bungalow at Hurripoor, marched this morning half a koss upon the 
Hussun or Margulla road, and is encamped there in sight. Report 
speaks variously of his immediate designs, some saying that he will 
attack my position and others that he will continue his march. His 
halt after one mile of march appears to argue the receipt of unexpected 
intelligence after having started. But as yet I have no other authority 
for this supposition. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 101.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 29th Septem- 
ber 1848. 

2gth September i8p8 —Nara, Huzara. — Chuttur Singh marched 
with his whole force this morning about nine miles in a southerly direc- 
tion, intending, it is believed, to proceed to Chuch, and thence perhaps 
to Attock. A good deal of dissension prevails in his camp. The 
report all yesterday of his intention to attack my position was strong ; 
and we were all on the alert, until his columns were seen fairly pro- 
gressing southwards. As he could not make up his mind to attack 
my 1,000 matchlocks, with his six regiments, cavalry, and guns, he 
vented his spleen upon my bungalow at Hurripoor, the third which 
the Sikh soldiery have destroyed. Intercepted a letter this morning, 
from Khan-i-Zeman Khan of Gundgurh to Chuttur Singh referring to 
intrigues of the latter long previous to this outbreak, urging him to 
attack Attock without delay and promising him, so soon as the Pesha- 
wur force should join Chuttur Singh, to kill me, and to place Huzara 
in his power This Khan-i-Zeman Khan is the chief whom I restored 
to his long-forfeited patrimony. The letter is valuable as another 
proof that Chuttur Singh was intriguing with the chiefs of Huzara 
previous to the outbreak. Report says that Fatteh Khan of Ghayb, 
who was in like manner restored to his lost patrimony by Captain 
Nicholson, has made to Chuttur Singh a similar promise respecting tliat 
officer’s lile. Such are the men for and with whom we are fighting. 



*52 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 

Chuttur Singh, previous to his march this day assembled the 
zumeendars of the neighbourhood and told them on no account to 
pay any revenue to me, on pain of his displeasure, saying, “ I march 
now upon Attock which I shall attack and take, and carry over the 
Peshawur force in boats ; and if I fail to take it I will waft over the 
Peshawur army upon rafts of inflated skins. In any case, I will 
bring them over, and when they are over, I will attack and take Gund- 
gurh and Srikote. I will on no account march southward, until I 
have settled the Gundgurh mountain.” The people whom he ordered 
to garrison the Fort of Hurkishengurh fled from it yesterday, the 
instant he marched, which, it is said, was the cause of so small a stage 
(one mile), 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 102.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, from the 1st to the 
4th October 1848. 

1 st and 2 nd October i8tf.8—Nara, Huzara . — Sirdar Chuttur Singh 
is with his whole force at Banbera separating the baggage, which 
is to be left at Kala Seraie. He is then to return to Chuch, or 
to invest Attock. There are reports in his camp, confidently believed, 
that the guards of the land gate have promised him admittance. 
I have written to warn Mr. Herbert, and to suggest that the gate 
be built up at once ; and as other reports attribute treachery to 
his golundauze, I have suggested that a staunch guard be posted 
at each gun, apparently for the protection of the ramparts, but 
really to prevent treachery, and to see that the golundauze do not 
fire wide. Chuttur Singh, unless joined by the Peshawur force, will not 
I think cross the Jelum. His friends in Lahore tell him it is too 
late, according to my best information, and he is evidently preparing to 
hold possession of this Dooab by the arrangements he is making 
for retaining forts, appointing tehseeldars, etc. He purposes holding 
Huzara, although the revenue is so trifling. Should the Peshawur 
force join, it is impossible to say where the punches may direct 
the army, very probably upon Mooltan. The resolution of the officer 
commanding there to raise the siege, without even attempting with 
his powerful train to gain possession of the city, must of course greatly 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. s$3 

prejudice our cause throughout the Punjaub ; and here especially 
where our power has hitherto been so respected. With possession of 
the city of Mooltan we could have prolonged the preliminaries of 
the siege of the fortress, without any .symptom of weakness, and 
until succour should have arrived. And it is impossible to imagine that 
any town wall, however well defended, could long resist the attack 
of two Briti.sh brigades, with a powerful siege train, supported by 
18,000 brave allies. 

It is important that the rebellion in this Dooab should be speedily 
put down, or it may spread to other parts. The difficulty with 
tlte insurgents is their want of treasure. But if allowed peaceful 
possession, they will collect the whole revenue of these districts. The 
first instalment of this season is just due, and whatever they collect 
is deducted from our Treasury. Our adherents are disheartened 
at being left two months to struggle against a regular army, without 
even the prospect of succour, and more importance attaches just now 
to the possession of Huzara than may at first sight appear. 

^rd October 18^8 — — Chuttur Singh marched with his force, 
including his battering guns, to Puthurgurh close to Hussun Ubdal, 
where he is making collections, destroying the crops of those who refuse 
to pay and burning, it is said, their houses. The disposition to resist 
payment is general, and many have fled But they are without 
prospect of support, and will, I suppose, all eventually submit. 

pli October — Nara . — My news from the Sikh camp is not yet in. 
There appears to be no doubt that it is moving either upon Attock 
or upon the Nilab Ferry. I earnestly hope the boats have been secured 
at the latter. I was not aware that there was a practicable route 
to Peshawur via Nilab, and therefore have never enquired. But I 
presume this must be known to the officers in charge of Peshawur, and 
Sinde Sagar. Lieutenant Herbert assures me the gateway shall be 
immediately built up. 


J. ABBOTT, Captai.v, 

Assistant Resident. 



*54 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1 S 4 S. 

No. 103. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 5th and 6th 
October 1848. 

5 ih October j 8 ^ 8 — Nara, Husara.—Chutiur Singh appears to be 
marching steadily upon Attock invited, say his men, by the officers 
in charge of one of the gates who have promised to open to him- 
I have recommended Lieutenant Herbert to have the inner cavity of the 
land gate built up with dry masonry to the depth of lo or i2 feet, and 
to exclude from the fortress every Sikh whatever, planting guards 
also near the several guns. Nevertheless, I feel uneasy about the 
fate of a fort upon which so great a stake is hazarded. No Lahore 
dak has reached me for several days, owing perhaps to Captain 
Nicholson’s eccentric movement. 

6 th October — Nara . — Late in the night the Lahore post of the — 
came in bringing me from Mr. Inglis some particulars of our force 
at Mooltan. I believe a single brigade has been sent to strengthen it. 
If two British brigades with 20,ooo allies and a battering train 
are insufficient to carry a simple gothic wall without outworks or 
ditch, and of no considerable altitude, it appears to me very doubtful 
whether three brigades will suffice to storm a fortress of such 
acknowledged strength as that of Mooltan, especially as the mortars 
of the siege train are manifestly insufficient for the work in hand. I 
hazard this opinion in the hope of being useful. I thought two brigades 
too small a force to isolate at Mooltan with the assurance I have long 
possest that Sher Singh’s force would sooner or later join the enemy. 
But I never conjectured that a town wall would have arrested two 
brigades and 20,000 brave allies. The moral effect of this arrest will 
I fear prove disastrous. The news found Chuttur Singh’s army disheart- 
ened and divided, and in some danger of falling to pieces. It was 
celebrated as a victory, restored their union and their confidence, and 
so dispirited our party here, that I have since heard of nothing but 
secret offers of my partizans to join the enemy. Of course its effect at 
Peshawur must be in proportion, all which had been saved, and a sensi- 
ble blow had besides been struck, had the city been carried at once by 
the combined armies. 

With regard to the Sikh army westward of the Jelum, the union 
of the Peshawur force with Chuttur Singh’s must be regarded as a 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184S. 


*55 


Strong probability. The existence of the latter force depends upon this 
union, and they will effect it if within the limits of the possible. What 
may be the movement of the united force cannot be determined. It 
may remain westward of the Jelum collecting the revenue of Potowar 
and Peshawur, or it may be hurled at Lahore or at Mooltan. If, then, 
the Mooltan force were strengthened by two more brigades from Bombay, 
and the Lahore force were at once to advance before the Sikh army 
had had time to make extensive collections (cash being the chief want 
of Chuttur Singh), or to establish a settled government of its own in 
these parts, the whole insurrection might be easily swept down. If 
time is permitted to pass away unimproved by our advance (and 
already the insurgents have been two months in the field) the strength 
of the rebels may go on increasing daily, as heretofore, until it 
became really formidable. Chuttur Singh’s present system is evidently 
to conquer and keep possession of as much country as possible of this 
Dooab and to exclude the British from it. He himself has no idea 
of advancing upon Lahore, although a Sikh Punchayut might produce 
such a movement. 

I would above all advert to the necessity of securing the collections 
of all rich tracts by multiplying British agents, each with a couple 
of hundred horse and as many matchlocks, in all districts unoccupied by 
the enemy. 

The people of the country are all our friends, excepting of course 
in Sikh districts, which are very rare ; and where they have the choice 
will always pay to British authority. The expense of this is not 
worthy of consideration, the great object being to deprive the enemy of 
the sinews of war and to render it impossible for him to collect without 
dividing his force ad infinitum. Our communications would thus be 
kept open, and a correspondence maintained with the people which 
may be of the greatest advantage. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

Our reports speak of the steady advance of Chuttur Singh’s force 
upon Attock. 



2s6 diaries of captain J. ABBOTT, tS^S. 

No. 104. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, on deputation to Huzara, for the 7th October 
1848. 

ylh October 184.S — Nara, Huzara . — Under yesterday’s date I 
presumed to offer some remarks upon the state of the rebellion in 
these parts, but as the daks are liable to interruption I take the 
liberty of recapitulating. 

Chuttur Singh with his force of 6 regiments. 600 horse, 2,000 
matchlocks, 6 breaching and about 10 field guns is encamped at 
Shumsabad close to the river Indus and within a march of Attock ; 
at present a couple of Sipahi regiments and four guns might 
scatter his whole army and dissolve the rebellion. But this rebellion 
has been on foot two months and I have no certain intelligence of 
the advance of British troops. The collections of the season are 
just commencing and he has entire possession of them. Thus his 
greatest need is supplied* The people of the country regard him 
as a robber and pay unwillingly, expecting that our army will 
advance. He has as yet no hold upon the country, but every day for 
the last month past has strengthened his position and every coming day 
that he is unopposed must make his footing firmer. His first idea was 
to hurry down to Lahore. But this seems to have been abandoned 
since the news of our reinforcement at that city, and so far as I can 
learn he has no intention of crossing the Jelum even should the Pesha- 
wur force join him. The junction of this force with his must be 
regarded as a strong probability. We have seen six corps join his 
standard in spite of the opposition in many cases of their officers. 
Opportunity alone seems wanting to make every Sikh corps in the 
service side with the mutineers, and Chuttur Singh and his force are so 
desperate without aid from Peshawur that they will risk everything 
to obtain it. 

The question then is whether to allow this rebellion, at present so 
easily put down, to grow into something formidable or by a prompt 
advance to scatter it in its weakness. The whole country of Huzara 
were our troops at hand, would rise to aid them ; at present only a few 
of the people of the hills back me, and the continuance of their support 
must depend upon the advance of our forces. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184S. 257 

The Mooltan siege might be aided by troops from Bombay. The 
advance of the Bengal force in this direction appears to me to be 
urgently required ; every day increases Chuttur Singh's treasury and 
makes him more dangerous. 

Above all it seems to me that the promptest measures should be 
taken to prevent the treasure of this Dooab from falling into his hands 
by multiplying British agents, each with a small force of irregular 
horse and matchlocks, who might take their several posts as our troops 
advance. The absence at this moment of Captain Lumsden from the 
Eusufzye country may (it is too much to be feared) open the road to a 
junction of the Peshawur troops with Chuttur Singh. I mention this, 
which I have so often before adverted to, to show the extreme impor- 
tance of British agencj’. The people honor and respect our Government, 
and wherever there is a British officer he becomes a focus of power 
for our cause. 

Were Captain Lumsden at this moment in the Eusufzye country 
the junction of the two Sikh forces were hopeless. 

Chuttur Singh and his force are halting, it is said, for the Dussaira 
at Shumsabad, close to the Indus and one march from Attock. Report 
says he has sent a band of horse to Nilab to take possession of two boats 
secured tliere for him by the chief, Jafir Khan, Kuttuk. But I trust our 
officers have not left any for him there. He is expecting the Peshawur 
force to join him and is making collections of the revenue. 

J. ABBOTT, C.\PT.\iN, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 105.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 8th 
October 1848. 

Slh October /S./.S Nara, Huzara . — Sirdar Chuttur Singh and his 

force were yesterday at Shumsabad, but the camp has disappeared and 
he has marched I believe upon Attock. Report says that two boats have 
been furnished him at Nilab and two at a ferry of the Loondai. He 
is bent upon effecting a junction with the Peshawur Brigade, and it is 
too probable that he will succeed. His after purpose is not certain, 
but from what I learn I infer that he wishes to establish himself in 
this Dooab. A Sikh Punchayut may any day subvert such a purpose. 

33 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN / ABBOTT, 1848. 


258 

His orders are issued in the name of Maharaja Dhulleep Singh and he has 
assumed, I understand, the office of Regent. Thus a rebellion which at 
first was contemptible, and which at this moment two Sipahie regiments 
and four guns could scatter, has gradually in the course of two months 
of our inaction become a revolution which a strong army will be needed 
to quell. Barring treachery Attack might repel the insurgents, but 
treachery is a weapon familiar to Sikh hands, and reports of treachery in 
the garrison are rife. Without taking Attock, however, it is probable 
that Chuttur Singh will effect a junction, and the conseqences should be 
provided for without delay. Report says that the Bunnoo force is in 
open mutiny. This I have long anticipated, but I do not think the 
orginal design of the conspirators included the Sikh force, at least I 
could learn nothing certain of their disaffection. 

J. ABBOTT, Captai.v, 
Assislanl Resident. 


No. 106.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, on deputation to Huzara, for the 11th 
October 1848. 

nth October 18^8 — Srikotc, Hiizara . — Lieutenant Herbert informs 
me that several of my letter bags for Lahore have been returned to him 
owing to some obstruction on the road. Chuttur Singh has been about 
a week in Chuch encamped near the Indus, searching for fords and for 
boats and collecting wood for rafts. Yesterday report said that he had 
found a ford, deep indeed and dangerous, but that two sowars had 
actually passed over by it. If Major Lawrence has sent any matchlocks 
to oppose the landing of his people it will be difficult, if possible, for 
them to use a ford such as this is described to be ; but it must be 
remembered that life, fame and fortune are in one stake, and that the 
most desperate effort will be made to cross the army. No precaution, 
therefore, should be neglected. We hear that Aotar Singh, with a force 
estimated variously as of 2,ooo or 4,000 men, is on his road to Huzara to 
make collections and hold possession of the valley. The importance of 
an advance of our troops in this direction appears to me great. Chuttur 
Singh is at present regarded by the people as a rebel whose course will 
be immediately cut short. The zumeendars pay their rents to him with 
the utmost reluctance and often prefer sacrificing house and crops. His 
weak point was his empty treasury. His troops were on the point of 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iSpS. 239 

separating from him from want of pay and from the hopelessness of their 
prospects. He has been allowed, however, more than two months’ 
leisure to recruit his treasury and is collecting the rents throughout 
these districts. The people hear nothing of our troops and gradually 
will give up our cause for want of encouragement. With the revenues 
of Peshawur and of this Dooab he will become really formidable. The 
advance a fortnight ago of a strong brigade, even as far as Jelum, would 
have dissolved this rebellion in toto. The troops were ready to fly upon 
a rumour. They had no hope and no prospect of pay. They listened 
readily to my remonstrances. Huzara was ready to rise to join any 
British foree. But the people of the valleys dare not rise when there is 
no effectual support at hand. Chuttur Singh would have been'an outcast 
had a single brigade then been sent. I would not have proposed to 
isolate one brigade. Another might have followed with all speed and the 
first might have halted at Jelum for the second. Assurance was all that 
was then needed to prevent any zumeendar from paying his rents and 
to prevent the Peshawur force from thinking of joining the insurrection, 
but the suggestions of Major Lawrence, Captain Nicholson and myself 
have not been acted upon. With assurance of reaping the revenues 
of this Dooab we could afford to increase our levies and distract the 
enemy’s attention by threatening him on several quarters at once, and 
might retain the greater part of the Dooab in subjection. 

J. ABBOTT, Captai.n, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 107.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, on deputation, Huzara, for the 16th October 
1848. 

i6th October 1848— Srikole, For several days past we 

have made no attempt to send letters by the dak, several of our packets 
being detained at Attock. There appe.ars, however, some possibility 
that the road may again be open although it cannot long remain so. I 
am not sure that I have recorded the arrival at my camp of Bukshie — , as 
Vuqueel from the Maharaja Goolab Singh. He is profuse in assurances 
of the friendly disposition of his master ; disclaims for him all connection 
with Chuttur Singh ; allows that there has been the closest intimacy, 
but states that the conduct of the Sirdar on several trying occasions 



26o 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


put an end to their friendship. He offers freely the use of the Jumboo 
troops, guns and treasury for my aid ; denies the reports that any of 
the Jumboo regiments have joined Chuttur Singh, but allows that a 
corps of about 200 dismist some months ago for mutiny and disarmed 
has gone over to the rebels. I trust that the strong sense of the 
Maharaja will keep him to his professions. He certainly has promptly 
answered my application for money and for guns, although the former 
is of only half the amount I asked for. 

Chuttur Singh was yesterday nearly in slain quo, that is close to 
Shumsabad, about six miles above Attock. He has not discovered any 
practicable ford, and the passage upon skin rafts, with the chance of 
opposition on the other side, is very dangerous as a matchlock bullet 
may sink a raft. He sent again a deputation nominally for the relief 
of the garrison of Simulkund, who were supposed to be straitened for 
water. I allowed it to proceed in consideration of the earnest wish 
of Lieutenant Herbert, though I had no idea that it would succeed. His 
emissaries, instead of persuading the garrison to surrender, ordered them 
to hold out. This is the second time the same treachery has been 
practised, and it seems to be a rule, without exceptions, that nothing 
said or done by a Sikh is ever what it appears. There seems to be no 
longer any idea of crossing the Jelum. The Bunnoo troops will join 
Chuttur Singh and both will endeavour to form a junction with those of 
Peshawur. How urgently the advance of our army is required I need 
not say; nothing else can preserve the Peshawur troops in their 
allegiance or prevent the widespread disorder and rebellion. Report 
says that Futteh Khan, Tewana, has been murdered. A week or two 
before the outbreak in Huzara I wrote to warn him of a design upon his 
life, but my messenger never returned and was probably waylaid. Had 
the warning reached him it might have prevented the tragedy. The plot 
was concocted by the Officer Commanding the Artillery at Bunnoo, a son 
of General Sooltan Maimood in Huzara, who has been an active agent 
here, \esteiday we received about five da3^s’ dak packets, that had 
been detained on the road, giving news from Lahore to the 8 th. There 
are still disturbances in Gilgit, where the Maharaja’s General has been 
killed. Two regiments have been sent to quell them. I imagine it is 
the intention of Chuttur Singh to attack my position from the western 
side by his retention of the Simulkund Fort. I have just driven the 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. A P POTT, 1S4S. 261 

garrison out of the Fort Dunna with great loss, capturing the eum- 
booras. They were alarmed, sallied out in the attempt to escape, were 
met by a party of my people under Peer Buksh Khan, Mullal, and routed 
with much slaughter. The Thanadar, a relative of Chuttur Singh, is 
captured. The fort is one of the most important in Huzara, and being 
at the back of Chuttur Singh’s jaghirs he was anxious to retain it. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident, 


No. 108. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, on deputation, Huzara, for the 25th and 26th 
October 1848. 

2^lh October 184.8 — Nara, Huzara. — The camp of Chuttur Singh 
marched to-day to Daman on the road to Hussun Ubdal. Rumour says 
that two sowars brought news from Raja Shere Singh which caused this 
move and that the Peshawur force have positively refused to Join him. 

26th October . — Heavy rain all last night which has probably caused 
a halt. Two notes from the Resident reached me to-day, — the one by a 
messenger dated the loth, the other by Maharaja Goolab Singh’s Vuqueel 
dated the 1 1 th, informing me that no accounts had been received at 
Lahore from Peshawur, Attock, or Huzara, since the ist instant. A 
letter from Lieutenant Herbert, commanding in Attock, mentions that he 
had not received his usual letter from Peshawmr and that a report had 
reached him O 0 6r\ fivTivi o 0 dr/ Tpama- ai-S KaTrTvpe o(p fiaiop Xapeva which lie WaS 
disposed to credit. This evening a strong report reached me from the 
western bank of the river that the removal of Chuttur Singh from the 
river’s brink was in consequence of the request of the Peshawur troops 

who urged Bar jSi <ro Soivy rj oooXS 6poa> Brj painp o(p icr yapS avS evafiXf Sij pvrtvrjpa- 

TO (T€i(r€ L(r TVfpiTov, 1 tliouglit it extraol dinary that Chuttur Singh had so 
soon desisted from his endeavours, knowing of what vital importance 
his success must be to his cause and the disposition of a part at 
least of the Peshawur force, and I greatly fear the true explanation 
is before us and that Major Lawrence has fallen into the snare. 
Sikh treachery is a thing beyond the comprehension of an European. 
All this danger had been saved by the timely advance of even a 
portion of our army or its assembly at Wuzeerabad or Ramnuggur 
instead of at Ferozepore. I wrote in quadruplicate my account of the 



262 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848- 


affair between Chuttur Singh’s force and my matchlocks at Simulkund 
so that I hope one copy has reached the Residency. The loss of the 
enemy seems to have been under-rated rather than exaggerated, and all 
seem to regard it as a triumph on our part. At any rate all was done 
that was possible upon such ground against so superior a force, and the 
Sikhs are as much disgusted at the affair as my people are elated. The 
Maharaja Goolab Singh informs me through his Vuqueel that he has 
received the Resident’s instructions to attack Chuttur Singh, and asks my 
advice as to the mode. But as I have no hint of such a wish from the 
Resident, I have declined offering any advice. I would rather not 
have the Jumboo troops just now in Huzara, and although I believe 
the Maharaja to be too wise to engage in such a plot as that of Chuttur 
Singh, yet I think the employment of his troops in this campaign 
attended with hazard. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

Our Post Office letters and papers I beg to suggest may be sent 
through the Vuqueel of the Maharaja Goolab Singh, who has undertaken 
to forward all despatches P. S . — An urzee from the Chief, Ameer Khan 
of Oond, has just arrived stating that a rebellion has broken out at 
Peshawur. It is stated that guns were heard this morning in the direc- 
tion of the Sikh camp : a Shellak or salute probably in joy of the success 
of Sikh treachery. 


No. 109.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, on deputation, Huzara, for the 30th October 
1848. 

joth October i8.f.8 — Nara, Huzara . — A man just returned by his own 
account from Peshawur gives a somewhat different version of the out- 
break there. He says that Lieutenant Bowie was returning from the 
bath when some Sikhs endeavoured to seize him, but that he put spurs 
to his horse and escaped to the mansion ; that Major Lawrence, who 
was still in the bath, got intelligence of what had happened and reached 
home by a different route ; that for two days the Sikhs were trying to 
win over the Nujjeebs, and that Major Lawrence was vainly endeav- 
ouring to persuade them to fire upon the Sikhs ; that during the third 
night, finding himself without support. Major Lawrence departed with 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184.8. 


263 


Lieutenant Bowie and Dr. Thomson so secretly that his guards were 
not aware of his departure until next morning, when the army attacked 
his house ; that Sooltan Muhammad Khan sent his son with Major 
Lawrence, who is at Kohat. The latter part of the story seems doubt- 
ful, as the report is strong that Major Lawrence is in the mountains of 
the Afreedis. The Peshawur force by the latest accounts is said to be 
marching to the Bazour ferry to join Chuttur Singh, whose camp is 
reported to be waiting for it on the eastern bank. It is strange that no 
note from any of the party has yet reached us. The Barukzyes are no 
doubt in the conspiracy ; long before the insurrection in Huzara 
Chuttur Singh was in constant correspondence with them. So far as 
we can learn he purposes making an attempt to secure my person, or 
drive me out of Huzara, and will then march toward Lahore. The place 
of assembly is believed to be Gujerat, and the Sikhs give out that it is 
chosen for convenience of aid from Jumboo. The Maharaja has for- 
warded me the Resident’s Roobakaree, directing him to assemble troops 
at Meerpoor Chowmook, and to attack Chuttur Singh upon the Jelum, 
and referring to me for advice. I confess I think the experiment 
hazardous. The Maharaja has no army capable of coping with the Sikh 
force in its present strength. It is very doubtful whether his soldiers 
would fight against the Sikhs in a cause which has become national. 
They are so ill-paid that there is much danger of defection, and although 
I can scarcely believe that the Maharaja would endanger his own 
kingdom by mixing in such an insurrection, yet I conceive that the risk 
should not be run of bringing his troops as allies into the field, or 
allowing him just now to assemble or move troops upon the southern 
frontier. Any such movement were he not expected to aid, would 
put us upon our guard. At present we have no index of his disposition. 
Were Shere Singh not upon the Chenab, a force of four or five thousand 
men might render the crossing of the Jelum difficult. But at present 
they can do nothing useful that I know of. I would urgently bring 
to notice the dangers we have so narrowly escaped, and the confusion 
that has arisen by employing any but British troops to quell this 
insurrection. The relations hitherto borne between jiaapa^a yv\a^ aivy ar 8 
XVTTvp a-ivy ap€ dacrt ocf) (jiadep avb aov. At Attock all waS Well on the 29th. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident, 



264 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848. 


The report here is strong that the Sikhs of the Manjha have prom- 
ised to rise and join the insurrection ; a strong force for them and for 
Jullundhur should be under arms, and Lahore should on no account be 
left weak. 

J. ABBOTT. 


No. 110.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 14th December 1848. 

i^lh December 18^8 — Srikole . — At length intelligence from Pes- 
hawur has reached me upon which I think I can rely. Chuttur Singh 
actually gave all lands westward of the Jelum to the Barukzye Sirdars ; 
it is even said that he promised them Cashmere. The Sirdars accordingly 
wrote to the Huzara chiefs directing them to seize and deliver me 
up. Some of their purwanas were brought me, others have been with- 
held. On the arrival, however, of Dost Muhammad Khan on the 18th 
at Peshawur, the Sirdars fled. The Emir seized all Peshawur as his 
own, appointed his grandson chief of the Adalut, and his son Chief 
Governor ; demanded of Chuttur Singh all the stores of the fortress 
removed by him, or four lacs of rupees instead, and a lac of rupees 
for each day's march from Cabul, and insisted as a preliminary upon 
the surrender to him of the British Officers. Accordingly it is said a 
body of Doorani and Sikh Horse has been sent to bring them back to 
Peshawur. It is believed that the Emir will demand as his right all 
territory to the Jelum and the whole of Cashmere. On the i2th, 
Khan-i-Zeman Khan, Chief of Gundgurh, brought me a purwana to 
his address bearing the seal of the Emir, ordering him to return to his 
allegiance to Chuttur Singh, and to seize and deliver up me and Mr. 
Ingram. I was a little surprised at this, as I supposed the Emir had 
felt enough of our power to keep clear of our enmity. The seal, 
however, exhibits no appearance of forgery. I received a hint some 
days ago from Cashmere that Maharaja Goolab Singh was suspicious 
of the intentions of the Dooranis and anxious to strengthen the garrison 
of Moozufifuiabad ; but I regarded this expression of mistrust as a mere 
excuse for planting mote troops in a suspicious post at a critical 
moment. News of out success in crossing the Chenab and putting to 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


afts 

flight Sher Singh's army reached me on the I2th. I fired a salute that 
evening. As a salute was fired at Attock during the night, I trust that 
Lieutenant Herbert has also received the intelligence. Many of his 
garrison have deserted. Some were lately caught in the act, disarmed, 
it is said, branded and turned out ; others, it is said, were killed by the 
fire from the fort whilst making off. Chuttur Singh has seizec^the 
families of many of them, and our slow progress has apparently 
disheartened them. So far as I can gather from native accounts, there 
are before the fort the two Nujjeeb battalions, Colonel Richpal Singh’s, 
Pertab Singh's and Boodh Singh's regiments and ten guns. The 
blockade is maintained, but the guns rarely fire. I have sent Lieutenant 
Robinson of Engineers through the Jumboo territory to join the arm}', 
as he possesses valuable information relating to the theatre of war. 
His services have been most zealous and efficient. For many weeks 
he had charge of the blockade of the Pukli Field Force, and his 
arrangements showed great skill and judgment. They were defeated 
by the poltroonery of our levies at Dumtour, after the flight of which 
it was necessary to break up the blockade. Lieutenant Robinson 
ought to have reached the army on or about the 8th or 9th instant. 
His passage through the Jumboo territory will enable him to under- 
stand the state of feeling in that quarter. It is scarcely possible that 
the Maharaja should desire the Dooranis as next door neighbours 
considering their claims upon Cashmere. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

No. 111.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 15th December 1848. 

I ^th December 1 8^8 — Srtkole, Huzara .— to information 
which I consider trustworthy. Dost Muhammad Khan reached Pesha- 
wur on the 8th and took possession of the Bala Hissar, the Barukzye 
Sirdars flying to their several jaghirs. He appointed the son of 
Muhammad Ukbur, chief of the Adalut, and his son Hydur Khan, 
Governor of Peshawur, seizing the whole district as his own. 

A letter bearing the Ummir’s seal addrest to Khan-i-Zeman Khan, 
Chief of Gundgarh, was brought me, ordering that Chief to seize and 

34 



a 66 DIARIES OF CAFTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S48. 

surrender my person. Two others have this day been sent me from 
his son and grandson to the same Chief, directing his personal attend- 
ance upon the Ummir previous to the fall of Attock. These last are 
written in the tone of one who would incite to a holy war, as the most 
unholy of crimes is misnamed. 

♦ 

Previous to the Ummir’s arrival, Chuttur Singh had made over all 
territory westward of the Jelum to the Sirdars, and they had addrest 
the Huzara Chiefs in the style of sovereigns, ordering them to seize or 
to expel me. Report says that Chuttur Singh even gave them Cashmere, 
but it is difficult to credit this. The purwana of the Ummir, if genuine, 
of which there is every appearance, is a startling document little to 
be expected from one so wary and so well acquainted with our power 
and resources, who has hitherto resisted the strongest incentives 
of others to embrace our enmity. On the other hand, report obstinately 
affirms that his foremost stipulation was the surrender to him of the 
British Officers in order apparently to liberate them, and that a party 
of Sikh and Doorani Horse have been actually sent to bring them back. 
It is also affirmed that he has demanded of Chuttur Singh four lacs 
of rupees in lieu of the Government stores removed by him and a 
lac of rupees for each day’s march from Cabul. So far as I can learn 
Chuttur Singh sent for him in order to frighten the Sirdars into the 
surrender of Major Lawrence. Having accomplished his purpose, he 
wrote begging the Ummir not to come. But the latter replied that he 
had assembled an army at great expense and marched with it several 
marches, and that he should consult his own convenience upon the 
subject. The current report is that Chuttur Singh is preparing to 
return to the Indus; others say that he is in arrest, but this report, 
which has been so often repeated, appears to have no solid foundation. 

A body of matchlockmen, whom I had sent to Hurripoor to collect 
revenue, had an affair to-day with the garrison of Hurkishengurh, 
which is five or six hundred strong, and drove them out of the town 
and back into tbe fort with great slaughter. 

The skirmish lasted several hours, but the particulars have not 
yet reached me. The blockade of Attock is maintained, but there is little 
if any filing. 1 have no news from Lieutenant Herbert since the 5th, 
but as he fired a salute on the night of the 12th, I trust he has heard 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 26 j 

of our passage of the Chenab. A large number of his garrison have 
deserted and speedy advance is of the utmost importance to encourage 
the remainder. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

No troops have advanced to Moozuffurabad according to the latest 
account. The report of their advance was strong. 


No. 112. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 18th December 1848. 

i8th December i8^8 — Srikote, Huzara . — Chuttur Singh and Dost 
Muhammad Khan have actually arrived, theformer at Jhangeera, the latter 
at the Indus, northward of the Loondai river. The Ummir has with him 
about 3,000 men and guns, and has come with the avowed purpose of 
aid'ng Chuttur Singh. From Moozuffurabad 1 learn that the Vuqueels 
of Dost Muhammad Khan and Sirdar Chuttur Singh entered Cashmere 
lately, disguised as merchants. The V'^uqueels of Chuttur Singh and of 
Moolraj are confidently reported to be resident in Cashmere, their names 
are even mentioned. The junction of the Ummir with the Si kiis appeared 
a most improbable thing. Yet it has happened. The junction of Maha- 
raja Goolab Singh seems also improbable for the same reasons of 
self-interest, but we must not be astonished if it should take place. A 
disagreeable report reached me yesterday that Lieutenant Robinson 
had been imprisoned by one of the hill tribes in the Maharaja's 
country. I trust there is no truth in the rumor, but some suspicious 
circumstances have made me uneasy about it. I have received no letter 
from Lieutenant Robinson since the 3 rd March from Moozuffurabad- 
The Maharaja’s writer, or at least a newswriter at Cashmere, wrote some 
time after his departure to say the Maharaja had shaped out for him 
a particular route. I replied to the Vuqueel that I hoped he had given 
Lieutenant Robinson timely intelligence ; it struck me at the time as an 
excuse for any difficulties Lieutenant Robinson might experience. A 
few days ago the 'Vuqueel remarked to me that Lieutenant Robinson had 
not taken the route prescribed by the Maharaja. I replied that probably 
the advice had not reached him in time, and again I felt uneasy. 
All the hill tribes, disobedient to the Maharaja, regard us as their 



•68 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


protectors, and none of them would molest Lieutenant Robinson nor any 
British Officer unless incited by authority ; and I regard it as quite 
impossible that Lieutenant Robinson’s progress should be impeded 
without the Maharaja’s express, however secret, order. I trust, however, 
that Lieutenant Robinson has reached his destination in safety. If 
otherwise, I earnestly hope warning will be taken and the campaign 
be regulated to guard against assault from the mountains. I mentioned 
in yesterday’s Journal that a writer at Cashmere had informed me of 
the defection of a Sikh regiment there ; that the Maharaja had wished 
to disarm them, but had not done so; and that they were deserting fast 
to join Chuttur Singh. Surely a little energy would have sufficed to 
disarm them. Mr. Inglis’ note of the 1st has just reached me via 
Cashmere, his previous favor was of the 27th. In my former Journals 
I have noted the receipt of purwanas addrest to two of the Huzara 
Chiefs and bearing the seal of the Ummir, directing them to seize and 
surrender my person and that of Mr. Ingram and to return to their 
allegiance to Chuttur Singh. I had hoped they were forgeries, but 
to-day’s intelligence proves their authenticity. The bribe offered to 
Dost Muhammad Khan is, so far as I can learn, all territory west of the 
Jelum— a tempting bribe certainly. We shall see whether it can be 
realized. I have no late news from Lieutenant Herbert nor from any 
of the prisoners. Not knowing what may be the plan of the campaign, 

I trust I shall be favored with explicit instructions how to act. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

It seems to me highly improbable that the Ummir should plunge 
into war with the British unless assured of support from Jumboo. 


No. 113. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 19th December 1848. 

igth December jS.f 8 — Srikote, Huzara — I hasten to qualify my 
report of yesterday. A Moonshee whom I sent toward Peshawur wrote 
me that he had met the army of Dost Muhammad Khan on his road. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


269 


Another report to the same effect made me suppose the arrival of the 
Ummir or of his army certain. Yesterday, however, 1 received intelli- 
gence, which throws doubt upon the Ummir’s advance, stating that he is 
still at Peshawur ; that he has promised to follow Chuttur Singh, who 
has arrived in Chuch, in eight days, and that his son actually accom- 
panied the Sirdar part of his first march. My Moonshee must have been 
bribed by Chuttur Singh to spread this rumor. Chuttur Singh seems to 
have come post haste from Peshawur in two days. At Attock there was 
little firing yesterday. Report says the batteries are withdrawn, but 
this report has several times deceived me. Lieutenant Herbert on the 
1 6th was well, but earnestly demanding succor. The enemy were two 
nights running foiled in their attempt to fire the West gate. It is built 
up with brick inside, so that even their success would not be decisive. 
It is supposed that they suffered some loss in the attempt. Lieutenant 
Herbert is arpairtveS (pop pavi o(j> 67] yappitrov ait btcrtpTtS. His fil e has, I 

believe, destroyed another gun of the besiegers, sti iking it in the 
muzzle. All the arrangements of this young officer have displayed the 
most consummate prudence, firmness and judgment. His position has 
from the first been extremely critical, as there was not a .man in the 
garrison upon whose good faith he could rely. But by turning out all 
objects of suspicion, even when otherwise recommended by their quali- 
fications, he has contrived hitherto to stave off the meditated treachery, 
and to preserve the fortress, which is little injured by the enemy’s shot. 
The walls are said to be 52 feet high, of large wrought stones cemented 
with lime. The shot of the field guns rebound quite harmless, and the 
1 2-pounder battering guns have been sent on to Sher Singh, one of 
them being destroyed by Lieutenant Herbert’s fire. Dost Muhammad 
Khan has given out that he will follow Chuttur Singh in a few days. 
But persons who are deemed good authority in Peshawur doubt this. 
He will probably wait to learn Sher Singh’s success or defeat ere he mix 
himself up in his quarrel. 1 hope that Lieutenant Robinson, who left 
Moozuffurabad on the 7th ultimo and ought to have reached the 
camp of his Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, has arrived. He 
passed through the Jumboo territory. I am a little uneasy about him ; 
any obstruction to his progress would have a most suspicious appearance 
just now. The Maharaja writes to say he has sent me 30,000 more 
Hurri Singea rupees or 15,000 Company’s rupees. I will report when 



370 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^S. 

it is received. I have no authentic news of the prisoners. Lieutenant 
Bowie is with the blockading force at Attock. The others are said to 
be either at Rohtass or at Sookoo in Potowar. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assibtaut Resident. 

By this morning’s report the batteries are not withdrawn, but they 
have little ammunition and a march is expected. 


No. 114.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 21st December 1848. 

