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aroh/eological survey of INDIA 








Ed™ sy MORf^lS JASTROW. jt 

PiidapjiDr of 5«nMk LunfivcH tn ib* df 


Thi foUowtfig vobiETiei arc now imd|r; 


Dy EtiWAKb Wjwiiiuisj HoMciMBf Pr^sfcoior otf 
Sanikiit and CciEnpaimiTt: tlskW^sfy in V'jiJt Utuwr- 
■diy. SvQf doth, xTdi+6i2 ^ijMi 


Ey UoKiiJs lAfTXDW^ Jt^ E'lErfdm of SemEtk 
ifl ihi; VnlwTUiy of Ft^euylvaolaL Sva, 
IK. nv-i-^So 


By P, D. CHAiTTKni; tvs la Sau 59'AY¥, Pk^fewiT 
in ihfi Unlvcnity of Ltidco. Tmotloted by BeuT J, 
Vn%^ Auodiate EYofcuor of G^rG^aa In tho lohiu 
>1cpklfi« Univ^niiy. Sto, do(^viil4 504 |mga^, 


By CttAwroitD lin^lftL Toy, PtofoU^r Erarrimo 
of Eittfvwand other Gncnt^ fA ItarYHFd 

Vnlv«nEty,. Svo^ dollip xiv44^ FtgYB, f 







morris JASTR0\\; Jr., Ph.D, 



Religions of India 

I l«i7S9 



Acc. No .. 

l^ikto .,3,( t- ' .. 

Gfttl No Hop .. 

OAFniaMT, ()!«. kt 

all ueutTi PiiU-vtn 

gti aitfijuTB 

CflKtASr * PRO- 


TQflUam XUbitne^ 






The growing interest both Id this cDuntry ^nd abroad in the 
historical study of religiotis is one of the noticeable features 
in the intellectual phases of the past decades. The more gen¬ 
eral indications of this interest may be seen iu such foundations 
as the Hibbert and Gifford Lectureshij^ in England, and the 
recent organization of an American committee to arrange in 
various cities for lectures on the history of religions^ in the 
establishment of a special department for the subject at the 
University of Paris, in the organization of the Mus^e Gui- 
mei at ParUt in the publication of a journal —the 
r/fisf&ir^ d£s under the auspices of this Museum, 

and in the creation of chairs at the College de France, at the 
Universities of Holland, and in this country at Cornell Univer¬ 
sity and the University of ChicagOt* with the prospect of others 
to follow in the near future. For the more special indications 
we must tnm to the splendid labors of a large array of scholars 
toiling in the various departments of ancient culture—India, 
Babylonia, Assyria, Palestine, Arabia, Phoenicia, China^ 

Greece, and Rome—with the result of securing a firm basis 
for the study of the religions rtourishing in those conntries — 

1 Id ^ Mild* br the writer In the smu^ W^id (UDl^tr ef 

Chlnpi p™> for lanuMT, tbeirwlll be f™4 Wi -rf the pnHf>t 

^Uu of u» llirteri^ Study of in thi* isetifitry. 


J>JV£f4T0Xi' jVOT£. 

•1 result due mainly to the d{sco%'cry nT fresli sources and to the 
increase of the latter brought about by exploration and incessant 
research, Ihc detailed study of the facts of religion every¬ 
where, both in primitive society and in advancing civilization, 
and the emphasis laid upon gathering and understanding these 
facts prior to making one's deduction^ has succeeded in set¬ 
ting aside the speculations and generalizations that until the 
beginning of this century paraded under the name of *'Philos¬ 
ophy o( Religion,” 

Such has been the scholarly activity displayed and the fer¬ 
tility resulting, that it seems both desirable and timely to focus, 
as it ncre, the array of facts connected with the religions of 
the ancient world in such a manner that the summarj- resulting 
may serve as the point of departure for further investigations. 

This has been the leading thought which has suggested the 
series of Handbooks on the History of Religions. The treat¬ 
ment of the religions included in the series differs from pre¬ 
vious attempts in the aim to bring together the ascertained 
results of scholarship rather than to make an additional con¬ 
tribution. though the character of the scholars whose codpera- 
tion has been secured justifies the hope that their productions 
will also mark an advance in the interpretation of the subject 
assigned to each. In accord with this general aim, mere dis¬ 
cussion has been limited to a minimum, while the chief stress 
has been laid upon the dear and full presentation of the data 
connected with each religion. 

.■\ uniform plan has been drawn up by the editor for the 
order of treatment in the various volumes, by following which it 
is hoped that the continuous chameter of the series will be se- 



cured. In this plan the need* of the general reader, as well 
as those of the stnduat, for whom, in the first place, the serie.* 
is desired, have been fcept in view. After the introductioD, 
which in the case of each volume is to be devoted to a setting 
forth of the sources and the method of study, a chapter follows 
on the land and the people, presenting those ethnographical 
and geographical considerations, together with a brief historU 
cal sketch of the people in question, so essential to an under¬ 
standing of intellectual and religions life everywhere. 

In the third section, which may he denominated the kernel of 
the book, the subdivisions and order of presentation necessarily 
vary, the division into periods being best adapted to one reli¬ 
gion, the geographical order for another, the grouping of themes 
in a logical sequence for a third ; but in every case, the range 
covered will be the same, namely, the beliefs, including the 
pantheon, the relation to the gods, views of life and death, the 
rites — both the official ones and the popular customs'— the reli¬ 
gious literature and architecture. .'V fourth section will furnish 
a general estimate of the religion, its history, and the relation 
it bears to others. Each volume will conclude with a full bib¬ 
liography, index, and necessary maps, with illustrations intro¬ 
duced Into the (ext as called for. The Editor has been fortu¬ 
nate in securing the sendees of distinguished specialists whose 
past labors and thorough understanding of the plan and pur¬ 
pose of the series furnish a guarantee for the successful 
execution of their task. 

It is the hope of the Editor to produce in this way a scries 
of manuals that may serve as text-books for the historical 
study of religions in our universities and seminaries. In ad- 


dilion to supplying this waul, the arrangeiaent of the lUaniials 
vniU it 13 expected, meet the requirements oi reliable refetcnoe- 
book3 for ascertaining the present status of out knowledge of 
the reitgiotis of anliquityt while the popular manner of presenta- 
tion, which it will be the aim of the writers to carry put^ justi¬ 
fies the hope that the general reader uill find the volumes no 
less attractive and interesting. 

UnlVtJSITT OF Fl!f5rff^-l.VANlA- 


I T has been said setnewhere by Lowell that " an lllnstratiaTi 
Is worth more than any amount of discourse^” and, if we 
were asked to specify in which regard we thought that this 
maDualp when compared with the onty other hook that covers 
the same ground, was Likely to be useful we should reply 
that, whereas Barth in hb admirable handbook (the out¬ 
growth of an article in the Scimar /^digictisis) 

aimed at making his reader know all about the religions of 
India, we have sought to make our reader know those religions. 
We have tried to show the lines on which developed the vwous 
theological and moral conceptions of the Hindus, not only by 
furnishing, from the point of ^dew of a foreign crriticp^ an anno¬ 
tated narrative of the growth of these conceptions, but also and 
chiefly by taking the reader step by step through ihe literature 
that contains the records of India's dogmas. The scheme of 
Earth's Religions eicludcs all iltustrative matter. His reader 
must take as authontative the word of some modern scholar, 
or he must look up for himself the texts to which occasional 
reference is made. By omitting all quotations the author w-as 
en.abicd, in the compass of a small volume, to give an account, 
extraordinarily compact and complete* of every ramification of 
Hindu belief, and his book deserves all the praise that it 
has won. It is invaluable as exegesis. But it presents the 
religions of India as Eamhardy exhibits the Utcrature of 
Greece* or as the daylight lecturer describes invisible stars. 
If one desire to orient himself In respect of any point of the 
Hindu creeds^ if he wish a reliable sketch of those creeds* he 

FJit £ FACE. 

will obinin from Barth the information he is seeking, and find 
a survey not only traced in detail^ but at the same time dis¬ 
cussed in so masterly a way as to make supertluous far long 
any new r^sumJ of the sort^ withal despite the fact that in 
some regards Barth's views have become obnoxious to later 
criticism. But it is not to criticise fkirth that this book was 
written. It is to reveal the religions of India by causing them 
to reveaL themselves^ and to elucidate them by commenLing on 
them as they appear before the reader, traverse, his field of 
vision, and finally leave his sight, admit that it behooves 
w'hDHEveT writes under the same title with that of the French 
savantr to show cause why he does so i but we think that to 
open np the religions of India from withiur and in orderly sue- 
cession to explain them as they display themselves, will not be 
otiose if there be any students ignorant of Sanskrit who yet 
, desire indepcndetilly to examine and to make their owm the 
very words of the Hindu sages. 