2 ist December i8.f.8 — Stikote, Huzara . — Some of my people, sent 
out for information, returned yesterday saying they had met six sowars 
on their way to Cashmere via Meerpoor, who upon being questioned said 
they were the servants of Chuttur Singh, Ummir Dost Muhammad Khan 
and of Sooltan Muhammad Khan, respectively ; that they were sent on 
an embassy to Maharaja Goolab Singh. Lieutenant yp/Sepr mpires Bm rj as 

VO ioire o(f) (ieivy a3\c to mXS ovr fiavi Saiir Xovysp vvXfircr ovp appi aSvavo'e 0r] Xotrir o<l> arox 
atovXd axapa-eXi I3rj KopircvaaTeb ;3i Btf KairTvpc o({> pvXrav. Dost Muhammad Khan 
has not yet arrived. He has promised to march on Friday, but if the 
movements of our army are prompt, will probably wait to see the result 
ere he plunge into such an enterprize. If our army delay, fear will 
be the motive attributed and Bt) aXs vwmv^ aovXb /Sv (vhavispth. Our army 
is so large that I see not what could be done with more Tpwnvba Bh kovXS 
^ 1 ] av^inareb iv Blit baa^. The Sikh army at this moment is impressed 
with the belief that it will be annihilated. Bkt la Bij KpiTtxaX pcopevr. A blow 
now will do more than a Tipnarr o(j> /SXmo- a povB rtvtrf, prevent further coa- 
lition, secure to us and wring from the Sikhs the revenue of this Dooab, 

trave otok nptvevT (jivpBfp ovT^psaxo' tv oup ptap avb oatpatof aXX btaTroatriov to purs 

iv ivbatrrav. As individuals the lives of Lieutenant Herbert and myself 
are not worthy to be balanced for one moment against any measure of 
general expediency. But the posts we hold are of essential consequence 

TO Bt) a-irqbi a-frrXtpfvT o(j) Bur xapnayv avb Brj Xoatr o(j) Bfp fit va pat fvaffXf Bij 

‘■varvpycvTs to vpoXovyBr) oap avoBep icp. Chuttur Singh has felled somc 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S48. 

palm trees and is making up scaling ladders. He has also given 
1,560 rupees to the Malhas to construct a bridge of boats across the 
Indus for the Ummir’s army. There has been no firing at Attock for some 
days. The baggage of the blockading force is sent on toward Rawul 
Pindi. The terror inspired by our cannonade of the 3rd appears very 
great. If followed up promptly the whole Sikh army is predisposed'to 
run. Numbers have deserted since the 3rd. It is the first severe taste 
they have had of British artillery, having hitherto been in trenches 
during our cannonades. 

The passage of the Jelum alone would have an excellent effect. 
Chuttur Singh has given out that we have offered him all territory 
westward of that river and any eaeraTtov to aSvavot a>i\\ ywe orpevyd TO drj 
voTiov avb Kavo-c drj TreoTrXf to pfyapS 61} triKtr op ^vpavia aa 6eip paoreptr. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 115.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Besident, Huzara, for the 26th December 1848. 

26th December 18^8 — Srikote, Huzara . — By a note of the 24th 
from Lieutenant Herbert it appears that the Ummir Dost Muhammad 
Khan has actually commenced hostilities with us, his people having 
fired upon the garrison of Attock from the fort of Khyrabad. Up to 
that lime only a small detachment of his force had arrived. Chuttur 
Singh appears still to be lingering at Mansir in order that Dost Muham- 
mad Khan may arrive in Chuch previous to his departure. Of the 
Ummir’s movements ray information is imperfect. The last account 
represented him as at Hushtnugr and about to proceed to Sohaut and 
had our army moved promptly forward, there is much doubt whether 
he had trusted himself across the Indus. The speedy passage of the 
Jelum has ever appeared to me a movement of the first importance. 
P'irst, because it could have been past easily whilst the enemy were 
unrecovered from the panic of their repulse and had been allowed no 
time to strengthen themselves upon its margin, and whilst five corps 
and ten guns were absent at Attock and the absence of Chuttur Singh 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1848. 


973 

discouraged the army ; secondly, because the knowledge that no river 
intervened between them and succor would have strengthened the 
garrison of Attock in their allegiance; and, thirdly, because the presence 
of our army in this Dooab would have prevented coalition. Any further 
advance might have been deferred to a more convenient season. Dost 
Muhammad Khan has addrest, I believe, all the chiefs of Huzara claiming 
their allegiance. But only two of them have informed me of the circum- 
stance. On the 24th, I forwarded letters written by the son and the 
servants of the Ummir to the garrison of Attock, ordering them to desert 
the service of infidels and range themselves under the banner of Islam. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

A ssistawt Resident. 


No. 116. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 29th December 1848. 

2gth December 18^8 — Srikote, Huzara . — Chuttur Singh is still at 
Mansir waiting for the Ummir, of whose movements I have no very 
certain intelligence. He, the Ummir, has addressed the Chiefs of 
Huzara commanding their allegiance and aid to Chuttur Singh. His son 
at Khyrabad has commenced hostilities by firing upon the garrison of 
Attock. Chuttur Singh has with him still three, not four, regiments, — 
Richpal Singh’s, Partaub Singh’s, Baboo Pandah’s and I believe Boodh 
Singh’s. Such, at least, is my last account : but native testimony is 
never to be depended upon, and previously only three Sikh regiments 
were named. The Nujjeebs have been sent forward, one .Corps, it is said, 
to Bang Bootur, the other to Hussun Ubdal. Chuttur Singh distrusts 
these men. .Six or seven guns were fired last evening at Attock. It 
rained all yesterday. Report says that Dost Muhammad Khan has 
returned from his visit to Sohaut, but the result is unknown, and 
indeed so much false intelligence is sent me from all quarters that I 
can trust none. I have news from Lieutenant Herbert to the 25th. 

I have already more than once stated the nature of his position. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4S. 


m 


No. 117. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 30th December 1848. 

70/A December i8.}.8 — Srikote . — Yesterday arrived an answer from 
the Ummir Dost Muhammad Klian to a letter which I addrest to him 
about a month ago, when report said he had come with friendly intentions. 
It will be seen that he claims Peshawur, the Derajat, and fluzara, 
and intimates that he has sent an army to take possession, and that he 
will then be happy to reconcile differences between the British and Sikb 
Governments. He has accordingly addrest the Huzara chiefs claiming 
their allegiance and ordering them to seize my person. These purwanas, 
with one exception, have been shown me only by those whom I know 
to be intriguing with the Ummir. Had our army crossed the Jelum 
immediately after the affair of the 3rd, Dost Muhammad Khan had never 
thought of crossing the Indus and the enemy might have been destroyed 
in detail with little difficulty, only about half the Sikh force being 
assembled on the Jelum. The bearer of the Umrair’s answer rates his 
force at 12,000, of which there are six drilled regiments amounting to 
3,600. He states that the force is marching toward the Bazour Ferry. 
Chuttur Singh is still before Attock. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 118.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 31st December 1848. 

■^ist December 18^8 - Stikote . — Yesterday I forwarded a copy of 
the Ummir Dost Muhammad Khan’s letter to my address, by a cossid. 
He claims Peshawur, Huzara, and the Derajat ; says that he has sent 
an army to take possession and that he will afterwards be happy to 
reconcile differences between the British and the Sikhs. According to 
the best intelligence I can command, he is actually marching toward 
the Bazour Ferry of the Indus, if not arrived there. The bearer of the 
letter estimates his force at 12,000, of which there are six drilled regi- 
ments, three of 500 each and three of 700. I do not fear his force, but 
his intrigues will render my position very precarious His son is at 
Khyrabad, but Herbert's fire seems to have silenced his guns. I earnestly 

35 



274 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT. 1S48. 

hope our army will pass the Jelum before the junction of the Dooranis 
and Chuttur Singh with Sher Singh. That obstacle overcome, the army 
might take its time to consider any further movement. There are at 
present absent from the Jelum five or six regiments, nearly half the 
effective force, and the rest are greatly dispirited. Mr. Inglis’ letters of 
the 9th and nth arrived together yesterday by the Cashmere dak. 
I have not heard since the 25th from Lieutenant Herbert. I offered 
to cash his bills, but he had procured money from shroffs. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 



Diaries of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resident, and later 
Deputy Commissioner of Huzara, i8^^- 

\_Note . — Captain Abbott was styled Assistant Resident, Huzara, until the end of April 
1849, and Deputy Commissioner, Huzara, from the 1st of May 1849-} 


No. 

Period 

Page. 

Remarks. 

From 

To 


I 

2nd January 1849 ••• 

... 

277 


2 

4th January 1849 

... 

277 


3 

6th January 1849 ••• 


278 


4 

nth January 1849 ... 

... 

280 


5 

13th January 1849 ... 


28t 


6 

1 6th January 1849 ... 


282 


7 

17th January 1849 ... 

... 

283 


8 

19th January 1849 ... 


284 


9 

29th January 1849 

... 

284 


10 

30th January 1849 ... 

... 

285 

Diaries for 

1 I 

1st April 1849 

6th April 1849 

285 

F e br u ary 
and March 
1S49 

12 

14th April 1849 

24th April 1849 

287 

missiog. 

»3 

2Sth April 1849 

30th April 1849 

291 


14 

1st May 1849 ... ' 

9th May 1849 

293 


IS 

nth May 1849 

26th May 1849 

295 


16 

9th June 1849 

iSth June 1849 

296 


*7 

i6th June 1849 

26th June 1849 

299 




No. 1. —Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 2nd January 1849. 

2nd January l 8 ^g — Srikole, Huzara . — A large portion of the 
Doorani force is encamped near the Bazour Ferry, where Chuttur Singh 
has built them abridge of boats. The son of the Ummir is at Khyrabad, 
but his gun has been dismounted by Lieutenant Herbert’s fire. I 
have vainly represented the importance of speedily crossing the 
Jelum. It would have saved Attock, prevented the coalition of the 
Ummir with Chuttur Singh, and have reduced the Sikh cause to the 
lowest ebb : moreover, it was ten times easier than now it is likely to 
prove. After the passage of the Jelum, delay would have little signified. 

TTQO'lTLOV 00 TJp^fpT a(T [^fKopf pOOT 7r€pLXoV<r OvS L np IP OVpXi (H7T€KTaTtOP 0(1) 

Xtappipy 00 6 ri 0aXX o0 otok- As the Ummir exprest a wish to receive an 
answer, I replied, yesterday, that I had no authority to answer his 
demands, an authority vested in my Government, nor could I say 
what answer Government might give, but that I could assure him 
he would incur the serious enmity of my Government, if he did 
not call away his son from the siege of Attock, or if he should cross 
the Indus ; and I bade the messenger explain to him the absurdity 
of joining Cliuttui Singh, who, if successful, would instantly exclude 
him from Peshawur, and, if beaten, could not for an hour save him 
from our vengeance. His army is rated at about i2,000, of which 
3, 600 are drilled troops. Lieutenant Bowie is still with the Sikh camp 
at Attock. Chuttur Singh is there, but the Nujjeebs have been sent on 
to Rawul Pindi. I heard from Lieutenant Herbert dated 30th. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
rissistunt Resident. 


No. 2.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 4th January 1849. 

4.lh January l 8 j.g — Srikote, Huzara.—Th^ fall of Attock is reported 
to me by authority, which I can scarcely venture to doubt. Lieutenant 
Herbert’s letters must have prepared Government to expect it. The 
salute which I heard on the night of the 2nd assured me of the fact. 
The particulars have not yet reached me. But I believe that Lieutenant 



278 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, j 84 g. 


Herbert, finding it the decided opinion of all his officers that the men 
would no longer stand by him, was attempting to escape upon a raft and 
W'as betrayed by those who were to have aided him. He is said to be a 
prisoner in the Sikh camp. Still his defence of that fortress may not 
have been in vain, Btj Traaaaye Orf irjXv^ LIT ecftfKTeB ^€(pope 6rj appivaK o(j) 
op TcoevTi 6ov<rav8 aSSmovaX oirvavfvTo-. So far as respects OUT reputa- 
tion and interest in this Dooab, Peshawur and Cabul, 6r] \oa-a- o(f> ottok 

L<r ovXi aeKoitd to 6rj Xo(r(r o0 Xaoype ota Xovy l pat a^Xe to ajX8 ‘ pi oiav Trotrr irr 
<atpi dov^TtfivX (rope oefi pt (Travvj^eaT abgpevTer aXpeaSi peyapb it aa ainXea-cr. 

The Dooranis are detested more than the Sikhs. But there is an under- 
standing amongst all Pathans in this country which very generally 
irpeoievTcr ^XtaSa-eS ^eTiotjv 6 r;p, It is said that the Unimir Dost Muhammad 
Khan has applied to Maharaja Goolab Singh for money, and that upon his 
answer depends his further movements. I believe his finances are in a 
most deprest state and his army very ill paid. It is estimated at 12,000. 
The fall of Attock may encourage him to go further than at first he 
purposed ; our long delay beyond the Jelum is ruining our cause in this 
Dooab. The whole Moosulman population was prepared to aid us. 
But our delay is attributed to the basest motives, and I hear that the 
Sikh partizans are plundering the villages and towns with impunity. 
Thus funds will be found for the Sikh army without which it must 
instantly have dissolved. Time too has been given for the counter- 
influence produced by the accession of a Muhammadan Prince and 
people to the Sikh cause : nor need it be repeated that Dost Muhammad 
Khan would never have joined the Sikhs had we followed up our 
advantage on the 3rd December. I feel it to be my duty to state and 
repeat these truths even at the risk of appearing presumptuous, for 
I alone am in a position to perceive the injury produced by this delay 
in its full extent. After crossing the Jelum, delay would have been 
comparatively unimportant. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 3. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 6th January 1849. 

6 th January iStfp — Srtkote, Hwsara . — I have in my Journal of the 
4th and Despatch of the 5 th instant related the fall of Attock. The news 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1849. 


m 


of to-day confirms my hope that Lieutenant Herbert at least (if not 
Sergeant Carthy) has escaped pursuit with six or seven followers. 
Dost Muhammad Khan by yesterday’s report was still encamped at Bazour 
Ferry near the bridge of boats, and only a portion of his army had crost 
the river, I enclose the substance of his purwanas sent on the 4th to 
the chiefs of Huzara. There is no doubt, I believe, that Jellal Khan, 
Kakur, has been sent by him to Cashmere, to persuade the Maharaja 
to advance to Moozuffurabad or to advance funds for the war. It is 
remarkable that the Maharaja through his Vaqueel has consulted me 
upon the propriety of sending two more regiments to Moozuffurabad to 
relieve those cantoned there, upon plea of his diffidence of the fidelity 
of the latter. I have replied that I think they had better be 
relieved one at a time, the relieved corps marching away first, or 
the idea will get abroad that the Maharaja is joining the insurgents. 

I can scarcely believe that a Prince so sagacious would stake either 
his money or his safety upon such an absurd venture. At the same 
time, the season is one of prodigies, and an additional instance of 
insanity must not be wondered at. Reports are industriously spread 
throughout Huzara that Dost Muhammad Khan has with him 700 
Moollas, who have shut the door of paradise against all Moosulmans 
falling in my cause or that of the British. I held a council of the 
Huzara chiefs yesterday, who unanimously decided to fight against 
the invader. At night, however, Khan-i-Zeman Khan, the Gundgurh 
Chief, and two or three others, were busily engaged in shaking the 
minds of the rest. Dost Muhammad Khan has turned the Sikhs 
out of Attock, according to the last report, and has placed there a 
garrison of 500 jezailchees. I have too often dwelt upon the injury our 
cause is sustaining by the hesitation of our army to cross the Jelum 
in front of an army inferior in numbers, discipline and courage. It 
is by the reputation of our valor that we have won and preserved our 
Eastern Empire. The maintenance of that reputation is worth a large 
risk. The difficulties of the passage are increasing hourly. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184^. 


aSo 

No. 4.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant 
Resident, Huzara, for the 11th January 1849. 

iilh January 184.^—Srikote, Huzara . — Captain Nicholson’s note 
of the 3rd instant came to hand yesterday. I sent my diary of 
yesterday to Lieutenant Robinson by his return messenger. I stated 
therein that Chuttur Singh, who had purposed remaining for the 
Sunkrat at Hussun Ubdal, receiving some apparently bad news 
from his son’s camp, had suddenly started for the Jelum on the 

afternoon of the ; that Akram Khan, son of the Ummir, with 3,000 

foot and i,000 horse and six guns, was said to be follovving Chuttur 
Singh ; but that there were doubts of his proceeding far. Another 
force is said to be destined for Gundgurh. But if my followers continue 
true, I have little apprehension from the Dooranis. Their intrigues 
alone are dangerous. By the Cashmere dak I have no letter later than 
the isth ultimo, none having arrived lately. A man from Cashmere 
confirms the report of Jellal Khan, Kakur, the Vuqueel of Dost 
Muhammad Khan, having arrived there, and states that be is treated 
with great attention. This man is one of many who believe the Maha- 
raja to be secretly in league with the insurgents, that he sent money 
to Moolraj and Chuttur Singh, etc., etc. I know no facts that can 
justify the surmise and believe the Maharaja to be too cautious and 
too fond of his money to throw it away with so little hope of return. 
At the same time, should the Ummir really send on succor to the 
Sikhs, it will be a very suspicious circumstance, as he has no funds to 
feed an army, and I have reason to believe has positively refused this 
aid unless assisted by the Maharaja. The presence of Joalia Suhaie 
at Lahore is considered by many a guarantee of the sincerity of his 
master, as he is much attached to this servant, in whom he reposes the 
greatest confidence. I fear it is too certain that Lieutenant Herbert 
has been captured. Report says that Futteh Khan of Ghayb has 
joined the insurgents. I feared he would not remain staunch after 
the fall of Attock, which has shaken down our authority in this Dooab. 

I believe nearly all the Huzara chiefs have been secretly intriguing 
with the Dooranis. 


J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, i 84 <). 


a8i 

No. 5.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, Huzara, for the 13th January 1849. 

ijlh January i 8 ^g — Srikote, Huzara . — It is said that the camp of 
Dost Muhammad Khan has shifted about three koss from Bazour toward 
the Eusufzye country. I have the following intelligence from the camp 
of the Ummir, which I consider authentic. It is from an eye-witness, 
who can have no object in misrepresentation. Chuttur Singh has given 
6o,ooo rupees to the Ummir, that is, 30,000 in cash, 15,000 in shawls 
etc., leaving a balance of 15,000 to be received at Rawul Pindi. For this 
sum the Ummir has lent him the services of nominally 1,000 horse, but 
really less than 800, who have marched with the Ummir's son, Akram 
Khan, for Rawul Pindi. The men are said to be greatly disheartened 
at the order to march, and to consider it as equivalent to a sentence of 
death. I think it probable they will find some excuse for proceeding no 
farther than Rawul Pindi. A Vuqueel of Maharaja Goolab Singh is 
actually in the Ummir’s camp, and appears at his Durbar. His name 
is Boota Mull. He has been repeatedly seen in Durbar by witness, who 
does not, however, believe that any pecuniary aid has been rendered by 
his master to the Dooranis, and believes that the Vuqueel is there only 
to see how the game goes that his master may shape his course accord- 
ingly. The Ummir’s army is very wretchedly paid. I have already 
reported the actual march of Akram Khan toward Rawul Pindi. About 
half the Ummir's army is in Chuch, destined it is said for Huzara. The 
rest is with him on the western bank of the Indus and in Attock ; a small 
Sikh force is still encamped at Pahr, destined for Huzara. From 
Cashmere I learn that Dost Muhammad Khan’s Vuqueel, Jellal Khan, 
has received three private audiences of the Maharaja, who has answered 
his master’s letter ; that he receives rupees five daily as maintenance; 

that , a Colonel of the Maharaja’s army, has been sent from 

Moozuflfurabad to Jumboo with orders to raise 4,000 fresh levies, and 
that similar orders are issued to Hurri Chund. This intelligence, 
however, comes from an enemy. I think it quite certain that Jellal 
Khan has reached Cashmere. The Maharaja’s Vuqueel here assures me 
that if this is the case he shall be seized and delivered up to our 
Government. It appears to me very possible that the Maharaja may 
be alarmed at indiscreet and often false accusations of his conduct, 
which appear in the newspapers, and I would beg respectfully to 

36 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN /. ABBOTT, iS^. 


s8a 

•suggest that no notice be taken of the reports I have just noticed unless 
further confirmation is afforded. It may serve Dost Muhammad Khan 
and Chuttur Singh's purpose to have a person at the Urnmir’s Durbar to 
personate the Jumboo Vuqueel. It appears to me at variance with 
the usual caution of the Maharaja to have an acknowledged Vuqueel 
at the Ummir’s Court. 

J. ABBOTT, Capt.mn, 
Assistant Resident. 

It is, however, scarcely possible to believe that Dost Muhammad 
Khan would enter into hostilities with us, unless flattered with hopes 
from Jumboo. 


No, 6.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, Huzara, for the 16th January 1849. 

i 6 tli January i 8 .fg — Srikote, Huzara . — It is reported and appears 
probable that Dost Muhammad Khan has sent a messenger to recall his 
son Akram Khan and the 6oo horse. He has probably learnt the fall 
of Mooltan, but report says also that he has heard of our army having 
crossed the Jelum, wliich I doubt. He himself is still on the Western 
bank of the Indus with half his force. The other half is at Shumsabad. 
My scouts report that he has broken up the bridge at Bazour Ferry, and 
has no idea of crossing to this side of the Indus ; that he had intended 
to attack me, but was dissuaded from it on learning the loss sustained 
by Chuttur Singh at Simulkund. He is aware that anything like retreat 
on his part may arouse all his enemies, who only wait their opportunity 
to set upon him. Indeed, I gather that his present policy is adopted 
with a view to bully us into the cession of Peshawur and the Derajat. I 
humbly opine that the reasons ayotrox trffro'iov ape wavaepaliXe IT a>ov\8 
Kva^pvTfXe St] (rrptvy& iv Sov,3\ivy 6rj pevevve o(f> ko^vX and bring US into 
immediate contact with that State for a space of 400 miles, instead 
of that contact being confined, as at present, to a single point 
and that one a battlefield, in which a disciplined army must always 

conquer. At the same time it pai fftj a<r weXX to beepep a Seo-taive avaep vvTiX 
ovp amrpoa^ ti'Sutr. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, i8^. 283 

No. 7 .— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, Huzara, for the 17th January 1849, 

77/A January i8^g — Srikole_ Ihisara . — Dost Muhamad Khan is still 
on the western bank of the Indus with half his army. The other half 
is at Shumsabad. It is said that he has recalled his son Akram Khan 
and the 600 Doorani Horse from Rawul Pindi. Chuttur Singh is said to 
have marched without pause for the Jelum, after extorting rupees 60,000 
from the shroffs of Rawul Pindi. A force of about 800 Sikh troops and 
two guns is at Pahr, destined for Huzara, but apparently they are afraid 
to venture hither I stated in yesterday’s Diary my belief that Dost 
Muhamad Khan’s coalition with Chuttur Singh was designed to bully 
us into the cession of Peshawur and the Derajat, and that I humbly 
opined there were vvavafpaiiXf o^LCKrtov(r ro Blit fTfCTLTLov which would 

Kva^pvTr'Kc la Trowfp iv hnvjKtvy t(T pevevvf arS BpLvy tp. lvto KOTTaicT culB vlt 

for a space of 400 miles instead of that contact being limited as now to 
a single point, and that a battlefield, so favourable to us. At the same 
time, it appears to me desirable to aWoa ip to ivSvXye art arre rj pal ave (fiopptS 
o(j) Bt) (T«T(Twii vvTiX ovp oppi aTT7rpoa\ Btj ivSviT. Some absurd story had been 
sent him of the death of Her Majesty without issue, and of England 
being in confusion in consequence ; and from a letter to me from 
Colonel Richpal Singh, one of the ringleaders of this mutiny, I learn 
that stories are current in the Sikh camp of a general coalition in 
Hindustan against us, the Raja of Nipal having joined, in consequence 
of a box of detonating powder having been sent him by our Government 
with intent to blow him up. Such trash is greedily swallowed by the 
ignorant, amongst whom the Ummir must be rated. The Sikh army 
is much straitened for provisions. Were the Mooltan force to move 
smartly up this Dooab, the .Sikhs would be compelled to fight upon 
ground of our choosing, as all their supplies would be cut off, and any 
risk to Huzara would be more than compensated by such an opportunity 
of crushing them. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assisiant Residents 



284 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, tS4g. 

No. 8. -Diary of Captain Janies Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, Huzara, for the 19th January 1849. 

igth January — Srikote, Husata . — I have little to add to my 

Journal of yesterday. Dost Muhammad Khan is still on the western 
bank of the Indus ; half his force is at Shumsabad. A man just arrived 
from Rawul Pindi states that Akram Khan and his horse had progressed 
as far as Hoormuk, a march beyond Rawul Pindi. His recall is uncertain. 
Chuttur Singh, I think, must have reached the Jelum, though some 
report that he is still in the neighbourhood of Rawul Pindi. The Sikh 
force at Pahr marched last evening to Hurripoor, and fired a salute of 
30 or 40 guns, I know not what for. There is a report of Shere Singh's 
death by the hand of one of his own soldiers, but he has been killed so 
often that he must have nine lives to have fallen now. Chuttur Singh 
is said to have had great difficulty on leaving Rawul Pindi, owing to the 
troops insisting upon the fulfilment of his promise to pay them there. 
He extorted not 60,000 but 7,600 rupees from the shroffs and promised 
the troops at Bissoli, his jaghir. His means of doing so are very 
doubtful. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 

Ruttun Singh, Maun, commanding the troops just arrived. 

No. 9. —Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, Huzara, for tbe 29tb January 1849. 

2pth January — Srikote, Huzara . — The Ummir is still on the 

further side of the Indus, but the force at Shumsabad advanced yesterday 
to Huzroo with the intention, avowed by purwanas to the Mishwanis, 
to attack Srikote. I am quite ready to meet them. The Ummir, it is 
said, made a corresponding movement up the river to the Oond Ferry. 
The horse intended to support Akram Khan, estimated at from 600 
to 1,000, have marched towards Rawul Pindi and a small body of 
horse have posted themselves at Hussun Ubdal, avowedly for Huzara. 
My messengers report that Akram Khan has not crossed the Jelum, and 
it is said he writes in the strongest terms to dissuade his father from 
crossing the Indus, until the affair of the Jelum is closed. I trust to 
be able to make good my post against the Ummir. An attack would be 
hailed by my people as an amusement, and 1 do not think the malcon- 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184^. 285 

tents have force enough to imperil my position. The Sikh force 
remains in Huzara. The people are not yet ready to aid me heartily 
for their destruction. I must wait until some fresh success of our arms 
inspirits them. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident, 


No. 10.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, Huzara, for the 30th January 1849. 

joth January — Srikote, Htisara.—'Yht camp of the Ummir is 

reported to be still on the western bank of the Indus, but it is said that 
on the invitation of one or two traitors at Srikote he has actually ordered 
an advance against Gundgurh and I believe there is no doubt of the fact. 
Nevertheless I hope to defeat his army if he really attacks me, and so 
long as the Mishwanis continue faithful have no apprehension for this 
post. If the people of the plain would unite heartily in their own defence 
I could easily drive out the Sikhs and Dooranis. But they appear to 
have lost all spirit. There are rumours of an action on the 2ist, but this 
appears improbable as I have Major Mackeson’s note of that date. Con- 
sidering the extraordinary facility of the Sikhs in rallying after defeat, 
much blood will be saved by waiting to strike until the blow can be 
decisive. Our advance can no longer save Attock, nor destroy the 
enemy in detail, nor prevent the coalition of Sikh and Doorani, all of 
which it would probably have effected two months ago. The instant 
General Whish’s force enters this Dooab the supplies of the Sikhs will 
begin to fail them and a defeat will then be utter perdition to them. I 
venture with the deepest submission to offer these remarks. A Vuqueel 
named Ram Dass, late in the service of Dewan Adjoodhia Pershaud and 
living in the Vuqueels’ Havelee, sends Sher Singh timely notice of all 
our intentions. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Rtsident. 


No. 11.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, Huzara, from the 1st to the 6th April 1849. 

1st Apnl i 8 ,f.g — Srikote, Huzara . — The battlements of Srikote are 
fast rising. I have formerly mentioned the necessity of re-establishing 



»S6 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1841). 

this castle. Nearly all the Jaghirdars of this mountain (Gundgurh) 
went over to the Dooranis. Many of them are consequently in exile, 
separated from their old haunts only by the stream of the Indus. Many 
of the people of the mountain who were disposed to be loyal were deluded 
by the belief that the British star had set, and were led to appropriate 
or to conceal for the traitors, or to purchase of them. Government 
or my private property. All these persons are naturally alarmed at the 
re-establishmeni of British authority, and must long remain more or less 
disposable in the hands of the more flagrant offenders. The charge of 
Gundgurh therefore becomes weighty, because the population of this 
mountain are the bravest in Huzara : the name is connected with signal 
defeats of former Governments, and it is now for the first time during 
many years unchecked by the proximity of troops in Qatur, the nearest 
cantonment being Rawul Pindi, distant 45 miles. I thought the re- 
establishment of Srikote under these circumstances indispensable to the 
tranquillity of the district, and I am glad to find that Captain Nicholson 
concurs in this opinion. My experiment last year of doing without this 
fort was successful, but under very different circumstances. A 
large field force was at Husun Ubdal, another at Huzara, The 
Turkhailees had had their old jaghirs restored ; the land tax had been 
lightened ; all were anxious for the continuance of the existing rule 
which protected them from Native tyranny. Such is even now the 
popular feeling, but there are many exceptions from it. Even these will, 

I hope, soon cease to exist. But the process must be gradual. Mean- 
while the means of compelling obedience are absolutely necessary to 
tranquillity. My great difficulty consists in procuring drafts for the 
garrisons from our provinces. I have none at present, and I think that 
the greater part should be of this character. Lieutenant Robinson of 
Engineers arrived this evening from Peshawur to complete the boundary 
survey interrupted by the late insurrection. 

2nd April — Srikote. — The works of the fort are going on 

rapidly. The day has been spent as usual in answering urzees and in 
kucherry duties. 

jrd, pU, §th, 6 th April — Srikote. — Occupied as on the preceding 
day. I learn from Attoefc of the arrival there of Major Mackeson, Agent 
to the Governor-General, on his return via Cashmere to the Provinces. 
Also that individuals of the Peshawur troops cannot leave their lines at 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184^. 287 

night without danger of being murdered. It is difficult to account for 
this in a district in which the British have hitherto been popular. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Assistant Resident. 


No. 12.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, Huzara, from the 14th to the 24th April 1849. 

////^ April — Stikole, Husara . — Captain Holmes of the 
Irregular Cavalry stationed at Rawalpindi passed through Srikote 
yesterday toward the central parts of the district to seek for a site for a 
bungalow and a fitting situation fora sanitarium. The subject occasions 
me some uneasiness. Huzara is at present ruled without force, by the 
reverence of the people for the British Government. But the whole 
population is armed, and the array is estimated at 30,000. Some of the 
mountains, as those of Gundgurh, the Kurrall and Dhoond country, are 
very strong and have cost the Sikhs much blood and treasure to bring 
into subjection, and under the Sikhs, in spite of a system of pillage the 
most shameful, this district was always a heavy burtlien to the State. A 
hope of effecting a change has now dawned. The rents are lightened, 
the extortion has ceased, the country is flourishing and the people are 
contented and happy. In a few years they may forget entirely the old 
system of an appeal to arms, and every year the expense of Government 
will grow lighter. But the people are exclusively Muhammadans, not 
bigoted, but sincerely pious. As such they are sensitive of any intrusion 
upon their privacy, or of any open violations of the law of their Prophet. 
There are amongst them lawdessand faithless men; but a blackguard is 
a phenomenon quite unknown. Their hatred to the Siklis was based 
upon religious enthusiasm, their horror of idol worship, of eaters of the 
unclean beast and drinkers of forbidden wine. But the Sikhs in their 
indulgence seldom exhibit those spectacles which are to be seen in the 
neighbourhood of a British barrack. They were gentlemen in their 
cups, merry, talkative and boastful ; but not absolute swine. 

If, before obedience and order have grown into a habit in Huzara, 
the people are brought into close contact with our camps and barracks — 
to see there outdone every abomination which they had abhorred in their 
Sikh masters — it is scarcely possible that their respect for us should 



a88 


DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1849. 


remain unshaken and thus an effective and economic engine of Govern- 
ment were lost. 

Moreover it is unfortunately too certain that a system does more 
or less obtain amongst even British officers of making up deficiencies in 
the vernacular by physical eloquence. The same persons cannot be 
taught to exercise ordinary precaution, and will wander over the wild- 
est mountains and amongst an armed population, who have had little 
acquaintance with law, unarmed and unattended. If it be remembered 
that the apprehension of a murderer in those mountains is quite impossi- 
ble ; that the people cannot understand the importance of any person 
who travels lightly attended ; that they have, time out of mind, been their 
own avengers; that they are excessively jealous of their women, so that 
they will take arms to prevent the occupation of ground overlooking 
their habitations —I think it will be allowed that the sudden occupation 
of the Huzara and Dhoond mountains by British officers were an 
experiment attended with much risk. 

The sacredness attaching generally throughout our own provinces 
to the life of British officers is one of the secrets by which our empire 
is maintained and should be upheld by every means in the power of the 
Government. But if unlimited opportunity is afforded an armed popu- 
lation to retaliate by bloodshed affronts offered to their pers ns or 
their prejudices, and if we be found powerless to avenge such murders, 
it is quite impossible that this sacredness should be maintained. 

Notwithstanding the present submission of the tribes of this district 
to British authority, the whole have recently been in arms and fighting 
successfully against the garrisons, which had controlled the country. 
For although those garrisons were inducted by me when first I brought 
the mountain districts into subjection, yet so implicit was my confidence 
in Chuttur Singh as Nazim of Heraut {sic) until 1 got an insight 
into his secret proceedings, that I had left the whole patronage of the 
district in his hands, and thus every fort was governed by his creatures 
and one and all declared for him when he threw off the mask, and as 
the war might have become formidable could the Sikhs have retired upon 
Huzara as upon a country of which they hold the reins, the mountaineers 
were ordered by me to blockade the forts, and the garrisons, hopeless of 
of succor, evacuated them. 


\ 



diaries of captain J. ABBOTT, 1841). 289 

An attempt was made under the Sikh Government to disarm 
the people. But the task was not easy of accomplishment. The 
defenceless plains and Valleys were deprived of their arms, and thus 
placed at the mercy of the mountaineers; but the latter retained a 
sufficient number to render them still very formidable to a weak Govern- 
ment, and their stock is now being replenished by the attempt made in 
the Rawul Pindi district to seize the arms of the inhabitants, causing the 
latter to send their arms by thousands to the mountains for sale there at 
a fourth of their value. 

It may nevertheless, I think, be possible gradually to disarm the 
mountaineers, when they have full assurance that arms are no longer 
necessary for the protection of their rights, but this supposes an atten- 
tion to that law of gradual progression by which order and peace are 
produced in the natural as in the moral world ; and the avoidance of 
those sudden changes which invariably produce confusion and mischief 
in either. 

If these arguments be deemed of weight, I would suggest attention 
to the table mountain of Nurr, overhanging the Jelum at the south of 
the mountain formation. It must be, I think, 6,000 feet higher than the 
sea's level,, has abundance of water, of space, and of fir timber, and is, 
so far as I can learn, free from the fevers which hang about almost all 
the mountain summits of Huzara. It is about 40 miles east by north 
of Rawul Pindi, is crested with snow in winter and attained by a single 
gradual ascent from the plains. 

The Kurrore mountain is of far less altitude, and I should doubt 
its being free from fever during the monsoon. It were, however, at 
other seasons an excellent sanitarium for those who could not reach 
Nurr, its distance from Rawul Pindi not exceeding 20 miles. I think, 
however, that both Europeans and Natives will be more healthy can- 
toned in the plains than in the mountains, resorting to the sanitaria 
only for occasional change of air. 

Nurr and Kurrore being on the skirts of the mountain districts 
are less objectionable as regards the people of Huzara than other sites. 
They bring the army in contact only with a single and distant tribe, 
the Suttees, who have no sympathy with their neighbours. 

37 



290 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S49. 

If my arguments are deemed insufficient, there can be no doubt 
that the sites to be preferred are the spurs from the enormous moun- 
tains of Meean Jani ke Choki and Moochpoora, summits which must, I 
think, be nearly 10,000 feet in altitude. They are in the very midst of 
the wild country of the Dhoonds, an uncertain and warlike people, and 
cut off from the plains and from the valley by vast tracts of the most 
rugged mountains. 

The mountains of the Khaunpoor district adjacent to Rawul Pindi 
are all more or less infected with fever, during and after the monsoon. 

Whatever may be the decision of Government, my best efforts will 
be made to give it effect, but I have deemed it my duty to record what 
appear to me objections and difficulties, adding that, whatever two or 
three years hence may be the nature of our position in the Punjaub, 
any disaffection of the people of Huzara in the interim seems to me 
a contingency which it were worth some sacrifice to avoid, and my 
belief that, if the people can for that term be rendered as happy as at 
present they are, a confidence in our Government will be begotten, 
which will resist even the spectacle of reeling drunkards and our 
addiction to the flesh of the unclean beast. 

I went to-day on foot in pursuit of a tiger which has been doing 
damage in a neighbouring village, but after a hard day's toil returned 
unsuccessful. 

15th, j6th, ijlh, iSlh, and jpth April i8,f.g — Srikote. — The fort of 
Srikote is not yet quite finished ; my days are occupied as usual. My 
correspondence is finished by daybreak. After breakfast I hear and 
answer urzees until noon, when kucherry is opened and lasts until sunset. 

30 th April— Srikote. — Went after another tiger which had taken 
refuge in a cave, from which I found it impossible to dislodge him, having 
no fireworks at hand The dogs wmnt in but could not attract his attention. 

I fired in and hit him, but as he could not be seen by looking into the 
cave I was obliged at last very reluctantly to light a fire in the mouth. 
This as I feared did not bring him out. He was stifled by the smoke. 

2ist, 22nd, and 2jrd April — Srikote. — Employed as on other days — 
in the morning in hearing and answering urzees and writing orders to 
the Kardars, and from noon to sunset in kucherry duties. A wild 



diaries of captain J. ABBOTT, 1849. 


291 


report has reached Huzara and caused some stir amongst the disaffected. 
It was sent me from Moozuffurabad, and states that His Highness 
of Cashmere has taken alarm at our supposed designs and is secretly 
collecting an army for hostile purposes and sounding the neigh- 
bouring chiefs as to their disposition to side with him. I enquired of 
the Jumboo Vuqueel in my camp whether there be any stir in Cashmere. 
He replied that a neighbouring Prince, whose territories adjoin Gilgit, 
had shown hostile dispositions and that the Maharaja has assembled a 
force to overawe him. I do not wholly shut my ears to such reports, 
because it is just possible that the investigations of the Mooltan affair 
may have elicited evidence alarming to His Highness of Jumboo. I can 
imagine no other circumstance capable of shaking his friendly disposition 
at this season, and I conceive him far too wary to have committed him- 
self by any tangible demonstration. 

2,pth April iSpg—Srikote , — Engaged from morning until sunset in 
overhauling the accounts of the last eight months, which the flight of the 
accountant some months ago had thrown back. My dak is entirely cut 
off and I have no letter for about ten days. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 

The want of paper has caused me to w’rite as little as possible 
from some time past. I have now received a supply. 


No. 13. — Diary of Captain James Abbott, Assistant Resi- 
dent, Huzara, from the 25th to the 30th April 1849. 

2^lh April i 8 pg — Srikote . — Finding that much excitement was 
occasioned by the presence of Goolam Khan, Chief of Huzara proper, 
at Hurkishengurh, where the want of drilled troops is ill-supplied by 
armed peasants who sympathize with prisoners of their own family and 
religion, I took opportunity of the acquiescence of the Officer Com- 
manding in Attock to anticipate the permission of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Sir H, M. Lawrence and of the Officer Commanding at Rawal Pindi to 
lodge that Chief in the fortress of Attock. begging that he might be 
subjected to no hardship save such as safe custody renders inevitable 
In fact the Vuqueel of Jehandad Khan was speaking ojaenly of 



* 9 * DIAKIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, i 84 g. 

persuading his master to make an effort to release Goolam Khan, his 
friend, by force, and by a singular coincidence, which may have been 
more than accidental, Jehandad Khan entered Huzara with a consider- 
able body of horse and foot the very day of Goolam Khan’s removal, his 
plea being attendance at a marriage of one of his followers. I have 
rebuked him for taking such a liberty without first asking permission. I 
was kept a whole day in suspense as to his designs, but my party 
reached Attock with their prisoner unmolested. Engaged from morn- 
ing to night with the public accounts of the last eight months. 

26th April — Srikote . — Engaged until noon with the accounts, 

after which kucherry until sunset. 

2Jth April — Ghasi, Kttrri . — Marched to Ghazi in progress to Dar- 
chitli, where I am building a castle upon the estate of Goolam Mohy- 
ooddeen, Tarkhailee, one of the self-exiled conspirators. My purpose 
is to ascertain where chokies will be necessary to keep in order the 
mountain of Gundgurh and also to acquire a thorough acquaintance 
with those localities which I have not heretofore visited, in order to 
act without embarrassment in case a hostile visit be necessary. I have 
deferred this hitherto in order to carry on the all-important repairs of 
the fort of Srikote. After noon held kucherry. 

28lh April — Kurri, Darchitli . — Marched to Darchitli by the Bhong 
Durrah, ascending by one of the most formidable approaches in the 
world, where one hundred good matchlocks might destroy the largest 
army of Invaders. There is nothing so strong as this ascent on the 
Srikote side. Nara is nothing in comparison. Found the works of the 
castle pretty well advanced in spite of the distance of the water and of 
the stones used in construction. It is a most essential post commanding 
most of the strongholds of the Tarkhailee clan. At noon ascended Peer 
Than, the principal summit of Gundgurh, distant about seven miles, and 
returned by sunset. This summit is of blue mountain limestone rising 
out of a ridge of argillaceous schist permeated with veins of quartz, 
lime and mica. It possesses no water. The plunge on either side is 
extraordinary. A rifle ball might hit its mark in the plain below. My 
thermometer is not very trustworthy, but I believe 3,600 feet is nearly 
the true altitude above the sea-level. Peer Than is the key to all the 
southern half of Gundgurh, the villages being sited upon its spurs. My 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, i84g. 293 

visit was necessarily brief, but sufficient I trust to put me in possession 
of the features for military purposes. 

2Qth April i8,j.g — Ghazi . — Marched back to Ghazi : held kucherry 
after noon. 

joth April— Torbaila, Htizara . — Marched to Torbaila, where I am 
rebuilding the castle upon a small scale. I was obliged to destroy it 
when the Sikhs were in rebellion lest it should fall into their hands. 
Right opposite, the self-exiled traitors of Huzara have taken up their 
abode, and a castle is the cheapest means of checking their incursions. 
Indeed Torbaila can never be left safely without garrison as all the armed 
population beyond the river are lawless. The benefit of a fort over 
a cantonment is that the former costs yearly about the fifth part of the 
latter ; in some cases not more than a tenth. Khan-i-Zeman Khan is 
at Khubul, and I see him through my telescope returning toward his 
retreat of Sitana. He visited Khubul to bribe the people there to aid 
him in burning the crops in Huzara and Chuch by sending incendiaries 
across the Indus nightly upon inflated skins. I shall urge Major 
Lawrence to re- occupy the fort of Pihoor, which commands the supplies 
of all the villages on the western bank of the river. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Assistant Resident. 


No. 14.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Deputy Com- 
missioner, Huzara, from the 1st to the 9th May 1849. 

1st, 2nd and jrd May i8^p — Torbada, Huzara . — Heavy rain these 
three days, which have rendered marching impossible. During the 
rain I have been occupied with the accounts of the last eight months, 
some of which are still delayed owing to the confusion occasioned by 
the flight of the accountant. When the rain ceases kucherry is opened 
to all who have complaints to prefer. The fort of this place I w'as 
obliged to destroy after its surrender to prevent Chuttur Singh occupying 
it with a garrison as it could not have stood a regular siege. I am now 
rebuilding it upon a much smaller scale, a mere castle in fact capable of 
holding the police chokie necessary at a point where the district comes 
in contact with the lawless tribes of the Mahabunn. There was 
formerly a garrison of lOO matchlocks here. But I believe 25 will 



394 DIARIES. OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1849. 

now suffice and they may be reduced hereafter. The outlaws from 
Huzara have been parading on the further bank of the Indus, striving 
to persuade the wild tribes to join them. But I have threatened these 
tribes with the establishment of such restrictions as will reader life a 
burthen to them if they aid the rebels. 

.^th May i8.fg — Sohaubi . — 1 marched this morning about five miles 
up the Indus to see whether the old chokie at the Towie ferry would 
need re-establishinent. I then struck ofl' to the eastward by south and 
camped at Sohaubi, an undulating tract at the foot of the Sarde 
Mountain. Held kucherry as usual. 

^th May — Hurripoor. — Returned to-day to Hurripoor after an 
absence of 1 1 months, some of the most anxious of my life. The 
country is in great beauty, the crops, half ripe, waving richly over plain 
and valley and contrasting strongly with the sterile mountains which 
shoot up as mere rocks all around. Yet those fertile tracts have been 
an eyesore to me for many months and the ruggedness of those moun- 
tains has been beauty in my eyes. I passed the fort of Barookote, 
which like that of Torbaila I was obliged on its surrender to destroy, 
for the same reason. I had formerly here a garrison of 60. Fifteen 
will now be sufficient and the fort need not be rebuilt. The heavy rain, 
although unseasonable, has done little injury ; the season is one of the 
most abundant that has been known, and even the I’avages of the Doora- 
nis have in many places been partly recovered by a second crop from 
the old roots. At Hurripoor the Sikhs destroyed all the barracks I had 
built, unroofed the jail and two of the towers of the town. But 
most of the Khuttrees’ shops remain. The fort has not been 
injured. It is a stout little place. With my property and that of 
Lieutenant Robinson at Hurripoor were some Government instruments 
which were taken (when the Sikhs plundered my bungalow) by Bukshie 
Ruttun Singh, Chultur Singh’s Vuqueel. I presume he might be made 
to surrender them. Held kucherry as usual. 

6th, yth, 8th and gth May — Hurripoor . — I rise daily before day- 
break, dose my dak packet by sunrise, ride out, breakfast, hear and 
answer urzees until noon and then hold kucherry until sunset. The 
examination and amalgamation of the accounts alone break in upon the 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, i8^. 


295 


regularity of this routine. The daks continue to be very irregular, letters 
in some cases from Lahore being 14 days on the road. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Deputy Commissioner. 


No. 15.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Deputy Com- 
missioner, Huzara, from the 11th to the 26th May 
1849. 

iith to iStli May i8.j.g — Hurtipoc.r, Husara. — Nothing unusual has 
occurred in this period. My daily occupations are little varied. Much 
time is absorbed in the correction of the accounts, which from three 
different quarters I have found full of errors, not indeed of serious 
moment, but which if not corrected miglit render the accounts hereafter 
unintelligible. it will not appear astonishing that there should be 
such errors, but rather that any accounts whatever could be kept under 
the difficulties encountered There being three different rupees in 
circulation, the chances of error are three-fold. From ii a. m. until 
sunset daily I hold kucherry. During the late uproar several instances 
of assassination occurred amongst the mountains, the investigation of 
which is attended with difficulty. 

igth to 26th May. — I have no particular events to record. Lieuten- 
ant Robinson came in for two days to correct his portion of the 
accounts and again left Hurripoor to resume his survey operations 
in the mountains. I am detained here although anxious to visit 
the Kurral Mountains, because there is no other officer at hand to keep 
a check upon the movements of the outlaws beyond the Indus. So soon 
as Captain Nicholson returns to this neighbourhood, I purpose making 
a tour of the district to settle cases not easily decided at a distance. It 
would be my wish to be thus constantly in motion, because the sum- 
moning of evidence from a distance during sowing time and harvest, 
which occur twice every year, causes much distress to the people, and 
many cases are tediously deferred from the obvious injustice of making 
many suffer for the benefit of one. During the past week, I have held 
kucherry daily. I am still in ignorance as to the exact arrangements 
purposed by the Board for the Military Police of Huzara. 

P.S. — I have to apologise for the length of period since my last 
Journal. 



20 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^. 

No. 16.— Diary of Captain James Abbott, Deputy Com- 
missioner, Huzara, from the 9th to the 15th June 
1849. 

^th June i 8 ^g — Hurripoor, Husara. — Whilst waiting for instruc- 
tions regarding the formation of the Huzara Corps, I have determined 
to make a short tour of the district as the near approach of the rains 
will soon render this very inconvenient. I shall therefore start to- 
morrow morning. Held kucherry from ii until sunset, the early 
morning being devoted to the accounts which I have just received back 
from Lieutenant Robinson, and to hearing and answering urzees. 

loth June — Rujjooia. — Marched this morning to Rujjooia, 19 miles. 
Held Kucherry in the afternoon until sunset. 

iilh June — Halted to hear cases ; employed before noon 
in making up the accounts, in hearing and answering urzees, and from 
noon until sunset in hearing and deciding cases. 

I2th June — Nara Nullaie. — Marched up the mountain to Nara 
Nullaie, not the Nara of Gundgurh. This is my first visit to Nara, which 
is a table mountain of clay slate and limestone, one of the remote spurs 
of Meean Jani ke Choki. It is by my measurement about 5,000 feet 
higher than the sea, but my thermometer is rather incorrectly graduated. 
The climate is healthful and agreeable, but the scenery is bare and 
wretched as is the case with most of the Huzara mountains, Shirwaun, 
Dunna, Srikote, Sri Bungh, Mari, Junnoo Muh. Held kucherry from 
noon until sunset. 

ijth June — Myra Numli. — Marched to Myra Numli, a most fatigu- 
ing march over rugged and lofty mountains, distance about 20 miles. 
The scenery greatly improves half way when the rugged precipices of 
naked limestone are exchanged for gentler acclivities wooded with firs, 
oak, yew, a tree called miinnoo resembling the elm, walnut, cedar, 
holly, sycamore and other trees and shrubs which delight an eye worn 
out with the aspect of the arid rocks that sentinel Huzara. Myra 
Numli are villages at the foot of mount Meean Jani ke Choki, the lofti- 
est mountain in the district, which 1 have never before found leisure 
or opportunity to visit, but which I consider it my duty to ascend ere 
I send in the sketch map called for. The arrival of the drafts for the 
new regiment prevented me from starting earlier. Myra Numli has a 
small fort with a few police to man it. Although the elevation must be 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1849. 


*97 


nearly 7,000 feet, the temperature is scarcely pleasant, the valley being 
shut in by the ridge connecting the mountains Meean Jani ke Choki 
and Moochpoora. Held kucherry on the arrival after noon of my 
Moonshees. 

i^th June t 8 j.g — Mount Meean Jani ke Choki. — Climbed to the 
summit of Meean Jani ke Choki, about 3,000 feet. The summit is of 
compact dark grey sandstone stratified. The spurs are of limestone and 
clay slate. This aspect of the mountain is rather bare, but the northern 
side has a thick forest of cedar, fir, oak, sycamore, the latter of great 
size and beauty, horse chestnut, rousse, here called loonie, and other 
trees. The altitude by my thermometer is io,ooo feet, which is 
exactly what I guessed it to be, viewing it two years ago from a distance. 
It overlooks the whole of Huzara. The view is very fine. But these 
mountains want the peculiar charm of those about Simla, vis., an ever- 
blooming flora, an abundance of sparkling streams and interminable 
dells, which the eye is never weary of pursuing. I find the map 
constructed upon bearings and conjecture, without a visit to the main 
feature, essentially defective, and am glad I did not send it in previous 
to this visit The air upon such a mountain cannot fail to be pure. 
The moon, which is diminished to a third of her full disc, appeared as 
distinct in the heavens at midday as at night. The water upon this 
mountain is not very abundant, I and my party drank the snow which 
was found in ravines on the northern side. The temperature disap- 
pointed me, being upwards of 80’ in the shade. The air was pleasant 
and the sun, excepting for its glare, not offensive. I consider this 
mountain inferior to the Dhoond mountains as a locality for a sanitarium, 
being less accessible, more scantily furnished with water near the 
summit and affording fewer easy acclivities. I have elsewhere recorded 
what appear to me objections to the establishment of sanitaria within 
the mountains of this district for at least two years to come. Should 
these be overruled, I think the most suitable site will be found near the 
summit of a ridge which, commencing with Mount Murri, extends to 
^ Gurrial Gulli above Fort Charian. The northern aspect will, I think, 
be preferred. This ridge is crested with a species of cedar called 
paloodur, bearing the foliage of the yew and affording timber equal, 
if not superior, to that of the larch. At about 500 feet from the 
summit the ground slopes easily so as to be often susceptible of culture 

38 



niAKIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184^. 


agS 

without terracing. Tlie sides have a forest more or less thick of fir, 
pear trees, oak, etc. Water is generally abundant immediately beneath 
the steeper acclivity of the summit. The ridge belongs to the Dhoond 
countrj', and is approachable from Ravvul Pindi, either via Phoolgraon 
and Dunna or by Charian. By Dunna, the first march from Phoolgraon 
carries the traveller to Dunna, elevated about 5>000 i the second 
short march to Mount Murri. The ridge must be from 7 to 3,000 
feet high. Snow lies very heavily for about four months. It fell when 
I was camped there with a Sikh force for four consecutive days, 
without intermission, commencing 25th November. 

It has been the custom of the Dhoonds, Kurralls and Suttees to 
rise upon the garrisons of their country at every moment of visible weak- 
ness of the Government. On the last occasion they merely obeyed 
my order in rising. But the people are treacherous amongst themselves 
and the most dastardly assassinations are common. 1 cannot therefore 
think that, whilst the Punjab is liable to commotions, it were prudent to 
entangle our sick amongst these mountains or to encourage officers 
to build there. Mount Nurr is contiguous to the plains. The Suttees, 
its inhabitants, have no sympathy with their neighbours, and a small 
detachment would always suffice to make the place secure during the 
absence of our troops from the neighbourhood. But amongst the 
Dhoond mountains the population is more numerous, the retreat more 
difficult, the isolation from succor or supplies easily effected by the 
people, by seizure of the passes outward. Retreat at the commence- 
ment would betray distrust and weakness, and certainly cause a 
rising, and unless the force there were considerable its danger might 
be great. The great tragedy at Cabul commenced with the murder 
of individuals, who with the fearlessness of Britons W'ould wander 
unguarded amongst an armed population. The perfect impunity attend- 
ing tliese acts in most instances led the people to regard a general 
massacre as a thing quite feasible. The sacredness attaching to British 
life in India was never established in Afghanistan for want of the 
commonest prudence. Yet we had not been many days in that country 
without discovering that the people thirsted for our blood. I would 
not dishonor the Dlioonds by comparing them with Afghauns, who 
me the lorvest of mankind upon the moral scale. On the contrary, 
their feelings toward us at present are most friendly. That they may 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS4<). »y9 

never be otherwise, I would avoid tempting men so lawless beyond 
due bounds. On descending from the mountain the day was too far 
advanced to hold kuclierry. 

Marched down the Dohr rivulet to Dumtour, and from thence to 
Nowa Shihr which, though of considerable elevation, has a hot wind. 
A Persian note, purporting to be from Ahmed Khan Sahib, having a few 
words of English scrawled upon it, amongst which was the name of Lieu- 
tenant Hamilton, begged me to report the arrival of that officer in 
Hu^ara for the information of His Highness the Maharaja of Cashmere. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 
Deputy Commissioner. 


No. 17. — Dia,ry of Captain James Abbott, Deputy Com- 
missioner, Huzara, from the 16th to the 26th June 
1849. 

i6th June i8p.g — Nowa Slulir, Huzara . — Halted to bear causes ; 
held kucherry from 1 1 a..m. until sunset ; engaged previously in hearing 
and answering urzees. A Persian letter was brought me to-day pur- 
porting to be from Ahmed Khan Sahib (quasi Hamilton), stating that he 
had arrived from Cashmere with a guard which he was about to leave at 
Mahugul that he might proceed straight onward to Peshawur througli 
Tunnole. A letter from His Highness the Maharaja of Cashmere 
accompanied addrest to his i'uqueel and saying that the Sahib Bahadoor 
had been some time in Cashmere and was an.xious to visit Abbott Sahib. 
Upon the borders of the first letter were scrawled Lieutenant Hamilton 
proceeding to join his regiment at Peshawur; sorry I can’t see you on 
the road. You must tell Molr.aj that I have arrived safely.” The w'ords 
were ill-spelt and the whole letter appeared to be anything rather 
than the production of a gentleman. However I thought it might possibly 
be some heedless, half-educated young fellow who might get into trouble 
from ignorance of habits of the people, so I sent him a purwana 
for a guard to accompany him to Attock and addrest a note to Lieutenant 
Hamilton hoping for the pleasure of his company should he pass my 
tent. At night I heard that he h.ad proceeded on his way through 
Tunnole, but could learn no particulars of his conduct. 

ijtlijune — Mahugul — Last night I was wakened by my servant, 
who informed me that a Sahib was standing without. I dressed and went 



jao 


DIARinS OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 1S4Q. 


forth and invited him into my sleeping tent whilst another was being 
pitched for his reception. He was a vulgar looking young man of two or 
three and twenty, with light down upon his chin, a dirty towel wound 
around his head for turban and a suit of clothes of the black puttoo of 
Cashmere. He wore no shirt. His manners were of the lowest order 
of the barrack room, but he steadily affirmed that he was Lieutenant 
Hamilton of the 24th Native Infantry proceeding to join his regiment at 
Peshawur. I was perplext how to act. Having invited him to be my guest, 
I could not refuse him ordinary civility, yet it was impossible to avoid 
the suspicion that a deserter from one of our regiments or a travelling 
apothecary sat before me. This morning I remained on the ground to 
offer him breakfast and put him through a cross-examination so far as I 
politely could. He took a long time to consider ere he answered the 
most ordinary question; said that he had been ordered to join General 
Gilbert’s force at Peshawur ; had been up with two companies to Kangra 
and from thence had made bis way through Cashmere ; had met Major 
Mackeson at Cashmere ; was sure his Corps, the 24th, was at Peshawur; 
that the Colonel’s name was Robertson. Unfortunately I had no Army 
List to refer to. His manner at breakfast was in keeping with his 
conversation. He handled his knife like a bayonet, preferred a fork of 
steel for eating sardines and rice, and drank his tea from the saucer. 
But suspicious as were all these circumstances 1 did not think myself 
justified in arresting or treating him discourteously without absolute 
proofs of ungentleraanly conduct. Finding that he purposed to cross 
the burning plains of Qatur and Chuch afoot, 1 sent him a pony, but 
had scarcely done so ere it occurred to me that if a deserter this might 
facilitate his escape. On arriving here, where he spent a day, I find that 
his conduct at Cashmere was anything but decorous ; that he avoided 
Major Mackeson and lived upon His Highness the Maharaja, whom he 
calls familiarly Molraj ; that his dress and cooking pots are the gifts 
of His Highness, who was at last obliged to beg him to be gone. I 
have therefore written to Peshawur and to Captain Nicholson to ascertain 
if there be such a Lieutenant Hamilton in 24th N. I. and if not to take 
precautions for his apprehension. I held kucherry to-day as usual on 
the arrival of my establishments. Mahugul, although lower than Novva 
Shihr, is cooler, owing to the hot wind from Huzara (which rolls up 
the valley of the Dohr to the latter) being here shut out by the huge 
table mountain of Tunnole. 



DIARIES or CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^g. 


3»« 

l 8 ih June — Mansera — Marched to Mansera, where there is 

a rather large fort Here the Sikhs under Colonel Bhoop Singh, one of 
the best and most worthy of the Sikh officers, yet deeply implicated 
in the late conspiracy, long held their camp, not having courage to 
attempt to force the pass outward where Lieutenant Robinson was posted 
with some thousands of matchlockmen. The pass is a footpath winding 
for miles over the tails of spurs from the huge mountains of Beerungulli 
and occasionally plunging into and emerging from deep ravines. Such 
a pass may be forced by an intrepid and cool body of Regular troops, 
and our matchlockmen gave little promise of offering a very resolute 
resistance. But it is ground peculiarly adapted to armed peasantry 
who have a thousand means of retreat if repulsed, and wlio under other 
circumstances can never be persuaded to stand; and as such I had 
at once selected it in preference to the Dumtour and Sulhud passes 
which the people of the country deem stronger and which have a more 
formidable look. The flank of a column threading this pass is e.xposed 
throughout its extent to the fire of an active enemy, and every spur must 
first be carried and occupied ere the column can pass in safety. The 
Sikhs held their camp at Mansera with little molestation excepting that 
their supplies were straitened. Lieutenant Robinson could not persuade 
his matchlockmen to venture within musket range. Had not Jhundur 
Singh, however, been sent to Huzara, the force would have laid down its 
arms and the rebellion would have been quashed. This we learnt from 
the intercepted letters of their officers. I held kucherry to-day as 
usual. 

ipth June — Shinkiari . — Marched to Shinkiari at the head of the 
Pukli valley. Owing in the first place to my absence from Huzara whilst 
settling the boundary and afterwards to the rebellion it is long since I 
had vi.sited Pukli. The whole surface of the country has been altered 
by culture and not a square yard of fallow or culturable soil remains 
unoccupied. Such is the effect of security. Thousands of emigrants have 
retui ned and there is a continual strife for land which has lain 
neglected for years. Held kucherry as usual. 

20th June— Shinkiari . — Halted to try causes and settle disputes. 
Much oppression takes place in the Bogurmungh valley, where I have 
no fort. The people who suffer dare not for their lives complain. I hope 



302 DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, 184!). 

to amend this by coming to live in this neighbourhood for several 
months in the year and by making constant visits to the valley. Employed 
during the forenoon with the accounts and from 1 1 a . m . until sunset in 
holding kucherry. The first storm of the monsoon occurred last night. 

2ist June iS^g — Mansera. — Another and heavier storm this 
evening. These storms give promise of a regular fall of rain, which the 
country has not enjoyed at the right season for several years. I marched 
back to-day to Mansera. I have been endeavouring for some months to 
suppl}' timber to Peshawur. But although there is abundance in Pukli, 
the river Sirun will not admit of their passage downward for a space of 
about I S miles, and the portage is so narrow, difficult and dangerous that 
only the smallest timbers can be conveyed thereby. I have ordered a 
better road to be opened, as I doubt not the supply from this district of 
timber to Peshawur will be deemed a matter of considerable moment by 
the Government. It is at present matter of the utmost difficulty to 
procure a timber in Huzara, i.e., at Hurripoor. The Dohr rivulet will 
waft them down but a short distance, both the Dohr and the Hurroh 
being exhausted by the canals of irrigation. I held kucherry as usual. 

22nd June — Mansera. — Halted here to hear causes. Last night my 
tents were blown away in the third storm. Occupied in the forenoon 
with the accounts and from noon until sunset in kucherrj’. 

2jyd June — Mahugul. — Marched back to Mahugul, where a letter 
from the Kardar of Khaunpoor met me announcing that Raja Hydur 
Buksh Khan, Gukka, was in open rebellion in the Khaunpoor mountains. 

I hope that it is a mere dispute between the Raja and the Kardar, 
nevertheless very small openings of mischief are not to be neglected in 
Huzara, which resembles nothing so much as a powder magazine. I 
therefore after a short kucherry marched on to Nowa Shihr and settled 
some disputes there. 

June — Chuniba. — Marched to Chumba ; engaged during the 
forenoon in hearing and answering urzees and afterwards until sunset 
in kucherry. A storm in the evening. 

2jtli June — Goolterie — Marched to Goolterie, the seat of Goolam 
Khan, Tereen, who is a prisoner in Attock. He is a clever fellow, for 
he has persuaded the women of his village to believe that he sacrificed 
himself for their safety, whereas it is notorious that Dooranis entered 



DIARIES OF CAPTAIN J. ABBOTT, iS^g. 303 

Huzara wholly on his invitation. I had no idea that his place was so 
strong. No Doorani army if opposed by a hundred matchlocks would 
venture to attack it, and he had 1 50 paid by me with unlimited promises 
of aid in case of attack. The old women of the place came in deputation 
to solicit his release. 

At Mahugul a note from the Kardar of Huzara complained of the 
conduct of Lieutenant Hamilton Sahib, Bahadoor, who had been indul- 
ging in a daily ration of two bottles of country arrack, for which he 
would not pay, and had beaten several people without offence. I had 
previously warned the Kardar to inform Captain Nicholson should this 
person commit any irregularities, and Captain Nicholson on the Kardar’s 
complaint has sent a party to arrest him, having discovered that there is 
no Lieutenant Hamilton in the 24th N. I. Here Raja Hydur Buksh, 
whom I had summoned, met me. I shall, however, go on to Khaunpoor 
as there must be something essentially amiss either in the Raja’s or in 
the Kardar’s conduct. 

Held kucherry as usual ; was caught on the toad by a heavy fall of 

rain. 

26th June — Chujjia — Climbed the mountain to the little fort of 
Chujjia, 5)500 feet high, between two enormous rocks of blue mountain 
limestone, thinly sprinkled with shrubs belonging to the mountain called 
Sri Bungh, which is of the same character, but probably 1,500 feet higher. 

Nothing can be more wretched than the mountain despite its pure 
air and genial temperature. I have never before visited this castle, 
which I had built when first I settled the district. The post is important, 
overawing Goolterie and part of Khaunpoor. A note last night from 
Captain Nicholson informed me that he had secured Lieutenant Hamil- 
ton. who upon the threat of rougher treatment had confest himself to be 
one Kielly from the Depot of H. M.’s 6ist Regiment at Jullundur anxious 
to rejoin his corps at Peshawur without incurring the penalties of deser- 
tion. I must not forget to record that this man confirms the reports 
I had heard of His Highness of Jumboo having concealed the greater 
number of his guns on Captain Mackeson’s approach. He says that 
there are 600 guns at Cashmere. 

J. ABBOTT, Captain, 

Deputy Commissioner. 




PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 
1847 and 1848. 


39 






Pe^hmvnr Political Diaries, 

Major Georj^e St, P. Lawrence was Principal Assistant to the Agent to the 
Governor-General, North-West Frontier, at Peshavvur, until the 4th of November 1847, when 
he left for Lahore, leaving Lieutenant R. G. Taylor, Assistant to the Resident in charge,] 



Period 



No 

From 

To 

Page 

Remarks. 

I 

24th January 1847 ... 

30th January 1847 ... 

311 

Diaries Nos. 




1 to 37 are 

2 

31st January 1847 ... 

6th February 1847 

312 

by Major G. 
Lawrence. 





Diary No, 

3 

7th February 1847 ... 

13th February 1847 

313 

8 S partly 
by Major 


14th February 1847 



L a wrence 

4 

20th February 1847 

3>4 

and partly 
by Lt. R. 

5 

2 1 St February 1847 

27th February 1847 

317 

G. Taylor. 
Diaries 





Nos. 39, 40, 

6 

28 th February 1847 

6th March 1847 ••• 

320 

43, 44 and 
45 are by 
Lt. Taylor, 

7 

7th March 1847 

13th March 1847 ... 

325 

while Nos. 
41 and 42 

8 

14th March 1847 ... 

20th March 1847 ... 

328 

are by Lt. 
H. B. Luma* 





den. 

9 

2ist March 1847 ... 

27th March 1847 ... 

330 


10 

28th March 1847 ••• 

3rd April 1847 

333 


II 

4th April 1847 

lOth April 1847 ... 

336 


12 

I ith April 1847 

17th April 1847 ... 

338 


13 

1 8th April 1847 

24th April 1847 ••• 

340 


14 

2Sth April 1847 ... 1 

ist May 1847 

343 


15 

2nd May 1847 ■ 

i 

1 

8th May 1847 ... j 

1 

347 




3o8 


Period 


Page. Remarks* 


16 

i6th May 1847 

22nd May 1847 

350 

17 

23rd May 1847 

29th May 1847 

353 

18 

30th May 1847 

5th June 1847 

357 

19 

6th June 1847 

1 2th June 1847 

359 

20 

13th June 1847 

19th June 1847 

362 

21 

20th June 1847 

26th June 1847 

363 

22 

27th June 1847 

3rd July 1847 

366 

23 

4th July 1847 

loth July 1847 

368 

24 

nth July 1847 

17th July 1847 

370 

25 

iSthJuly 1847 ... 

24th July 1847 

372 

26 

25th July 1847 

31st July 1847 

374 

27 

1st August 1847 

7th August 1847 ... 

377 

28 

8th August 1847 ••• 

14th August 1847 ... 

379 

29 

15th August 1847 ... 

2 1st August 1847 ... 

381 

30 

22nd August 1847 ... 

28th August 1847 ... 

384 

31 

5th September 1847 

nth September 1847 

386 

32 

12th September 1847 

1 8th September 1847 

389 

33 

19th September 1847 

25th September 1847 

392 

34 

26th September 1847 

i 

2nd October 1 847 ... 

395 

35 

j 3rd October 1847 ... 

9th October 1847 ... 

399 


for 291^ 
August to 
4th Sep- 
tember 1847 
is missing. 


309 



Period 



No. 

From 

To 

Page. 

Rem.vrks. 

36 

lOth October 1847 ... 

t6th October 1847 ... 

401 

The Diary 
for i7tli to 

37 

24th October 1847 ... 

30th October 1847 ... 

40s 

23rd Octo- 
ber 1S47 is 
missing. 

38 

31st October 1847 ... 

6th November 1847 

408 


39 

7th November 1847 

j 13th November 1847 

411 


40 

14th November 1847 

20th November 1847 

414 


41 

2ist November 1847 

27th November 1847 

417 


42 

29th November 1847 

Sth December 1847 

418 

The Diary 
for 6th to 

43 

15th December 1847 

1 8th December 1847 

420 

14th Decem- 
ber 1847 is 
missing. 

44 

igth December 1847 

25th December 1847 

422 

45 

26th December 1847 

I St January 1848 ... 

42s 




No, 1.— Political Diary of Major George St. P, Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 

General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 24th, to Saturday, the 30th January 1847. 

2^lh January 184J . — Arrived at Wuzeerabad: visited the camp of 
Colonel Ruttun Singh, who said that not more than 100 of his regiment 
had arrived, and that it would be 26 days before all were present. 
He had heard a rumour of Batta beyond the Indus. In the evening a 
Jemadar, Azimootoollah Khan, late of the 4th Troop, 2nd Cavalry, now 
of the Govind Regiment, called on me, and from him I heard that his 
regiment would be complete in four days, and that more of Colonel 
Ruttun Singh’s regiments were present than represented, also of the 
other Sikh Regiments, Colonel Meer Jung Ali {sic), though the Colonel 
had not arrived ; the Jemadar is anxious to accompany me to Peshawur. 

26ih, 2ph, 28th January. — Nothing. Marched to Goojrat on the 
27th ; heavy rain. Marched to Kharrian ; rain : received a petition from 
certain villagers that Moortazah Shah had fined them Rs. 50 for a 
robbery on some traders and otherwise ill-treated them. 

2gtli January , — Arrived at Jhelum ; received several petitions : for- 
warded them to Lahore. 

^oth January . — .Arrived at Ruttian, distant four coss from Rhotas, 
which I visited row/r. Goman, zemindar ofKokur, brought a petinon 
against Wuzeer Mungul Singh of having lined him Rs. 1,008, which 
petition he had submitted to the Resident, Lahore, who referred to Fakeer 
Churaghooddeen, who passed an order that Missar Roop Lai, Kardar 
of Rhotas, should investigate it ; he declining to do so, petitioner has 
come to me. I have referred him back to Roop Lai, and then to 
Lahore, should he still decline obeying orders. 


Geo. Sr. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 

Principal ^Isst. to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F , 

in progress to Peshawur, 



3«3 


PESHA WUK POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^y. 


No. 2.— Political Diary of Major Q-eorge St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 31st January, to Saturday, the 6th Feb- 
ruary 1847. 

^ist J antiary iS^j . — Marched to Dhirmak. Heavy rain all night 

ji,t February. — Marclied to Mimikwalla. Sirdar Chuttur Singh 
looks as if he had been and is very ill. Told him that it was said that his 
son Sirdar Outar Singh at Peshawur oppressed the people ; he replied 
that orders would be sent that all my wishes should be attended to. 
Mr. Apothecary Thompson prescribed for him. The Sirdar presented 
Rs. 6oo, a horse, and sundry trays of shawls, etc. Heavy rain all night. 

2nd February. — Marched to Rawul Pindee; consulted with Dewan 
Jowala Sahai and by his advice wrote to certain zemindars to come in 
and meet us; sent the letters accordingly ; have agreed to halt four or five 
days. 

3rd February. — Messrs. Agnew and Lumsden arrived at 
from Huzara ; they represent that the people are all willing to tender 
allegiance to Maharajah Golab Singh on his guaranteeing to them 
what they held in the time of Sirdar Hurree Singh. Held a long 
consultation with Dewan Jowala Sahai, who agrees to give sunnuds on 
behalf of his master, Golab Singh, to all who will come in, guaranteeing 
their Jageers and lihasul as held in Hurree Singh’s time. The brother 
of Ameen Khan, ciiief of Puckley, came in with the gentlemen with 
whom he had done good service, and was introduced to the Dewan, 
who promised all he asked. General Kahn Singh’s troops are to arrive 
on the 5th. 

.fth Fcbtuary . — A long consultation with the Dewan, who gave in 
our presence the Maharajah’s sunnud for Ameen Khan to his brother, 
who took his riiksiil to shew it quickly to the Hill people as a proof 
that the Dewan was empowered satisfactorily to arrange their affairs. 
We hope much from this. 

3th February . — General Kahn Singh’s troops aiTived this morning. 
The General with Sirdar Golab Singh, Attariwalla,. and the Comman- 
dants and Staff of Corps paid me a visit. I told them that Lieutenant 
Lumsden had reported most favorably of their good service, which should 
be made known at Lahore, where every endeavor was being made for the 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 


3'3 


good of the old soldiers of the State, etc. ; that they must exert themselves 
to put down the system of plundering the villages, etc. They left 
seemingly well pleased ; I am to see them on parade to-morrow. Held 
a long consultation with Dewan Jowala Sahai. Gama Khan of Tomair 
and the Suttee zemindars have come in. He .says if I will only help 
him a little longer, all will come. While talking, the Resident’s letters 
to the Maharajah and Dewan arrived; I handed them over, and he 
read them aloud and begged I would represent his entire devotion to 
us and willingness to be guided by us. I must do him the justice to 
say that he seems most anxious to do his best for the settlement of the 
country, and most willing to act up to all our suggestions. Many com- 
plaints have Come in against the Sikh Troops : the General, at my 
request, has placed safeguards in the villages. 

6th February iS^y. — Inspected the Troops of General Kahn Singh, 
and e.vpressed my gratification at their soldierlike appearance. Those 
for Lahore will march on the lOth and for Feshawur on the i ith instant ; 
they require some rest. Dewan Jowala Sahai brought the Nawab 
Hyder Buksh, Soobha of Kanpoor, with a zemindar, the Nannu 
of the Suttees {sic ) ; the latter returns with one of the Guides to bring in 
others and intelligence. Sirdar Golab Singh represents that Sirdar 
Bhoor Singh’s Horse have not had pay for five months. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to (he Agent, G.-G., A'.- IT. F. 


No. 3.— Political Diary of Major G-eorge St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 7th, to Saturday, the 13th February 1847. 

ph Febi uary — Dewan Jowala Sahai suggests that the four 

Kohistanee Regiments in the Sikh service about to be disbanded on 
return from Huzara should be transferred to Maharajah Golab Singh ; 
in a note of yesterday to the Resident I suggested the same. 

8th Febtuary . — Rained hard all last night and all day, which will 
delay our march which we had settled for to-morrow, the ground being 
too slippery for camels. Heard from General Kahn Singh that his forces 

40 



314 FESIIA IVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 

were directed to lodge their arms at Rhotas. I complimented him on 
there being no complaints of plunder for the last three days, and hoped 
the same good order would attend his march to Lahore ; he replied that 
if Sirdar General Golab Singh’s troops did not march at the same time 
he would guarantee it. 

gtk February — Dewan Jowala Sahai agrees that the number 

of Kardars in Huzara shall be reduced to four or five. Messrs. Agnew 
and Lumsden represented to him that they only oppressed the people 
and forced them into rebellion. 

loth Februmy . — General Kahn Singh’s four regiments marched 
towatds Lahore. A Kohistanee Regiment of Sirdar Sher Singh’s with 
four guns, all under command of Sookh Singh, remain at Rawal Pindee 
pending orders from Lahore as to the Kohistanee Regiments being trans- 
ferred to Maharajah Golab Singh or not: the carriages of the guns are 
under repair. Sirdar General Golab Singh wants 1 5 days’ leave to visit 
his father and thence to go to the capital. 

1 2th Febmary . — Marched from Rawal Pindee to Janeeke Sung: 
on taking leave of tlie Kardar of Pindee, I held a quiet conversation 
with him as to his treatment of those under him, 

I ^th February . — Marched to Kalley ke Serai : a news-letter from 
Peshawur of the i \th announces the death on the 4th at Jelallabad of 
Sirdar Mahomed Akbar Khan; the news-writer it is said may be 
depended upon. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major. 

Principal Assl. to the Agent, G.~G., N.AV. F. 


No. 4. — Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governorr 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 14th, to Saturday, the 20th February 1847. 

Iph February Marched to Hussan Abdall. Futteh Khan, 

Chiel ofGaybi, presented Rs. lOO. He had taken refuge in Huzara from 
the pel sedition of Dewan Moolraj : sent his case to Lahore and told 
him to accompany Mr. Agnew’ to Hurkishengurh till an answer should 
arrive, and the Dewan Moolraj not to molest his family till then. Mr. 



PESHAIVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847- 3 'S 

Agnew accompanied me to Hussan Abdall with a view to our meeting the 
Gundgtmr Chiefs and, if possible, putting a stop to their plundering the 
road, etc. They (five) came to us and sat three hours; their demands 
are great, but we hope to reduce them. I sent them to be fed and housed 
by the Kardar accompanied by one of my own men, but they sent 
back word that they preferred catering for themselves. I sent them 
Rs. 50. Tlieir looks do not belie their present vocation. The arrival 
of two akhbars from Peshawur and the brother of Ameenoollah 
Khan at Peshawur, confirm the report of Sirdar Mahomed Akbar Khan's 
death. Nawab Zeman Khan is likewise said to be dead ; he befriended 
the Cabul hostages. 

i^tli Febniaty — At a long interview with the Gundghur Chief 
it was settled that a paper of grievances should be forwarded to Lahore, 
they refraining from all acts of plunder till an answer reached them 
through Mr. Agnew at flurkishengurh ; they appear most willing, if 
they get subsistence from the State, and absolution for the past, to give 
up marauding. They have Sikhs, Hindoostanees and Afghans in their 
gangs — all these tiiey engage to discharge. They plunder the whole 
line of country from the Margulla Pass to the Atlock : the Kardars plead 
inability to prevent them from want of force ; the nature of the country 
is favorable for marauding, being jungly and raviny. We parted from 
Mr. Agnew at 1 2 o'clock, he halting for the day and we starting for 
Kootuha. It rained heavily all night. Lieutenant Lumsden and I 
inspected tlie ground about Hussan Abdall; to the north there is a good 
high plain well adapted for troops ; that occupied by Sirdar Bhoor Singh's 
house is very objectionable, being commanded in front and flank by 
high ground. I consider Hussan Abdall, in a military view, a better 
location for troops than Rawal Pindee; it is only said to be unhealthy 
for two months in the year. Marched to Kootuha. 

i 6 lh February.— As I was about to march from Kootuha, General 
Golab Singh arrived with a few men, and said one regiment would join 
me at Khairabad, if I would halt to-morrow. Agreed. Three or four miles 
from Attock at Cazeeabad passed through the camp of Colonels Boodh 
and Buhadur Singh : these gentlemen rode with me for some time. The 
whole of the zemindars of Chudi in the Kardarship of Asa Nund beset 
me at their several villages, shrieking forth their grievances and fodowed 
me to the river, where they were stopped, said to be by Asa Nund's 



3i6 


PESHA WUK POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847- 


orders. I sent and had them crossed over. A portion of the urzees I 
have sent to the Resident ; many may be frivolous and groundless, 
but when a people come forth en masse to complain in this manner 
there must be something radically wrong. As my time would not 
admit of investigating their complaints, I would suggest that either 
some one be sent from Lahore to do so, or they and the Kardar be 
ordered to Peshawur. Near the ruins of the old city of Attock, from the 
window of a large building on the right of the road, hung by the neck 
the body of a man in a decomposed state, said to have been a robber 
by some, by others late a servant of the Killadar, Sirdar Bhaug Singh. 
Inspected the fortress, which is a large straggling place, admitting of 
troops being brought close under its walls, and capable of little resist- 
ance to guns of any calibre — the walls are of stone, in parts ten or 
twelve feet thick ; the upper defences not more than two or three feet ; 
in the upper part of the fort are two bastions for guns and a semi-circular 
battery in the centre facing the river ; in the lower only one point 
where six guns might be placed. There are only three guns in the fort ; 
two kutcha powder magazines, one in the upper and one in the lower ; 
a sally port at the west end leading to the river from whence water 
may be brought without exposure to fire from without ; there are some 
water wells within the fort. A portion, the largest of the town, 
is on the south side without the fort close under the walls. On the 
opposite bank of the river the Fort of Khairabad, of stone, completely 
commanded from the heights in its rear, on which there are three small 
towers ; it was washed away by the great flood of 1840. Attock is held 
at present by a gan ison of $ or 600 matchlocks ; it would hold at 
least 5)^00 ; ^nd to man its walls would take at least that number. 

ijlh February /< 9 / 7 ' — Halted. General Golab Singh with one 
regiment marched this morning. Complaints flocking in from the 
district of Chuch. Colonel Ram Dass from Peshawur met me, having 
been deputed by the Governor. 

i 8 th hebruary , — M arched to Akhora. Many urzees received; the 
people will not believe that the British are not the rulers of the country, 
though I have it explained a dozen times a day. 

ipth February.— Us-rched to Pubbee. More urzees ; and the villagers 
here brought them with fire on their heads, in presence of the Bukshee, 



PESHA IVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 


3'r 

Chowdry and Kazee of Peshawur; the complaints of oppression are 
grievous. The whole road from Attock is lined with a succession of 
chowkees, occupied by 300 footmen, under Kumurooddeen Khan, who 
is said to have 200 horse under him also. 

20th Febrnary iS^y . — Entered the city of Peshawur in state with the 
Governor, Sirdar Uttur Singh, the Barukz3'e Sirdars, General Goordut 
Singh, Mehtab Singh, John Holmes, etc., etc. Inspected Goordut Singh’s 
troops at Chumkunnee on passing — their march is dela3’ed for want 
of carriage, so say tlie authorities. Paraded through the city to my 
tents under the Fort of Shahnieer Ghur. My arrival has caused great 
excitement ; the whole city poured forth its inhabitants, who, unawed by 
the Sikh authorities, welcomed me with acclamations and shouts for 
justice I The report of Sirdar Mahomed Akbar Khan's death is quite 
true ; the Ghilzies are in rebellion, and the whole country disturbed. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, lo the Agent, G.~G., iV.-lF. F. 


No. 5.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 21st, to Saturday, the 27th February 
1847. 

2ist February i 8 ^j . — I sent for General Goordut Singh and enquired 
why he did not march : want of carriage. 1 recommended that he 
and his troops should leave all baggage in excess of actual 
necessaries, such as merchandise, and under a guard to follow ; that 
I had in the morning seen no less than i8 camel-loads of almonds 
at his house; he promised compliance. 1 deeply regret that one of my 
first acts should be turning a deaf ear to the complaint of merchants, 
ninety of whose camels have been seized to expedite the march of 
these troops. I could only direct the Bukshee to pay them their hire 
to Rawal Pindee, and promise to write then to the Kardar for them 
to be relieved: l8 camels seized by Goordut Singh belonging to 
Naib Mahomed Shureef, the Sirdar wrote to the General to give them up, 
but he answ’ered “ that his men would not let him. ” Notwithstanding 
my orders, the General did not prevent his men and others destroying 
their cantonment, pleading the same excuse of inability to restrain 



3>8 


PESHA WUR POLPriCAL DIARIES, iS^I- 


them : he seems perfectly reckless, and I trust the Durbar will make 
an example of him. Complaints are pouring in faster than three 
moonshees can read them The Sirdar entertained my camp yesterday. 
I declined it to-day ; he is a lad of 1$, entirely led by those about him, 
the Bukshee being the head, who is represented in glowing colors as 
a cruel oppressor of the poor. I rode through the cantonment with 
General Golab Singh — all the ground has been cultivated by the officers 
and men and the vacant lines are in ruins. 

22nd February iS^y . — General Golab Singh reports the arrival of his 
troops. The Sirdar at my desire wrote to General Goordut Singh 
directing him to march, leaving his heavy baggage behind under a 
guard, without effect. He marched carrying all. I held a Durbar, 
at which the Sirdar presented all the civil and military authorities, 
who presented nuzzurs Crowds of complainants throng my tent 
from morning to night. Sent for Colonel John Holmes, who says 
bis duty in the city is solely to keep the peace, sending all who act 
in breach of it to the Sirdar. Sent for the Morning Reports and 
Disposition Returns of Regiments. 

2jrd February . — I called at 8 a.M. on General Golab Singh ; 
circulated a proclamation with the Sirdar’s approval to the effect that 
no complaint beyond a year would be attended to; that all petitions 
should first be made to the Sirdar and if not attended to brought to me 
when I would, in concert with the Durbar authorities, investigate 
them, punishing all false complainants ; that the urzees shall be of a 
certain size with date, name of parties, etc., etc. It had greatly eased the 
minds of all in authority, who quaked for their old offences. Colonel 
Ram Dass, Kardar of Kuttuck, against whom there are at least sixty 
petitions, is trying to settle them by paying half and taking razee- 
namas. 

24th February . — At 4 p.m. yesterday Lieutenant Lumsden accom- 
panied me to return the Sirdar’s visit. General’s Golab Singh and Mehtab 
Singh with Regiment Commandants and the civil authorities met us : 
we sat an hour and passed compliments. I then presented the Sirdar 
with a gold watch and chain, he giving us khilluts. He then showed 
us all over the Gor Khuttry, telling us he would be happy if we would 
occupy either the whole or any part of it. On going and returning 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 


3'9 


we passed through the principal streets of the city, the Bukshee, 
Chowdry, and all the Generals escorting us back to our tents. My 
proclamation of the 23rd appears to have tranquillized the minds of 
many, both high and low ; the former as freeing them from being called 
to account beyond a year, the latter, disabusing their minds of the 
idea that I was about to assume the reigns of government. One 
petition brought to me stated that now the raj of Sikhs was at an 
end, the Mahomedans hoped they might call the azans loudly ! I 
have offers from all sides of service from old retainers of Major 
Mackeson, but I declined all, saying my orders were to have nothing 
to do with relations beyond the Sikh dominions. Bukshee Jawahur 
and the Cazee called to show that they were settling many complaints 
It is said the Bukshee is trying to get razeenamas from the people, 
promising to cease oppressing them. 


2^ih February iS^y . — Intelligence from Cabul is that Ameer Dost 
Mahomed Khan has reached Jellalabad; that the late Sirdar Mahomed 
Akbar Khan left his property to his brother Hyder Khan and his 
sword to Mahomed Afzul Khan, and directed his body should be taken 
to Khoolloom. The Afghans are represented as in a state of alarm, 
conceiving my arrival forebodes our approach to Cabul. I have 
received several letters from the Khyber Chiefs, but have assured 
them we have no call for their services. I take every opportunity of 
making this known. In concert with the Sirdar and General Golab 
Singh, Povindia, I have ordered a parade of all the Khalsa Troops for 
to-morrow, and requested the Sirdar to send all the Ramgoles (Irreg- 
ulars) off duty. I have not fixed upon a residence yet ; the Fort is 
objectionable as excluding the free ingress of petitioners; the Generals 
represent the Wuzeer Bagh as too distant from the cantonment, 
which it certainly is, to admit of that close supervision of the troops 
and attention to their affairs which the Governor-General’s minute 
points out as my first object. They say that a portion of General 
Avitabile’s house, now occupied by the Sirdar Uttur Singh, might be 
well spared and portioned off for our accommodation, the Sirdar and his 
people only occupying a part of the upper story. They all profess 
great pleasure at the idea of my taking up my abode there ; I doubt 
them. 



320 PESHAIVUR political DIARIES, 1S47. 

Last evening called on the Sirdar and with 
him went over all his house, late General Avitabile's, which certainly might 
be divided off for us both, without putting the Sirdar or his followers 
to any inconvenience. The parade this morning went off most orderly 
and correctly ; the force looked well under arms. It wants guns and 
cavalry much ; a return, I hope, may accompany my next diary. General 
Golab Singh is most attentive and calls almost daily. I have issued 
two more ishtilmrs, copies I have sent to the Resident ; they appear 
to be well received. 

2'^lli February . — Visited Sirdar Peer Mahomed, Barukzye, and went 
over one of his houses to see if it would suit us; don’t think it will. 
He presented me with 15 trays of fruit and two horses; his brother, 
Sirdar Syed Mahomed Khan, presented three trays and one horse. 
The authorities say they have no money to pay the Ramgoles (Irreg- 
ulars) ; the Bukshee is to visit me to-night to explain why. I have 
just had the duftrys with me, who make out the arrears due to be 
Rs. 1,62,521-2-14 {sic), nearly four month’s pay. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the .^gent, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 

No. 6.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from Sun- 
day, the 28th February, to Saturday, the 6th March 
1847. 

28Lh February transacted no business to-day bej^ond 

receiving the returns of the army from General Golab Singh and giving 
him the draft of a general order to issue to the troops, calling upon them, 
with reference to the new order of things, to pay prompt attention to 
orders, respecting their officers, and explaining how their complaints were 
to be made and attended to ; that the parade ground which has hitherto 
been cultivated up to their very huts, should revert to its proper state ; 
all cultivation to cease. Have fixed for my residence an old mukhwah 
to the left of the lines, close to General Golab Singh’s residence ; it is much 
out of repair, but its proximity to the troops will enable me both to 
carry out the Governor-General’s wishes that my first object should be 
the care of them and the reconciling them to the change of system. 
The General is highly pleased at my resolution and offered me his own 



PESHAIVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 


321 


house, which I declined, telling him he had done more than enough in 
giving me the wukburah hitherto occupied by his retainers, and used by 
General Goordut Singh as a workshop. Durreah Khan, who escaped 
from Umritsur, is reported to have arrived near this. I have given out 
that if he gives security and comes in, he will be pardoned. His Fort is 
within eight coss of this. Accounts from Cabul and Jellalabad represent 
the Afghans to be much more than usually divided among themselves,, 
the eastern Ghilzies trusting to none but their respective chiefs, Azeez 
Khan, Khoda Buksh Khan and Mahomed Shah Khan, all at issue ; Ameer 
Dost Mahomed Khan at Jellalabad frying to get them in to himself and 
to adjust their discords ineffectually. Grain of all kinds is very cheap. 
A sepoy of the Jamrood Garrison is reported to have been murdered by 
the Afreedees ; two went out to a mill to grind atta ; were attacked, one 
escaped, one fell. 

jst March /<?.,; 7. — Mustered the Corps of Guides under Lieutenant 
Lumsden ; changed ground from the Fort to the cantonment, passing all 
the day at the Sirdar’s with Lieutenant Lumsden in settling complaints, the 
young Sirdar sitting on his chair next me, listlessly watching the ghurry,. 
and giving his seal when required, replying when asked his opinion on a 
case, “Certainly, what you please,” “As you think prcper”; and more 
work was got through than the Sirdar has done in the last week. I 
caused to be released a prisoner who had been confined six months on 
suspicion of theft, accused by the lover of his wife, with whom she has been 
living eleven months ; on making her over to the husband, the lover pro- 
duced a receipt sealed by the Judge of tlie Adalut for 21 rupees, the price 
he declared he had paid for the lady I The Judge declared it was fine for 
criminal conversation, but receipts are not given by the Court for fines. 
On asking for the register to see if the Sirkar had been credited, a fresh 
entry was apparent! I further abolished the monopoly of which' 

Sardar Shere Singh had established; two shops paid 1,300 rupees per 
annum to the State for it, the revenue thus accruing in no way compensa- 
tory for the odium of so unjust and oppressive an act : the settlement 
of these two cases was hailed by the assembled multitude with shouts of 
applause; our passage through the city was in like manner loudly 
greeted and our justice invoked /ar and near. I had a long conversation' 
with the young Sirdar’s deputies as to the mode of settling the complaints 
and preserving their purdah, with other matters connected with the 

41 



322 


PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 


administration. I asked General Golab Singh to be present, which he 
was, and aided us with his advice and experience ; he is well disposed to 
assist me in everything, as is also his son, Colonel Uttur Singh, who is 
shrewd and intelligent. 

2nd March j 8 ^j . — This being the last day of the Hoke, the Sirdar 
sent to say he wished to pooja, and hoped we would not go to the Gor 
Khuttry. I therefore heard complaints at my tent. In the evening 
General Golab Singh came with the Bukshee and Chowdry and begged 
for a private interview ; the two latter were in a great state of alarm, 
and it was with much difficulty I got them to speak ; they first solicited 
pardon for past offences, promising future amendment. They then stated 
that my coming had raised the whole populace against them, who were 
loud in complaints ; that they dare not leave their houses, and their 
orders were unattended to ; that their lives were not safe ; that they had 
only been in office six months; that my enquiries extended to 12, how 
could they answer for Shere Singh’s period; that many acts had been 
done in both which were allowed by the Khalsa, but not by our laws ; 
that fines of all degrees were imposed, some of which went totheSirkar 
and some to themselves and other Generals, and that they were ready 
to give up their own share of the spoil, but how could they do so with 
that of the Sirkar and Generals, and much more to the same purpose ; 
that they had time to arrange with the complainants, and had with some, 
but the most were so unreasonable, even demanding interest, that it was 
impossible to do so ; that I alone could save them and their master, the 
young Sirdar, from disgrace ; that w-hatever I wished they would do now 
and for the future; and I pacified them as well as I could, urged them 
to settle as much as possible, and that I would do my best both for them 
and the petitioners. There can be no doubt that much oppression has 
prevailed, but then it should be remembered that a year or six months since 
it was little thought that they would have to render a strict account of all 
their deeds. Some allowance must therefore be made for the authorities, 
more especially as they only followed the custom of the country. 
Repot ts from Afghanistan are that Ameer Dost Mahomed Khan is at 
Jellnlabad with 6.000 men, and has sent some Jezailchees into the 
Kh vbcr; this has alarmed the authorities here not a little They say that 
a Inkh of Buudook can be raised in this province, and all would be happy 
to rise against the Sikhs, and for what purpose has the Ameer come to 



PESHAIVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^y. 323 

Jellalabad? It is said that Mahomed Shah Khan, Ghilzie, has secured 
eight lakhs of rupees of his late son-in-law, Mahomed Akbar Khan, with 
which he has fled to his own Fort, and will not join Ameer Dost Mahomed 
Khan, saying he depended on himself alone. Sirdars Peer Mahomed and 
Syed Mahomed, Barukzyes, with their sons and nephews, called on me, 
and after mutual compliments and their expression of joy at my arrival 
and the benefit it was to the country, Sirdar Peer Mahomed said that he 
was our servant for ever — all he had was ours ; that his two guns at Kohat 
or his elephant was at my service ; etc., etc. I rode in the morning to 
inspect the Shah Dund cantonment opposite the Lahore Gate, in which is 
located the Khas Rissalah and Khas Regiment. Colonel Ram Dass, 
Kardar of Kuttuck, has brought razeenamas with the zemindars, who 
have certified to their correctness. 

jyd March iS^y . — Rode to the cantonment of Bukshee Kishun Singh, 
formed 10 months since by Sirdar Shere Singh for Rajah Soochet 
Singh's regiment, and now occupied by only a company of Ramgoles 
for its protection. The zemindars about bitterly complain of the 
formation of the cantonment, and the oppression they experienced 
from the sowars and officers of the Khas Rissalah, who cultivate the 
ground on their own account, and that Bukshee Kishun Singh, Comman- 
dant of Soochet Singh’s regiment, has left his Molbttr to realise the 
produce of the zemindar's land. I find Colonel John Holmes some 
time since reported to the Durbar the seizure of land by General 
Goordut Singh, who was ordered to give it up, but never did. The 
Custom officer at Attock has given General Goordut Singh a razeenama 
for the amount of duties levied on the merchandise he and the officers 
with him took from this, but has not inserted the amount each received. 
The treasury here is empty ; had not 700 rupees to pay back an unjust fine 
levied on a village in which an old woman hung herself. The fines that 
have been imposed on all classes here are fearful, and most seem to be 
ad libdtim and accruing to the party adjudicating, not to the Sirkar. 

tj.ih March . — Received a letter from Taj Mahomed of Cabul 
enclosing many certificates from officers of service performed, and 
offering to do any we might wish ; replied that I was aware of his good 
service, but we required nothing done at Cabul, etc. I have sentenced 
two jemadars and four sepoys of Ramgoles to be discharged the service 



324 PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847- 

and imprisoned for one month, one of the former for ill-treating an Urbob 
and the latter for a most unjustifiable assault on one of my chuprassees ; 
hope this will have a salutary elfect on the rest of this very disorderly 
■crew. From the Fort of Futtehgurh it is reported that three prisoners, 
Afreedees, taken up for the murder of a sepoy cannot be brought here 
for trial under fear of a rescue; that they cannot send a sufficient guard 
with them lest the Fort be weakened. I have ordered a strong paity to 
be detached from the Ramgoles in the city to biing them in. Rode 
through the city in the evening. 

^Ih March iS^y. — It is said that a party of 20 Horse has arrived in 
the city from Cabul seeking service. Lieutenant Lumsden has had fever 
for some days, though he continues to work during the day and drill his 
Guides in the morning : he is most active and useful. I have not yet 
been able to get a sight of the Peshawur accounts ; am told they are being 
written out afresh with a view to show all square ; the authorities affirm 
that the delay is caused by the non-arrival of Kardars. The Khyber is 
closed toKafilas ; they take the lower or Tartarah road, paying toll to the 
Momunds Re.t per horse, 8 annas per man, and loaded camels 4 rupees. 
Hearing that the authorities did not like our going to the city to investi- 
gate complaints, we have ceased doing so, making my tent the court, 
and having either the Bukshee or Chowdry present, the Sirdar doing his 
part by such as we brought before him, which are comparatively very 
few. I do my best to keep his and the authorities’ purdah, but it is most 
difficult. 

6 th March — Sirdar Peer Mahomed expresses himself greatly pleased 
at my having written to his brother, Sirdar Sultan Mahomed, to come to 
Peshawur. He offered me his two guns or elephant, and I told him I 
would borrow the guns for a time, as we had but few here. I gave him 
and Sirdar Syed Mahomed khilluts on taking leave : if words are to be 
believed, they are our friends ; our coming has certainly improved their 
position in issut, etc. The young Sirdar sent to know if he can make 
to-morrow a rose tateel as we did : I replied he might please himself 
in every way, etc., etc. 


Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Primipal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-W. F. 



PESHAWVR political DIARIES, iS-iJ. 325 

No. 7 .— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from Sun- 
day, the 7th, to Saturday, the 13th March 1847. 

jth Match — Did no work to-day beyond receiving the returns 
of the army. 

Sth Match. — Rode with Lieutenant Lumsden to the Fort of 
Jumrood or Futtehgurh, about 12 miles from Peshawur ; two chowkeys 
of Urbob sepoys are on the road. The Fort is in good repair, has 
a garrison of 200 matchlocks and 30 Artillery, 3 guns ; the men com- 
plain of being nine months in arrears. There is one well and a hoiulic, 
neither affording much water; a stream comes from the Khyber, but for 
two months has been stopped, said to be owing to the Afreedees’ pay not 
being forthcoming for that period. The citadel is much shaken from the 
firing of the gun, the grain in store excepting tnakaie is of Avitabile's 
time, mouldy and worm-eaten ; the powder-magazine is in a mud hut ; 
there are three gates with three lines of defence inclusive of the 
citadel, which is a lofty tower in the centre ; the second line of defence 
is an octagon with 8 bastions, the lower square with 12 ; the whole 
is capable of holding 2,000 men ; it has accommodation now for 500, 

I released this evening 14 prisoners who had been in confinement 
from two to six months. Had a conversation with the young Sirdar, who 
opened it by saying he hoped I would take him by the hand as my 
brother had the Maharajah, to w'hich I replied I was most willing and 
ready. 

glh March . — The Lahore Akhbar mentions tliat orders had been 
sent on Dewan MoolraJ of Find Dadun Khan for 1,25,000 rupees, and on 
Peshawur for 20,000 rupees in payment of two months’ arrears to the 
troops of General Golab Singh. Knowing that the order on this is not 
likely to be realised for some time and fearing lest the other be delayed, 

1 would suggest that hoondees on the Soucars of Peshawur be sent in 
advance so as to have two months’ pay always ready for the troops ; 
this should be done even if by so doing the Lahore Troops are kept out 
of their pay. Rupees 1,55,000 are required for two months’ pay of the 
Regulars under General Golab Singh. 

I have confined eight sepoys of the Ramgoles for leaving their 
regiment, on service in the Eusufzye country, to complain of their being 



326 PESHAIVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iSfy- 

in arrears. I had hardly done this when 38 men of Colonel Ram Dass’ 
corps of Ranigoles presented themselves with a similar complaint. I 
have ordered them to be discharged when paid. What to do about these 
men I know not; there are said to be 5,000 of them, and all are from 
8 to 1 1 months in arrears, and the treasury is empty, with no prospect 
of its being filled. Sirdar Sultan Mahomed writes his brother Peer 
Mahomed Khan in grateful terms of my permitting him to return to 
his country and of his being heart and soul ours. 

10th March — We rode to the Fort of Barrah, which is on the 
bank of the river of the same name. This river furnishes the city and 
lands of Peshawur with water : the stream near the Fort is portioned 
off to the city and zemindars in different streams under the orders 
of a Aiibee, who farms it at [,030 rupees a year, the money going 

to the private purse of the Governor; its distribution, as may be 
supposed, is the source of much oppression, the rich paying the 
most get the lion’s share and the lands of the zemindars are left 
unsupplied. In General Avitabile’s time it was pretty equally appor- 
tioned, for though he ground the poor he let no others do so : his code, 
though oppressive in our eyes, has ever since been so grievously carried 
out on the lower classes {sic) that they look back to it with sighs and hail 
any return to it with delight. 

The Fort is a square of 85 paces with an outer defence and deep 
ditch, 20 feet in width. Three bastions in the inner part are solid 
and capable of holding guns, the fourth not so ; the outer walls loopholed 
for musketry. The powder-magazine is in a pucka arched roof, mud 
above, ’tis small ; the garrison are said to be lOO matchlocks. I only 
saw 50: no guns, only 2 zamboors and no zamboorchees. The Fort 
could hold 1,000 men. There Is one well, but it is dry. A deep water 
cut runs along the north face within a few feet of the ditch : the stores 
of grain are all mouldy and useless ; no attention is paid to them. 

Intelligence from Gundamuck is that a kafila was plundered 
close to the village by Azeez Khan, Ghilzie. The state of the 
country from the Khyber to Cabul is represented as desperate. 

iilh March. — Inspected the stores of the Fort of Shahmeer Ghur 
and ordered lists to be prepared ; of grain there is little ; the magazines of 
regiments are pretty complete, but save powder and lead there are no 



rESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^j. 


327 


spare stores. The Fort is in good order, would hold 6 or 7,000 men ; 
it has only one nine-pounder and two one-pounders ; the defences are 
three with gates to each, a good ditch and bastions, all capable of 
holding guns ; it commands the city ; is built on the site of the ancient 
Bala Hissar ; it is garrisoned by Ramgoles and is under the orders of the 
Governor. Sirdar Peer Mahomed, Barukzye, sent me his two guns, 
which I have parked with those of the Sikhs, returning his men and 
horses. 

The prisoners, Eusufzyes, in Attock are continually writing me to 
effect their release. I think it would be politic. 

At my suggestion the young Sirdar has issued an ishtahar calling 
for tenders for the Government contracts for the ensuing year 19, which 
commenced to-day. 

I2tli March iSjj .’]. — Commenced investigating the complaints of the 
Tuppa of Khalsa, the Kardarship of Dhurbara Singh. 

Informed that Kumurooddeen Khan has ill-treated some complainants 
against him, who took urzees from me for him to settle : recommended 
the Sirdar to confine him. 

Had an auction of nuzzur horses and yaboos, which sold for 
941 rupees. Generals Golab Singh, Mehtab Singh, and the other officers 
of the army with the Bukshee Jawahur Singh, and Chowdry attended. 

Comparatively few complaints from the city are coming in. I hear 
the Kutwal's daily reports. Tried three cases of murder and cutting 
down and sent them to Lahore for orders. Released three Eusufzyes, 
servants of Afzal Khan, son of Ameer Khan of Sidoom, who have been 
with their master in confinement ten months ; their master remains 
pending orders from Lahore. 

ijlh ylLtrc/n — Intelligence from Cabul and Jellalabad is that the 
Ghilzies all continue at issue; that Nawab Jubbur Khan intends 
paying a visit to his brothers, Sirdars Sultan Mahomed, Peer Mahomed 
Khan and Syud Mahomed, Barukzyes, and taking that opportunity to 
ascertain the object of my being here. 

General Golab Singh has issued a general order to the troops, 
pointing out their duty on guards, warning them against leaving them, 
etc. His son. Colonel Alla Singh, was present yesterday when I was 



328 


PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, i8-f7- 


trying a case of a sepoy cutting down a prisoner under a sentry’s 
charge. He asked me our rules and has evidently adopted them. He is 
a very intelligent officer, apparently most desirous of improving himself 
and the troops by intercourse with us. The General has put a stop 
to the officers and men cultivating the parade : he is constantly with us. 

The crops are suffering from want of rain. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Assl. to the Agent, G.-G., N.-W. F. 


No. 8.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 

General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 14th, to Saturday, the 20th March 1847. 

I4.th March — A general parade of troops under Golab Singh 

marched past in review, and formed line from columns ; the General 
tells me that they are much pleased with the new arrangements. I 
have directed that any grievance they may have should be instantly 
made known to me. A Sergeant of Colonel Maun Singh’s Poorbeas 
complained that all the grades in his corps were sold, the Colonel receiv- 
ing all the money ; that as he would not pay, his position was made 
Unsupportable. General Golab Singh is to inquire into it and report. 

The soldiers complain that the Bunneahs of the city will not take 
the rupees served out to them as pay, from their not being of the year 
1984. Orders have been issued that all rupees issued from the treas- 
ury to be taken. 

Rode through the city in the evening, 

ijth yl/an/n— Intelligence from Jellalabad is that Ameer Dost 
Mahomed Khan has sent his troops under his sons, Mahomed Afzul 
and Hyder Khan, against Azeez Khan, Ghilzie, himself remaining on 
the banks of the river near Jellalabad. 

The Paymaster of the troops arrived to-day with two months’ 
pay ; I desired the General to explain to him that he must be cautious 
what rupees he issued as I would not suffer short weight ones or 
any on which butta could be demanded to be given ; that my chief duty 
was to see the troops regularly paid. He replied that he could only 



P£SffA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, tS-iI. 


329 


answer for the money he received in bills, but such as came from Lahore 
in specie he was obliged to take ; that he would write to the Paymaster- 
General, if I would do the same by the Resident. 

I have been engaged for some days in taking the Revenue accounts ; 
have had up the contractors of 100 villages yielding Rs. 2,50,000 who are 
defaulters to the amount of Rs. 30,000. They all plead inability to realise 
assets from various causes ; that many only took the contracts being 
forced on them by Sirdar Sher Singh ; among them are large Jaghirdars 
and Urbobs receiving many thousands a year for former services. I 
have already reported that there is no money in tlie Peshawur Treasury ; 
that the Raragoles are in arrears from 9 to 1 1 months. I can procure 
one or two lakhs of rupees for bills on Ferozepoor or Lahore, and if 
sanctioned would pay up and discharge 1,500 or 2,000 of these men 
and so save the State from 15 to 20,000 rupees monthly. 

i 6 th March iS^y . — By this day’s Akhbar from Lahore I see the 
troops are being paid for the months of December and January, while 
those here are onl3' getting for the two previous months. I note this that 
the Resident may arrange with the Durbar that the Peshawur Troops 
should never be in arrears more than two months. 

The Afreedees have sent a message that till they get Rs. 1,000 a 
month they will not let any water into the Fort of Futtehgurh, they have 
commenced plundering in a small way in the villages near the Khyber. 

I have directed the Urbobs who are in Government pay to take meas- 
sures to put a stop to it. 

lyth March . — I am preparing lists of the stores in the different 
forts ; excepting in Shahmeer Ghur there are no munitions of war in any, 
and in it there is little beyond lead, powder and shot. General Golab 
Singh is preparing lists of those with the troops of Horse Artillery, 
which, I regret to say, are in a very inefficient state; they have little 
beyond men and guns. Horses and harness are especially needed ; the 
men are a rough and ready soldierlike looking set, 

I attended the issue of pay this morning to the Khas Regiment 
and General Elahee Buksh’s Artillery, which appeared to please the 
men much. 

The Pajmiasters promptly attended to my wishes in regard to 
some doubtful points which I gave in favor of the soldiers. 

42 



P&SHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, /S4?. 


iP 

Intelligence is confirmed of the Cabul Troops under Dost Mahomed s 
sons having proceeded against Mahomed Shah Khan and Azeez Khan, 
Ghilzies. These two are at enmity amongst themselves, but opposed to 
the Ameer ; they act independently. With Mohamed Shah is Khoda 
Buksh Khan and his brother, Azad Khan of Tezeen. 

Attended the issue of pay to General Mehtab Singh’s Regiment. 

jg'h March i8jf.y . — Four companies of Colonel Ruttun Singh’s 
Regiment were paid in my presence ; they having recently joined from 
leave; there were deductions to make which delayed the issue, the men 
were aware of their nature and were satisfied. It, however, took up so 
much time that I sent the left wing to their lines to attend to-morrow. 

Lieutenant Lumsden accompanied me last evening to dine at the 
Governor’s and see fireworks and a naulch ; he had so often invited us 
that I did not like any longer to decline — civil and military authorities 
attended. We left at 8 p.m. 

The Governor at my suggestion and the General’s has recalled the 
troops from the Eusufzye country, where they had been since Septem- 
ber, nominally collecting revenue, but really realizing none. 

20t.h March . — Ameer Dost Mahomed Khan’s letter in reply to 
mine is merely complimentary. The CossrVf (messenger) who brought 
it says that the Ameer left Jellalabad on the i 8 th for the Ghilzie 
campaign ; his letter is written by Abdool Sumee Khan, of whom so 
much mention is made by Dr. Wolff in his late journey to Bokhara. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent G.-G., N.-W. F. 


No. 9. — Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 21st, to Saturday, the 27th March 1847. 

2ist March 18.17.— li is reported in a letter from Hussan Abdall that 
the Gundghurries have burnt down the cantonment of Sirdar Bhoor 
Singh, which was not difficult to do, as it was hedged in by dry thorns. 

22nd March —Two companies of Muzbys in Colonel Ram Dass’ 
Regiment of Ramgoles were ordered by the Governor to march and 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^7- 


33 ' 


occupy the Fort of Futtehgurh. They pleaded inability to move, 
without pay ; then, that without my order they would not ; they sent 
in an urzee (petition) saying that they wanted to be removed from 
under Ram Dass' command, that he employed them continually in his 
private affairs, and that they had previously belonged to another 
corps. I had them all up, and in their presence pointed out to their 
officers the impropriety of their conduct, and ordered them to march 
this morning, one company to Futtehgurh and one to the Fort of Barrah. 

A case of cow-killing has been proved against a zemindar of a 
village not ten miles off ; the authorities declare that they have not the 
power to seize the culprit without I give them the aid of the troops. 
I mention this to show the state of the country and the weakness 
of its rulers. 

2jr(i March i 8 ^y . — Last night a lad of 14 was apprehended in the 
act of murdering another younger lad for the sake of his silver 
ornaments ; the culprit is a Hindustani, a confirmed gambler. 

Colonel Kahn Singh’s two troops of Horse Artillery, 12 guns, 
arrived yesterday. I met them coming in, and inspected them ; the 
horses are in wretched condition and the equipment most unservice- 
able. I have ordered an inspection parade of the whole of this 
arm on the arrival of the guns still absent, when I will report 
accordingly. 

Sirdar Sultan Mahomed has written his brother, Sirdar Peer 
Mahomed, to enquire my wishes as to his mode of entry into Peshawur, 
whether it shall be private or public ; that if the latter, it will redound 
to our credit, etc., etc. I replied that, on consulting with the local 
authorities, he should hear ; my own opinion is that he should be 
allowed to make a public entry, and treated in every way with distinc- 
tion. 

3 ^th March . — The cow-killing zemindar has not yet been brought 
in ; I have left it to the authorities with their civil troops, Urbobs 
and Ramgoles, to secure him, declining to employ the Regulars in 
such a petty affair. 

The arrears of revenue are about Rs 80,000, and I see little 
chance of realizing it. 



332 


PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 


Intelligence from Jellalabad is that Mahomed Azeez Khan, Ghilzie, 

has fled from his fort at into the higher mountains. Khan Zeman 

Khan of Gundghur sent a confidential person to me to say that 
he had restrained his people for five weeks in hopes of some arrange- 
ments from Lahore being made ; but not hearing of any, two petty 
chiefs, with their followers, had fired the lines at Hussan Abdall, 
for which he would punish them. I replied, the only way of saving 
himself, was to seize and send them to Lahore. 

25th March 184.^. — The Governor and authorities approve of Sirdar 
Sultan Mahomed’s entry being public. General Golab Singh and 
Bukshee Jowahur Mull will meet him at Chumkunnee; he is to take up 
his abode in the city or Wuzeer Bagh, as he pleases ; if the former, 
he is only to keep 40 or 50 soldiers with him, sending the rest to Kohaut 
and Hushtnugger. I have written him accordingly. 

The young Governor, to everything I ask or suggest, replies ; 
“ As you please, ’’ “ You know best ” ; he never speaks unless addressed, 
and then merely replies. A kafila from Peshawur was recently 
plundered near Lallpoora by Sahdut Khan, Momund ; the road to 
Cabul continues infested by banditti. 

26th March , — The Governor to-day in conversation expressed 
himself greatly pleased with my mode of proceeding and said that 
since my arrival he had not felt the cares of government, that he 
was now under no apprehension from the disorderly troops (Ram- 
goles) ; that the prompt punishment I had inflicted had spread whole- 
some dread among them ; his counsellors were open-mouthed in their 
laudations. 

General Golab Singh with Colonel John Holmes, Soobhan Khan, 
ex-Colonel, now Commandant, Bhogah Gurriallia, ex-Commandant, now 
Adjutant, and Subha, ex-Adjutant, now Subedar, waited on me, the 
three latter to represent their reduction in rank and pay; they are 
the only officers of the 4th Regiment which went to Cabul with 
General Golab Singh who have been thus reduced, and they naturally 
consider it a grievance ; besides the loss of rank, their pay is severally 
reduced, the Colonels from eight per diem to five. Commandants 
from four to two, and Adjutants one-eight to one. 



rESffAlVUH POLITICAL DIARIES, rS./?. 


313 


Colonel Holmes, who commands two regiments, used to receive 
Rs. 500 per mensem, now gets Rs. 420, still holding the Brigade ; by 
Rajah Lai Singh he was promised on marching for Peshawur Rs. 500 
besides provision for his two elder sons 1 He observed that Colonel 
Cortlandt, who entered the service years after him, receives Rs. 600 per 
mensem. 

syih Mmch 184 .^. — We have had some genial showers, which tvere 
greatly wanted. 

A sepoy of Soobhan Khan’s Regiment brought me his pay. Rupees 
three were light ; I had them immediately changed. 

All the troops, e.xcept those in Eusufzye country, who are expected 
in to-morrow, have received their pay, and I am happy to say I have only 
had three complaints ; they observe that never was their pay so promptly 
issued, or with so little annoyance or squabbling. 

The chief Paymaster, Neil Chund, Bhuggut Ram’s brother, appears 
most anxious to please me. 

The lad who cut down another has been sentenced to a year’s 
imprisonment with hard labor on the roads. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 


No. 10.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 28th March, to Saturday, the 3rd April 
1847. 

28th March 184 '/. — Lieutenant Lumsden rode to the Doaba Fort, 
Not being well I did not accompany him. He states that the Fort is 
situated about 15 miles north-west of Peshawur, on the left bank of 
the Cabul (or Nagoman) river and five miles from the stream. It is a 
place of no strength against Artillery ; its position in the open and low 
country, which can be inundated at pleasure, would have been good 
had it not been commanded by a mound which runs along the south- 
west face at the distance of a hundred yards. The plan of the fort is an 
octagon, with small loopholed bastions at the angles, and a circular 
battery mounting one six-pounder in the centre ; it has but one gate and 



334 


rVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1841. 


a wicket ; it would accommodate 400 men ; the present garrison 1 20 
including Artillery, and zamboorchees for 8 zamboors, of which number 
94 were only present ; half the men occupy the fort while the rest are 
distributed in small parties through the village, which is built close 
under the walls on the south-east face; a mud wall surrounds the village, 
having a gate at the west end of the principal bazar, which appears to 
be in a thriving state. The magazine stores are in a mud hut on the 
eastern side of the fort, but there is no cover for the grain, which is 
all exposed in mat baskets placed on a chabootra round the battery ; 
the grain is, however, in a better state than any we have seen. There is 
a good well in the fort. The communication with Peshawur is along 
a tolerable road intersected at five points by branches of the Cabul 
river, four of which are fordable, the fifth or main stream is sometimes 
so, but generally crossed by a ferry at Nahakee, where there are four 
good boats. The Fort of Doaba is well calculated to keep in check the 
predatory Momund tribes and affording protection to the small villages 
in the open country along the foot of the hills, from which it is about 
three or four miles distant. 

spth March — Nil. 

joth Inspected the Horse Artillery, 30 guns : the equipment 

of all most unserviceable, not more than ten carriages, limbers 
and carts serviceable ; 250 horses and 40 men wanting to complete five 
troops ; 8 of the guns require recasting. I have told General Golab 
Singh to have two troops completed and made fit for service. Wood 
is not to be had here for carriages ; it can only be got in the Eusufzye 
district and then not without a large price. I am told there are many 
Artillery horses at Lahore, which might be sent here with the harness 
complete. The Artillery General, Elahee Buksh, seems to have looked 
little after this fine arm ; he has hitherto lived in the city, but at my 
suggestion has moved into cantonments. All the ammunition is carried 
in hackeries, which in any country, much less this, can never keep up. 