In accordance with this plan of-teaching Hindu religions we 
have been more prone to ignore than to collect such results 
of modem scholarship as lend to blur the picture we would 
show., For a first view of Greek theology Homer is more use¬ 
ful than Prellerp and the same is true elsewhere. .Above alh 
as we have said in the Introduction^ in regard to many a recent 
* interpretation' of Hindu deities, we are content to be con¬ 
servative. We doubt the historical value of most of these 
expositions, and^ since we are not of those scholars that try 
to keep abreast of the times by swallowing e%"ery new^ idea, 
we have not been inclined to broach unsatisfactory theories 
without a good deal of provocation, which existed for us only 
in the case of one or two Vedic divinities, where the religious 
significance of new Interpretations compelled attention. 

In regard to the great length at which we have reviewed the 
gods of the earlier period, we have not forgotten what differ- 
enoe exists between mythology and religion, but we believe 


that the reader will see, before he gets to the end of the 
book, that such amplitude of treatment as we have permitted 
ourselves was not alien to our proper subject-matter. 

We scarcely can hope that the professional Indologian will 
see much that is valuable to him in this work, which is in¬ 
tended only for students, although we think that our view of 
the relation of Vedic belief to that of the ‘primitive Atmans' 
is one that some scholars of the day might substitute with 
advantage for their own. But our more especial field of inves¬ 
tigation has lain along the lines marked by the two chapters 
on Hinduism, and these such Sanskrit scholars as have not 
made particular study of the Hindu epic perhaps may find to 
be readable. 

Although we have quoted Hindu works itiore often than we 
have referred to those of European scholars, jet have we 
endeavored to make the notes sufficiently copious to put the 
reader an miraat with the most important studies of the 
present time. 

As to the method of writing Sanskrit words, being unable to 
adopt the unpleasant characters of the Sacred Books, and 
kiiowing no other system that h satisfactory both to English 
eye and to linguisric sense, we haire employed the simplest 
transcription, ignoring, in fact, all Unguals save the sibilant^ 
which alone can be rendered by English letters, and which 
n^gc has long made familiar. ^ 

liYM Maws, ?esxa^/*c//i ^^ 9 ^ 


























iNTBCmEJCTION - ^ ^ ^ p * 

Fkopli: Asti Land , - . . p * * 

Tiia Rio Veda-—The Uppeh Gops * . p - 

The KIC Vepa {conrinyedJr^TiiE MiPDl-E Gods * ■ 

The Rig Viuja (ccmtinueii). — T he t,£>WEi Gods 
The Reg Veda ^dOflcludcd>.-«VAMA and QtHW Gods, 

VeDIC FANTliEl^ifp EsCliATOLOGV ^ * 

The RE1.IGION oP the AtHA^va Veda 
Other Arvans .**.*■* 

Brahmancsu , , -. 

BrAUMAE^IC PATiTMRISM. —The Ufanjshads 

The Poput-AE Brahuasic Faitb . , * . - 

lAfNISH .**■*»’* ^ • 

BDDDItCSH , p * . * ^ * ^ * " 

Earpv HINDLUSM **p^*^-- 
HtNDE/ISM (coutilioad). — ViSHSCU AND ^ITA « # ■ 
















Tub PURAHA&— ewu.y Sbcts. Fistivais, tHt Twniw 43^ 
MgpEmN Hwdw .. . 

ttBUGioirs Tbaits op th» Wile Tbibes . . » JI4 


.. . 

Bibliookapkv 572 


AIL, * ^ . ZSinTJitt^i AWfldUc 3 iit* 

AUG. . ii . I AuiulB dti Utisfe GuiiKt. 

A}P. + . , . AiKficaii Ivlmvid of PMW1«g;^. 

AIL . , . . A»tAfldk lifiiesafdifcL 

ASL, , , Aadeot S&oakrit LltantoiB. 


BOR. . . . . suld Chtenlal Kiewd. 

lA, * * * . . Ifidlifl Aoliquiiy. 

IF. « ^ . IndorgecTTiiinlictK 

iSw . Ii « « i. VV^ier'j Ifidbdie Studlen. 

JA« I 4 . i . Jornna! Aiblique. 

JAOS.. . - * Jdim^ oC t!i^ AiBfriiM Oriaiti] Soe^elj^ 

JRASr . ■ « JmltiuI of tiu R{!fa] Autic SoD^. 

« , , . . Knha^ft ZcliEichrif t fUr tvf^kldicndci SprachforaeliiiBi* 
0 L 5 , OttoliJ afld Ua^nlitk StinUw* 

00+ 4 + + + Beide^'A uad CkckkuL 

OST. .... Miiir’^ Oripm] Sanskrit Teats, 

FAOS. i , « sr( the Aiweitaa OHMtal Sedetjr, 

SR£+ 4 + H . Sacmi Bocks of the Eut. 

WZK3I. . . Ii ^V'lcKJ Zeitschiiit fur die Kunda {£« UcTBcnlandea. 

VSl . ^ + PElchchi And OeldiKf^H Vcdische Stodian, 

ZDAi + < < . Hai3pt^!i ZeiticMft (Hr Detttsd^ Aliwthisin. 

ZDMG. , , . Ziiltsduift der Deutsdien MofigeDlADdiKlhtia GtrscShdaft 




Arres K1t^^KllT 


CHAPTER 1 .— introduction. 

SOCRCBS— dates.^methods OF ihtekfretatios.^ 


IKPIA always has been a land of religions. In the eariicst 
Vedic literature are found not only hymns in praise of the 
accepted gods, but also doubts in regard to the worth of 
these gods; the beginnings of a new religioii incoTporated 
into the earliest records of the old. And later, when, about 
100 B.C., Megasthenes was in India, the descendants of those 
first theosophists are still discussing, albeit in more modem 
fashion, the questions that lie at the root ot all religion. 
.*Of the philosophers, those that axe most estimable he 
rerms brahmans These discuss with many words 

conceraing death. For they regard death as being, for the 
ythc a birth into real life^into the happy life. And in many 
things they hold the same opinions with the Greeks t sayang 
that the universe was begotten and will be destroyed, and that 
the world is a sphere, which the god who made and owns it 
pervades throughout; that there are different bepnnings of 
ali thin-s, bnt water is the beginning of world-making, whde 
in addition to the four elements, there is, as fifth, a kind of 
nature, whence came the sky and the stars. ... -And concern¬ 
ing the seed of things and the soul they have much to say also. 


r//£ JiVi>/A. 

whereby they we^vc in myths, just sas docs Plato* in regard to 
the souPs immortaUlyt jud^ent in hell, and such things/* ^ 

And as India conspicruously is a country of creeds, so is its 
litcratiire preeminently prtcstly and religious. From the first 
Veda to the last Pur 3 na. religion forms either the sul^jectmiatter 
oE the most important works, or, as in the case of the epics," 
the basis of didactic encursions and sectarian interpolations, 
which impart to worldly themes a tone peculiarly theologicaL 
History and oratory are nnknown in Indian litcratiire. 'Phe 
early poetry consists of hymns and religious pcKrtiis; the early 
prose, of liturgies, linguistics, “law/* theology, sacred legends 
and other works, all of which are intended to supplement the 
knowledge of the Veda, to explain ceremonies, or to inculcate 
religious principles. At a later date, formal grammar and sys^ 
terns of philosophy, fables and commentaries arc added to 
the prose; epics, secular lyric, drama, the Puranas and such 
writings to the poetry- But in all this great mass, till that time 
w^hkh Miiller has called the Renaissance—that is to say, till 
after the Hindus were come into close contiict with foreign 
nations^ notably the Creek, from which has l>een boirawed, 
perhaps, the classical Hindu drama,=^—there is no real litera¬ 
ture that w^as not religious onginally, or, at least, so apt for 
priestly use as to become chiehy moral and theosophic; while 
the most popular works of modem times are sectarian tracts* 
Purunas, Tantros and remodelled worldly poetry. The sources, 
then, from which is to be drawn the knowledge of Hindu 
religions are the best possible— the original texts. The infor- 

I Fr. XJ-k fci SdiTOsbeek, 

a Epic titcf^uFt from Wi?r <a5l« tluui that trf ihc pdtHt, iMt it has been 

■Btirlwd etwt hr till there h mure Ihait epic poetry Ift It. 

Set Wrier, &niMirrii ijfmrfwrr, pu je 1| ; WTadisdi, GrtrA m 

aiiil livi, Lf tiWrt wmfitM. The date o( Uit Henaiisana! is pifira vt 
■fiiijtt Ihfi ftret centery t« at bast the thtwl center A.U^ t/oAfa, p. iSi). 
Extnnl MlmSii dlfuma dates only iTwm the fdth wntuFy A.n. We en^Tmljt, erf oourec^ 
fnjm ^ rfeal ntfrature " all ttehnkaJ hafidhooka :ai4d caumeotajiA 


mation furnished by foreigners, from the times of Ktesias and 
Mcgasthunes to that of Mandclslo, is considerable; but one is 
warranted in assuming that what little in it is notel is inaccu¬ 
rate, since otherwise the informalion would have been furnished 
by the Hindus theniselves; and that, conversely, an outsider's 
statements, although presumably correct, often may give an 
inercact impression through lack of completeness; as when—to 
take an example that one can control — Ktesias tells half the 
truth in regard to ordeals. His account is true, but he gives 
no notion of the number or elaborate character of these inter- 
esdng ceremoflies- 

The souices (o which w'e shall have occasion to refer'will be, 
then, the two most important collections of Vedic hymns —the 
Rig Veda and the Atharva ’V^eda; the Brahmanic literature, 
with the supplementary Upanishads, and the Sutras or mne¬ 
monic abridgments of religious and ceremonial rules; the 
legal texts, and the religious and theological portions of the 
epic; and the later sectarian writings, called Burinas, The 
great heresies, again, have their own special writings, 1 hus 
far we shall draw on the native Uterature, Only for some of 
the modem sects, and for the religions of (he wild tribes which 
have no literature, shall we have to depend on the accounts 
of European TiTiterSr 


For none of the native religious works has one a certain 
date. Nor is there for any one of the earlier compositions 
the certainty that it belongs, as a whole, to any one time. 
The Rig Veda was txnnposcd by successive generations; the 
Atharvan represents different ages; each Brdhmana appears to 
belong in part to one era, in part to another; the earliest 
Sotras (manuals of law, etc.) have been interpolated ; the 
earliest metrical code is a composite; the great epic is the 
work of centuries; and not only do the Upanishads and FurSnas 



represent collectively nratiy diffeteat periods, but partly to 
which period each individually is to be assigned remains always 
doubtful Only in the case of the Buddhistic writings is there 
a satisfactorily approsimate terminus a quo, and even here 
approximate means merely within the limit of <»nturics, 
Ncverthelessi, criteria fortunately ate not lacking to enable 
one to assign the general hulk of any one work to a certain 
period in the literary development? and as these periods arei, 
if not sharply, yet plainly disiinguLshablc, one is not in so 
desperate a case as he might have expected to be, considering 
that it is impossible to date with certainty any Hindu book or 
writer before the Christian era. For, first, there exists a differ^ 
ence in language, demarcating the most important periods; 
and, secondly, the development of the literature has been upon 
such lines that it U easy to say, from content and method of 
treatment, whether a given class of writings is a product of 
the Vedic, early Brahmanic, or late Brahmanic epochs. Usu¬ 
ally, indeed, one is unable to tell whether a later Upanishad 
was made first in the early or late Brahmanic peri^, but it is 
known that the Upanishads, as a whole, /.;■,, the literary form 
and philosophical material which ch.rracterizc Lfpanishads, 
were earlier than the latest Brahmanic period and subsequent 
to the early Brahmanic period; th,Tt they arose at the close of 
the latter and before the rise of the former. So the Brah- 
manas, as a whole, arc subsequent tn the Vedic age, although 
some of the Vedic hymns appear to have been made up in the 
same period with that of the early Brahmanas. Again, the 
Furdnas can be placed with safety' after the late Brahmanic 
age; and, consequently, subsequent to the Upanishads, al¬ 
though it is probable that many Upanishads were written after 
the first l’ur5nas. The general compass of this enormous 
literature is from an indefinite antiquity to about 1500 a.n. 
A liberal margin of possible error must be allowed in the 
assumption of any specific dates. The received opinion is that 


the Riff Veda gcscs back to about *ooo u-C., yet are some 
mchned rather to accept B.c « 

represents this era. Weber, in his ; 

tfZiu. 7), Tightly says that to seek for an exact date ' 

labor- while "i^Tiitney compares Hindu date* to nine pm ^ 

B oiilv to be bowled dovm again. Schroeder, m his ‘ 

Z Z"“ I S; 

and jacoDi; c . .v, Vrdie aPC 'Oicir conclusions, 

^ ^ ;b„ on th5 vexed question- Buddhism gives the first 

of a dire n Hinl literature. Buddha lived in the 

“■"h Z Z died ,.™b»bly eboe. .do. poesibl, («'«»»- 

Sixth century, and dieo l J 

Z eZ bZZ end idl the Vedic ,K»e.«. N- .. .. 

pZl .he. tbh B.>h™»i= e«end. .e .be 

[Ittdxtiui dfcd kR 4T7 AC. 


J?£UG/OiyS OF 

time of Buddha and perhaps beyond it. For thfi rest of pre- 
BuddhisLtc literature it seems to us incredible that it is ticccs- 
sary to require, cither from the point of view of linguistic or 
of social and religious development, the enormous period of 
two thousand years. There are no other grounds on which 
to base a reckoning except those of Jacobi and his Hindu 
rivah who build on Vedic data results that hardly support the 
superstructure they have erected. Jacobi's starting-point is 
from a mock-serious hjinn, which appears to be late and does 
not estabilsit, to whatever dale It be assigned, the point of 
departure from which proceeds his whole argument, as Whitney 
has shown very well. One is driven back to the needs of 
a literature in respect of time sulherenL for it to mature^ 
WTiat changes take place in language, even with a written 
literature, in the space of a few^ centuries, may be seen in 
Persian, Greek, Latin, and German. two thousand years 
ate required to bridge the linguistic extremes of the Vedic 
and classical Sanskrit language.^ But in content it will be 
seen that the flower of the later literature is budding already in 
the Vedic age. We are unable lo admit that cither in lan¬ 
guage or social development or in literary or religions growth, 
more than a few centuries are necessary to account for the 
whole development of iiindii htemtuTe (meaning thereby com¬ 
positions, whether WTitten or not) up to the time of Buddhm 
Moreover^ if one compare the period at which arise the earliest 
forms of literature among other Ary'an peoples^ it will seem 
very strange that^ whereas in the case of the Romans, Greeks, 
and Persians, one thousand years is the extreme limit 
of such literary activity as has produced durable works, the 
Hindus two qr three thousand years b.c. were creating 

J II ratiir DQt fat fofiftillws l|^ tfac mass erf BrUtEKaiiA5 and Sat™ 

ttut «ch » a KhoQl repf^ntj ahiuMt Uk Itagili ilS \kwx orq 

aeSua! aJem£ jiIumM tfac from «id to end, ^hich leduHS to Twy modtiatfi 

dimcmloos Uw litcmtuni to b« uxmluM for iia 


poetry so finished, so refined, and. from a 

point of view, so advanced as is that of ,the tg ■ 

If as is generally assumed, the (prospective) Hiiidus and 
f 4 rsiars were last to leave the common Aryan habitat, and 
came together to the south-east, the difficulty « mcrea^d; 
especially in the light of modem opinion m regard to the hcti- 
tious antiquity of Persian (Iranian) literature 
steter be correct in holding the tune of the latter to be 
at most a century before our era, the incongruity between 
that oldest date of Persian literature and the “ two or three 
thousand years before Christ/' which are claimed m the case 
of the Rig Veda, becomes so great as to make the latter as^ 

sumption more dubious than e%'er. 