I would recommend the substitution of mules or camels. 

jist March. Two villages have had a fight about water ; three 
men wounded. I am investigating it. 

Sent three sets of Guides to ascertain the number of Kumurooddeen 
Khan’s men on the road hence to Attock they report them to be not 
more than 25 ; he is paid for 500 1 



PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iSfj. 


33 S 


It is rumoured that an officer proceeding from Bunnoo Tank 
towards this has been obliged to return. This I cannot credit, though 
Lieutenant Edwardes did think of trying that route. Saw three 
regiments of Infantry exercise on their own parades; they work very 
slowly; two in the French, one English mode. General Golab Singh 
was also looking on ; he has ordered all to be out twice a week to 
exercise in front of their own lines. 

jst April — Hearing some firing in the direction of the Khyber 
at 4 P.M., Lieutenant Lurasden with some Sikh Sowars and his Guide 
Cavalry rode in that direction, though it was raining hard : it turned 
out to be a marriage procession. The Attock prisoners arrived this 
morning : are lodged in the Fort of Shahmeer Ghur. I saw them 
this evening. They are all Eusufzyes and I think have been hardly 
dealt with. Bharam Khan, the son of (Jrsulla Khan, came in to make 
his submission to Sirdar Shere Singh ; was seized and imprisoned, 
though the Sikhs admit that he and his father had done good 
service. I hope to make a settlement for the revenue of their country 
through them. 

2Hd April . — The Sirdar sent to tell me that it was reported 
in the city cows were being killed and asked what he should do ? I 
replied at once to have the parties seized. The arrival of Sirdar 
Sultan Mahomed is causing a great sensation and rather alarms the 
Sikh authorities. They want me to sanction their hanging the cow- 
killers, but this I have told them I cannot do. They declare unless 
it is done, their authority will altogether cease. 

3rd April . — Engaged in investigating the cow-killing cases. 
There is no doubt many have been slain ; have confined five men as 
concerned in it. Have received Rs. 17,250 from shroffs of the city 
for Bills on Loodianah at par, Nanukshahee rupees for Sonats, and 
am promised Rs. 7,1 50 more at the same rate ; but if I want more I shall 
have to pay a premium of from eight annas to one rupee per cent. I have 
received a note from Lieutenant Edwardes of the 25th instant from 
Bunnoo Tank. I have little hope of for some time obtaining any 
correct information from Bokhara or Khiva. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-W. F. 



336 PESffA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iSfl. 

No. 11.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 4th, to Saturday, the 10th April 1847. 

if.lh April i 8 p.y. — This morning Sirdar Sultan Mahomed, Barukzye, 
returned to Peshawur with his family after a lapse of seven years. I met 
him by appointment at the Governor’s ; he was received with every 
possible attention, General Golab Singh and Bukshee Jawahur Mull 
meeting him at Chumkunnee, six miles off, and saluted on dismounting 
from his elephant by 1 5 guns ; he proceeded through the city with about 
1 50 horsemen to his own house. I rode through the city shortly after 
and found it perfectly quiet, though many people were assembled to 
see the Sirdar’s entry. 

y/A — I rode this morning to the village of Hazarnow and 
directed the houses of the men who had slaughtered cows to be levelled 
and their property confiscated ; the most of them have fled, but five who 
are prisoners have been sentenced to receive three dozen lashes, one 
dozen a day for three days, and to be imprisoned six months with hard 
labour on the roads ; this, I trust, will have a salutary effect in putting a 
stop to this, in the eyes of the Sikhs, serious crime. It is gratifying to 
know that during all the excitement caused by this, the troops have 
remained perfectly passive: a short time ago they would have plundered 
and destroyed the village merely on the report of such an occurrence. 

6 th April. — Intelligence from Jellalabad is that Ameer Dost Mahomed 
has arranged the differences with Mahomed Shah Khan, Azeez Khan, 
and Khoda Buksh Khan, Ghilzies; and that it is expected the road of 
Cabul will soon be open ; he has several Khyber Chiefs with him. The 
late rains have brought crops well forward. 

yth April. — The Governor has released the Attock prisoners, Bahram 
Khan, son of Grsulla Khan, Meer Khan of Sidoom and his two sons and 
Meer Afzul Khan, Hotee, and sent them to me ; they express themselves 
our slaves for ever ; that had it not been for us they would have lingered 
till death released them ; that for the eleven months of their imprison- 
ment, till I saw them, not a soul had ever enquired after them; that they 
are men risen from the grave. 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iSil- 33? 

8th Aptil iSij.'j . — Had an auction of nuzzur horses and saddles last 
evening ; it was attended by all the Officers Commanding Regiments 
with Generals Golab Singh and Mehtab Singh. The Vakeel of Ameer 
Dost Mahomed from Lahore started by the Tartarra road to Jellalabad : 
thus evincing his fear of trusting himself by the Khyber road though 
promised escort by some of the Khyber Chiefs. 

glh April . — Intelligence has been received of the death at Makoon 
of Sirdar Rahim Dill Khan, half-brother of Dost Mahamed Khan, on his 
return from Cabul towards Kandahar ; the date is not mentioned. 
I have been engaged for some days in taking the muster of the Ramgoles, 
with a view to their Pay Bills being prepared by the Paymasters of the 
Regular forces. I propose discharging all enlisted in Sirdar Shere Singh's 
Govenorship and reducing his Native officers, many of whom were 
promoted on the day of enlistment, doubtless for money received. 

loih April . — The Governor received last evening orders from the 
Durbar relative to the reduction of the Ramgoles ; they are much to 
the effect of those I had proposed to him and will be a saving to the 
State of a lakh and eighty thousand rupees at least per annum. 
The Governor continues to find great difficulty in getting contractors 
to take the farm of many villages. I suggested that they should be offered 
to respectable zemindars, but the authorities declare the revenue 
would never be realized through them ; they want to force the present 
contractors to continue their engagements, which of course I will not 
permit. Sirdar Chuttur Singh, Attariwalli, tlie young Governor’s 
father, writes me that he cannot yet mount a horse and therefore is 
unable to join the Government. I replied that it was unnecessary he 
should do so as I had hopes all would go on well under his son ; 
for my own part I consider the lad less objectionable than the ancient, 
for the latter would leave all the work in the present hands, and I 
should have the weight of his years and name to contend with in 
add'tion to what is now arrayed against me. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to flic Agint, G.-G., N.-W. F. 


43 



338 PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^y. 

No. 12.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 11th, to Saturday, the 17th April 1847- 

nth April iS^y . — Two sepoys of the Muzby Compan 3 ' stationed at 
Futtcbgurh were attacked last evening within a mile of cantonments; 
they say b}' a dozen men. One was shot through the fleshy part of 
the stomach, the other cut by a sabre through the nose. They came to 
me and 1 had their wounds dressed b^’ Mr. Apothecary Thompson; 
both are doing well. I rode this morning to the village of Chittutny, 
from where the partj’ are said to have come, and directed the Urbob, 
Zeereem Khan, to apprehend them. I suspect they belong to some 
Barowzye Horse who were employed to protect the road hence to Futteh- 
gurh, but were discharged by order of the Durbar a few days since. 

This being the festival of Bysakhee Sungrand, the Governor 
sent me a zeaful of some sheep, fowls, rice, and atta. A large fair is 
held by the Hindus at the river beach near the Fort, to which I have 
sent the Cliief Kotwal with a party of police and a company of 
Ramgoles, to preserve the peace. 

i 2 th Apiil . — Talking to Colonel Alla Singh, General Golab 
Singh’s son, of tlie assault on the two sepoys, he declared that I was too 
soft and easy-going with the people; that they did not understand any- 
thing but hard knocks. I replied that with us that was the last 
alternative : we tried soft measures first, but could be severe when 
necessary’. I hear this on every side. Avitabilc's reign of terror is 
by the Sikhs greatly lauded : with regard to this, I am happy to 
observe that of all his gibbets only one now remains. 

Sirdar Sultan Mahomed, as usual, e.xpressed great devotion to us 
and vaunted of his ability to perform any service wc might require 
from ihi.-, to Herat. I replied I doubted it not, but that beyond 
Peshawur he must be aware we required no service ; there is a rumour 
abroad that he e.xpects us to favor his ejecting his brother, the Ameer, 
from the throne of Cabul : it is not unlikel}' that this has originated 
with himself or followers. 

The fair of Barrah went off most peaceably. 

Ijlh April . — I he muster of the Ramgoles continues daily. As 
characteristic of the state ol these troops, 1 may observe that a detail 



PF.s/jAu r/; I'oi.nicAi diaries. ,sn- 339 

of 16 Horse and as many Foot under the denomination of Caial)iiieers 
appeared this morning when t!ie Chowdry, one of the Governor’s minis- 
ters, naively remarked : — “ Where have these men come from ; I have 
not seen them for nine months ? ” They are styled the Governor’s 
Orderlies! A lad of fifteen appeared as Governor of the Fort of 
Barrah. I have suggested that an experienced officer be sent to replace 
him. 

General Golab Singli reports that at the Sikh festival of Suugrand, 
hardly a drunken Sikh soldier was seen in the cit3’, and not a com- 
plaint has been made— a most improved and pleasing change from the 
olden time when such a day never passed without sundry men being 
wounded or killed in their cups : in this respect the real Khalsas are 
much like the British soldier, only with less command of themselves 
in liquor. 

i.^ih April iSjj.’j . — The Governor’s Councillors waited on me 
yesterday with several contractors and zemindars who were unwilling 
to renew their leases for this year : hitherto it has been customary to 
coerce them into it, but I have discountenanced such practice, telling 
them when they failed by persuasion to bring the parties to me : we 
succeeded towards evening b}' a small reduction of revenue in inducing 
them to renew their contracts. 

Two Hindustanee sepoys (evidently deserters from our Army') of 
Colonel Maun Singh’s Regiment passed me last evening as I walked in 
my own grounds, turning their heads and staring me full in the face 
in a most insulting manner, without saluting. I sent them to their 
Colonel to have them taught their duty: he dismissed them without the 
slightest reproof. I have consequently reported the whole to the Gen- 
eral Commanding. This Colonel is quite unfit for his position ; is the 
one complained against as selling promotion, the investigation of which 
I did not enter into, as the General represented that it would involve 
officials at Lahore in high stations 

i^th April . — The General reports that Colonel Dewa Singh, com- 
manding the Khas Dragoons, complained of his beard having been pulled 
by Ressildar Soudagur Singh ; that on investigating the case it appeared 
both had quarrelled and fought : he had therefore removed the Colonel to 
the Khas Infantry Regiment, transferring Colonel Kahn Singh, Rosa, 



340 


PESHAIVUR POIJTTCAL DIARIES, 1847. 


who had originally belonged to it, from the former to the latter, and 
ordered the Ressildar to be dismissed the service. I expressed my entire 
approval. Colonel Dewa Singh has served 25 j'ears in the Infantry and 
is altogether incompetent as a Cavalry Officer, while Colonel Kahn Singh 
is a very smart, intelligent officer. I have seen both at exercise. 

i6ih April 18^'p. — Intelligence from Jellalabad is that the Ameer has 
destroyed the Fort of Buddeeabad in Lughman and given all Mahomed 
Shah Khan Ghilzie’s lands to his enemies, confining his son and 
brother, Dost Mahomed Khan. Mahomed Shah Khan is said to have 
fled towards Tagow ; his lands have been made over to his enemies, 
many of whom he had dispossessed of them. 

'I he ex-Governor of Guznee, Gholam Hyder Khan, the late 
Akbar Khan’s full-brother, is to remain as Governor of Jellalabad and 
the Eastern Ghilzies, on the departure for Cabul of the Ameer, which 
is expected to be in a few days. The other Ghilzie Chiefs, Azeez 
Khan, Khoda Buksh Khan, etc., are reported to have made their sub- 
mission. 

lyth April — Sirdar Peer Mahomed Klian wants leave to reduce 
the Adyzyes, a tribe in the hills, distant only ten coss .• he represents 
that they never pay revenue till forced by the appearance of troops. I 
have written them to come in and talk to me, telling them, should 
they not to do so, the Sirdar will be authorised to take his own 
measures. 

Last night a party of plunderers opened a fire on the Artillery 
sentries. General Golab Singh himself got up and ordered out two 
companies after them, but they made themselves scarce 1 their 
audacity is great. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Assl. (0 the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 


No. 13.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 18th, to Saturday, the 24th April 1847, 

i8th April 1847 —Sk Aar Peer Mahomed Khan brought Durreah 
Khan, Adyzye, to pay his respects. This is the man who recently made 



PESlIAiiUR JV/.I 77 CAJ. P/AR'JiS, 1S47. ^^41 

liis escape from Umritser, wliere he had been confined about a year; his 
Fort was taken and destroyed by Sirdar I'ej Singh in 1844-45, himself 
made prisoner and kept in custody in the Fort of Shameer Ghur till 
removed to Govind Ghur ; his crime is said to have been robbing and 
plundering on the highway ;he has onl^' given himself up on the assurance 
of personal safety and forgiveness of the past, under promise of future 
amendment and service, guaranteed by the Harukzj'C Sirdars. 

He is short, stout, and active, but apparently not otw intelligent ; 
the Sikhs, however, hold him in great terror, he never having rendered 
allegiance, though he sent in his son in Avitabile’.^ time. 

ip/h April — I commenced this morning the pa3 ment of the 

discharged Ramgoles ; for the most part they are 12 months in 
arrears; they appeared agreeably .surprised at receiving their full 
amount of pay and left perfectl}’ delighted. 

A sepoy of General Mehtab Singh’s Regiment was found murdered 
this morning, not too yards from his lines: he was last seen at 
midnight ; was an opium-eater and is supposed to have wandered to 
where bis corpse was found under its influence. 

20th April . — The Eusufzjm Chiefs are all coming in to pay their 
respects. Mahomed Khan of Hotee declined going near the Governor 
till I told him he must ; they all appear to be very bitter against the 
Sikhs, whose system appears to have been to keep them all at enmity 
with each other and then plunder them indiscriminately. 

A treasure party with Rs. 1,25,000 arrived from Lahore yesterday, 
towards the payment of the troops. 

2ist April . — Yesterday Sirdar Outar Singh, the Governor, sent to 
say he wished to call to discuss matters of moment. I replied that I 
should wait on him in the evening, which I did accompanied by 
Lieutenant Lumsden. After compliments and the expression of his 
thankfulness for the kind and considerate manner in which from mj' 
arrival I had ever treated him, and the great benefit he had 
derived from my presence, he begged that I would consider him 
at all times most anxious to carry out my wishes ; that I would 
ask General Golab Singh to aid him with his counsel and experience; 
that I would overlook such matters as receipts in excess of revenue 
that had according to Sikh usage been taken ere I arrived, and 
in future all such should cease, and more to the same effect. 



342 


PUSHAIVUR 2‘OrjTICAl. DIARIES, iS^J. 


'I'he General visits him this evening : he naively observed that the 
only advice he could give the Governor and his ministers was to 
leave off their old practices and to do nothing without consulting the 
Sahib. If they would only thus do, all would go right. 

Ameer Khan, the head of the Barowzye Horse, lately discharged, 
who had sent his family and cattle to the hills and is suspected of 
setting on his men to plunder, fire into cantonments, etc., called at my 
desire. He refused to come in to the Sirdar and has agreed to get 
back his family and obey all orders from the Governor, etc. 

32 nH April iSsj-j . — Uawur Khan, a Mullik of Mashoo Khail, accused 
of being concerned in sundry outrages, etc., and a defaulter in revenue, 
having refused to come in on the Governor's summons, I determined 
to seize him, so sent Lieutenant Lumsden with 200 Horse and 200 
Infantry to surprise him : the party arrived at gun-fire at his village, 
which they surrounded, Lieutenant Lumsden proceeding with the In- 
fantry to his house. As they entered, the clatter of hoofs was heard 
and Dawur with two followers galloped out of the village, but coming 
on the Cavalr}', they threw themselves oft' their horses, disencumbered 
themselves of their arms, which were found, and fled under cover of 
the fields of standing wheat to the village, where Dawur Khan, disguised 
as a woman, succeeded in concealing himself. Lieutenant Lumsden, 
however, secured his son, brother, and nephew with seven Mulliks 
who aided him in his escape. Lieutenant Lumsden also disarmed 
28 of his followers. 

Though not successful to the full e.xtent, I am still well content with 
the result of our cliapttw, and I doubt not that it will be attended with 
beneficial results The people will understand that their misdeeds 
will be promptly adjudged, that the Government is now powerful 
to protect as well as to punish. I am happy to add that Lieutenant 
Lumsden reports that the Sikh Troops behaved most subordinately. 
Though evidently anxious to punish the Mahomedans, particularlv after 
finding two Sikh shields with balls through them, not an outrage was 
committed or shot fired. 

Intelligence of the recall of the Governor arrived last night. 

He leaves on the 24th. I have recommended his ministers to settle 



PnSHAU’UR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 343 

their accounts forthwith and to furnish me with a statement of all sums 
they may have taken from the people in excess of the revenue and 
admitted rights of the Governor. 

ijrd Apiil /<?y7 — I am congratulated on all sides on tlie successful 
ihapaiu of yesterday. It is observed tliat even General Avitabile never 
dared trust himself in the village of Mashoo Khail, being satisfied with 
sending the troops to turn and destroy all before them, and that 
Sirdar Tej Singh would not have ventured on such an expedition with 
less than some thousand men : the secrecy and celerity of the movement 
gave the villagers no time to resist, and the disarming each man as he 
came out of his house was a most happy move. 

2^lli Apt it.— On taking leave last evening I jn esented the young 
Governor witii a khillut of nine parc/tas; he expressed much gratitude 
for all the kindness and consideration 1 have shown him. 

The Bukshce gave in his account to the amount of Rs. 42,701 of 
sums received in excess of revenue as perquisites of the Governor. 

We had a heavy storm of rain, thunder and lightning all night. 

I rode out at gun-fire to escort the ex-Governor some distance, at which 
he was evidently much pleased. Lieutenant Lumsden accompanied 
us ; we parted with mutual expression of good-will, compliments, etc. 

The General has given him an escort of a Resallah and Company 
of Ramgoles to Bootah, his paternal domain. 

We were well ducked in returning; the whole face of the country 
is covered witli water. No recent intelligence from the W'est, 

Gto. Sr. P. L.AWRENCE, M.vjor, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IP. F. 


No 14.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 25th April, to Saturday, the 1st May 1847. 

3jth /<?47. — Intelligence from Cabul is that the Ameer was 

expected on the I2th instant; the people there are still in a great state 
of excitement as to my being here, and will not credit that we have 


344 


PESHA IVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 


no design in their quarter ; a friend writing to my Moonshee upbraids 
“ for not yet having told him wliat our real object is another writes 
him ‘‘ Do let me know when the Sahiban are coming. ” 

General Mehtab Singh, with the skeleton of his regiment (those 
volunteering for Colonel Kahn Singh’s corps remaining) will march on 
the 4th for Find Dadun Khan. 'I'he General has heard from Lahore that 
it is the intention of Government to shelve him. Since my arrival I 
must say he has obeyed all orders and seemingly with alacrity j he is 
smart and intelligent, but I sliould think intriguing : his regiment is 
very steady on parade and a fine body of men. 

It has rained all day and night. 

The Adyz3'e Mulliks complain that Sirdar Peer Mahomed wants 
them to pay fines and penalties in addition to revenue. I have advised 
that he should excuse them, contenting himself with realizing the 
legitimate revenue. I have recommended them to come to terms 
with him, if they cared to preserve themselves and families, as if troops 
proceed against them the}' would all be destroyed or ruined. 

i 6 th April iSp.y . — I'he heavy rain has brought down fifteen houses 
in the city and poi tions of the outer-wall: it has cleared up, and I 
purpo.-je this evening proceeding to inspect the damage done. 

About 650 of the Raiiigoles have been discharged : of these 450 
present have been paid up at an outlay of 34,000 rupees. It is terrible 
to see how the public money has been squandered ; bo3’s of 8, to, 
and 12 3-ears receiving from 50 to 100 rupees monthly ; Moonshees who 
would have been well pleased with 15 to 25 drawing more than double 
and treble : almost all are from 10 to 12 months in arrears. 

A report having anived from Lahore that attempts had been 
made to stir up the troops here in the cow-killing matter, General 
Golab Singh brought me a disclaimer signed by all the Generaks and 
Colonels ; my own belief is that no such attempt was made. 

2ph April. — Rode last evening and this morning round and 
through the city. The damage done has been chiefly caused by neglect- 
ing the drainage; since Avitabilc left, no attention has been paid to it, 
the sewers and even arches of the bridges are choked up. I have set 
men to clean them out. 


P'ESHAlVUi^ POLITICAL DIARIES, iSD- 


34S 


Several of the Eusufzyes visited me to-day with Urbob Mudjeid 
Khan ; he congratulates himself on our arrival and says that in the 
matter of feeding scpo^'s sent to collect revenue which I have put a 
stop to, be alone saves 500 rupees a year ; that our proceedings in 
regard to the Mushoo Khail malcontents have delighted all the people, 
who are loud in our praise for the orderly conduct of the troops 
employed. 

2Slh April — The volunteering of General Mehtab Singh’s 

Regiment into Colonel Kahn Singh’s took place in my presence this 
morning: each company was asked in a bod3' ; about 129 men turned 
out ; more it is said will follow ere the corps marches ; it is a very fine- 
looking regiment. 

Intelligence from Cabul to the 22nd instant is that the Ameer 
arrived on the 19th and was meditating sending Nawab Jubbar Khan 
to Khoolum to assist the Meet Wallee, who was hard pressed by 
Zoolfakar Khan and Slioojahoodeen Khan, Chiefs of Surbund and 
Mazar ; the former had surprised a party of 300 of the Wallee’s Horse 
and taken them prisoners, releasing the men but keeping their arms 
and horses ; the road to Meshed and Bokhara was closed consequent 
on the plunder of 1 50 camel-loads of merchandise (Russian; proceed- 
ing from Persia towards Khiva; and that differences had arisen 
between Meshed and Persia. A cossid from Yar Mahomed of Herat to 
Ameer Dost Mahomed Khan is said to have been the bearer of this 
news. 

2glh April. — Thirty-nine sowars of Sirdar Surjun Singh, Rungur 
Nungalea, arrived last evening from Lahore, the advance of 500 long 
since expected; out of them I rejected five horses as unfit for service. 

Received a complimentary message from the Deputy Governor 
of Jellalabad, Meer Akhore Ahmed, who was our civil custodian at 
Bamian, where the prisoners negociated their escape. He was alwavs 
most kind and attentive to me, and bears a high character for truth 
and probity, a singular exception to most of his countiymen ; he would 
not hear of betraying his trust b;' aiding in our liberation. 

Slight showers with sunshine. I fear the volunteering of Mehtab 
Si ngh’s Regiment will be a failure, no more men having come forward ; 

44 



346 PESHAIVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1 S 47 . 

they have not been accustomed to have an option, only understand an 
order ; their officers evidently keep them back, otherwise as the men 
know they are pretty certain to be discharged it would be natural 
they should prefer remaining in the service: indeed, I think I could see 
it in their looks ; when they march on the 4th I hope more will stay. 

joth April iSp-j . — Rather a sensation amongst the officers has been 
caused by my pointing out a para, in the Dchli Gazette oi the 2\st 
instant, in which it is said that General Mehtab Singh deemed it his 
duty to report to the Durbar that in the time of the great Maharajah 
cows were never killed at Peshawur, but of late in several villages 
many had been slain. This coming after signing the disclaimer placed 
him in an unhappy fix ; he, however, positively denies ever having 
■written a word on the subject, and challenges the production, before 
the Resident, of the letter. 

It was reported that, in a village distant 1 2 /4oss, an affray was 
on and that two or three men had been killed. I have sent for the 
leaders. 

The Eusufzye Khans have taken leave and started to be ready to 
meet Lieutenant Lumsden, who I purpose deputing to make a hasty 
tour through the country to enable me to make some settlement of it. 
From all I can hear it has been shamefully treated, the people ground 
to the dust ; much is expected from us, and I trust we shall not disappoint 
them. 

1st May — The payment of the troops commenced yesterday : they 
are getting four months, viz , from the 3rd December to the i ith April, 
Poll, Magh, Phngnn, C/iail—lhe last t«o include the much-prized batta! 
Mehtab Singh s Regiment and a company proceeding on escort with 
Lieutenant Lumsden were paid in my presence, and tiiis morning the 
right wing of Meer Jung Ali’s corps (Mahomedans). 

The road from Jellalabad to Cabul is now open to large Kafilas ; 
the Khyber is still closed. 


Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 

Pi ituipal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. P'. 



PESHAIVVR POLITICAL PLAKIES, 1S47. 


347 


No. 15. — Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 2nd, to Saturday, the 8th May 1847. 

2nd May iS^j . — The leaders of the affray, which in my Diary of tlie 
30th I report having sent for, returned for answer that they had never 
presented themselves at Peshawur, and never would ; that if I tried to seize 
them they would fly to the hills; their village is close under them. I 
started a party of Afghans under my Moonshee, Hadjie Mahomed, who 
seeing my anxiety to get them volunteered his services, and I am happy 
to say succeeded in capturing and bringing in the five survivors, most 
atrocious looking cut-throats. He reached the village as day dawned, 
and found all prepared for flight, the bullock-loads lying around their 
houses. The five men occupied the same house, and at first meditated 
resistance, but, on the Moonshee assuring tliem that a large force was 
in the rear, they gave themselves up ; their arms were brought in. He 
represents the village as a wretched collection of 40 mud huts, but very 
difficult of access. I have presented him with a watch, and the party 
with Rs. 25. 

In the evening Dawur Khan of Mashoo Khail gave himself up on 
my assurance of a fair trial. As he was coming in and close at hand, 
one of the opposite party fired at him ; he escaped, but the ball grazed 
the nose of one of his lollowers. I have confined tne man wtio aitet 
firing came to me as if he had done a praiseworthy act. I mention the 
circumstance as indicative of the state of the country. 

3rd May. Lieutenant Lumsden marched this morning towards 

Eusufzye, accompanied by Colonel Alla Singh and several of tiie Khans ; 
his escort 25 Sikh sowars, 2 companies of Infantry, and Detachment 
of his Cavalry and Infantry Guides. I accompanied him a short way and 
in returning inspected the cantonment ofSiidar Suchet Singli, which has 
suffered considerably from the late rain ; it consists of ten ranges 
of barracks with native officers’ houses in rear. 'Iw'o ranges on 
the left flank I have directed to be pulled down to lepaii the icst, so 
as to be ready for Ram Sahaie’s Regiment, which I intend to locate 



348 rESHAlVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 

here instead of the lines of Mehtab Singh's corps, which are in a hollow, 
and built most irregularly. 

Moollah Nujeeb arrived from Lahore, and called to pay his respects, 
and present his sunnud for the restoration of his jaghir. 

^th May — Rode this morning to the village of Lallah Kallah, 

distant six koss, accompanied by the Kardar, Durbarra Singh, to see the 
injury done to the crops by the late inundation of the Barrah from the 
rain ; it must have risen at least from 8 to 10 feet and has done consider- 
able damage, destroying 50 or 60 houses in this village, 14 or 1,600 
maunds of grain and much of the standing crop ; the village is on the road 
to Pubbee, from which it is distant five coss, and the Barrah here runs 
in a rapid stream with an immense body of water. 

General Mehtab Singh took leave with many professions of devo- 
tion to us ; he marched with his corps at 1 1 a.m. 

Sirdars Sultan and Peer Mahomed said they had received letters 
from their brother Sirdar Rahim Dill Khan of Candahar professing 
himself our servant and well-wisher, and enquiring if there was any 
objection to his coming to Peshawur to see his brothers. 1 replied I 
saw none ; that he might come when he liked, as might the Ameer 
Dost Mahomed Khan if he wished; that I would report accordingly to 
Lahore. 

Three Akalees got drunk ; one cut down a Ramgole, severely 
wounding him in the calf. On sending to seize them they at first 
resisted, but were secured and brought to me. I confined two for some 
days and the third for three months in irons, first advising with the 
Generals : one of them had his hand shattered by a gun-shot, when 
fighting against General Avitabile ; from him I took an engagement that 
he would in future conduct himself with sobriety and order, under pain 
of expulsion from tliis district. 

yf/i JMaw — Shahzadah Mahomed Tyfoor wants me to get his house 
restored which was confiscated 16 years ago. 

Mr. Agnew tvrites me from Mussan Abdall that he marched for Chuch 
this day, and Dewan Hakim Raie that he comes in to-morrow, but will 
encamp at the Shahie Bagh till the i6th, which is an auspicious day for 
his entering the city. J replied that he might please himself. A slight 
shock of earthquake at 3 p ji. ; weather close and cloudy. 



PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^y. 


349 


With a view to carry out the Governor-General’s views I have 
told General Golab Singh to announce that any soldiers wishing to 
remit money to tlieir families may lodge the same in this Treasury, 
and will receive either from me or the Resident bills for the amount. 
I have likewise announced that the Durbar will be solicited to annul 
the present rule which confiscates to the State all the arrears of pay of 
deceased men, and to substitute the more just and liberal one of award- 
ing it to their families or relatives. The officers say these ameliora- 
tions will give universal satisfaction. 

I rode through the lines of the ist Ramgole Regiment last evening 
to the Colonel’s house, who was out ; most of the men came out and 
surrounded me, saluting me in the most respectful manner. I stopped 
some time talking to them ; the late Governor would not have dared to 
trust himself among them. 

A party of a Daffadar and 6 Sowars of the i6th or Liptrott's Irregu- 
lars have arrived from Nacodia {sic) on seven months’ leave ; they say 
they were formerly in Ferris’ Jezailchees. 

ph May — Hakim Raie, the new Adalutee, Naib Nazim and 
Kardar, arrived yesterday, and brought purwannahs from the Durbar 
to the General, (Jrbobs, and Ramgoles, and from which it would all but 
appear that he was the Governor instead of the Naib ; he seems smart 
and intelligent, and professes he is only here to attend to our wishes 
and orders, and that he looks up to us as he did to the Maharaja. 

Bukshee Singh’s troop of Horse x\rtillery from Lahore and Goojrat 
arrived, also the Golandauze of Colonel Alla Singh under the Adjutant; 
the Commander Soondhur Singh is said to have taken leave and gone 
to his home. 

The purwannah appointing General Golab Singh Governor arrived 
this evening much to my joy, as now I e.vpect to be relieved of the onus 
of the government ; the officers of the army assembled in my house 
and warmly congratulated the new Governor. I took the opportunity to 
point out that such was the reward of a long course of good service, 
and to express my hopes that each of them might attain like dis- 
tinction. 

8tli May . — The issue of pay to the Regular Army will be con- 
cluded on the 1 2 th ; they will then be only one month in arrears ; it has 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 


3 SO 

been paid in my presence, that is, I in one room and the Paymaster in 
the next, with the door open between us ; as yet there has not been one 
complaint. Sirdar Sultan Mahomed has presented me with a horse, and 
made me promise not to sell him ; his value will be carried to Govern- 
ment account. 

A sepo 3 ' of Ramgoles poisoned himself ; he was brought to me 
in a senseless state. Mr. Thompson applied the stomach-pump, but with- 
out avail. 


Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-W. F. 

No. 16.— Political Diary of Major George St. P Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 16th, to Saturday, the 22nd May 1847. 

i6th May iSp-y . — I have commenced making a round of visits to 
the Colonels of Corps, which please them much. I send notice the 
previous day, and they have their officers to meet me. Nothing can 
exceed the attention they pay me ; when they lose their reserve they 
converse freely, and have given me some amusing anecdotes of the 
late campaign. They all extol the valor of our European Troops, 
but not so that of our Native. They attribute their own defeat to 
their want of leaders and their own disorganized state. 

ijth May . — Called on Colonels Ruttun Singh, Man, and Mehtab 
Singh, Moraria, who presented me with horses and money ; the former 
I declined, telling them that the practice of giving presents prevented me 
from paying as many visits as inclination would otherwise induce ; 
they promise to make no more, but such was their custom, and they 
would suffer in public estimation did they not make offerings on my 
first visit ; this was an appeal there was no resisting. ' 

Lieutenant Lumsden w’rites me that the state of the Eusufzye 
country is be^’ond belief; that he is besieged by thousands of 
complainants and that such is the fearful state of misrule engendered 
by Sirdar Sher Singh’s system of grinding exactions that it is impossi- 
ble to sa^- what has really been paid to Government, taken by the 
Sirdar, plundered by the troops, or made away with by the Khans; 



FESHA IVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^7. 


35 * 


that there is not a single house in the whole district that has not 
been literally gutted, etc., etc. ; that the Khans keep large bands of horse, 
fed and equipped by the plunder of the people. 

iSth May iS^j . — Intelligence from Cabul of the loth is that the 
Asufoodoula has marched from Meshed, and that the Shah of Persia, 
with an army of 6o,000 and 150 guns, has made two marches from 
Tehran towards Meshed, on hearing which, it is said that Asufoodoula 
started with 25 horsemen towards the Persian camp : some people say 
the army is destined for Herat, others Khiva. It is said there is a 
Sahib at Kokand, and that he gave a draft for i,000 iillahs on a 
shroff at Cabul, which was returned, the shroff not being forthcoming. 

The city of Cabul has suffered considerably from the recent rain ; 
the Ameer has all letters from this quarter taken to him which he 
reads and gives back. The intelligence letter which was despatched 
on the 30th ultimo from Cabul to me has not reached. 

I dined at General Elahee Buksh’s last night ; he gave a grand enter- 
tainment to 3 or 400 ; all the officers were present, with General Sirdar 
Golab Singh. I received a tray of 9 panhas and 250 rupees, with a 
horse ; this latter I returned. 

In a private letter from Jellalabad to one of my people it was 
mentioned that matters were not going on well at Cabul, and that the 
Governor had been sent for ; also that the Ghilzie insurrection was but 
partially suppressed. Called on Colonel John Holmes, who presented 
me with 226 rupees and a horse. I returned the latter. 

I have written Lieutenant Lumsden not to enter too minutely 
into all the cases of oppression brought before him, but only such as 
appear to require immediate attention ; to tell the others they must 
bide their time, that all will get a fair hearing ; and to try and make 
the Khans understand that the sooner they dismiss their bands of 
predatory horse the better ; and that any complaints of present 
oppression will be visited heavily. I have also told him not to press 
too hard on the Khans, as they only followed the example set them, 
and that the zemindars must be led to hope more from the future 
than to expect redress for the past, etc. 

20th May . — As indicative of the state of alarm in which the Ameer 
Dost Mahomed Khan is in as to our intention towards Cabul, I may 



35 * PESHAWUR POLITICAL VIARIES, tS^J. 

here observe that the messenger who took my last letter was placed 
under charge and not allowed to leave the house for the two days he 
remained or communicate with any one : he was then escorted to 
Bootkak and told to make the best of his way here. The Resident’s 
letter, which I forwarded with one from myself, was to request that 
a Commissariat Gomastah, said to be in confinement near Guznee, 
might be released and sent to me : the Ameer, with many professions, 
promises compliance. 

We had a dust-storm last evening followed by thunder, lightning, 
and rain which lasted some hours. 

A seizure has been made of ill camels with smuggled salt : in 
communication with the Governor I have ordered the salt to be lodged 
in the Government Stores, and the camels to be sold on the public 
account. 

2ist May i8^j — General Elahee Buksh, Commanding the Artillery, 
called to present Commandant Soondhur Singh and Belind Khan, on 
arrival from Lahore : the Artillery horses ordered long since from the 
capital have not yet arrived. 

Have heard from the Resident that he approves of my suggestion 
of substituting a national standard for the Khalsa troops and forts 
in lieu of the present Tri-Color; also tliat the English exercise and 
drill should be adopted ; when this is done, I can amuse myself with 
manoeuvring the Cavalry Brigade, and also look better after their 
Infantry evolutions, in which latter Lieutenant Lumsden will assist. 

22nd May . — Dined at Colonel Meer Jung Ali’s. He was for i 5 years 
in our Infantry ; is smart, intelligent and soldierlike, and has a good 
regiment. General Sirdar Golab Singh and the Colonels Commandant 
were present. During General Pollock's campaign, he went in com- 
mand of 300 Sikh Infantry with Colonel Lawrence to Cabul. 

My private information from the lines of corps is that the men 
are all well pleased with the present order of things, and only afraid 
lest by any misconduct they should lose the service ; as long as matters 
go on well at Lahore, the troops here I think may be depended on. 

I have called on the General for a statement of the services of each 
officer, and expressed my intention of reviewing each regiment in the 
course of the next month. 



PESHAH’Uli POLITICAL DIA PIES', iSf7. 


353 


The new Governor, General Golab Singh, calls on me daily, and 
will do nothing without consulting me, so that in fact I am the Governor, 
in all but the name. 

I am happy to report that everything is’quiet in the Province, and 
that on all sides the perfect peace which prevails is attributed to the 
presence of British authorities. 

The revenue settlements for the year are nearly completed. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Assl. to the Agent, G.-G., N.-JV. F, 


No. 17.— Political Diary of Major Q-eorge St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 23rd, to Saturday, the 29th May 1847. 

3grd May iS^- — ^ general parade of the force, after which the 
Sirdar, General Golab Singh, called with most of his officers. I am 
happy to observe that his elevation to the Governorship has in no way 
diminished his zeal and esprit de corps, if I may so style it ; as Com- 
mander of the forces, he receives the daily reports and attends to the 
minutest particulars. He and In's Deputy Governor, Dewan Hakim 
Raie, came to me about 6 p.m. yesterday, and were with me till 8, 
reporting their proceedings in revenue and judicial matters for the 
last three days. 

Two dismounted troops of Artillery arrived from Lahore to com- 
plete the Peshawur establishment ; they are a rough-and-ready, wild- 
looking set, apparently under little control. Several .are absent without 
leave, a common custom in the Sikh army : on being ordered to 
Peshawur or elsewhere they go to their homes for a month or two 
and then join at their pleasure, affording a fine opportunity for the 
Paymaster’s retrenchments. 