\Ve think in a word, without wishing to be dogmatic, that 
the date of the Rig Veda is about on a par. hi^orically, with 
that of ‘Homer/ that is to say. the Collection' repm^nts a 
long period, which was completed perhaps two hundred years 
after looo B.C,, while again its earliest beginnings hat 

dale possibly bv five centuries j but we would assign the bulk 
of the Rig Veda to about rooo B.C. With conscious imitation 
of older speech a good deal of archaic linguistic effect doubt¬ 
less was produced by the latest poets, who really belong to the 
Brahmanic age. The Brahmanic age in turn ends, as we 
opine, about 500 n.c.. overlapping the Slitra period ^ weU » 
of the first Upanishads. The former class of writings 
fafter too «.c. one may talk of writings) is represented by 
dates that reach from circa 6 o^ 5 *» 

Budtihism’s /or«r/ is from 500 n.c. to S« * 

Hinduism covers nearly the same centuries. From 500 to 1000 
Buddhism is in a state of decadence; and through this time 
extend the dramatic and older Puranic writings; while other 

I ‘ JPrjf l-Wfl CWA-rfi«i' if the native wJi^ch 1h fiifi 0«i4cflt ^ 

^ jlltiuliL. all wctlu I UriliEBiBllJhi SCitiaii 

kig Vv^,. the ticmi MiibnKif»S? ^ ™ IUimiuh an ■■ 

etcO E-^ tmpbia tho ^ C&UortUs*! * hymns^ 

T//£ ££L/C/OAS 

Furla^ arc as lata as 1500^ at which tima aimas the ^eat 
modem reforming sect df the Sikhs* In the matter of the ear her 
lermial a cerititry may be added ar suhuacted here and chere^ 
but these convenient divisidns of hvs hundreds will be found 
on the whole to be sufficiently accirrare.^ 


At the dutsci oE his tindcrtaklng a dduble problem presents 
itself to due that would give, even in compact form^ a view of 
Hindu religions. This problem consists in eiplaining, and. In 
so far as Ls possibldt reconciling opposed opinions in regard 
not only, to the nature of tituse rcHgions hut abo to the 
method oE interpreting the Vedic hymns. 

That the Vedic religion was naturalistic and mytho’poeiic is 
doubted by few. The Vedic h^uins laud the powders of nature 
and natural phenofnena as personified gods, or even as imper¬ 
sonal pbenomena. They praise also as distinct powers the 
departed fathers. In the Rig Veda L i 63 ^ occur some verses 
in honor of the storm^gods called Manits : “ Self-yoked are 
they oome lightly from the sky. The immortaU urge them¬ 
selves on with the goad. Dustless^ bom of power^ with shining 
spears the Maruts overthrow the strongholds. Who is it, O 
MarutSp ye that have lightniug-spearsL, that impels you within? 
* . . The litreams roar from the tires, when they send out their 
ctoud-voices,” etc. Nothing would seem more justifiable, in view 
of this hymn and of many like it, than to assume with Muller 
and other Indologians, that the Marut-gods are personifications 
of natural phenomena* As clearly do Indra and the Dawn 
appear to be natural phenomenaH But no less an authority than 
lEerbert Spencer has attacked this view ? Facts imply jtbat 

1 SdttOeiltrf^/Wii-xj* CWdtfjvr, |k ^i, lgg^io» 

Qkkff BtrihiiuEULi, jac4^>So0j. b,t^ and Upanfshula, 

S&tdS, ^QiOr^QQ Qt ySQ*. 

Af£T/iO/>S Of mTEffi{£T 4 TI 0 A'. ® 

the conception of the diim as a person result! from the.Eiviog 
of dar!-n ns a birth-name/' * And again: “ If, then. Dawn [in 
New Zealand and elsewhere] is an actual name for a person, 
if where there prevails this mode of distinguishing children, it 
has probably often been given to those bom early in the morn¬ 
ing; the traditions concerning one of such who becaiite noted, 
would, in the mind of the uncritical savage . , , lead to identi¬ 
fication with the datin ’'* In another passage : The primi- 
tive god is the superior man , . . propitiated during his life 
and still more after his death.” * Summing up, Spencer thus 
concludes ; “ Instead of seeing in the common character of 
soHcalled myths, that they describe combats of beings using 
weapons, evidence that they arose out of htunan transactions ; 
mrihologists assume that the order of Nature presents itself 
to the undeveloped mind in terms of victories and defeats/' 
Moreover {a posteriori), '* It is not true that the primitive man 
looks at the powers of Nature with awe. It is not true that 
he speculates about their characters and causes.” * If Spencer 
had not included in hb criticism the mythologists that have 
wTitten on Vedic religion, there would be no occa^on to take 
his opinion into consideration. Hut since he claims by the 
light of his comparative studies to have shown that in the Rig 
Veda the *'so<allcd nature gods,”‘were not the oldest, and 
explains Dawn here exactly as he does in New Zealand, it 
becomes necessary to point out. that apart from the question 
of the origin of religions in general, Spencer has made a fatal 
CTTor in assuming that he is dealing in the Rig Veda with 
primitive religion, uncritical savages, and undeveloped minds. 
And furthermore, as the poet of the Rig Veda is not primitive, 
or savage, or uodevclopcd, so when he worships Dynus pitetr 
(Zeb as the ' sky-father/ he not only makes it evident 

\ I- P- ^AppkEflo, 

a IIl p. 39*, Mb. P + Jh. p. 

* * lb. p, Sai^ 

10 T//£ JUML/G/OJiTS OF 

to every reader that he reslly is worshipping the visible sky 
above; but in his descriptiaos of gods such as Jndra, the 
Dawn, and some other new gods he invents from lime to time, 
long after he has passed the savage, primitive, and undeveloped 
state, he makes it no less clear that he worships phenomena 
as they stand before him {rain, cloud, lightning, etc,), so that 
bv analogy with what is apparent in the case of later divinities, 
one is led inevitably to predicate the same origin as theirs in 
the case of the older gods. 

But it is Unnecessary to spend time on this point. It U im¬ 
possible for any sober scholar to read the Rig Veda and believe 
that the Vedic poets are not worshipping natural phenomena ; 
or that the phenomena so worshipped were not the original 
forms of these gods. Whether at a more remote time there 
was ever a period when the pre-historic Hindu, or his pre- 
Indic ancestor, worshipped the Manes exclusively is another 
question, and one with which at present we have nothing to 
do. The history of Hindu religions begins with the Rig Veda, 
and in this period the worship of Manes and that of njitural 
phenomena were distinct, nor are there any indications that 
the latter was ever developed from the lornier. It is not 
denied that the Hindus made gods of departed men, Thcy 
did this long after the Vedic period. But there is no proof 
that all the Vi:dic gods, as claims Spencer, were the w'orshipped 
souls of the dead. No atgumeH/um a/ftv can show in a Vedic 
dawn-hymn anything other than a hymn to personified Dawn, 
or make it probable that this dawn was ever a mortars name. 