2 ph May . — Mahomed Hossein, vakeel of Ameer Dost Mahomed 
Khan, arrived from Cabul yesterday, and called this morning, bringing 
letters for the Resident and myself. He produced, by desire of his master, 
several letters bearing the seal of Syed Mahomed, Pugmaun, better known 
to us as Jan Fishan Khan, our pensioner residing at Surdhunna, in which, 

45 



354 PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847- 

with much abuse of the Ameer and present Government, he recommends 
his friends to bide their time ; in six months the British would be at 
Cabul, etc. The Ameer of course disclaims all idea of these letters 
emanating from us ; but deems it as well we should know that such 
have been sent. 

The Governor and Deputy were with me for several hours dis- 
cussing revenue and judicial matters ; the former issued a proclamation 
against giving and taking bribes. 

2^lh May — Dined at Colonel Ameer Khan's last evening ; he 

had a guard of honor drawn out, and his band received me with our 
national anthem ; almost all his officers and men are Hindoostanee 
Mussulmen. The General and other officers were present ; the corps is 
said to be a crack one, and never to have been engaged in any of the 
outbreaks of the Sikh army. A remount of 80 horses for the Artillery 
arrived this morning from Lahore with harness complete ; one died en 
route \ all are in indifferent condition. 

Orders have been received for the march of the Khas Dragoons 
under Colonel Kahn Singh to Lahore, on being relieved by the Churun- 
jeet corps : the regiment would rather remain and be weeded here, but 
as the Colonel observed, they have now only to obey. 

The Cabul vakeel has been questioning my Moonshee as to 
whether I remain here during the hot weather, and if I go is any other 
gentleman to come ? The Moonshee has heard from one of the 
vakeel’s people that the Ameer’s special instructions were to ascertain 
if the Sahibs were to remain for good at Peshawur : it is clear that our 
proximity disturbs him. 

26th May. — Saw the troops at Brigade exercise this morning ; four 
Infantry, one Cavalry, and troop of Horse Artillery ; the Commander of 
the troops was on the field, but only as a spectator. Colonel Ruttun 
Singh, Man, commanded and manoeuvred much the same as the General ; 
indeed he is a pupil of his. 

1st. — The Brigade threw back its right by echelon of companies 
on No. 8 of the 2nd Regiment. 

2nd. — Threw forward the 3rd, retired by double column of com- 
panies from the centre. 

3rd. — Line to the rear on leading companies. 



rESHAlVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 355 

4th. — Counter-march on centre by files and columns of companies 
and troops. 

5th. — Column m masse by the march of files. General salute. 

The Cavalry were very wild and seemed to be little attended to. 
I called on Colonel Maun Singh, Commanding the Poorbea or Hindoo- 
stanee Regiment, and sat a couple of hours talking to himself and Sooba- 
dars ; he is the son of the late General Dhokul Singh, an ex-havildar of 
ours, who raised this the first regular regiment for the Maharajah; 
the men are with few exceptions from our province^ and many formerly 
in our service. Lieutenant Lumsden recognised one who deserted from 
his own company the night before Sobraon. I at first thought of 
sending this man to the Resident, but on consideration deemed it would 
be imprudent and might be productive of bad consequences without 
any commensurate good. 

3ph May —Lieutenant Lumsden, with Colonel Alla Singh, 
returned from the Eusufzye country this morning : from their account 
I fear little revenue is to be expected this season from the Khureef crop ; 
whole villages are deserted and the country in a state of desolation. 
Not a complaint has been made during these 25 days to me against the 
Sikh escort, whose conduct has been uniformly good. 

On my return from yesterday’s field day, inspected the two 
Ramgole regiments which I have embodied from the three after weeding 
them; they are now a re.spectable body of men, but require 500 to 
complete : these I intend to take from the able-bodied fort garrison. 

28ih May . — A seizure of 100 camels laden with contraband salt has 
been made near the Kohat district ; of late years this contraband trade 
has flourished to the great detriment of the revenue. To give it a 
check at once, I have recommended the owners to be fined rupees 2,000, 
or their camels to be sold on the public account : the zemindars who 
gave the information which led to the seizure to be liberally rewarded. 

The city is full of the rumour of the advance of the Persian army 
on Herat, and of our Envoy having retired in disgust. Can the arrival 
of the Cabul vakeel be in any way connected with this ? He has gone 
to Sirdars Sultan and Peer Mahomed in the Doaba, having obtained 
my sanction. 



356 


PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iSp], 


I am told that some of the Artillerymen recently arrived are 
mutineers and bad characters. I have ordered an inspection parade 
of them for to-morrow. 

2glh May iS^y . — Inspected the men of the three corps of Horse 
Artillery lately arrived, and in front of the whole directed the Artillery 
General to call upon the officers to point out any disaffected or mutinous 
characters in order to their being returned to Lahore: any officer with- 
holding information should be held personally responsible ; after this 
* 20 of which are unfit for the service ; the Governor was 

present. 

On Monday I hope to finish the second muster and first instalment 
of pay to the Ramgoles. It is a work of time, as each man is first to be 
minutely examined and then paid in my presence ; if I am called away 
for an instant, an uproar immediately ensues. With all my care I find 
last month 17 false names received twelve months’ arrears of pay: the 
original men had long since died or deserted. I have directed the 
amount to be recovered from the officers and clerks (Duftries). 

Intelligence from Cabul up to the 24th is that there has been a fight 
between the Kuzzelbash and Rekhta Khanecs, Shealis and Soonees, 
in which 70 men were killed and wounded, several of note among the 

former. The Ameer sent his sons Gholam Ilyder Khan, Mahomed 

Ameer Khan, and Shere .'\li Khan to try and stop it; the two latter 
joined in the fray on the Soonees’ side and themselves wounded 

two men : the Sheahs were defeated and are said to be longing for 

revenge. 

Reports were rife that Sikh troops were daily arriving here and that 
the Governor-General with an army had reached Lahore. The Ameer's 
mind was much disturbed and he was enlisting men. The Khan of 
Bokhara i.'. reported to have marched three months since tow'ards 
Shihir-i-Subz ; Kafilas from Cabul were delayed at Khoolum in conse- 
quence. 

The party which conveyed the remains of the late Mahomed 
Akbar to that city had returned. All is well here. 

Gto. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 

Pt mcipal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-\V. F. 


Manuscript torn. 



PESHA IVOR POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^7. 357 

No. 18.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor. 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 30th May, to Saturday, the 5th June 1847. 

Ju/h May — Transacted no business. The troops were out at 

a general parade for inspection by the Governor. 

yisl May . — At a meeting with the Governor and Deputy Governor, 
Hakim Raie, we carried out the Durbar’s orders confiscating i8 out 
of the 20,000 rupees jagheer enjoyed by Kumurooddeen Khan for 
the protection of the road. We have told him that until arrangements 
are completed for the safeguard of the road, he will be answerable for 
it. 

isl June . — Sirdar Sultan Mahomed called on me on his return from 
the Doaba ; he is loud in praise of the arrangements of his brother 
Sirdar Peer Mahomed, who keeps up two guns and a respectable force 
of horse and foot on his jagheer, while his other brother Syed 
Mahomed has hardly a soldier, spending all his substance, no one knows 
how ; he refused to see Sultan Mahomed, or to render any account of 
the horse and foot lie is bound by treaty with the Sikhs to keep up. As 
the Durbar look to Sultan Mahomed for the due fulfilment, on the part 
of his brothers, of the terms on which they hold their jagheers, he is 
naturally desirous of forcing Syed Mahomed to perform his part of it. 

I have told him he can do as he pleases. 

jud June . — A proclamation was issued by the Governor afevv days 
since to the effect that any one giving or taking bribes would be 
severely dealt with and the money confiscated ; my Moonshee reported 
that he was offered too rupees by the Tushccldar and door-keeper of the 
Gor Khuttry, a man named Bhaug Singh, said to have amassed a consid- 
erable fortune within the last seven years by levying contributions 
on all petitioners and others wdio required access to the Governor. 

I told the Moonshee to take the money, and I would make an example 
of the giver ; the money came. I fined Bhaug Singh 200 rupees which 
1 lodged with the too previously given in the Government Treasury, and 
recommended his immediate dismissal from Government employ, which 
was done. 

The Churunjeet Regiment of Cavalry arrived from Lahore ; the 
Khas Regiment march on the 4th. 



3S8 P£SJIAn-[//( POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^y. 

jfd June 184 .’]. — The Governor and Deputy were with me for three 
hours inquiring into the jagheers and pensions, which amount in this 
Province to the enormous sum of Rs. 68,104 per annum. 

We have made over the protection of the road hence to Attock to 
Jaffer Khan, Khuttuckee ; from Khairabad to Nowshera and thence to 
Chumkunnee to Futteh Khan and Nishan Khan. The former is a 
Jagheerdar to the extent of Rs. 10,000 a year, for which he rendered no 
service ; the two latter have likewise jagheers of Rs. 1,200 per annum ; 
to this we have added Rs. 500 and thus do, for this small sum, what 
cost the State Rs 20,000 a year 1 

The Cabul vakeel took leave j'esterday, and started this morning 
well pleased with his reception ; I gave him a acaful, and pair of shawls 
to the value of i $0 rupees. 

4th June . — The corpse of a man killed in a village affray yesterday 
was laid at my door this morning; the parties are prisoners. The subject 
of dispute arose from a horse straying in the fields, but an old feud 
existed : the case is under trial. 

The Khas Regiment of Cavalry, relieved by the Churunjeet 
Regiment, marched this morning towards Lahore ; they regret leaving. 
Colonel Kahn Singh, who commands them, is smart and intelligent, and 
I shall be glad to get him back. 

I find some difficulty in getting Artillery Officers to give in the names 
of their men of bad and turbulent characters. I have told the General 
that I know there are several and they must be pointed out ; they are 
still afraid of their men. 

^th Last evening in discharging some 600 of the Ram- 

goles two native officers showed an inclination to disturb the peace. I 
had them seized and taken to the guard, which they had hardly reached 
when one complained of being ill, lay down and was dead in an instant ; 
the men set up a howl, and symptoms of turbulence arose. Lieutenant 
Lumsden on one side, and I on the other, shouted to them, and 
though the body was carried through the middle of them, beyond an 
occasional wail, nothing occurred. I went on selecting the men to 
remain and those to go, as if nothing had happened. 



PESHAWVR POLITICAL D 1 AKIP.S, 1S47. 359 

I am happy to say they are now down in numerical strength to 

2,369. 

No recent intelligence from the west. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 


No. 19.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 6th, to Saturday, the 12th June 1847. 

6 th Orders from Lahore received tins morning counter- 
manding the march of the Khas Dragoons : fortunately I had halted 
them about six miles off anticipating this, having heard from the 
Resident that it was in contemplation. 

On arrival at Peshawur, I found all the parades under cultivation 
up to, and even between, the men's lines. This I at once put a stop to; 
each officer and man had his little field, and, of course, the water was 
taken from the zemindars. 

Between the Artillery and one of Colonel Holmes’ Regiments the 
ground formerly allotted for exercise had been appropriated to himself 
by a Fakeer, who had built a house, garden, tank and well ; the two 
latter, with the house, I permitted him to retain, but directed the wall 
of the garden to be removed and the ground to be resumed for its 
original purpose ; this has lately been done. This morning I heard that 
the Fakeer had been freely censuring the General for his tamely agree- 
ing to my suggestions, and talking to the Sikh soldiers in an inflam- 
matory way. I have therefore directed the General to send a Naik 
and six to seize and convey him across the Attock as a dangerous person 
to have among the men. 

The Jagheerdar Horse, said to be i,500, under Sirdar Kahn Singh, 
have arrived within four miles of the city. I take their muster to-morrow 
with that of the Churunjeet Regiment of Cavalry, 

yth June . — Inspected the Jagheerdar Horse, now said to be i,ooo 
under Sirdar Kahn Singh, Mujeetea, and allotted them ground for a 



360 


PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iSiT- 


cantonment. Orders arrived for the Churunjeet Regiment of Cavalry 
to march to Hazarah. 

Sirdar Sultan Mahomed urges the expediency of compelling his 
brother, Syed Mahomed, to keep up his quota of horse and foot and 
to pay attention to the affairs of his Jagheer. 

With Dewan Hakim Raie 1 examined the various purwannahs 
for religious grants, which occupied us some hours. I have had all 
the liquor shops concentrated in one house in the city, over which 
I have put a guard to prevent affrays, and to disarm all soldiers drink- 
ing to excess. The General has done the same by the various grog- 
shops in the lines. 

8th June 184 .’/. — Hearing that there was an assemblage of Afreedees 
near Adyzye, bent on plundering the villages in their neighbourhood, I 
sent my Chopper Bashee, and some of the Guide Corps to ascertain its 
truth ; finding it was correct I have ordered a small party of Afreedee 
Horse out to watch their movements and send early intimation. 

I have at length got the names of ten of tlie Artillery disaffected 
and bad characters from General Elahee Buksh ; and it is deserving of 
notice that some of them were ringleaders in turning the General 
himself out of his command during the reign of terror ! I have directed 
them to be paid up and sent across the Attock forthwith. 

pth June . — Several affrays having recently taken place in the 
villages around, the Governor is anxious to put a stop to them, and has 
therefore sentenced two men to be hung to-morrow, convicted of 
killing another. I wished to submit tlie case for tlie Durbar’s orders, 
but as they represent that an immediate example is neces.sary I 
have consented to their e.xecution and trust it may have the desired 
effect. 

In conjunction with the General, leave of absence to the extent of a 
fourth of the troops has been granted ; all proceeding on leave are 
warned to return punctually, to proceed together, and to be careful to 
commit no misdemeanour or outrage cn route under penalty of forfeiture 
of future indulgence, loss of service, etc. : strict attention to be paid 
to seniority of claim, the corps that have been on leave not now to 
participate. 



FESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 361 

loth June 184 .^. — I regret to say two more men were murdered last 
night by a party of nine, three of whom I have apprehended and am 
now trying : the cause a woman, sister of one of the murderers. 

The extreme penalty of the law was carried into effect this 
morning on the two convicted of murder : it being the second execution 
since Avitabile’s departure created a great sensation, and an immense 
crowd were present. 

I had all the heads of the police with two companies of Ramgoles 
in attendance ; and all went on well and orderly. I have directed the 
bodies to remain for some days, and have had the crime and sentence 
proclaimed throughout the city and neighbouring villages. 

iith June . — Took the muster of 280 Ghorechurras, good looking 
men, but indifferently mounted; the remainder are to be seen to-morrow. 

The Governor and Deputy were with me for some hours to-day ; 
they appear to work better together. We have sent for all the Eusufzye 
Khans to try and make a settlement of their disputes and revenue. 

A Hindostanee Ramgole cut a prostitute down in the city and 
then killed himself ; the unfortunate woman can’t live. 

1 2th June . — Two of the nine men concerned in the murder on the 
evening of the gth have been convicted and sentenced to be hung this 
evening and five more to be imprisoned with hard labour for five years; 
the other two have not yet been apprehended. 

Under instructions from the Resident Lieutenant Lumsden starts for 
Hussun Abdall on the r5th instant to be employed in that quarter for the 
next month ; most men would growl and grumble at being detached in such 
weather, and therefore the wish was merely expressed that he was there : 
his zeal, however, outweighed all personal considerations, and he would 
have started on the instant had I let him. Mustered the remainder of 
the Gliorechurras 474, so that instead of i,ooo as reported their strength 
is 754, quite enough ; they do not look the sort to get work out of. 

The execution went off quietly, and I am told by the Urbobs, etc., 
that it’s so quickly following the crime will have a most beneficial 
effect. 

No recent authentic intelligence from the west. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F 
46 



Ja I'ESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 

No. 20. — Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 

General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 13th, to Saturday, the 19th June 1847. 

ijlh June 75’^7.— Nothing worth recording: at the request of the 
General, the usual Grand Parade was excused, this being a festival 
day. 

iph June . — The Governor and Deputy were with me for some 
hours transacting business. 

An elephant, fully caparisoned, arrived from the Durbar for 
my use. 

Attended a Grand Durbar at the Governor’s, at which I pre- 
sented him with his Khillut of investiture as Sirdar, and took the 
opportunity of expressing my gratificaiion at such an honor having 
devolved on me, and reiterated my hope that the officers present, by 
following the example of Sirdar Golab Singh, might be thus rewarded ; 
the Sirdar had every Officer down to the junior Jamadar and many 
Privates to dinner, of which 1,400 partook ; illumination, fire-works 
and nautcJnng concluded the joyous day. 

15th June . — I v/as to have taken the muster of the Khas 
Dragoons this morning, but at the request of the officers postponed it till 
to-morrow to admit of their enjoying the Governor’s hospitality to the 
full ; the same cause delayed Lieutenant Lumsden’s departure for Chuch, 
which was fixed for this day. 

Ram Sahaie’s regiment of Infantry has crossed the Attock in 
progress from Pind Dadun Khan to this. 

i6tft June . — Took the muster of the Khas Dragoons, and 
selected 82 of all ranks, bad characters and unfits, and have ordered 
them to Lahore. 

Transacted revenue and judicial matters with the Governor and 
Deputy, laeutenant Lumsden started for llussun Abdall, by order of the 
Resident, to remain in that neighbourhood till the arrival of Lieutenant 
Nicholson ; he overtakes his camp at Nowshera 

ijth June. — At my weekly Durbar, the Urbobs and others 
cougratuIaieJ hiL on the prospect there now v.’as of the coustaut village 



PESHAIVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 


363 


affrays being at an end; that hitherto the people thought I would only 
imprison ; they had now found out their mistake. I trust they are right, 
though I have my doubts. 

I have had the bodies of the men executed interred beneath the 
gallows. 

A Persian letter mentions the escape of Lieutenant Lumsden 
from drowning; he bad put a charpoy, or native bed, on inflated l.irsin 
the Cabul river at Dobundee, intending to float down to Nowshc. . , and 
had gone some miles, when the skins burst and he with his attendant 
was immersed in the water, from which with difficulty he was extricated, 
losing his sword, pistol and clothes. 

i 8 ih June — Mustered the officers and non-commissioned 

officers of the Khas Dragoons (dismounted), and reduced seven 
Jamadars, five Havildars and six Naiks in excess to the establishment. 

I regret to say that a report from Khuttuk has just reached of 
a village affray, in which one man has been killed and seven wounded, 
the cause — non-fulfilment of a marriage contract ; the parties engaged 
have absconded, but I hope to catch them. 

igth June . — Colonel Ram Sahaie Singh’s regiment of Infantry 
marched into cantonments this morning, said to be 700 strong ; he with 
all his officers waited on me this morning. This is one of the corps of 
General Sirdar Golab Singh’s old Brigade which accompanied him to 
Cabul. 

Took the muster of 44 Ghorechurras, under Bhookum Khan. 

A letter from Lieutenant Lumsden confirms the Persian report 
of his narrow escape. 1 am happy to add he is not the worse for this 
ducking. 

Geo. Sr. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Assl. lathe Agent, G.-G., N.-W. P. 

No. 21.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 20th, to Saturday, the 26th June 1847. 

20tli June iS^j . — The usual General Parades of troops. I intend 
to propose that this parade should be ordered for Mondays in future, as 
then I can attend, whereas now I do not. 



364 


PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 


In consequence of the great heat I have recommended the 
discontinuance of all parades for exercise at present, and drills only to 
be out in the morning ; the men are of course highly pleased. 

2ist June i 8 /f.y . — Transacted business with the Governor and 
Deputy ; examined into several religious grants, etc. ; had all the 
Eusufzye Khans and many Mulliks to pay their respects. 

Mustered Ghorechurras and inspected 72 recruits (Infantry) arrived 
from Lahore; posted them to Colonel Meer Jung All’s regiment. 

'I’o the great delight of the Ramgoles I have granted them leave 
of absence to the extent of one-fifth, officers, non-commissioned and 
men ; this is the first Indulgence of the kind they had ever had. 

22ttd June . — Intelligence from Cabul up to the 1 5th instant is 
that the Ghilzies of the Babaka Khael (Mahomed Shah Khan’s) had 
plundered some travellers near Seh Baba and that the Ameer had sent 
a thousand men with two guns on elephants, who attacked them, took 
their Fort of Gogomundee, and gave it with the plunder for 2,000 rupees 
to their enemies. On the 9th it was reported to the Ameer that Sirdar 
Sultan Jan, and Mahomed Afzal Khan, son of Shabohdeen, Tookhee, had 
plundered a Kafila and killed some of the people near Khilat-i-Ghdzie, 
the Tookhees and Huzaras aiding them. 

The Ameer is said to have received some letters from the Urbobs of 
Peshawur and Durreah Khan, Adyzyie. An Elcliee from the Meer 
Wallee of Khoolum arrived at Cabul on the f4th instant. 

Mirza Hoosain reached on the iith. The Ameer appeared well 
pleased with the result of his mission ; he brought a letter from Sirdar 
Sultan Mahomed saying that if the Ameer wished to be on good terms 
with us and that his affairs should prosper, he ought to send a vakeel on 
whom he could depend to remain with me; that Mirza Hoosain was not 
the man. The Ameer proposed to Nawab Jubbar Khan to go, but he 
declined : it was thought that Mirza Abdool Samee Khan would be sent. 

It was reported at Cabul that the Khan of Khiva hearing that 
the King of Bokhara had marched towards Shihir-i-Subz had made 
a chapaw to within 30 miles of Bokhara, and returned with many 
thousand captives. The King on hearing this returned and killed with 
his own hand Naib Abdool Summund Khan by striking him on the head 
with a hatchet ; his family and property were made over to the Vuzeer. 



PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^y. 365 

23rd June 18 !^. — Rode through the city at gunfire this morning 
to arrange a new disposition of the sentries : the guards have hitherto 
been posted in small details of six men ; these I have concentrated in 
parties of 18 and 24, who will furnish sentries for their several posts, 
but be available as a body if required. 

Transacted business with the Governor and Deputy in the affairs 
of the Eusufzyes which are most difficult to arrange ; they are in 
such a state of anarchy and bad blood with each other. 

Another affray has just been reported to have occurred in the 
village of Mashoo Khail in which six men were wounded ; I have called 
on the Urbob, Mahomed Khan, to seize and bring in all the parties. 

2/i.th June . — A treasure party with two lakhs of rupees arrived 
from Lahore : three were expected ; the third is said to be en route 
but I doubt it. 

Lieutenant Lumsden writes me from Hussun Abdall that there 
is nothing stirring there ; a murder had been committed on a grass-cutter 
which was set down to the Gundghurrias, but he very much suspected 
unjustly; more likely to have been the act of some of his companions. 
He informs me that the Churunjeet Regiment of Cavalry had halted, 
the Colonel said for pay. I have ordered them off instantly to Huzarah and 
expressed my surprise at the delay they have made in what they know 
to be the Durbar’s instructions. I have directed Lieutenant Lumsden to 
look after any troops in his vicinity, and to act in every respect as I do 
here till he receives the orders of the Resident. 

25th June . — One of my purwannahs to send in a woman who 
had been forcibly carried off having been returned to me by the Mullick 
of Mashoo Gugger with his reply that he “ had never attended to 
Avitabile, why should he to me?,” at 10 p.m. I quietly started 300 
Cavalry and 600 Infantry under Colonels Alla and Mehtab Singh and by 
daybreak surrounded the village and seized the gentleman. 

I had purposed going myself, but the Governor came up in 
the middle of the night and so strongly urged me not, that I complied. 

18 or 20 swords and loaded matchlocks were brought in, which I have 
confiscated. The Sikh troops, the Colonels report, as did my people whom 
I sent with them, conducted themselves most orderly. 



366 PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 

26th June 18^’j. — Lieutenant Lumsden reports that the Churunjeet 
Regiment of Cavalry were to march from Hussun Abdall this morning 
for Huzara. Colonel Boodh Singh’s Regiment of Infantry had arrived. 
All is quiet in this quarter. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Piindpal Assi. to the Agent, G.-G., N.- JV. F. 


No. 22.— Political Diary of Major G-eorge St, P. Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 

General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 27th June, to Saturday, the Srd July 1847. 

2/th June iSpy. — The Officer Commanding 12th Native Infantry 
writes the Assistant Resident at Lahore to have a deserter from his regi- 
ment, said to be in Colonel Dhokul Singh’s, seized and sent to the Prov- 
inces ; this appearing an irregular and novel proceeding I have referred 
it for the Resident’s orders, and intend taking no steps in the matter 
till I hear from him 

Aotli junc. — Sirdar Sultan Mahomed sent for my Moonshee and 
gave him letters lie had received from Ameer Dost Mahomed, with 
one to my address. Copies will be sent to tiie Resident, though they 
contain little of moment. 

I rode over the Parade ground, which I am having put in order, 
it requiiing levelling, draining, etc. 

Transacted business with the Governor and Deputy; have at 
length settled with the Eusufzye Khans, who took leave this morning, 
promising to cease from oppressing their people, and to live in peace 
with each other. I have promised to reward those who have their 
lands in the best order on my visiting them in October. 

2gth June. — A lad of 18 or 20 of the village of Dulozie cut 
his uncle in two while lying asleep on his bed ; he acknowledges it, and 
says his uncle owed him money and in lieu of payment promised to 
give him his daughter in marriage. He gave her to another, and 
therefore he killed him. 

Mustered the remainder of the Ghorechurras with the Zamboor 
battery of 51 guns; all the camels are knocked up. I purpose sending 



PESHAWUli POLITICAL DIARIES, fS^y. 367 

them to graze and posting the men with the Zamboors in the different 
forts. 

Dewan Atma Singh, Vuzeer of Khoolum, who paid the late 
Sir W. Macnaghten a visit of some montlis at Cabul, writes me 
by name George Lawrence, as if he knew me well, and professes much 
service : his letter arrived under cover to a banker in the city. I shall 
answer him by the same channel. 

jolh June i 8 ^y . — Rode through the city, which, notwithstand- 
ing the heat, appears crowded; fruit selling in great profusion. 

Inspected Colonel Ram Sahaie Singh’s regiment, about 740 
firelocks. The men are a stout soldierlike set, but the officers no 
great things ; all want much drill, which I have recommended their getting 
when the weather admits. 

1st July . — Transacted business with the Governor and Deputy. 

The lad who murdered his uncle was e.xecuted this morning 
during the time the Urbobs were with me. I took the opportunity of 
warning them to exert themselves to put a stop to affrays and to report 
instantly ; they appear to look but lightly on them, and I am pretty 
sure do not exert themselves as they ought. 

2ttd July. — Nil. 

jyd July . — Commenced paying the troops for the months of Baisakli 
and Jaith, or from 12th April to 9th June. The three troops 
of Artillery which arrived last month are six and eight months in 
arrears, and Ram Sahaie’s regiment four months. They will be paid 
up so as to be on a par with the rest of the force. 

Report of a man being shot in the village of Budwair yester- 
day, but his father declares it was accidental; the case is under 
investigation. 

No intelligence from the west. 

P. S. — jrd July . — As I was about to close my Diai^' intelligence 
from Cabul up to the 27th ultimo arrived ; Sirdar Sooltan Jan had arrived 
with his brother Mahomed Omer Khan on the 23rd. 

The Ameer was engaged in reducing the pay and number of troops 
employed by the late Sirdar Akber Khan, etc. The intelligence of 
Naib Abdool Summund Khan’s death by the hand of the King of 



368 


PESHAWUn POLITICAL DIARIES, iSp]. 


Bokhara is confirmed. His Majesty is also said to have dismissed 
the Persian Elchee who had sometime previously arrived from Meshed; 
nothing else worthy of notice. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-W, F. 


No. 23.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 

General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 4th, to Saturday, the 10th July 1847. 

Fh July iS.^’p . — Rode to the cantonment called Rajah Suchet 
Singh’s on the east of the city, where I have located Colonel Ram 
Sahaie’s regiment. Within gunshot of it, on the highroad to Lahore, 
are cantoned two troops of Horse Artillery, the Khas Dragoons and 
Khas Regiment of Infantry ; on the west of the city, in the Ali 
Murdan cantonment, are the regiments of Meer Jung Ali, Ruttun Singh, 
Mehtab Singh, Maun Singh, and Ameer Khan and .Sobhan Khan, 
with four troops of Horse Artillery, two on each flank ; the rear is 
occupied by the Aukhalee Regiment of Dragoons and Ghorechurras 
under Sirdar Kahn Singh. 

Sth July . — Paid three troops of Horse Artillery four and six 
months’ arrears. 

Engaged for three hours with the Governor and Deputy in 
giving fresh purwannahs and enquiring into religious grants, jagheers, 
etc. 

I have ascertained that an extensive system of kidnapping 
women and girls and selling them to brothel keepers and others has 
long prevailed in this Province; some engaged in it I have seized, and 
hope to put a stop to such nefarious proceedings. I have imprisoned 
three notorious offenders. 

6th July.— -\ have succeeded in getting three women and one child 
who were found locked up, waiting purchasers. Two represent them- 
selves to have been seized and brought from Kooner, one from Eusufzye; 
the child appears to know nothing about its parents or place of abode : 
one woman I have made over to her friends. 



PESHA WUli POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 369 

yth July i8^j . — Phuggoo Singh, Adjutant of Meer Jung Ali’s regi- 
ment, brought me a purvvaiinah from the Durbar in reply to his appli- 
cation to be made a Commandant ; they, as they have done in many 
late cases, tlirow the onus of refusal on me by telling him that I may 
appoint him if 1 like. I told him as reductions were the order of the 
day, it would not do to make new promotions. 

Sirdar Sultan Mahomed Khan in his late visit went over the old 
ground of his great anxiety to do some signal service whicli would 
prove to us that he was sincere. “God forbid,” said he, “that you 
should be put in any strait, but if it was so, then you would see the 
value of my gratitude and friendship.” 

8lh July . — Engaged with the Governor and Deputy in judicial and 
revenue suits. 

Had my weekly Durbar of the Urbobs and gentry. 

Shahzadah Hashum, son of the late Timour Shah, and grand- 
son of Ahmed Shah, a pensioner of the Sikhs and resident in the 
city, has disinherited his sons, Shahzadah Mahomed Saleh and 
Shahzadah Abdocl Wahab ; their allowances he has discontinued, and 
they now are driven to live on charity'. Urbob Mahomed Ameer 
Khan has given them present shelter and subsistence; they are worth- 
less characters. 

gth Jiily.—\ have suggested to the General to call for a return 
of guards and orderlies furnished by regiments with a view to some 
orders being issued to reduce their numbers and introduce uniformity ; 
at present Commanding Officers appear to please themselves very much 
in these matters. 

The Ghorechurras are to receive four months out of 1 2 months 
pay due them, f have directed its being paid at my quarters, the same 
as that of the Regulars ; they have their separate Paymasters : the 
disbursement will commence on Monday, the 12 th instant. 

loth Nothing of moment ; a slight attack of fever prevented 

my seeing the Governor and Deputy, notice of which I sent them 
last night. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 

Principal Asst, to Ike Agent, G.-G., A^.-IP- F- 
47 



370 PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iSf?. 

No. 24 — Political Diary of Major George St, P. Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 

General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 11th, to Saturday, the 17th July 1847. 

mil July iSjf.'j . — It was reported by the Cutwall that consequent 
on the escape of a prostitute. Ram Dass, Commandant, ex-Colonel of the 
2nd Ramgole Regiment, took upon himself to order the gates of the city 
to be closed till after sunrise ; that some females of the Barukzye Sirdars 
going to Hushtnuggur were turned back from one of the gates because 
they would not show their faces, I have requested the Governor to 
make strict enquiry into the matter. 

i2lh July . — Intelligence from Cabul to the 6th instant is that 
the Ameer had at length settled the differences between the Morad 
Khanees and Rekhtas and put the former under his son Akram Khan, the 
latter under Gholam Hyder Khan ; Azeez Khan Ghilzie had arrived at 
Cabul ; Mahomed Shah Khan had occupied the old fort of Kaffer 
Killa, near Seh Baba and Sarobee, and made up with different chiefs 
in the neighbourhood with whom he had previously been at issue. 
The Ameer had executed Dilawer Khan, son of Abdoolah Khan, Sahag, 
much to the annoyance of Gholam Hyder Khan ; some Ghilzies were 
at the same time put to death ; and had confined the son of Meer 
Derw'csh Baba, Khoosh Khanee, getting him on the pretext of enquiring 
into some complaints of theft. In open day bands of 30 and 40 
Kohistanees plunder right and left. 

ijtli July. — Transacted business with the Governor and Deputy 
yesterday. 

Was to have dined at Colonel Ram Sahaie Singh’s, who had 
made great preparations, — fire-works, etc., — but an attack of fever pre- 
vented me ; the Governor and all the officers went. 

Have been obliged to put myself under medical treatment. 

Have, since my arrival, had much trouble in getting the Cazee 
to attend to his duties ; he has sent many cases back to me without 
having made any enquiry into them, and some which he had settled 
were so obviously unjust and opposed to reason, that I assembled several 
learned in the law (Mahomedan) and reversed his decrees. I have 
consequently determined on removing him. 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 37 1 

Tph July iS^j . — Ram Dass, ex-Colonel, present Commandant of 
the 2nd Ramgole Regiment, took upon himself to order the gates of 
the city to be kept closed till after sunrise, consequent on the elopement 
of a nautch girl. After due enquiry into the case, I have fined him 
Rs. 300. It might have led to an affray, as some of the Barukzye 
Sirdars’ females going to Hushtnuggur were stopped at the gates and 
called upon to shorv their faces ; fortunately their escort did not resent 
the, affront, but reported it to me. 

Dawur Khan, of Mashoo Khail, chapawed by Lieutenant Lumsden 
on the 22nd April, sent me in 20 head of cattle which he had 
recovered from a band of plunderers who were driving them to 
the hills. 

Transacted business with the Governor and Deputy. 

i^th July . — Weekly Durbar of Urbobs and gentry ; all tell me 
that in the best of Avitabile’s days the country was never so quiet 
as it is now, or so free from casualties and offences. 

The Governor and Deputy were with me for some hours. 

Sirdar Sultan Mahomed proceeded to Hushtnuggur on a visit 
of condolence to his brother. Sirdar Peer Mahomed, on the death of one 
of his wives. 

i 6 thjuly. — Reports from Cab ul of the plunder of a Kafila bound 
for Peshawur by the Ghilzies near Tezeen. 

Lieutenant Lumsden has reported being relieved at Hussun 
Abdall by Lieutenant Nicholson. On returning I have directed him to 
collect all the information he can of the Khuttuk district and its 
management under Ram Dass and his brother, Lalla Hakim Raie. 

The payment of the Regulars and Ghorechurras proceeds under 
my supervision. 

ijth July. — The parties engaged in the affray of the village 
Bahadoor, for which two men were e.xecuted, came to me yesterday, 
and requested I would send and take their arms, so as effectually to 
prevent a recurrence of it. I sent off a party who brought in ii swords 
and 8 matchlocks. 

I regret to say the Governor is laid up. 1 have recommended 
his keeping quiet for some days. 



37 * 


PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 184.7- 


I have removed the Cazee and appointed Fuzel Ahmed, one 
of the sons of Cazee Mahomed, Hussun Khanee, Moollah of the late 
Shah Timour and Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk. He officiated for six months 
as Cazee at Cabul and was well thought of by the people, while his 
brother, who succeeded him as being his senior, was just the reverse. 

Sirdar Sultan Mahomed Khan returned this morning from 
Hushtnuggur. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 


No. 25.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 

General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 18th, to Saturday, the 24th July 1847. 

iSth July iS.pj Paid the Governor an evening visit, to enquire 

after his health. I am happy to say he is better, but a good deal re- 
duced ; he said he would be with me to-morrow, but I advised his keeping 
quiet for some days. 

igth July . — Transacted business with the Deputy Governor and 
paid the Khas Pultun and So Ghorechurras. 

On enquiring into the reported e.Kecution at Hushtnuggur it turns 
out that a thief was cut down in the act of plunder and dying of his 
wounds the Sirdar's son had the body hung up for a day; seven 
witnesses tell the same story, so I have told the young Sirdar he may 
return to his father’s jagheer. 

2jth July . — Requested the General to order a court-martial to 
assemble at my quarters to investigate the conduct of the Adjutant 
of Colonel Ram Sahaie’s Regiment, reported to have been most in- 
subordinate ; it appears to have arisen from a soldier’s wife (the Adju- 
tant's orderly) complaining to the Colonel of the Adjutant having struck 
her. 

Rode over the new exercising ground which I have had made in 
front of the men's lines in the Ali Murdan Cantonment. 

21 si July . — Held the court-martial at my quarters on Torab 
Ali, Adjutant of Colonel Ram Sahaie Singh’s Regiment, accused of 



PESHAIVVR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 373 

grossly abusing his Commanding Officer; the court consisted of 
Colonels John Holmes, Mehtab Singh, Kahn Singh, Meer Jung Ali, and 
Maun Singh. The prisoner was found guilty and sentenced to suspen- 
sion from rank and pay for two montlis : the court wound up their pro- 
ceedings by requesting I would give them Articles of War for their 
guidanee and promulgation among the men. 

The Governor with all the officers paid their respects; the old 
man is better, but much pulled down ; the weather has become cooler, 
which is in his favor. 

An affray is reported to have occurred at Hushtnuggur in which 
three or four men were wounded. I have called on the Barukzye 
Sirdars in whose jagheer it is to send the parties in. 

22nd July — Transacted business with the Governor and 

Deputy. The latter urged me to write to the Resident on behalf of his 
son, Dewan Kishen Cower, ex-Kardar of Rawul Pindee ; I replied that I 
had already done so, but as no reply had been vouchsafed the subject 
was evidently not agreeable. 

Held my weekly Durbar of the Urbobs, at which there was 
much discussion as to their not only not assisting Government in sup- 
pressing the salt contraband trade, but that by many they were accused 
of aiding and benefiting by it. I warned them that if proved they might 
rely on losing their jagheers. 

2jrd July — Some villagers complained of the sepoys of the 
Khas Pultun cutting off the water from their fields. I sent tlic parties to 
the General to have the case investigated, with instructions to punish 
the men if guilty. 

To show the difficulty of ascertaining who are deserters from 
our army, I may mention that in the recent issue of pay to the Dhokul 
Singh, or Poorbeah Pultun, I took down the name, without their being 
aware of it, of each man who struck me from his appearance as having 
been one of our sepoys, and I find by my list I have 90 down, not one of 
whom, I am quite sure, is under his proper name ; all have borrowed 
names, and many of them, I have no doubt, have been discharged for 
different offences. I also got their long roll to examine ; few have put 
down their villages or purgunnahs, but chiefly large cities as Lucknow, 
Bareilly, Cawnpore, etc. 



374 


PESHA IVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47, 


2^ih July j8,fy . — Sirdar Peer Mahomed sent in a man suspected of 
having wounded another. 1 enquired into the case, but there being no 
proof dismissed it. I mention it to show that the recent orders of the 
Durbar to send in all such cases are now attended to. 

A disturbance arose in the city which, if the parties had not 
been promptly seized, might have led to serious results : a Hindoo and 
Mahomedan quarrelling set to abusing each other’s religion and a crowd 
was attracted and sides taken ; the Police however interfered and took 
them to the Governor, who sent them to me. I imprisoned the princi- 
pals, first having them well flogged, and fined all the rest. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 


No. 26.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 25th, to Saturday, the 31st July 1847. 