In respect of that which precedes all tradition we, whose 
task is not to speculate in regard to primitive religious con¬ 
ceptions, bm to give the history of one people’s religions prog¬ 
ress, may be pardoned for expressing no opinion. But without 
abandoning history (i>-. tradition) we would revert for a moment 
to the pre-Indian period and point out that Zarathostra’s re¬ 
jection of the datsas, which must be the same dti'cs that are 



worshipped in India, proves that ^nworship is the immediate 
predecessor of the Hindu religion. As far back as one can 
scrutinize the Aryan past he finds, as the earliest known objects 
of reverence, ‘sun’ and ‘sky,’ besides and beside the blessed 
Manes A word here regarding the priority of monotheism or 
of polytheism. The tradition is in favor of the latter, while on 
grounds whoever thinks that the more primitive the race 
the more apt it U for monotheUm will postulate, with some of 
the older scholars, an assumed monotheism as the prc-historic 
religion of the Hindus; while whosoever opines that man 
eradually risen from a less intellectual stage will ^ m the 
early gods of the Hindus only another illustration of one uni¬ 
versal fact, and posit even Aryan polytheism as an advance 
on the religion which it is probable that the remoter ancestors 

of the Aryans once acknowledged. 

^ i»ord perhaps should be snid, also, in order to a better 
understanding between the ethnologists as represented by 
Andrew I.ang, and the unfortunate philologists whom it d^ 
lights him to pommel. Lang’s dever attacks on the myth- 
makers. whom he persistently describes as the philolt^sts 
and they do indeed form part of that camp —have had the 
effect of bringing ‘philological theories’ into sad disrepute 
with sciolists and ‘ common-sense ‘ people. But the sun-mj ths 
and dawn-mvths that the myth-makers discover m Cinderella 
and Red Riding Hood, ought not to be fathered upon all 
philologists. On the other hand, who will deny that in India 
certain mythological figures are eoian or solar in ongm . Cau 
anyone question that Vivasi-ant the ‘wide g earning ^ sun 
or bright sky: as he is represented in the AvesU and Kig 
Veda^ Vet Is a very anthropomorpliicp fiay, earthly figiire, 
made out of this god. Or is Mr. Ung ignorant that the ^d 
Yima became Jemshid, and that Teridun is only the god Tnta. 
It undoubtedly is conuct to illuminate the past with other light 
than th.rt of sun or dawn, yet that these lights have shone and 



hsLv^ been qiicnchcd in certain perM}Da]ititrs may be granted 
without doing violence to acieoLihc ptineipie5. All purely 
et)'iiiological mythology' is precarious^ but one may recognize 
sun-myths without building a system on the basis of a Dawn- 
Mektip and witJiQuE refeiring Jlium to the Vedic^Z/ii, Again, 
myths about godst heroes^ and fairies are to be segregated. 
Even in India, which tuems with it, there is little, if any, folk¬ 
lore that can be traced to solar or dawn-bom myths. N!r, Lang 
represents a healthy reaction against too much sun-myih, but 
WE think that there are sun-myths still, and that despite his 
protests aU religioo is not grown from one seecL 

The re remains the consideration of the second part of Uic 
double problem which was formulated above-—the method of 
interpretation. I'lie native method is to believe the scholiasts" 
explanations, which often are fandful and* in nil important 
points, totally unreliable ; since the Hindu commenLitors lived 
so long after the period of the literature they expound that 
the tradition they follow is useful only in petty details. From 
a mcjdern point of vie^ tJte question of interpretation depends 
mainly on whether one regard the Rig Veda as but an Indie 
growth, the product of the Hindu mind alone, or as a work 
that still reuiins from an older age ideas which, having once 
been common tO' Hindu and Iranian, should be compared with 
those in the Persian vesta and be illustrated by them- Againp 
if this latter hypothesis be conrectp how is one to interpret an 
apparent likeness, here and there, between Indie and foreign 
notions,—^is it possible that the hymns were composed, in 
part, before the advent of the authors into lodia, and is it for 
this reason that in the Rig Veda are contained certain names, 
ideas, and legends, which do not seem to be native to India? 
On the other band, if one adopt the theory that the Rig Veda 
is wholly a native wwk, in how far is he to suppose that It is 
separable from Brahmanic formalism ? Were the hymns made 
independently of any ritnal, a3 their own excuse for being, or 



were they composed expressly lor the sacrifice^ as part of ^ 

formal cult ? ^ . 

Here are views diverse enough^ but each has its advocate or 

advocates. According to the earlier European writers the Ve^c 
poets are fountains of primitive thought, slreams unsullied 
by any tributaries, and in reading them one quaffs a fresh 
draught, the gush of unsophisticated herdsmen, in whose re- 
ligion there is to be seen a ebildlike belief in natural phonomena 
as divine forces, over which forces sUnds the Heaven-god a^ 
the highest power. So in iS6(> Ptleiderer si^aks of the '‘pri¬ 
meval childlike naive prayer" of Rig Veda vl jt. j (“Fa^er 
sky, mother earth," etc.):' while Pictet, in his work On. 
gWdjj IndiyEuri^tnuit^ maintains that the Aryans had a primi- 
live monotheism, alUiough it was vague and rudimentaiy; for 
he regards both Iranian dualism and Hindu polytheism as 
being developments of one earlier monism (claiming that 
Jmniiin dualism is really monotheistic). Pictet's argument is 
that the human mind must have advanced from the simple to 
the complex 1 Even Roth believes in an originally “supreme 
deity " of the Aryans* Opposed to this, the ‘naive’ school of 
such older scholars as Roth, M tiller,* and Grassnrann, who see 
in the Rig Veda an ingenuous expression of ‘ primitive ' ideas, 
stand the theories of Bergaigne. who interprets everj^hing 
allegorically: and of Piichel and Geldner, realists, whose ge^ 
eraf opinions may thus be formulated : The poets of the Rig 
Veda are not childlike and naive; they represent a compara¬ 
tively late period of culture, a society not only civilized, but 
even sophisticated; a mode of thought philoBopbical and scep- 

1 CfitifBie Maif, Origfwl S<,»Ar¥ Ttii,, t. p. 4*3 ’'I™ »« *•“ 

OCdntQiu of k'fidderer, KiJtti, ikhm, luul otbciv 

i ZDMG^ tL “Eln p-nwlii^am aiinMr [in4&^lic]p^ p vttlkacht ^ 
iiidPMin nbeiretM Gfltt, VmiHrOmiBPd-UruaBW** 

» lo t!s & MSIln speis ot n* «xly ^ 

tlidT dUUtJi WIT W t*™ of lii* (Ifltle wofld.' Approrlnilj 

dleil SBE, JHtxU. p. 043 (I Soil- 



tical; a reli^an not only ceremonious but absolutely stereotyped* 
In regard to the Ary^nhood o£ the hymns, the stand i:iken 
by these latter critics, who renounce even Bergnigne’s alight 
hold on m^^hology, is that the Rig Vtda is thoroughly Indie. 
It U to be explained by the light of the formaJ Hindu ritual¬ 
ism^ and even by epic woridliness, its fresh factors being lewd 
godst harlots, and race-horses. Bloom fielch who does not go 
50 far as this, claims that the ' Vedic" age really is a Brahman ic 
agej that Vedic religion is saturated with Erabtnanic ideas 
and Bmhmanic formalism, so that the Rig Veda ought to be 
looked upon as made for the rituah not the ritual regarded 
as ancillary to the Rig Veda.' This scholar maintains that 
there Is scarcely any chfonologicnl distinction between the 
hpjns of the Rig Veda and the Brahmana, both forms having 
probably existed together “from earliest timesand that 
not a single Vedic hjTon “was ever composed without 
reteretice to ritual application"; nay. all the hymns were 
‘^liturgical from the veiy^ start."* This is a plain advance 
even on Bergaigne’'s opinion, who finally regarded all the 
family-books of the Rig %''eda as composed to subserve the 


In the Rig %^eda occur hymns of an entirely worldly charae^ 
ter, the lament of a gambler, a humorous description of frogs 
croaking like priests, a funny picture of contemporary morals 
(describing how every one lusts after wealth)^ and so forth. 
Trom these alone it becomes evident that the ritualistic view 
must be regarded as one somewhat exaggerated. But if the 
liturgical extremist appears to have stepped a little beyond 
the boundary of probability^ he yet in daring remains far 

I The eldn vvm may bt m«i la MuUk'i £■■ ii^ (daijH, L fx 9): 

“A DnIlKtion mute iitf la own Kiktf awl Bfit firf tha uke of any iaicrifidal 
Ic-rmiinT” For PLscbcri ite*, ^g^iifiaK 

9 BloomAcld. JAO^n, %», pr 144 ^ 

* CoTupiTT ISarth (PirefioG): «A ^twalyre aacejdfltal *. + TbepMter 

.0( a iiSncd cbonuaEr,,, * fiUl fii + - * pretmuioBS to OF /svraA'pA^FTJT/QA^- 


behind Bergaignc^s disciple Reg’naud, who has a mystical 
+ system,* which is. Indeed^ the oetcome ol Bergoigne^s great 
work+ though it is very improbable that the latter would have 
looked with favor upon his follower's results. Iti £e^t^ 
(Paris, 1895) Paul Regnaud, emphasizing again the connec¬ 
tion between the liturgy and the h^mns, refers every word of 
the Rig Veda to the sacrifice in its simplest form, the oblation. 
According to this author the Hindus had forgotten the mean¬ 
ing of their commonest words, or consistetitly employed them 
in their hymns in a meaning different to that in ordinary use. 
The very' word for god, (deus), no longer means the ^shin¬ 
ing one* (the god), but the ^burning oblation*; the common 
word for mountain, girt\ also means oblation, and so on. 'This 
is Bergaigne^s allegorical mysticism run mad. 

At such perversion of reasonable criticUm is the ejtegesis of 
the Veda arrived in one direction. But in another it is gone 
astray no less, as misdirected by its clever German leader. 
In three volumes ^ Bruunhofer has endeavored to prove that 
far from being a Brahmanic product, the Rig V^eda is not even 
the work of Hindus ; that it was composed near the Caspian 
Sea long before the Aryans descended into India. Brunn- 
hofer's books arc a mine of ingenious conjectures, os sugges¬ 
tive in detail as on the whole they arc unconvincing. His 
fundamental error is the fancy that names and ideas which 
might be Iranian or Turanian would prove, if such they really 
could be shown to be, that the work in which they are con¬ 
tained must be Iranian or Turanian. He relies in great meas¬ 
ure on passages that always have been thought to be late, either 
whole late hymns or tags added to old hymns* and on the most 
daring changes in. the tCKt, changes which he makes in order 
to prove his hypothesis* although there is no necessity for 
making them. The truth that underlies Bruimhofer's extrava- 

1 IritH ttttd TmrMJt, iSSg; Pw Aii Im/uJ, pflw Ara^ Jif 

Ig T/iE EEUCfO.VS OE /A7?/j*. 

gmce is «ha< ti'cre are foreign niimcs in ih* Rig Veda, and 

this is all ihit he has proved thus far. , . i 

In regard to the relatba between the Vrtia and the Avesta 
the difference of views is too individual to have formed systems 
of inicrprctntioti on that basis alone. Every ccmfKtent 
scholar recognises a close affinity between the Irainan \ima 
and the Hindu Yam.v between the r^wd-cuU and the 
cult, but in how far the thoughts and forms have clustemd 
about one development are to be compared with those of the 
other there is no general agiccment and theni be none. 
The usual practice, however, is to call the Iranian l 
etc to one's aid if they subsen'C one’s own view of 1 (rwJ, 
and oilier Hindu p.iralleK and to discard analogous 
features as an independent growth if they donoiv rbii prr> 
cediire is based as well on the conditions of the ptoblem as on 
the conditions of human judgment, and must not be cntiawd 
too severely ; for in fact the two religions here and there touch 
each other so nearly that to deny a relation betwwn them « 
impossible, while in detail they divenge so widely tlwt it is 
always questionable whether a coincidence of niunl or belief 
be accidental or imply historical connectioHi 

It is scarcely advisable in a concise review of several re i- 
gions to cuter upon detailed criticism of the meth^s of inter- 
prciation that affect for the most part only the earliest of them. 
But on one point, the teciptocal relations between the \ edit 
and Brahmanic periods, it is necessary to say a few words. 
\\*hv is it that well-informed Vedic scholars differ so wide y 
in regard to the ritualistic sham in the miWing the Veda? 
Because the extremists on cither side in (ormulaling the prin¬ 
ciples of their system forget a fact that probably no one of 
them if questioned would fail to acknowledge. The Rig Veda 
» not a homogeneous whole. It Is a work-which successive 
generations have produced, and in which a« represented differ¬ 
ent views, of local or sectarian origin; while the hymns fnim a 



literary poinl of view are of vaiying valae. The latter it aJitcl 
,hich beeo ignored frequently, but it .a inote im^ot 
than any oihet. For one ha* almost no critena, w»t w^ ^ 
discover whether the h>Tnna precede or follow the ritual, othe 
than the linguistic posteriority of the ritualistic literature, and 
the knowledge that there were priests with » nti»l when soim 
of the hymns were cotnposed, The bare fact that hymns 
found rubricated in the Uicr literature is sorely ao reason^fo 
believing that such hj-mna were made f« the nl^l. N 
while it can be shown that a 5 

formal, conventional, and mechanical in expression, an 
it may be argued with plausibility that these were 
Ze the Xose of an established cult, this is very far from 
being the case with many which, on Other grounds, be su^ 
posiS to belong severally to the older and 
Ric Veda. Vet does the new school, m estimating the } *. 

admit thb. The poems always are spoVerr of « ^ 
doul,’ ‘ritualistic,' without the slightest attempt to w whethe 
fhisbe true of all or of some alone. We claim ‘b-t-t « ^ 
historical, it is not iudicious from a literary point “ ' • _ 

fling mdiscriminatcly together the hymns that are evadei^y 
and thJof Other value. ^ 

literary judgment that is the court of appeaU »« 
whether poetry be poetry or not. Now let one ta e * 
containing, to make it an unexceptionable example, nothing 
very profound or very beautiful. It is this well-known 

HfMK t® THt Sum ^ 

AMi aU-wIm ' philips 
ttb 1»ia* erf linht bcaflfliR 
Thmi Averj a®* ^ 

farrWlwtlsUwgriguwl iU*-■*“ 

titf tna^lDUae 
ni m 1 p*m 

l1^ t 

IB . r/f£ NEL/G/OA^S 0 ^ 

Apart* 33 wtrt thcj' ihicvest yon 
Togelh«r vdth the mEhdraw 

l^efore the AuAp irho »eeth sdl. 

IIU beanui of liybt ha^G been bdteld 
Afar, mrnon^ (aU^ cmatureA ^ rays 
SplendiiJ u wctes they firei. 

ItnpetiiOLu-aidftp beheld of all* 

Ot light itiE malcerr thou, O Sun, 

Thou all ihe gleaming (sky) illmn’if. 

Before the folk of ahining gods 
Thou riMSt up, and men before^ 

Tore all —to bo as light hehdd { 

(To be) thiue eye, O pure bri^t lleuTeBt 
Wheronith amid (aJI) Ereaturcs horn 
Thou gaxe^t down on busy Iman). 

Thou goeit atroofl the broad places 
Meting with ray*, O Sun^ the day^, 

Ajid waEchlivg genefationi pass. 

The steeds are seven that at thy w 
Bear up the god whose bair b dame 
O shtfltug god* 0 Sun far-seen I 

Yoked hath he now bis seven lair steedi^ 

Tbe daughters oF the sim'god^s or. 

Yoked but by bun with these be comes, 

Fof some thoasand^ of years these verses have been the 
daily prayer of the Hindu, They have been Incorporated into 
the rittial in this form. They iLre rubricated^ and the nine 
stanzas lortn part of a prescribed service. But, suTely^ ll were 
a literary hysteron-proterou to conclude for this reason that 
they were made only to fill a part in an es^biished ceremony. 