2jthjuly iSp.y.~Tht Governor, General Golab Singh, paid me 
a friendly visit before breakfast this morning, and sat for an hour- 
and-a-half ; we complimented each other on the improved state of the 
Province. 

I have directed Sirdar Kahn Singh to order out every morn- 
ing 8 o or 100 of his Ghorechurras to make an 8 or to mile circuit of 
the country with a view to show the people we are on the alert, as also 
to give the horsemen a knowledge of the country. 

26lh July . — Transacted business with the Governor and Deputy : 
they arrived at 7, and were with me till half past 10 a . m . 

Some petitions having been lodged by Ramgole sepoys com- 
plaining that Colonel Dhun Raj had issued orders putting them to 
unnecessary expense by changing their dress, etc., I requested the 
General to investigate the matter. He reports the complaints to be 
false, and to have been made at the instigation of ex-Colonel and 
Commandant Ram Dass, through the medium of a Naik of the 2nd 
Regiment, whom I have ordered to be discharged forthwith. 



PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 375 

Several Bunneahs have been detected mixing Indian corn with atta, 
and have been fined. 

Sirdar Sultan Mahomed sent to say he purposed calling to- 
morrow. 

Aph July i8p]. — Sirdar Sultan Mahomed Khan, after mutual com- 
pliments, asked for a private interview; he was attended by Naib 
Mahomed Shereef, our pensioner; I had my Moonshee. To my astonish- 
ment all at once he told the Naib to produce the Koran, which he had 
under his cloak, and ere I could say a word he put out his band on the 
book and swore most solemnly that his whole and sole aim was to retain 
our good opinion and prove his gratitude at being restored to his home; 
that his brother the Ameer was his bitter enemj', and much more to the 
same purpose. He said that Sirdar Sultan Jan had W'ritten from 
Cabul that he was at his service for any work, and was ready to join 
him at Peshawur ; he asked should he tell him to do so I replied “ by 
no means.” My Moonshee says his object in making this solemn decla- 
ration is that, as he has many enemies at Lahore, he fears their represen- 
tations may injure him in our estimation. I directed the Moonshee to 
take notes of the meeting. 

This is the first morning I have had to myself for three months, 
and I enjoyed it very much ; what with settling the affairs of the 
Ramgoles and paying the Regulars, I have been engaged every 
morning from daybreak. 

28lh July . — A good fall of rain last night ; will give us cool 
weather for the next week. This being the Mahomedan festival of 
Shub-i-beral, I had no kutcherry, the first holiday my establishment 
have had. 

An order has arrived from Sirdar Tej Singh recalling Colonel 
Ram Sahaie Singh of the Artillery, reported by me to the Resident for 
making false returns. As the General considers the Commandant, 
Adjudhia Pershaud, equally implicated, I have requested he be sent also 
with tlie Major and Moonshees. 

sgth July . — An order recalling the Deputy Governor, Dewan 
Hakim Raie, arrived last evening. I have assented to the Governor’s 



376 


PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 18^7. 


proposition to allow him to remain pending a reference to the Resident 
and Durbar. His recall has been caused by his (in a letter he wrote me 
some time ago) styling himself Governor, etc. 

The recall of Colonel Bukshie Singh has alarmed the Artillery 
Commandants. It was reported last evening that several hundred 
maunds of grain and bhoosa which ought to have been given to the 
Government cattle had not. They now wished to know what was to be 
done with it ; I have ordered it to be carried to the account of Govern- 
ment, and told the General to explain that in future any curtailing of 
the food of the cattle, or appropriation of Government property, will not 
be passed over, and that I shall hold the Colonels responsible. 

joth July 184 .^. — The Governor and Deputy were with me for 
three hours. I have directed the latter to continue his duties till further 
orders. He is very much downcast at his recall ; it will do him good 
and frighten others. 

Rode through the city last evening and was joined by Sirdar 
Sultan Mahomed Khan, whom I accompanied to his house, and sat 
with him some time. He showed me some 50 or 60 English and French 
mirrors he had brought from Lahore, with chandeliers, wall shades, 
etc., to the value of a lakh of rupees; he is building extensively at the * 
Wuzeeree Bagh. 

2ist July - — Lieutenant Lumsden arrived this morning, looking all 
the better for his trip. 

In my grounds is an extensive tank in which I have allowed the 
Sikh troops to bathe, much to their enjoyment ; it requiring clearing 
out, this morning 500 or 600 of the men of their own accord came and 
in half an hour cleared it, appearing to enjoy the fun. 

I have just heard of an engagement having taken place three 
days since in the Khyber between two clans ; several wounded and 
killed on both sides. 

We are going to pay the Governor a visit this evening ; I am 
happy to sa}' he is quite recovered. All well in this quarter. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 

Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 



PESHAU'UR POIJTICAL DIARIES, 18^7. 


377 


No. 27.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 1st, to Saturday, the 7th August 1847. 

1st August — I find I omitted in my last week's Diary to notice 

the arrival on the of a treasure party with 1,14,000 rupees from 

Lahore. 

The Governor and Deputy started early this morning to inspect 
the forts of Junirood and Barrah. 

And August . — A grand parade this morning of all the troops, 
regular and irregular: marched past in review in open column of troops 
and companies, about 2,000 Cavalry, 500 Artillery and 5,000 Infantry. 
The men were very steady and looked remarkably well. 

Transacted business with Governor and Deputy; they seem to 
have enjoyed their visit to the forts yesterday, which they report as 
requiring petty repairs. Lieutenant Lumsden astonished the officers by 
showing them some gun-cotton and its efiects : he made a paper cannon 
from which he fired some shots to their great surprise and amuse- 
ment. They wanted to present nuzznrs on his escape from drowning, 
but 1 told them it was unnecessary; their congratulations were sufficient. 

My special messenger, deputed on the 30th with a purwannah to 
the Mulliks of Nowdeh and Kulloo in the Eusufzyes {sic), has returned 
with a positive refusal from them to obey it : the}’ say they will only pay 
revenue as they please ; I may send troops against them or do what 
I like. They are close to the hills, and think they are safe ; 1 hope ere 
long to show them their mistake. 

jid August . — Intelligence from Cabul up to the 27th ultimo is that 
Gholani Hyder Khan has been appointed Vuzeer, and his half brother, 
Sirdar Sher Alie Khan, Governor of Guznee : Meer Durwesh Khan 
Baba, Khoosh Khance, had been released from confinement on paying 
a fine of 5,000 rupees. The country was in its usual disturbed state. 

Sirdar Kahn Singh has been laid up for some time and yesterday 
was dangerously ill. I offered Mr. Thompson’s services, and with 
Lieutenant Lumsden paid him a visit: glad to find him much better. 1 
sent him some rhubarb shurbcl from Cabul, which is highly esteemed. 

^th August.— A fire broke out in one of the bazars, but was quickly 
put cut witliout doing much damage. 

^th August , — Transacted business with the Deputy Governor. 

48 



378 


PESHAWUK POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^n. 


Sent Mr. Apothecary Thompson to attend on the Governor, who 
is reported dangerously ill. 

At about 9 A.M. the powder manufactory in the city blew up, 
completely destroyed 34 houses, one of which was the mint, and part of 
the city wall ; 8 people were killed on the spot, 5 died shortly after, and 
34 were more or less wounded, one man was killed herding cows a quarter 
of a mile outside the city by a brick falling on him ; many houses in the 
city were shaken. I sent Lieutenant Lumsden with all the beldars to 
the spot ; they succeeded in rescuing one man who was completely buried 
in the ruins, but uninjured. The police were very active and useful keep- 
ing the crowd, which was immense, from the ruins Lieutenant Lumsden 
praises them much. I have directed the wounded to be sent to my hospital. 
In the evening I repaired to the scene, which was distressing to view. 

6lh August 18^’/. — Mr. Thompson remains in attendance on the 
Governor; the Hakeems were killing him fast by giving him cold 
applications instead of hot. I sat with him some time this morning. 

Held my usual weekly Durbar of all the Urbobs yesterday. 

7//* August. — Visited the Governor this morning ; he had a good 
night, and is now, I trust, out of danger ; he will not part with Mr. 
Thompson, whose attention and skill he justly appreciates. 


A man from Khuttuck for the murder of his wife was e.xecuted 
this morning. He suspected his wife of infidelity, but without taking her 
to task, or the least proof or enquiry, cut her to pieces. I have had his 
crime and sentence proclaimed through the city. 


In Cabul there are three Armenian families, of tw'elve members. One 
of the Ameer’s sons hearing of the beauty of one of the girls sent to the 
father for her ; on his refusing on the plea of their difference of religion, 
the young Sirdar sent to saj' he would take her b}' force. Some friends of 
the family have asked me to write to the Ameer, and sounded me as to 

whether I would give the girl shelter 
and protection should they be able 
to bring her to Peshawur. I regret 
not deeming myself at liberty to 
reply. 


I have told Major Lawrenre that 
there can be no objection tt? such 

persons piotection when once acioas the 
frontier 

H. M. Lawrlni b , 

Agent to (1 -G. 

Lahohl : 

August i6(Ik 


Glo. St. P. LAWRENCE, M.ajor, 
Friucipal Asst, to the Agent, G - G , N.-IV. F. 



I'ESHAU'VR rOTTTICAL DIARIES, iSd 379 

No. 28 — Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 

General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 8th, to Saturday, the 14th August 1847. 

8 ih August iS^j.'j . — We visited the Governor this morning, and 
I am happy to say he is progressing famously ; he will hardly admit 
one of the Hakeems into his presence, while he scarcely lets Mr. 
Thompson out of his sight. 

gth August Transacted business with the Deputy Governor. 

I have ordered trees to be planted throughout the Province, each 
Jagheerdar and pensioner to plant and take care of a number according 
to the extent of jagheer or amount of pension in land ; at present 
hardly a tree is to be seen. 

The troops paraded under their Commandants on their respective 
parades. 

I have granted two months’ leave to Colonel Dhun Raj, Com- 
mandant, Ramgoles, a young man, but most respectable, active and 
intelligent officer ; and one month’s leave to Dewan Jowallah Sahaie, 
Killadar of the Fort of Jumrood. 

loth August . — I refused to receive Mahomed Shah Khan Ghilzie’s 
Agent, who brought his master’s letter, and desired that merely a 
receipt should be given for it. His impudence in addressing me and 
styling himself the friend of tiie Englisli beats anything I ever heard. 

He was the instigator of the murder of the Envoy and more than 
once advised the destruction of tlie prisoners. On one occasion as I 
remonstrated with the late Mahomed Akber on the cruelty of dragging 
about the country helpless women and children, and was flattering 
myself on having made an impression, Mahomed Shah Khan with a 
fiendish grin replied, “ Lawrence Sahib, listen to what I have to say. As 
long as a Red-coat is in this country, so long will your women and 
children be dragged about ; where they can ride they may, where they 
cannot, they must walk ; where they cannot walk, they must be carried; 
and when they can no longer be carried, their throats shall be cut I” 

He is the Chief who carried me off on the fatal 23rd December, not 
from any wish to save my life, but from considering me more valuable 
alive than dead. 



38 o PESHA WUR political DIARIES, jS^?. 

iith August i 8 ^j. — A second purwannah arrived last evening from 
the Durbar recalling the Deputy Governor, Devvan Hakim Raie, so I 
have consented to his going, but am sorry to lose him : though the 
Resident would let him remain, still, as he thinks the example will be of 
use, I will do the best I can to supply his place. 

Rode through the city this evening and visited a remarkable 
well whose water in the hottest day is almost as cold as ice ; it is drawn 
upon by the whole city : I keep a guard on it to preserve the peace. 

I2th August— Th& Governor called in his Palankeen and sat a 
few minutes. I would not let him remain ; he looks still so ill and is so 
very much reduced. I have told him not to move out again till he becomes 
stronger. On Mr. Thompson leaving him last night he presented him 
with 1 25 rupees, which was declined. The Governor then sent the purse 
to me and begged I would direct Mr. T. to take it ; I returned it, saying 
I would first obtain the Resident’s sanction as a special case. 

Of 5,000 shot sent from Lahore 400 only have arrived ; the 
remainder are- reported to be left at Rhotas for want of carriage. 
40 bullocks are said to have died en route in conveying the above. 

ijlh August. --Ivi my Diary of the 7th instant I reported the 
case of the Armenians at Cabul ; 3'esterday I received a letter from them 
much to the same effect. I have consequently determined on writing 
privately and friendly to the Ameer and mention what I had heard and 
request his interference in their behalf. 

I held my usual Durbar yesterday of the Urbobs, and arranged with 
them to attend at sunrise during the month of Rautsati. 

Under orders from the Durbar reducing the Cavalry regiment to 
550 sabres, the Governor selected three officers, nine non-commissioned 
three trumpeters and 94 sowars of the Aukhalee Regiment, and started 
them for Lahore with the ex-Deputy Governor, Dewan Hakim Raie. 

At the request of the Mahomedan population the Governor has 
ordered the morning gun to be fired during the Ramzan an hour 
before daybreak, 

I ph August . — I called at sunrise on the Governor and transacted 
business to save his coming to me. 



FES HA ir UK rOLITlCAT. D/A KIES, 3S1 

Some Moollahs at Hushtnuggur have had an affray in which 
several men have been wounded, and the chief Moollah, whom I had 
ordered to be apprehended and brougiit to me, has died of liis wounds ; 
it seems he did his best to excite a serious commotion but failed ; 'lure 
are said to be three or four more of his set ill-disposed whom I hope 
to lay hold of ere long. I have fully explained to the Barukzye Si' dsrs 
that I shall hold them strictly responsible for any breach of the peace 
within their Jagheers. 

I have no recent intelligence of any consequence from the west, 
but matters are much as usual in that quarter ; here ail continues well. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 

Pi iiiapol Asst, tj the Agent, G.-G., N.-IF. F. 


No. 29.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 15th, to Saturday, the 21st August 1847. 

ijtfi August iSp.y . — I fear there is no chance of my apprehending 
the Gundghurrias, who are represented by Captain .Abbott to be among 
the Eustifzyes : it is a point of honor among all these tribes not to 
give refugees up and one of the few they adhere to most devoutly. 

i6th August . — Lieutenant Lumsden inspected the troops this 
morning while I visited the Governor and with him transacted 
business; we inspected the Khas Regiment of Cavalry, and reduced 
their non-commissioned officers and sepoys to the new establishment. 

A Mullik of Mitchenee, who had a suit in court which was 
given against him, took upon himself with too men to stop a merchant’s 
jallah or float proceeding by the river from Jellalabad and sent word 
to me by the owners that he would keep the goods till I gave him 
redress : Mitchenee being in Sirdar Sultan Mahomed’s Jagheer, I 
wrote him to do the needful and produce the Mullik before me. 

I heard of the body of a woman and child being found with 
their throats cut near the village of Lundy j'esterday; no report has 
yet come from the (Jrbob of this double murder. 

lyth August . — Visited the Governor and transacted business ; 
he will soon be going about ; we arranged to send Colonel Holmes with 
a regiment of Cavalry, one of Infantry and four guns to the Eusufzye 



382 


PESHAlVUk POLITICAL DIARIES, iS./7’ 


country to collect the revenue, scarcely any having been paid in, and 
some villages having sent a flat refusal which it will never do to 
allow to pass. 

Intelligence from Cabul up to the i ith instant is that the Ameer 
is engaged in taking the muster of his troops, and after paying intends 
sending a portion under his son, Sirdar Mohamed Afzul Khan, to collect 
the revenue of Tegaon. Mahomed Shah Khan, Ghilzie, was paying 
off old scores on the tribes who had assisted the Ameer recently against 
him; Sirdar Mahomed Ameen Khan and i,000 horse had been sent 
against him from Turkistan. The ruler of Khokand, Mussulman Khool, 
is said to have been deposed and killed, and Kliymla Beg, son of Sarm 
Sak Beg, of the blood Royal placed in his stead. The Russians are 
reported to have built a fort within six or eight marches (ISO koss) of 
Khiva, which the3' have garrisoned with four regiments and eight guns. 

The merchandise from Cabul detained at Mitchenee has been 
released, but the Mullik not yet brought in. 

i 8 th August iS^y . — Visited the Governor and transacted business. 

I have recommended small sums to be given to the proprietors of 
the houses recently blown up by the gunpowder explosion, and that the 
manufactory should in future be carried on a short distance from the 
city. 

We get on much better without the Deputy Governor, Hakim Raie, 
than I expected ; it has caused the Governor to exert himself. 

Hearing that an Irishman named Ramsay, who had been many 
years in the service of Ursallah Khan of Zedah (Eusufzye), was in the 
Artillery of Sekunder Khan at Hussun Abdall, 1 requested Lieutenant 
Nicholson to send him to me. He reported himself this morning; he 
has difficulty in expressing himself in English, but speaks Pushtoo 
fluently. He declares he never was in the British service, but I doubt 
him ; that he worked his passage to Bombay 15 years ago as a sailor, 
deserted the ship and joined a Kafila of Mahomedans, whom he accom- 
panied to Swat, but by what route he declares he knows not. I shall 
keep him here for some time to get all the information I can out of him. 

igth August .- — \ isited the Governor in the morning and trans- 
acted business ; fixed the march of Colonel Holmes’ detachment for 
to-morrow’. 



PESHAWUK POLITIC A I, DIARIES, iS,f7 


38 3 

Lieutenant Lumsden rode to the village of Lundy seven miles 
to the south-west to investigate the circumstance-; attending the murder 
of the woman and child, but gained little information beyond satisfying 
himself as to the locality. 

We visited the Fort of Shahmeer Ghur in the evening to inspect 
parts said to require repair. 

A purwannah arrived from the Durbar ordering the troops 
to be out at exercise twice a week in the hot and four times in 
the cold weather: although there is a sensible change already in 
the mornings, I will wait ] 5 or 20 days ere I act upon it. I am 
happy to say as yet the troops are very healthy, but the next month 
is said to be very trying, and bad fevers prevail. 

The Governor and Sirdar Kahn Singh. I am happy to say, are 
quite recovered. 

2oth August — Visited the Governor and transacted business. 

The detachment under Colonel Holmes marched this morning. 
When they have crossed the Cabul river at Jangheera Lieutenant 
Lumsden by a forced march will join them, and then with the Cavalry 
push on and surprise the villages of Nowdeh and Kulloo, whose 
Mulliks have refused to pay their revenue ; he will then r/w/ntt; the 
village of Gurry, where the Gundghurrias are said to have taken 
refuge when they fled from Captain Abbott’s troops. It is the onlv 
chance I see of our seizing them, for the people or Khans will not 
give them up. 

Held my weekly Durbar of the Urbobs, but at 7 a.,m. instead 
of 1 1 on account of its being the Ramzan. 

2ist August. — the Governor and transacted business. 
We have arranged to inspect the repairs required in the Fort of 
Shahmeer Ghur and meet this evening for the purpose. 

No more recent intelligence from the west than is detailed on 
the 17th. All is well here, and the troops continue to please me in 
every respect. 


Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Funcipal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-W, F. 



3S4 FESHAirUK FOUTICAL DIARIES, iSjfT- 

No. 30.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 22nd, to Saturday, the 28th August 1847. 

22nd August i 8 =fj. — A special messenger arrived from Lahore with 
a letter from the Maharajah complimentary and sending an elephant 
for my use to replace the one previously sent ; the nevv elephauc how- 
ever died en route at Rawul Pindee. 

2jrd Lieutenant Lumsden started at 2 a.m. to overtake 

the detachment under Colonel Holmes, accompanied by Colonel Alla 
Singh. 

The Regular and Irregular troops paraded this morning under 
General Golab Singh for my inspection. Sirdar Kahn Singh made an 
apology for the line ids Ghorechurras formed, saying it was new to 
them. I replied that 1 had no doubt they would soon get into the way 
of it : 70 of them have proceeded with Colonel Holmes’ detachment. 

2^th August. — Transacted business with the Governor; circula- 
ted the Durbar's proclamations prohibiting “ Slave dealing, ” “ Seizure 
of Begars, '' '' Suttee " and “ Infanticide tiie two latter I have not heard 
as practised in these parts. An ovei.^ight ajipe.rring to me to have 
occi.i.edin the Begaree proclamation, it not including forced labour 
which Jagheerdai's and Ijarahdars (contractors) take out of the people, 

I liavc caused the Governor to add it to his, as being the spirit though 
not letter of the Durbar’s order. 

A report from Bahrain Khan, Zedali, of an affray in which two 
men were killed, five men and five horses wounded ; Lieutenant Lumsden 
will investigate it. 

Conimcr.ced the i.ssue of pay for the months of Har and Saiciin 
(13th June to 15th August) to the troops as usual in my own verandah. 

The Ghorechurras being ten months in arrears, and not having 
sufficient funds in their che.st to give them four months' pay, I have 
offered Sirdar Kahn Singh 40,000 rupees from the Civil Treasury to 
be repaid on the arrival of assets from Lahore. 

2jlh August . — The corpse of a young man killed in an afifray 
yesterday in tlic Doaba was brought to me; there being no external 
marks of violence, I had the body opened, Mr. Tiiompsoii reports death 


I 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 3*5 

to have been caused by the bursting of a large blood vessel from a 
blow ; the parties are in confinement. 

I have been taking an inventory of stores in the Fort of Shahnieer 
Ghur, and in the article of lead alone found a defalcation of many 
hundred maunds : the Governor has reported it to the Durbar. 

26111 August i8^y . — Held my weekly Durbar of the Urbobs ; they 
all express themselves well pleased at the proclamations prohibiting 
“ Slave dealing, ” “ Suttees, ” ‘‘ Infanticide ” and “ Seizure of Begar,” 
and say that it is by such just measures the British rule and fame is so 
renowned. 

Colonel Holmes reports arrival in the Eusufzye country and 
that revenue was already coming in ; he wants a treasure chest. 

2yth August. — Sirdar Peer Mahomed has been taken seriously 
ill and has sent for his brother, Sirdar Sultan Mahomed Khan, who has 
proceeded to him. 

Sirdar Kahn Singh, Mujeetia, now declines receiving any advance 
for the pay of the Ghorechurras, saying that he is afraid the Durbar 
would not approve of it. I have requested the Governor to send for, and 
talk to, him on the folly of his fears, 

I have enquired but have not discovered that the recent pro^ 
ceedings at Lahore in the case of the Maharanee have caused any 
sensation among the troops ; the Governor and some of the officers 
who have mentioned it seem to approve of it. 

28th August. — Transacted business with the Governor; we were 
engaged some hours this morning. 

Orders have arrived from the Durbar to purchase horses for 
the Artillery and camels to complete the establishment of regiments of 
Infantry. 

I have received 8,000 rupees from the Resident, Lahore, com- 
pensation for the unfortunates who were plundered by Sirdar Sher 
Singh and his people ; it has caused quite a sensation, and will redound 
much to our credit. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 

Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.~G., N.-W. F. 

49 



366 PESHA VVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847, 

No. 31.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 5th, to Saturday, the 11th September 
1847. 

5 Xh September iSp.j . — A sepoy of the Khas Pultun laboring under 
sickness for a considerable time destroyed himself by cutting his throat 
with his tulwar last night. 

Much lightning, wind, and a little rain during the night brought 
the thermometer down five degrees; it is still cloudy and threatening: 
a good fall of rain would bring on the cold weather. 

6 th September . — The Governor called with all the officers. He 
brought a purwannah from the Durbar in the matter of the Ranee being 
separated from the Maharajah, also one directing the planting and 
protection of trees thoughout the Province. 

This morning I inspected all the troops. Regular and Irregular, 
on their respective parades : the Aukhalee Cavalry Regiment being very 
slovenly and dirty in dress and appointments, I ordered them to 
parade for inspection on the 8th instant. 

A petition, unsigned, against Maun Singh, Colonel of the Poor- 
beah Regiment (Dhokul Singh’s) accusing the Colonel of taking money 
from the men, I have handed over to the General to investigate ; the 
Colonel denies of course, but admits that formerly money was taken but 
declares none since my arrival. 

^th September . — Transacted business with the Governor, which 
consisted chiefly in hearing and approving what he has been doing for 
the last two days. He reports the confinement, for leaving his guard 
and being intoxicated, of a Subadar, son of Colonel Meer Jung Ali ; 
the father is a most respectable old soldier, 25 years ago a Havildar 
in our loth Native Infantry, the son a sad scamp ; a court of enquiry 
has been ordered on him. 

I have discharged my Treasurer on strong suspicion of changing 
the rupees and selling a piece of Kinkhab, supplying its place with one of 
inferior quality. There is a biitta or percentage of two annas on all rupees 
coined before 84 which has existed since Avitabile's time; on examining 
the Treasury I find out of 9,000 rupees only 2,000 are buita less? 



PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 387 

the shroffs make much money by this. I tried to stop it but failed 
signally. 

8lh September iS^y . — The Governor called after receiving the 
reports of the army, brought the officers with him and sat two or three 
hours chatting with me. 

I inspected at sunrise the Aukhalee Cavalry Regiment mounted, 
and passed them in review ; one squadron, the left, both in this regiment 
and the Khas, are mounted on mares, which causes much unsteadiness 
in the ranks ; the cattle are good but wild and require much drill, which 
they will get next month. 

Lieutenant Lumsden writes on the 6 th instant : “ 1 am happy to 
say I have by riding about the yaghee villages with the Guides, and 
making them lliink we were going to blow them out of the world, 
arranged matters, though money comes slowly in. I have now settled 
a fixed rate for each village, which includes the Khans’ and Mulliks’ 
allowances ; these gentry have done themselves considerably, but they 
had all fair warning and were told distinctly that nothing will be allowed 
to be collected beyond what is in black and white ; Khader Khan’s 
Tappas are now finished. ” He adds “ I send back Sultan Mahomed 
Khan’s sowars as I can do without them.” 

glh September . — Last evening 1 had the Aukhalee Cavalry dismount- 
ed, and after minutely inspecting them, put them through three or 
four simple manoeuvres, the Colonel carrying out my orders in French. 
The men seemed amused, and I have little doubt would learn kindly; 
they require weeding, there being many old and infirm men still in 
their ranks. 

This morning with the General I inspected 250 rank and file of 
the several corps. They are called recruits, but all are more or less men 
who had served in different regiments. They marched and fired well by 
Divisions, Grand Divisions, file firing, etc. I expressed my entire satis- 
faction and ordered them to join the ranks. One musket exploded, slightly 
injuring three men, whom I sent to Mr. Thompson for medical aid. 

We then with most of the Colonels went down the mens’ lines, 
directing various pools of water to be filled up and certain houses to 
be levelled, etc. 



388 


PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, i 84 T. 


In the evening we inspected the ist Ramgole Regiment, and 
discharged a few men, unfits who had escaped at previous inspections. 

/o/A 76’^7.— Last evening a messenger I had sent to 

summon the Mulliks of the village of Sheikh Mahmdee returned with an 
answer that they would not attend. The village is distant four koss^ is a 
large straggling place, notoriously turbulent. With the Governor I 
arranged that Colonel Ruttun Singh with his regiment of Infantry and the 
Aukhalee Cavalry should march at midnight and chapaiu it ; they did so 
and have just brought in the Mulliks (i i) with some stands of arms. The 
surprise was complete, and the result most successful. The Colonel 
brought a certificate from the chief inhabitants that no injury had been 
done them ! 

The Colonel of the Cavalry pleaded inability to accompany his 
corps from sickness, which, as I saw him quite well in the morning, must 
have been sudden, and requires investigation. He is a great opium-eater. 

I held my weekly Durbar of (Jrbobs yesterday, at which were 
read and discussed the proclamations from Lahore received during the 
week. The Governor was present. I was asked if the people might 
attend the festival of the End-i-Rannan on the I2lh witli their arms as 
had been customary ; I recommended them not for fear of accidents. 

nth September . — At an assembly of nearly 2,000 men yesterday in 
the great mosque of the city, after prayers the chief Mullah proclaimed: 

I have for years prayed that justice might be administered in this 
Province ; my prayers have at length been heard ; you have now justice, 
may you long keep and prove worthy of it.” A shout of ” Amen” made 
the old walls ring again ! 

A large Kafila from Cabool arrived this morning by the river 
route. The merchants represent the road to Jellaiabad as infested by 
Mahomed Shah Khan’s Ghilzies and consequently impassable to small 
parties. One of the merchants brought an English sword tome for sale, 
which, though badly used, I immediately recognised as my own, taken 
from me on the day of the murder of the Envoy. 

Five men have just been brought in, wounded 5'esterday in a 
mosque while at prayer ; the three men who attacked them are in cus- 
tody. 



PESHA IVUIi POLITICAL DIARIES. iS^J. 


389 


I had the Subadar, Colonel Meer Jung All's son, up, read him a 
proper lecture on his evil habits and the ruin they would bring down on 
him, disgrace to his family, etc., and said that, at the General’s request, 
this time he was let off. 

All is well ; the country is one sheet of most luxuriant cultivation. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 


No. 32.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from Sun- 
day, the 12th, to Saturday, the 18th September 1847. 

1 2 th September /i'./y. — This being the festival of the Ead-i- 
Ranisan I have excused the Mahomedan troops duty, and there will 
be no Grand Parade to-morrow. 

On Saturday evening with the Governor 1 inspected the 
2nd Regiment of Ramgoles, from which we only selected four unfits ; 
we also passed in review the Zamhoor camels attached to the Ghore- 
churras which have picked up but little in condition. I told Sirdar Kahn 
Singh that, if in another month they were not fit for service, I should 
send them to Lahore. 

ijth September . — A purwanna arrived from the Durbar, dated 
four months back, promoting a Subadar to Adjutant by seniority. So 
says the purwanna, the Colonel, Ruttun Sing, says he is not the senior, 
though a reduced Adjutant, and that there is no vacancy in his corps. 

I have suspended the promotion pending a reference to the Resident. 

This reminds me that I ought long since to have brought to notice 
the subject of promotion in the Sikh service, which requires being 
looked to, as at present the old system still prevails. I daresay it has 
not escaped the Resident and will be rectified in due course, and I 
know it is his wish that no promotions should take place till the half 
pay or reduced list is absorbed, but I do not think he is aware that 
still they are being made, or that there are some men who have been 
acting in the superior grades and have been so for more than a year, 
and only receiving the pay of the lower grade. When I asked why, the 
reply was the puUa or commission had not arrived. 



39 ° 


PESHA WUE POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 


In some corps there are two Commandants, two and three Adjutants, 
while in others only one of each; some troops of Horse Artillery have 
two Adjutants while others one. I am aware that all this may have 
been caused by the great reduction of troops and wish to provide for 
different officers ; still till these are absorbed all promotion should 
cease.* 

I attended the fair held annually at this season at which were 
collected from 15,000 to 20,000 people, men and boys, no women ; 
the Barukzye Sirdars and all the Sikh officers were present, their 
followers the only ones armed. Sirdar Peer Mahomed said he had never 
seen so quiet and orderly a concourse ; the only amusement appeared to 
be feats in horsemanship, firing at marks and taking up tent-pegs. I 
had a Resallah and company of Regulars on the ground to keep the 
peace, but their services, I am happy to say, were not required. 

The Police took up a man accused of an old murder, and one 
pick-pocket. The European, Ramsay, I was obliged to send off the 
field; he was intoxicated and kept riding in among the people, knocking 
and pushing them about. I have requested the General to keep him in 
confinement till further orders. 

/.///< September iS^y . — Another fair was held this day about 
four boss off ; it is said to have been more numerously attended than 
yesterday’s, but all went off well ; the Police and a Resallah Company 
kept the ground. 

Lieutenant Lumsden writes on the 13th: “I find my chapaiv 
has done much good and has sent back nearly all the runaways to their 
villages, besides bringing me a deputation from Loonkhore to know 
when and where I will be pleased to receive their revenue. I replied 
that I am not in the habit of treating with villagers, but that the Mulliks 
will be received if they come to me alone. The Mullik of Babeen 
(a village on the Swat border which has paid no revenue for the last 
six years) made his salam to me 5'esterday, and brought the amount of 
his kist in his hand, which speaks well for the row created. ” 

Intelligence from Cabul to the 8th instant contains little of interest 
beyond the fact, which, if true, is an extraordinary one: “That on 
the 2nd the Ameer received a letter from Syed Mahomed Khan, 


*Nole . — The subject of adjustment to rank, pay and promotion is a difficult one, 
has long had my serious attention. 


H. M. LAWRENCE, 

Rrstdent, 


and 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIAKIES, iS^y. 391 

Pugmaunee, alias Jan Fishan Khan, saying that the British troops 
would shortly be at Jellalabad and call for sundry persons, who if 
sent, it would be well, if not the Ameer must look to himself and 
family.” 

Rumor was rife that Yar Mahomed of Herat had received three 
wounds, supposed to be in action with the Huzarahs, and that the 
Persians had taken Herat. 

Nawab Jubbar Khan had had an epileptic fit and meditated a trip 
to Mecca, as did Meer Hafiz Jee, the son of the late Meer Waiez. 

I have entertained as Treasurer, Pokhur Dass, Shikarporie, formerly 
Treasurer to the late Sir A. Burnes, C.B., pending the arrival of a man 
for whom I have written to India. 

i§th September jSpy — Transacted business with the Governor 
and received the nuzzurs of all the Urbobs and gentry on the festival of 
Ead-i-Ramsan. 

Zukurrea Khan, third son of Sirdar Sultan Mahomed, with 100 
horse, returned from Eusufzye, their services not being required; the 
young Sirdar is a fine, handsome, soldier-like looking man, not unlike 
his cousin, the late Mahomed Akber. 

Lieutenant Lumsden writes me on the t4th : “ That the Mulliks of 
Nowdeh and Kuiloo, who escaped him in his late chapaw, but whose 
wives and children he had secured, had given themselves up and would 
start under charge of my Chupper Bashee to-day for Peshawur and that 
he had little doubt such was the effect of his night visit but that the 
Gundghur refugees would either be given up or forced to take flight.” 

l 6 th September . — Though the Urbobs were all with me yesterday 
they attended the weekly Durbar this morning; we discussed the 
flourishing state of the crops and the quiet which prevailed throughout 
the Province, passing mutual compliments. The cotton crop is said to 
be a failure ; indeed I have myself seen it is so. 

The Governor after receiving the reports brought all the officers 
to salam ; they sat for a couple of hours with me. 

The Adjutant of Ram Sahaie Singh’s regiment’s period of 
suspension from rank and pay having expired was brought before us, 
suitably admonished and directed to return to his duty ; the Colonel 
asked that he might be removed to another regiment, but both the 
General and I declined. 



392 


PESHA IVUE POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 


At the General’s and several of the other officers’ request I consented 
to pardon Ramsay ; he was sent for, admonished and released. He says 
if he is found again intoxicated, we may blow him from a gun. I fear he 
is incorrigible. 

iph September — I rode this morning to the Cabul River, 
nine koss, to settle a dispute about water, involving a loss of revenue to the 
amount of 12,000 or 14,000 rupees. The rice crop in the neighbourhood 
for want of irrigation is nearly destroyed. My decision will, I trust, save 
it; there is no end to these disputes about water. 1 mounted at 4 a.m , 
and, though I rode as fast as the nature of the ground admitted, did not 
return till half past 10. Every village — and I passed many — turned out 
to see me, the Mulliks bringing money and sheep, both of which I 
declined ; all were most respectful and orderly. The country is an ugly 
one for troops to act in, from the high walls round the villages and 
the deep and numerous water-courses. 

A news-letter from Cabul of the 4th instant reports that Maha- 
rajah Golab Singh had proposed an alliance with the Ameer, and 
that he should attack Peshawur, while the Maharajah did the same by 
Lahore ; that the Ameer had rejected it at once. Messengers are said to 
be constantly passing between them. 

The Resident’s notification to the army of the establishment 
of a Pension and Invalid list, with the grant of pension to the 
families of soldiers killed in action, has given great satisfaction. 

I have already been applied to by some to know if they may avail 
themselves of it ; the Governor even, smiling said he had only two 
years to complete 40 of service. 

Geo St. P. LAWRENCE, M.ajor, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-W, F. 


No. 33.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
Gener^, Noi'th-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 19th, to Saturday, the 25th September 
1847. 

igth September i 8 p.y. — Sunday. 

20th September — Inspected the troops, Regular and Irregular; 
the Ghorechurras now form line well. All appeared in good order. 
The General with the officers waited on me. After parade, I 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 18^7. 


393 


mentioned to him in their presence that I had heard it was supposed he 
did not approve of officers visiting me ; he declared it was not true, and 
that he would announce again that all were at liberty to call when they 
pleased. 

The Durbar and Barukzye Sirdars have for months been at 
issue about a debt of 30,000 rupees, the former claiming and latter 
denying. A purwanna yesterday to the Governor arrived directing their 
jagheers to be confiscated till payment be made. I have written the 
Sirdars recommending their settling the demands. 

I had fixed upon moving into camp this morning, but at the 
Governor’s request have postponed it till the 24th. I take Colonel 
Mehtab Singh’s Regiment (Sikhs) and two guns with 75 leave-of- 
absence men of the Khas Regiment of Cavalry. It is still very hot 
during the day, but I am anxious to settle the affairs of the Eusufzyes if 
possible. 

2ist September — Transacted business with the Governor ; he 

wishes me to send Lieutenant Lumsden to assist him in my absence. 

I have told him, better first try how he gets on alone. 

Rode out five koss towards Pubbee to settle another dispute about 
water, between the Ijarahdar of Khalsa and the Durbar news-writer, 
the latter has evidently been getting three times the quantity his 
village is entitled to. 

22nd September , — Engaged most of the day with the Governor 
laying down rules, etc., for his guidance. 

Called on all the officers to show by their conduct during my 
absence that they were sensible of the advantages they derived from 
the present order of things. 

2^rd September. —All the Urbobs called to-day and we had much 
conversation on the state of the country. They represent it in every 
way to be greatly improved and attribute it all to British interference: 
oppression has ceased, property is respected, the strong kept in subjec- 
tion, and weak protected. 

It being reported that Kumurooddeen Khan, repeatedly noticed in 
my Diaries, had with a party of 50 or 60 armed men proceeded last night 

50 



394 


PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1847. 


to attack one of his own relations and had forcibly released a man 
seized in an attempt at robbery, I had him and his nephew, his 
Nazir and one or two of his men, immediately put into confinement, 
and his premises searched. 60 horses were brought to me, all said to 
belong to him. It appears that on his dismissal from the “ Protection 
of the road ” he did not dismiss his armed retainers but kept them, 
with what view may be imagined. As he is a debtor to the State in 
some thousands, I ordered all his horses fit for the service to be 
made over to the Artillery, on valuation by a Committee, and enquiry 
to be made into the accusation against him. He avowedly has only 
the means of bare support, and therefore his keeping up such an 
establishment can be for no good. 

A report has prevailed in the city for some days of town duties 
and inland customs being abolished at Lahore, to the great joy of the 
people, and not a little to their relief : many have enquired when 
Peshawur will be equally favored. I replied, doubtless soon. 