I So I^AV. Possibly **lqr rtwmn of (the lun^) tays^j Ehe siati f™ tbe mn 
M thlrms leaf light Fof + Heaveo,' IwTo acd IkQow* mx the tlilid chapter. 

a Voted mty by hLei^ Uterally, self-ycikod^ Sewn Is U3«d In tbe Rig Vela in 
the gto«ta[ Kttic of ” at In Styduspeatt^t tIId thief (M* *itei yiars.'* 

ilf£r//OI}S IJ^TEJ£/’^£rAT/OA\ 

The praise is neither perfiiisctory nor lackitig in a really religious 
tone. It hM a directness and a simplicity, without affectation, 
which would incUne one to belifiVK that it was not made 
mechanically} but composed with a devotional spirit that gave 
voice to genuine feeling. 

We will now translate another poem (carefully presemng all 
the tautological phraseology)* a hymn 

To Dawh ni. 64), 

Aloft the Ughta *f Uaim* fot b»Ut^ gli;iuiiing> 

Have risen resplenduii. like 10 waves of water ^ 

She makes fair pathst* <makE») all accessiUfi ; 

And good h she. muniAcent and kindly. 

Thou lovely lookest» through Wide iqiatcs ahlfl'st ihop^ 

Up dy thy iery shining beams tP heavcHi ^ 

Thy l>osom thou revaaU^ti thyselif adoming* 

Aurora, goddess £[igjmung bdghi in greatness. 

The ruddy kina (the douds) rtspkndent bear hen 
The WesMsd One, who bu and wide exiendeth. 

Aa routs hii foei a hero armctl with arrows. 

Aft driver swif 1, m she compeU the darkness. 

Thy way* are fair; thy paths, upon the mnuntalits j 
In calm, sdf'Shinlng one, thou crOsfi'ftt the waters. 

O thou whofte paths are wid& to us^ th ou toffy 
Daughter of [[caven. bring wealth for our sulsistence. 

Bring (wealth)p thou PawTip who, with ihe kinep untroubled 
Dost bring U 9 good commcu*uiiite with pleasure. 

Daughter of Heaven, who^ thou^ then art a goddeas, 

Didst ayH at mordog-call come bright and enriy. 

Aloft tjie birds fly ever from thdr dwelling. 

And fm-n, who seek for food* at ihy dear dawning- 
E'en though a mortal Stay at home and fterve thve. 

Much joy to himt Dawn, goddess (hTieht)^ ihcm bringest- 

Tlie “morning call” might, indeed, suggest the ri^, but 
it proves only a rooming prayer or offering. Is this poem 


m£ ££UG/OJ^S f^WA- 

of » “singularly refiaed chaxa-eter/^ or 'Vprcdiifiiiiently S4icet- 
dotal ** m appearance? One otlier ejfajnpic (in still a different 
metre) may be esaminedt to sec if it bear on its face evidence 
of having been made with “ reference to ritual application^" or 
of being litiogtcal from the very start'^ 

To lEfDSA L tl). 

^TUi Endxa all tour} Hongs extoli 
Him tufio as ocean m ejitent; 

Of wrrioft chiofcsl waJtioT he* 
lord, Irurai lord for bcioly's gain. 

In ftkndjhlpi Indta. strong as ilrJne 
Xaoght will wc fear, O lord of strength; 

To thee wo nui laudations sing. 

The conqueror unconquercELi 

The i^fta of Indni many arer 
And mnxhaustlblc his help 
Whenever tn thein that praiisn he gives 
The gift o| booty rich in hine^ 

A fortieSi'retidefi youthful, irbe^ 

ImEamsurmbly Strong was liom 
Indran the doer of every dj«dp 
The lightnjng-holdet'+ far rcnowtitd. 

Twas ihott, Holt-holdct* tenfc’sl the cav# 

Of Val, who held the (htavenlylf hinei* 

Thee helped the (shining) gods, when roused 
(To courage) by the fearlesa one-* 

ijififam a Tho rain, iee nsst iwftn- 

a After Ihb »ban t*o ialerpobtcd are here mdttei Grasantu and 

Ludwig glw the flpHhel “ feuteK’’ to the nods and to Vahi, respKtfvaty. Bat coeb^ 
iiftre I. ^ ^ ^ oii-rneMlened act ol 

clKitlp( the sm, where the dragon V^l W Vrllni ithn rerttidper « envelopper) had 
coraHed the Vctne (iA* without fretapibew^ for the act of frefdng tbe cktada and Wtting 
loote the Taln)p ouinpiire L ^ A ^ ^ ^ 

lay Hoon the Enotmtalns...likehellfiwfngIdiiethe walerE, swiftly Aowtn^ demded 
to the and verte II ; “ VValtbed by the smalm the wntftrf Stood ^ ^. the waterrf 
covered avehe Opewd wldetwfaat Ume he Vritm ileWh'* 

M£T//0£>S of INTE£FltETATIOI\^* 

rndra, wtiQ lofd? it hf tiis aiTenglK 
Our now blVC U>iid protlamed: 

Hls geo-efous *■ tiiouiand ircip 
Ay^ evtn ntHTt than thia are tboy- 

This is poetry. Not great poetry perhaps, but certainly not 
ground out to order, as some of the hymns appew to avc 
bVen. Vet, it may be said, y^hy could not a poetic hymn ha^e 
been imiten in a ritualistic environment? 
hymns themselves that ono is forced to depend for the belid 
in tJie existence of ritualism, and «e claim that such h>-mns as 
these, which we have translated as 

rather that they were composed without reference to n eal 
applldon. It^mst no. be forgouon th.t the ritua^ a^t i 
known in the Brahmanas. without the shghust 
point of view of language, soci^ “ T’r "lllLmt^d bv 

represents an agp that is very diffetent 

the mass of the hymns. Snch hymns, therefore, and o y 
such as can be proved to have a ritualistic setting can be 
referred to a ritualistic age. There b no convincing mason 
wL one should not lake the fully justified view that somco 
thihvmms represent a freer aud more natural (less pn«t- 
Wnd) age. as they represent a spirit freer and ^ 
than that of other hjanns. As to the ; 

early or late, be due to poetic feeling, and 
tnechanbm or servile imitation, this can indeed be ^ 

by a judgment based only on the literary quality, never on c 

accident of subsequent rubrication ^ 

We hold, therefore, in this regard, that the new . 

able and is synchrr> 

“^litiraradla^errituatism. su^ected 

cases derived from itt but in part the hymns am 

S own sake and not for the sake of 

ance," as said Muller of the whole j going m this too far. 


T//£ A^^:L/G/OjVS or /4VJO/A. 

not mto greater error than are gone they that eonfiise the 
natural with the artiheiah the poetical mth the nicthanical, 
gold with dross. It may be true that the book±i of the Rig 
Veda are chietiy family-books for the but even were 

it true it would in no wi'se impugn the poetic character of some 
of the hymns contained En these books, Thii drag-net has 
scooped up old and new, good and badi together. I'he Rig 
Veda is not of one period or of one sort. It is a * Collection/ 
as says its name. It is essentially Impossible that my sweeps 
ing statement In regard to its character should be true if that 
character be regarded as uniform. To say that the Rig Veda 
represents an age of childlike thought, a period before the 
priestly ritual began its spiritual blight^ is incorrect. But no 
less incorrect is it to assert that the Rig Veda represents a 
period when hymns are made only for rubrication by priests that 
sing only for baksheesh. Scholars are loo prone to-day to 
speak of the Rig Veda in the same way as the Greeks spoke ot 
Homer. It is to be hoped that the time may soon come when 
critics will no longer talk about the Cal lection as if it were all 
made in the same circumstances and at the same time; above 
all Is it desirable that the literary' quality of the hymns may re¬ 
ceive due attention, and that there may be less of those universal 
asseveratiotis which treat the productions of generations of 
poets as if they were the work of a single author. 