24th September iSpj . — Starting the Sikh Regiment with guns and 
Cavalry at 4 a.m. under Colonel Mehtab Singh, Moraria, for Pubbee, 

I followed in the evening with a small escort. The Governor and most 
of the officers were with me to the last moment, expressing much 
regret at even my temporary departure. Riding through the city, 
it appeared more like a fair; it was so thronged: all saluted most 
respectfully and many blessed me, praying for my speedy return. 

I reached camp at Pubbee by 7 p.m., distance 8 koss, or 12 
miles ; road good, and country well cultivated ; the village is a petty 
one of about 100 houses; half way crossed the Barrah river which 
just now is not above a foot deep. 

2^th September . — It rained a little during the night, but not 
sufficient to prevent the march of the troops at 4 a.m, I followed 
at 7, reaching Nowshera at 9, distance about 7 koss, the whole over an 
extensive grass plain which was completely under water at the great 
Inundation of the Attock in 1840 and has been improved by it. 

My camp is on the bank of the Nagoman or Cabul river, which 
is here about 250 yards wide with a bank of about 20 feet. The town 
is on the left bank, merely a bazar, and the fort a small square 
with four bastions, being on this side. The flood swept away several 
villages and a great part of the town, destroying many people. 



FESHAIVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 39 S 

In the fort is a garrison of 35 Ramgoles, it is a place of no 
strength, save against horsemen ; has no stores, but a few maunds of 
powder and lead. 

I am crossing my guns and cavalry to-day, as there are only 
two boats at this ferry, so as not to delay the march to-morrow. I 
purpose halting and letting all the rest pass over during the day. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 


No. 34.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 26th September, to Saturday, the 2nd 
October 1847. 

26th September j8^y . — Received from John Lawrence, Esquire, new 
customs regulations, and abolishing all petty taxes and reducing those 
retained, fixing the collections to be made at certain points : the relief thus 
afforded to the poor will be immense, not only in the abolition of the 
customs, but in thus stopping the extortion and oppression of collectors, 
which in many cases exceeded the legitimate tax. 

Naib Mahomed Shereef, our pensioner, the friend of the late 
Sir A. Burnes, who is the contractor of Nowshera, followed me here 
and has been most useful in procuring supplies, etc. 

All the camp have crossed the river ; I follow in the evening. 

2yth September. — March at 6 a.m., reaching Touroo in Eusufzye 
at half past 8, distance about 12 miles. A mile from Nowshera crossed 
a small kotul or pass over a low crest of hills (the field of battle which 
decided the fate of Peshawur), from which the road descended into a 
vast plain of rich alluvial soil but uncultivated, said to be from the 
difficulty of procuring water : thence for four miles road good to the 
village of Barrah Bundee, situated to the right on a gentle rise sur- 
rounded by rich cultivation, which continued more or less to camp ; 
twice crossed the river Culpanee, a broad and deep bed but not dry ; it 
is the boundary of Hushtnuggur and Eusufzye. Here I found Khader 
Khan of Touroo. The road thence runs along the bank on which are 
several Persian wheels, and the ground is highly cultivated, the crop of 
bajra and cotton luxuriant. 



396 


PESHAWVR POLITICAL DIARIES, JS47. 


In the evening it was reported that some horsemen from Pullee 
had shortly after we passed carried ofif a Hindoo from close to Nowshera; 
these are the robbers who hitherto secure in their fastnesses live by 
plundering the country. 

Many Khans called on me and presented horses, sheep and 
rice ; the former I returned, but sent the latter to be distributed by 
Colonel Mehtab Singh to the troops. 

Lieutenant Lumsden joined me by appointment, leaving Colonel 
Holmes’ force in camp at Kaloo Khan, distant only eight miles, with an 
open country between us, so that we can quickly unite if necessary. 

28th September 184 .']. — Last evening and this morning we rode 
four or five koss to view the country, passing though the village of Hotee 
and Myehai ; its features are much the same as already described, parts 
being highly cultivated and others, very much the greater, quite barren, 
though all good soil, and water to be had for the digging. 

Heard from Lieutenant Taylor from Huzarah ; he hopes to be 
with me in a few days ; marches by Torbela and Oond ; many of his 
people are sick, and it is not to be wondered at, for the heat in the day is 
great and cold at night equally so. At sunrise the thermometer in my 
tent stands at 60, at midday at 94"! 

Issued a proclamation calling on all the people who had fled to 
the neighbouring hills to return within a month, on pain of forfeiture of 
land and rights, and telling them that an equitable settlement of revenue 
to include all demands, Government or their Khan’s, was about to be 
made. 

Heard from Sirdar Golab Singh, the Cazee and heads of Police : 
all going on well at Peshawur ; have directed daily reports to be sent me. 

2Qth September . — Rode last evening and this morning to several 
villages and stuck up our proclamation in the mosques ; vve were 
accompanied by Colonels Mehtab Singh and Purtab Singh, commanding 
the Ghorechurras, 

The Khans are troubled and appear to think their reign at an 

end. 

Heard last night that the robbers of Pullee had driven oflf a 
held of cattle, killing one man and wounding three, at a short distance 
from Nowsheia. Wrote to Sirdar Syed Mahomed to cause $0 sowars 



PESRAWUR POI.iriCAL DIARIES, iSr. 397 

to patrol from Hnshtnuggur to Nowshera and that I should make him 
answerable for the safety of the roads within his jagheer. 

Ursulla Khan of Zedah called to report his arrival from India. 
I lectured him on his not paying his respects at Lahore and told 
him he might expect to be ordered there; he has evidently a high sense 
of his own importance which must be lessened ere long. He is shrewd 
and intelligent and professes great devotion to us. He presented four 
horses. I returned all, but on his entreating me and urging that he 
would be lowered in the eyes of his people, 1 retained one. 

jo/A September — Great rejoicing at Peshawur and all 

around on the promulgation of the new customs rules and abolition of the 
mass of petty taxes, which, though yielding little to the State, were pro- 
ductive of much oppression and extortion. 

This wise and truly politic measure will redound much to our 
credit. Its fame and beneficial results will extend through Turkistan to 
the gates of Moscow and will next to annihilate the trade of Cabul, as 
hitherto from the heavy duties in the Punjaub the Lohanee merchants 
have had it all to themselves, they taking the Bikaneer and Bhawulpore 
route through Dera Ismail Khan and Guznee to Cabul, which occupied 
three months, whereas now 40 days will do it, and Peshawur instead 
of receiving its piece-goods from Cabul will send them there. 

Rode about as usual morning and evening. Comparatively few peti- 
tions are presented, kept back I doubt not by the Khan. 

The other day some Sikh sepoys reclining near a well under 
trees were heard to express their wonder “ how it was that not a Singh 
had been murdered this time since they entered the Eusufzye country, 
whereas on all other occasions not a day passed but several were 
destroyed ; “ it must be,” said they, “ that the people are afraid of these 
two white faces.” They then discussed the separation of the Ranee from 
the young Rajah and wondered “ whether we meant to play him fair.” 
One replied, “ rely upon it they do ; they always arc true to their engage- 
ments” ; ” ah but,” said the other, “the bait is great; can they withstand it ”1 

1st October . — Took our usual ride ; a few more petitions have 
come in, but chiefly from distant Tuppas. 

Lieutenant Lumsden’s Guides inform him that the Pullee plun- 
derers have a picket several miles in advance of their position to give 



3y8 PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, jS^?- 

notice of our approach, so that they may have time to fly : they are very 
suspicious of all strangers approaching ; while one of his men was with 
them, an old woman gave the alarm that she had seen the Feringhies 
e» route to Pullee, which caused an instant rush to the hills. The Chief 
on the return of the foraging party highly approved of their success in 
bringing the cattle, but reprobated the spilling of blood. “ You will have 
those Sahibs on us,” he said, “ if you murder.” 

Heard from Lieutenant Taylor that, consequent upon having 
obtained the sanction of the Resident, he purposed joining Maharajah 
Golab Singh’s troops in an expedition against the Suddhoons, which he 
supposed would delay his joining me for six weeks or two months. Wrote 
him in reply that as I should proceed to Lahore about the end of the 
month, it was necessary he should be with me ere then to arrange his 
duties ; Lieutenant Lumsden being required for some months in Eusufzye 
to carry out our settlement, his services would be needed to visit the 
districts and occasionally to run into Peshawur to keep all straight. 

2nd October 184 .^. — Colonel Alla Singh, the Governor’s son, joined 
us from Peshawur yesterday, though I had recommended his father 
keeping him to assist in his government during my absence ; the old 
gentleman says he can do without him, and that his post is with us. 

Took our ride as usual. We seldom meet a dozen people in as 
many miles; the country seems quite deserted, an unearthly stillness 
prevailing, only broken by the squeaking and creaking of the Persian 
wheels which are at work night and day. 

General Elahee Buksh, commanding Artillery, sent me a set of 
horse appointments, 180 sets of which have arrived from Lahore: a 
more disgraceful turnout I never saw ; they are made by contract and 
evidently will not last three months. I made up too sets at Peshawur 
for much less money, and in every way superior. 


Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV- F. 


Camp Touroo, Eusufzye: 
2nd October 1S4J. 



PESHAVVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iSty. 


399 


No. 35. — Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 3rd, to Saturday, the 9th October 1847. 

jrd October iS^j. — Sunday. 

tfth October . — Had a grand parade of the troops, after which 
sent them to make a promenade through the neighbouring villages, etc. 

A letter from the Mulliks of Loonkhore: they say their country 
produces little or nothing and is unable to pay revenue ; this is in reply 
to my summons for them to wait on me. 

Sent orders to Colonel Holmes to march to-morrow to Sawul 
Dhur, near Jumal Ghurry, to which I purposed moving at the same 
time had not we found in the evening that another day at Touroo was 
necessary to complete its settlement. 

Lieutenant Lumsden seized a spy from Pullee, vvho acknowl- 
edged that he had been deputed to watch our proceedings. He had driven 
off 20 bullocks three months before, and was pointed out by the owner. 
On being questioned he coolly acknowledged the fact, sa3-ing he had 
given them up on receiving 25 rupees, which sum he was now pre- 
pared to refund : he seemed to deem it hard measure his being put into 
confinement for such a mere matter of trade 1 

^th October — With Colonels Mehtab Singh, Alla Singh and other 
officers, accompanied by 20 or 30 of the men, we went out hog-hunting ; 
the sepoj's were most eager, and appeared to enjoy the sport highly. 

Colonel Holmes reports that finding scarcity of water at Sawul 
Dhur, he fell back on Hamzah Ghur, a mile in its right rear. 

6 th October . — Marched to Jumal Ghurry, 12 miles ; for the first 
four to the village of Mahoba -partial cultivation, from thence over a 
barren plain passing the small village of Cazeeabad, round which were 
a few patches cultivated. There is no road but a foot-path ; the country 
however is so flat that the guns had no difficulty in moving. 

Jumal Ghurry is a small village, with only three wells in or near it ; 
water very scarce and little or no cultivation. Opposite to our camp on 
the spur of a hill •' called Brahma ” are the remains of an ancient strong- 
hold, which we visited and in which we found many beautifully carved 
figures in stone, most more or less defaced. The natives could give us no in- 
formation connected with the place ; an adjoining hill is called “ Gungah.” 



400 


PESHA WUR POLITICAL DIA HIES, 1847- 


yth October iS^f.’j . — Marched to Cutlung, which is just in rear 
of the hill called Brahma, and over which is a narrow foot-path. The 
gun road w'inds round the spur and then up a narrow gorge (easily 
defensible) for two or three miles, where it opens into this valley, which 
is bleak and barren. 

This village consists of three divisions on as many mounds with 
a sort of basin below and separating them, through which runs a 
stream, at present nearly dry. It seems a wretched place, producing 
little or nothing. 

The Mulliks of Cutlung and Loonkhore waited on us and 
professed their willingness to pay what they could, but that it was little 
they had, and most of the villages near the hills they said would not pay 
at all. Two, named Shamoozye and Baboozye, distant only three koss, 
priding themselves on having foiled Sirdar Sher Singh's attack and in- 
flicting considerable loss on the Sikhs, would not hear of even paying 
their respects. I have written to their Mulliks advising their coming 
in and talking to us. 

Colonel Holmes’ force joined at Cutlung this morning, so that 
we now muster 6 Horse Artillery guns, a regiment of Cavalry, 64 Ghore- 
churras, 40 jagheer horse, two regiments of Infantry and four com- 
panies of Ramgoles, exclusive of the Guide Corps. 

Posted the pickets myself, a double chain, foot and horse. 

8 th October . — We reconnoitred this morning the village of Sha- 
moozye. Found the people on the alert, with flags flying and occupying 
the most commanding positions ; it is in a cleft of the hills, their sides 
protected by them, the front is defended by a breastwork said to be of 
wood. Unless we can crown the heights I fear we shall lose many lives. 

Received a reply to my letters ; both the villages profess submis- 
sion, but declare they are too poor to pay revenue. 1 have again written 
them “ to send me their headmen to talk to me, when I had no 
doubt w'e would easily arrange matters ; that till they come in I could 
do nothing to ease them of their burdens.” 

In the evening with a few horse we rode to the village of , 

w'hich we found nearly deserted ; came on all their flocks and herds, 
which as we did not plunder I am led to hope will show the people that 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, tS-!7. 


401 


they have not the old Sikhs under Sirdar Sher Singh to deal with. 
This valley being entirely dependent on rain for irrigation and little 
having fallen this year, there is hardly a particle of vegetation. 

gth October i 8 ^j . — Reconnoitred this morning the village of 
Baboozye; found all prepared to give us a warm reception. Three sliots 
were fired at us, which, until the men who fired are given up, will preclude 
our making any terms with the people. The village is situated much as 
Shamoozye in the cleft of the hill, but seems more open in the rear. 

I annex a field sketch of the two taken by Lieutenant Lumsden. 

Hearing that there was a foot-path from the opposite or Suddoom 
side of the hill, we sent a Guide yesterday to reconnoitre it, and I am 
happy to say that he reports it accessible to the very top ; once there, 
a few men can command the village and its defences. We send a party 
to-night, under the pretext of looking for cattle of the Baboozye people 
said to have been sent across the hill, and on Monday tnorning we 
expect to be enabled to give a good account of these warlike gentlemen. 

The Mulliks of Shamoozye have just come in and paid their 
respects, the first time they say they ever did to any one. We com- 
mended them accordingly, and sent them back apparently well pleased ; 
they were greatly alarmed at first, fancying we should seize and imprison 
them. I gave them no Khillut or money, deeming it a bad practice thus 
to pay rebels. 

Intelligence from Cabul up to the 25th ultimo of no sort of interest. 

Geo. St. F. LAWRENCE, Major, 

Principal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 


No. 36.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 
Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 
General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 10th, to Saturday, the 16ch October 1847. 

loth October — The Guide Company with a company of 

Ramgoles marched last night for the Suddoom valley with orders to 
ascend the hill above Baboozye, so as to reach the summit by daybreak 
and descend as soon as they see the main force in position. 

Towards evening received a mess.age from Futty Khan, the 
Dutfadar of Guides, who leads the pai tyc reporting arrival at Suddo >m 

51 



402 PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, JS47. 

and his having commenced searching for the cattle of the insurgents 
as a blind. Meer Baba had a-s^-mbled his men ready to co-operate. 

Struck our camp and placed ail the baggage in a defensible position, 
telling off a resallah and three companies for its protection. 

At a meeting of Commanding Officers in my tent explained to 
each the plan of operations for to-morrow, so that if possible there may 
be no mistake. Told them to warn their men against plundering or 
leaving the ranks on any pretext, and to take no camp followers but 
water-carriers ; all seem most eager and anxious to please. 

nth Oclohfir iSjf.'j. —The force marched at 2 .\.m , consisting of 6 
Horse Artillery guns ; 470 Sabres, Khas Dragoons and Ghorechurras ; 
972 rank and file Sikh FvCgiment, Nujeebs and Ramgoles ; all in high 
spirits. 

The action commenced by the enemy on the left spur attacking 
our right skirmishers ; tlie guns were quickly brought to bear on the 
heights and village, but did not succeed in clearing either. The 
skirmishers were then ordered t<') force the spur under cover of a water- 
course, but mistaking tue order they made a rusli up the face which was 
perpendicular; here the}' were brought up and took shelter as best 
they could. Seeing their critical position 1 withdrew them, but not till 
they had sustained some loss. Rallying them under shelter of som 
trees I detached their support to carry out the original order. 

The skirmishers of the left column took up an excellent position 
within musket range of the village, and I supporled them by posting 
the main body under Colonel Holmes on a nx'ky mound commanding its 
left defence?. 

My chief ohjcct wa? to engage the attention of the eiiCmy from 
our rear att.ack. wiihoui exp-'sing my men, ;uid in this I succeeded, 
though much again.sl tiieir iiiciiiiaiiun, scvci al of the Culunds coming 
up to me at different times and begging me to give the order for a 
general assault, 

.At length on -ccing the he-ul of our rear attack debouching 
from the iiili, I gave tiie miiLl; dr-.iicd . rd'jr. u i ich tvas promptly obeyed. 
The eneniv Hcd hi all di' c’cio'j-., and li'c vill ig'; \va> in our possession. 



lESIIAirL’K POr.lTlCAL DIARIES^ iSn- 


403 


Our loss is trifling -- 1 killed and 13 wounded. Mr. Thompson 
was in the field and most useful. 

The troops tiiroughout the day behaved admirably ; not an attempt 
was made to plunder or leave the ranks till I gave the order to fire the 
village, when I told them to help themselves, 

I2th October iS^J . — As the troops were collecting yesterday to 
return to camp after the destruction of the village, Lieutenant Lumsden 
observed at the distance of some miles, among the brushwood, the Pullee 
Cavalry robbers Instantly giving chase with 24 of his Guides and 
some Khas Dragoons, after a gallop of six miles he came up with 
them, but only just as they entered the village, into which he did not 
think it prudent to follo'.v them; another mile more and he would have 
given a good account of them lie reports that the Dragoons were 
soon left in the rear. 

Lieutenant Taylor joined me yesterday shortly after our return 
to camp, having made a i'orced march of 30 miles in hopes of being in 
time for the action; his disappointment was great at finding it over. 

The Mulliks of several yaghee villages have tendered obeisance, 
many who never were known to do so before ; the fate of Baboozye has 
opened their eyes, 

ijth Odober. — Marched tiiis morning to Leekoanee, about five miles 
in advance toward Pullee, the force under Colonel Holmes proceeding 
direct ; Lieutenants Lumsden, Taylor and myself, with Colonels Kahn 
Singh, Rosa, and Alla Singh and two resallahsof Dragoons proceeding 
by the village of Loonkhore, which gives name to the district. 

I had intended to pitch my camp there, but from the nullah being 
dry and water only procurable from wells, changed my mind. 

Loonkhore is a large populous village, contains about 1,500 
houses, 100 of which are Hindoos, who carry 011 an exten'^ive trade with 
Swat ; it is surrounded by a deep and broad ravine and if defended 
could only be taken with much loss; from the Cutlung side it might be 
cannonaded with effect. 

We rode through most of the streets attended by the Mulliks, 
the women crowding tlie tops of the houses and the men the doorways 
to see us, the latter giving us the '• welcome of peace. ’’ 



404 


FESHAIVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^J- 


The country is bleak and barren, not a blade of vegetation did we 
see in our whole ride. 

A deputation from Baboozye, a Syed and Hindoo, to know if they 
would be forgiven. “ Certainly,” I replied, “ on the Mulliks attending, 
which they might do without the slightest fear.” 

////i October iS-ij . — I am happy to say our wounded are doing well. 
I have given up my hill tent to them, and we all visit them daily. 
Mr. Thompson is unremitting in his attention to them ; the poor fellows 
seem most sensible of all this and thankful, contrasting it vvith what 
would have been their fate had they not had the Sahiban with 
them ! 

Rode towards Pullee this morning, but thinking we saw their 
sowars, spread out to intercept them and so taken out of our course 
visited the village of Kohee instead : received most graciously ; most of 
them were out against us on the nth 1 

Wrote to the Mulliks of Pullee to come in, give up the Hindoo 
their horsemen had seized at Nowshera, and the man who had com- 
mitted the murder in that quarter, otherwise they must stand the 
consequences. 

i^th Or/oAier. — Reconnoitred Pullee. In approaching it met 'a 
messenger with a reply to ray letter ; it was not to the purpose, so we 
sent him back, telling him to caution the Mullik against any shot being 
fired at us. 

On nearing the village we found all ready to receive us warmly, 
but it is a place of no strength, being quite in the open ; they might 
possibly give us a volley or two and then would take to the hills. 

The Governor of Peshawur writes me that he had a salute fired 
to announce our victory, and alarm the evil disposed. He wants to send 
me reinforcements, but I have declined them. 

i6lh October . — Lieutenant Taylor and I rode to the village of 
Kurekee to examine some ancient remains similar to those I saw at Jumal 
Ghurry, Lieutenant Lumsden going towards Baboozye to make a sketch 
of the valley. 

Meer Baba of Suddoom, our good ally, brought in 200 head of 
cattle he had seized belonging to the villages of Shamoozye and 



PESHA IVUK POLITICAL DIARIES, iS-H- 


405 


Baboozye ; these we restored to them to-day to their amazement and 
our credit. 

I hear daily from Peshawur from the Governor, Cazee, Police 
Officers, etc., and all, I rejoice to say, appears to go on well. 

Geo St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Ptincipal Asst, to the Agent, G.-G , N.-W. F. 


No. 37.— Political Diary of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 

General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, from 

Sunday, the 24th, to Saturday, the 30th October 1847. 

A^h October iS.f.'j . — Crossed the guns and Infantry over the river 
yesterday and the Cavalry during the night ; had six boats, two from 
Khesgy, one from Akhora and two from Nowshera ; all got over well. 

Marched to Pubbee by the old or King’s road. The crops are 
nearly ripe and look promising. 

A deputation from the Governor waited on me with a sea/ut, etc. 

2jth October . — Marched from Pubbee at daybreak ; near Chum- 
kunnee we were met by the Governor, Sirdar Golab Singh, Sirdars 
Sultan Mahomed and Peer Mahomed Khan, General Elahee Bukhsh and 
others, who accompanied us through the city to the Agency. The troops 
were drawn up in line, extending from the Cabul Gate to the left of the 
Ali Murdan Cantonment, and looked clean and well appointed. A 
salute of nine guns was fired on our passing the Governor’s residence and 
one of II guns on reaching the parade. 

The officers, Urbobs, etc., on alighting were introduced to Lieutenant 
Taylor, and then presented the Dusserah nuzzurs to me; the amount 
I lodged in the Peshawur Treasury. 

The city was all alive and the tops of the houses crowded to see us 

pass. 

I am happy to say only two or three petitions were presented 
during the day, which shows a decided improvement in the state of 
affairs. 

26th October. —Commenced the issue of two months’ pay to the 
Khas Dragoons returned from service in Eusufzye. 



4 o 6 


FESHAWVR POLITICAL DIAklES, 1S-/7. 


Transacted business with the Governor in revenue matters ; 
Lieutenant Taylor present to see how matters were carried on. 

Visited the regimental parades. Two companies of Colonel Meer 
Jung All's corps were practising Light Infantry movements. 

Likewise with Lieutenant Taylor visited the fort, magazines, 
etc. : the late Commandant with the officers in charge of stores are in 
confinement on the grave charge of embezzling Government property ; it 
has been going on for years. 

2yth October 18^’J — Sirdar Kahn Singh with all his officers of 
Ghorechurras waited on me with their Dusserah nuzzurs. which I made 
over to the Peshawur Treasury. 

With Lieutenant Taylor visited the Wuzeeree Bagh ; found Sirdar 
Sultan Mahomed and family occupying the house. We were received 
most graciously and sat some time with him ; he has made quite a show 
place of it. 

The Havildar of Nujeebs recently promoted by me and who 
was severely wounded at Baboozye died to-day ; the rest of the wounded 
are in my hospital doing well. 

I have many complaints against the new ferry toll collectors. 

28lh October — Transacted business with the Governor, and after- 
wards held my weekly durbar of Urbobs, to all of whom I introduced 
Lieutenant Taylor ; they are full of congratulations on my late operations 
in Loonkhore. 

The Governor came to me this evening in rather a perturbed 
state with a purwanna from the Durbar to hold a regiment of Cavalry, 
three of Infantry and a troop of Horse Artillery in readiness to march 
vid Kohaut to Bunnoo Tank. Also an order for the Barukzye 
Sirdars with 2,000 horse and foot to accompany the force. I have 
issued orders accordingly, though the force of Infantry thus taken 
from this is somewhat large, seeing that there is already one corps 
with Lieutenant Lumsden in Eusufzye and another may be required 
in that quarter. 

2gth October . — Took Lieutenant Taylor this morning to pay the 
Governor a visit. We met the several officers, civil and military, in 
durbar, and sat upwards of an hour. 



PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, rSpj. 


407 


Intelligence from Cabul up to the 21st instant is that on the 
1st Sirdar Mahomed Akram Khan had applied to his father from 
Huzara for reinforcements, as 20.000 men were collected against him 
and he was hard pressed. The Ameer in reply told him to hold his 
own ; he should be quickly aided ; parties were daily proceeding from 
Cabul via Kohistan to reinforce him. 

On the 6th instant a merchant of Cashmere and Bokhara told 
Nuwab Jubbar Khan that a large Russian force had arrived within 
eight marches {munzel) of Khiva at a place called Aka Musjid. 

Mahomed Shah Khan, Ghilzie, was still in rebellion against the 
Ameer, and it was said that the British at Peshawur had written him in 
terms of approval and encouragement. 

A purwannah from the Durbar has reached the Governor for 
the execution of the sepoy in Meer Jung .Ali's regiment who murdered a 
prostitute I have directed it to be carried into effect on Monday next, 
in the mode customary in the Sikh service, which is to march the 
prisoner round the cantonments and then execute him. 

jjoth Octob^.r iS^j — Lieutenant Taylor transacted business with 
the Governor in my presence and heard all the reports of the army 
and city. He likewise investigated the daily cases, petitions, etc , and 
will continue to do so. 

The troops returned from Eusufzye with Colonel Holmes have 
received their pay for two months, and will receive two more with 
the rest of the lorce on arrival of the treasure. 

A large kafila has just arrived from Cabul by the river or Tartarrah 
route and I a.m told has brought much property belonging to our 
unfortunate army. 

I regret to say fever is prevalent just now among the troops 
and snuill-pox is raging in the city. 

Another prostitute has been cut down by a sepoy, a Mussalman 
in Colonel Dewa Singh’s Sikh regiment: he is in custody. 

I purpose starting for Lahore on the 4th proximo, having made 
all arrangements for carrying on the duties here. 

Geo. St. P. LAWRENCE, Major, 
Priiici[>al Asst, to the. Agi/it, G.-G., N.-IV. F. 



4 o 8 PESHA WVR political DIARIES, 18^7. 

No. 38.— Political Diaries of Major George St. P. Lawrence, 

Principal Assistant to the Agent to the Governor- 

General, North-West Frontier, at Peshawur, and Lt. 

R. G. Taylor, Assistant to the Resident, from Sunday, 
the 31st October, to Saturday, the 6th of November 
1847. 

^Jist October iScj.'j. — Sunday. 

ist November . — Inspected the troops at Grand Parade, after which 
with Lieutenant Taylor saw Colonel Ruttun Singh put his Regi- 
ment of Sikhs through a few manoeuvres, which were creditably 
executed. 

With the Governor we then inspected 112 bullocks reported unfit 
for further service by the Commandant of the Artillery ; 56 of these 
had just arrived from Huzara in a batch of 300; directed all to be 
sold on account of Government. 

Lieutenant Taylor transacted business with the Governor in my 
presence. 

The sepoy of Meer Jung Ali's Regiment found guilty of the 
murder of a prostitute was e-xecated this morning in the manner 
customary in tlie Sikh army, that is, he was marched through the city 
and cantonments under charge of the police and a company from 
Ruttun Singh's Regiment and then hung. At least 1 0,000 people 
attended, among whom were crowds of women, who highly applauded 
this prompt justice. 

2nd November . — With Lieutenant Taylor I took a long walk into 
the country, passing several villages ; we had only two attendants. 
The people saluted us in the most cordial manner and seemed much 
gratified at our thus going among them. 

The crops, with the exception of cotton, are most flourishing ; 
ploughing and sowing are going on in good style. 

Lieutenant Taylor heard the reports of the troops and transacted 
business with the Governor, who is taking to him famously. 

A camel load of medical stores arrived this morning from the 
Umballa Depot for the use of the Agency ; just in time as our medicines 
were getting scarce. 

,’c// ALrv — Lieutenant Taylor transacted business with the 
Governor and received the lepoit'. (.t the eiiv. tiooj's. etc. 



PEHIIAiVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 18^7. 409 

All the officers waited on me this morning to take leave ; most 
had some petitions to make regarding their decrease of paj’, reduction in 
rank, etc. I listened to all and gave them soft words in reply. 

There being several non-commissioned vacancies in Colonel Soobhan 
Khan's and Maun Singh’s Regiments, I had the seniors of each grade 
up and selected the most efficient for promotion. 

We rode to the Cavalry Parade this morning to sec tlie Brigade 
exercise under Colonel Kahn Singh, Rosa : he handled tlicm fairly. 

y/4 Noi'cuiber — Major Lawrence left for Lahore before day- 

light ; a salute of guns was fired on the occa.sion. I rode a short 
distance on the Mushtnuggur road ; on returning to tlie house I found 
the Sirdar awaiting me ; transacted business with him. 

The Urbobs of the various Tuppas came according to custom to 
present themselves, Thursday being their day for audience. 

^th November . — The regiments paraded on their respective parade 
grounds. 

I rode to the village of Chittee Dherec in the Khulleel Tuppah, 
about five miles to the south-west of Ali Murdan Bagh. At the village 
of Paokah on the road to Chittee Dheree, I found the fields filled with 
cotton-pickers. This crop did not appear to me to have suffered so 
much in the neighbourhood of this village as it has in other places. 

I e.'camined some pods and asked one of the pickers whether they 
ought to be larger than thej- were. He said no, that they were not 
usually much larger. 

The Indian corn crops are ver}' luxuriant ; on one occasion I 
addressed some words of admiration of them to one of a group of 
zuineendars near Chittee Dheree. He in reply commenced in the 
usual querulous tone that prayers for reduction of assessment are made 
in saying that tlie crop was spult and the co.nitry ruinc.l (.svr). I was so 
taken by surprise that I lauglicd in his face and was joined muen to his 
chagrin by his companions and friends, who seemed to be aware that 
there was little hope of making any one believe the assertion of the 
desponding spokesman. 

At Chittee Dherec I ascended to the roof of Zereen Kh.an 
Urbob’s house and from thence obtained a good view of tiic ‘-ur- 
rounding country, the village of Tukal and forts of Bara and J''n’»-oo,l. 


52 



410 PESHAWUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 

I omitted to mention that I j-esterday presided at the distribution 
of 6/0 rupees to the inhabitants of the Dliobees’ mohullah in the city^ 
being a portion of an unjust fine extorted from them in Sirdar Outar 
Singh’s lime. A man was found hanging in their mohullah, having, it 
is supposed, committed suicide, but no clue being found as to the sup- 
posed murderers, between 7 and Soo rupees were exacted as a fine 
from the whole mohullah. Of this sum only 670 rupees found its way 
to the Government Pcirc, and to the restoration of that sum Major 
Lawience obtained the sanction of the Durbar. The people seemed 
thoroughly' to appreciate this piece of retrospective justice. I explained 
to them that 670 rupees was the amount received by Government on 
the occasion, and that that was all they would receive again. They 
replied that they would be glad to take whatever was allowed. 

Transacted business with the Sirdar after breakfast. 

Mahomed Ameer Khan, Khulleel, requested leave to take Ursulla 
Khan of Zedah, who is under orders to remain at Peshawur, to his 
house for the purpose of giving him an entertainment. I consented to 
his being absent two days, telling the former that he would be answer- 
able for his appearance if wanted in the interim. 

6 th Xovcuiber iS^j. — Rode to some of the Molimund villages 
beyond Banamorce. Th.c whole of tlie southern suburbs of the city are 
still well wooded and many of the old gardens remain, but to the west, 
north and east, a clean sweep has been made of them. 

In the evening the Sirdar brought the officers of Artillery and 
I wrote down their names. 

Ramdass, Dufteree, presented a number of Tunklwahs for signa- 
ture. I had heard that M-ajor Lawrence had directed Gunput Rae, 
rrcasiirer, to pre-ent all T’lnkhicnlp:, so I told Ramdass to make them 
over to him. 

Tlie Sirdar requested that the usual Monday parade might be ex- 
cused on account of the Dficah'r, also that the sums allowed by regula- 
tions for the purchase of oil, etc., for illuminations, might be sanctioned, 
namely, 5 rupees for each regular regiment of Cavalry or Infantry 
and 2} rupees for every troop of Artillery, To both of these proposi- 
tions, after enquiry, I gave my consent. 

REYNELL G. TAYLOR. Lieut., 

Assistant to Resident, 



l^ESHA WUR POLITICAL DIARIES, iS^y. 


411 


No. 39. -Political Diary of Lieutenant R. G. Taylor, As- 
sistant to the Resident, Lahore, at Peshawur, from 
Sunday, the 7th, to Saturday, the 13th November 
1847. 

ph Novetnber 18^7 . — This being the Dcwalcc I was overwhelmed 
with offerings of sweetmeats, fruit, etc. The town and lines were 
brilliantly illuminated in the evening and the Sirdar caused the taiih and 
canal in this garden to be decorated with rows of lamps. I observed that 
the houses of the Mussulman officers were as brilliantl}- liglited up as any. 

November . — I had excused the regular Monday parade of the 
whole force on account of the ablution necessary after the Dewahe. 

An European of the name of Patiick O'Leary suiiendered 
himself to me as a deserter from the 3rd Compan}-, 6th Battalion of 
Artillery. I placed him under surveillatice. He has since been 
seriously ill. He states that he left Loodhianah on or about the 20th 
October. 

The Barukzye Sirdars came to visit me. 1 showed them the 
specimens of coal which Mr. Sub-Assistant Surgeon Thompson had 
procured from Kohat and its neighbourhood : on seeing the specimens 
they said that there were quantities of it in that part of the countr}’. 

gth November . — The regiments paraded on their respective grounds. 
The Governor came in the morning. 

loth Xin<<'i)thcr . — WoAd round the city in the morning; saw a 
number of people collected at a sprit, a siioi-t distance from the \’akka 
Toot Gate and heard afterwards that smoke had commenced i.-suing 
from the ground at that place. Found the Sirdar awaiting my retuim. 

In the course of the day he sent me a number of purwannahs that 
he had received from the Durbar on the sub'cct of the deliis of Sirdars 
Sultan Mahomed Khan and Syud Mahomed Khan to Government, 
the former owing 10.000 rupees and the latter 14.000, for inonc\' 
borrowed. The Durbar has several times directed tint jvirlions of 
their jageers should be resumed until the debts be paid. I referred 
to the office and found that .Major Lawrence had, a short time ago, 
written strongly on the subject to the Sirdars, ?o 1 forwarded copies 
of liis letters with lettei.s of my own to them recommending them to 
settle the debts in question with as little delay as possible. S rdar 
Sultan Mahomed Khan replied that he had repaid 4,000 of his 10,000 



413 


PESHAIVUR POLITICAL DIARIES, 1S47. 


and that Major Lawrence had said that on reaching Lahore he would 
try and make some arrangement to relieve him from the pa3’ment of 
the other 6,Ooo. I have written to Major Lawrence to enquire into the 
truth of this statement. From Syud Mahomed Khan I have as 3'et 
received no answer. He, I am told, undertook to paj' in two months 
and the time h.as elapsed. Unless he makes some satisfactory arrange- 
ment I shall send for him and insist on his doing so. I hear he 
disputes the full c.xtent of the claim. 

With regard to .Sirdar Sultan Mahomed Khan, I think it hardly 
fair to press him and talk of confiscating his jageer, when he with a 
force of 2, coo men is under summons for service. 

util Xovember iS ^- — The regiments paraded on their respective 
grounds. I visited the Infantrj' and Artillery', parades, found Colonel 
Rutton Singh manoeuvring a brigade of three regiments, namely, his own 
(Scikhs), Colonel Maun Singh’s (Poorbeahs) and Meer Jung Ali's 
(Mussulmans). He handled them very creditably, but all the move- 
ments were rather slowly performed. 

I then passed on to Colonel Holmes’ Regiments, one of which, 
Subhan Khan’s Mussulman Regiment, I found distributed in squads 
and practi'ing the English Manual and Platoon. 

Went to tli.e spot where the smoke is said to issue from the 
ground. 'I'here was none visible, but putting my hand into the crevice 
I found the heat very' great. 

I2th Xovember . — Rode to the .Momund villages of Lundee and 
Bahadoor, the former the residence of Mahomed Khan, Urbob, who 
is building a new house in it. 

Th.c whole of the country about these villages is beautifully 
cultivated 

Rupce.s 2, 12,000 having arrived from Lahore in specie, Hoondies 
and Tuiikluvalis. for the p.ayment of the tioops, the rupees, amouiUino- 
to one lakli and six thousand, were this day counted and placed in the 
Trea.sury. 

Tne late Superintendent of the Fort, who is in irons on a charge of 
pecuUiao,], being icpoited by i\Ir. Ihomp-on as seriously' ill of dysen- 
tery, I c jiiscntcd to his irons being removed for a few days, Dur- 
h.ir.ih biiigh, liar.didai , being security for his not attempting to escape. 



PESH^H'UJ! politic at. diaries, iS-ry. 


413 


ijfh November iS^y . — Rode through the Fort of Jumrood; the dis- 
tance is called 7 koss, but I should not reckon it above ten miles. It lies 
west by south from Peshawur and is about two miles and a half from the 
upper or northernmost entrance of the Kh^’ber Pass. The Fort has, I 
fancy, been previously described; it is now undergoing repairs, and tiie 
miserable hovels and holes in which the garrison formerl}’ lived are 
being replaced by well-built rows of lines, the roofs of which form a 
convenient platform rather lower than the barbette of the defences. 
There are only three guns in the Fort. 

On my way to the P'ort I found no men at all in two of the Chokces 
on the road and only seven men in a third. The care of this road is 
entrusted to the Khulleel Urbobs who enjoj' considerable jageers for the 
purpose. I found out that it was properly Zciecn Khan of Chittce 
Dneree, who should have pr.ivided them to-day and that on the line 
which I passed there ought to have been upwards of thiity men. On 
returning to Pcsliawur I sent for Zerecu Khan and made him over to 
the Sirdar, with directions to fine him 500 rupees; this I afterwards 
reduced to too on the Urbobs solemnly promising that such an 
impropriety should not again occur, and if it did that his jageer should 
be held forfeited. 

Found the Sirdar awaiting my return with a large budget of 
purwannalis from tlie Durbar, one of which directed that no rupees 
of a date prior to Sunibut '83 were to be received in revenue, 'ihc 
general remark on tliis was that there would not be fo'uid enough good 
new coin in the country to make up the amount of Government I'c venue. 
The immense quantity of defective and old coin is a great ctil in this 
province. 

I have released Nujjuf Kltan, Khuttuck, for a few days on the 
sccurit}' of