In respect of the method q£ reading into the Rig Veda what is 
found in parallel passages in the Atharva Veda and Brihmanas, 
a practice rnuch favored by Ludwig and others^ the results of 
its application have been singularly futile In passages of im- 
poTtance, Often a varied reading will make clearer a doubtful 
verse, but it by no means follows that the better reading is the 
truen There always remains the lurking suspicion that the 
reason the variant Is more intelligible is that its inventor did 
not understand the original. As to real eluddarion of other 
sort by the later texts, in the tninutLae of the outer worich in 

Afi^TitODS OJ^ fA'r£/l/‘X£rAT/OM 


details of priestcraft, one may trust early tradition tentatively, 
just as one does late commcnutors^ but in respect of ideas 
tTaditiDn is as apt to mislead as to lead well. 1 be cleft be" 
tween the theology of the Rig Veda and that of the Brah' 
jnanas, even from the point of view of the mass of hymns that 
comprise the former, is too great to allow us with any content 
to ujcplain the conceptions of the one by thfflve of the other. 
A tradition always is useful when nothing else offers itself, but 
traditional beliefs are so apt to take the color of new eras that 
they should be employed only in the last emergency, and then 
with the understanding that they are of very hypothetical value. 

In conclusion a practical question remains to be answered. 
Jn the few cases where the physical basis of a Rig Vedte deity 
is matter of doubt, is it advisable to present such a deity in the 
form in which he stands in the test or to endeavor historically 
to elucidate the figure by searching for his physical prototj-pc ? 
M'c have chosen the former alternative, partly because we 
think the latter method unsuitable to a handbook, since it 
involves many critical discussions of theories of doubtful value. 
But this is not the chief reason. Granted that the object of 
study is simply to know the Rig Veda, rightly to grasp the 
views held by the poets, and so to place oneself upon their 
plane of thought, it becomes obvHoua that the farther the 
student gets from their point of view the less he understands 
them. Nay, more, ev'ery hit of information, real as well as 
fancied, which in regard to the poets’ own divinities furnishes 
one with more than the poets themselves knew or imagined, 
is prejudicial to a true knowle4^e of Vedic beliefs. Here 
if anywhere is applicable that test of desirable knowled^ 
formulated as ErittHtun tfa EriafinftH, lo set oneself in 
the mental sphete of the Vedic seers, as far as possible to 
think their thoughts, to love, feat, and admire with them — 
this is the necessary beginning of intimacy, which precedes 
the appreciation that gives understanding. 


T//£ £££/G/OJ\rS 


After tbe next cliapter^ which deals with the people and 
land* we shall begin the uxaiDination of Hind a religions with 
the study of the beliefs and religious notions to be found in 
the Rig Veda, Next to the Rig Veda in time stands the 
Atharva %*cda, which represents a growing demonology in con¬ 
trast with ^t^/fliJ-wo^ship and theology ; sufficiently so at least 
to dcsert'e a special chapien These two V^edic Collections 
naturally form the first period of Hindu religion. 

The Vedic period i^ followed by what is usually termed 
Brahmanl^rnp the religion that is inculcated in the rituals 
called BrJihmana and its later dcvclupment in the Upanishads^ 
These two classes of works* together with the Vajur Veda, wall 
make the next divUions of the whole subject. The formal 
religion of Brahmanism, as laid down for popular use and 
instruction in the law-books* is a side of Brahmanic religion 
that scarcely has been noticed* but It seems to deserve all the 
space allotted to it in the chapter on - The Popular Brahmanic 
Faiik^ W'e shall then review Jainism and Jiuddhisin* the two 
chief heresies. Brahmanism penetrates the great epic poem 
which* however* in its present form Is sectarian Ln tendency* and 
should be separated as a growth of Hinduism from the literature 
of pure Brahmanism, Nevertheless, so intricate and perplexing 
would be the task of unraveling the theologie threads that 
togetlier tUL^ke the yam of the epic^ and in tniny cases it would 
be so doubtful whether any one thread ted to Brahmanism or 
to the wider and more catholic religion called Hinduism* that 
we should have preferred to give up the latter name altogetiicr* 
as one that was for the most part idle, and in some degree 
misleading. Feeling* however* a mere should not 
take the initiative in coining titles* we have admitted this un¬ 
satisfactory word 'Hinduism' as the title of a chapter which 
undertakes to give a comprehensive view of the religions 

P/t'/S/OJ\rS OJf THE EtfB/£CT. 25 

endorsed by the mnny-centuried epic, and to eiplaia their 
mutual relations. As in the case of the ‘ Popular Faith/ wc 
hive had here no models to go upon, and the mass of matter 
which it was necessary to hatvdle—the great epic is about 
eight times as long as the Iliad and Odyssey put together— 
must be our cicuse for many imperfections of treatment in this 
part of the work. The reader will gain at least a view of the 
religious development as it is eshihited in the literature, and 
therefore, as far as possible, in chronological order. 'ITie 
modem sects and the religions of the hill tribes of India form 
almost a necessary supplement to these nobler religions of the 
classical literature; the former because they are the It®cal as 
well as historical continuation of the great Hindu sectarian 
schisms, the latter bccinsc they give the solution of some 
problems connected with givaism, and, on the other hand, 
offer useful nn-Aryao parallels to a few traits which have been 
preserved in the earliest period of the Aryans/ ^ 

1 Airan, Sjjwtrtt rfryff, A«*tui ff/rjo. apfesn to iDean the lojal W li» 

food, and wr bi Ok ori^iuJ oaltonal dalfnation, Juit u Uai S|ed«9 mn lonf 
ctlkd In IjiU! Sanskrit Ujt* I* limph < nobfc.* The word siunnns, |Ktlcip% 

la Aphom, xnd Jifoiiwi Sb pfci|iiy AfiAborEuio^ Tttiiaajc Ariovictw; 

fii in the iww of pwpJ* ™4 eountriM, Vodic Aryu, ban, iranhn J 
fid) Aiirm, EHa, IreliUbd. CampaK Zimmer, Uli SiL pk ij?; Karittr 
jm 141 (Arrowsirwlb'^* triiaalatkm, p. lo^). Jn the RJg them is a jpod Aryawant 

' the mw/ who form will, Mllra ind Vareita a Iriid (sh bekaw)* VVindlKh qw 
Ibe ptopffcty erf SdeirttrySn^ r«n with Erin, >14 Schrader (p. d^ial*! 
whetKcr tbt Ifidjo-EnTTiptaiB « a body caUrf thmnKta Aiyafu. AVe enpMy 
itw aama becMiM i£ ia thoXL 



The; Aryan Hindus, \i'hosu religions we describe in this 
volume^^ formed one of tiie Aryan or 30-called Indo-European 
peoples. To the other peoples of this stocky Persians, Ar¬ 
menians, Greeks^ Italians^ Kelts, Teutons, Slav's, the Hindus 
were related closely by language, but ¥ery remotely from the 
' point of view of their primitive religion. Into India the Aryans 
brought little that was retained in thetr religious systems. A 
few waning gods, the worship of ancestors, and some simple 
rites are common to them and their western relations; but 
with the exception of the Iranians (Persbns)* their religious 
connection with cis-lndlc peoples is of the slightest. With 
the Iranians, the Hindus (that were to be) appear to have 
lived longest in common after the other members of the Aryan 
host were dispersed to west and south.* They stand in closer 
religious touch with those, their nearest neighbois, and in the 
time of the Rig Veda (the Hindus' earliest literature) there 
are traces of a connection comparatively recent between the 
pantheons of the two nations. 

According to their own, rather uncertain, testimony, the 
Aryans of the Rig Veda appear to have consisted of five tribal 
groups.* These groups, Latin getis^ are subdivided into 

1 * VVe take thlA opjmrtuftity <if thil bjf ttw ralifjiMii tsi ihe Af}n.B H IwAm 

we mtsin Ike jd si vhOf uivdfHiibtedl^, were fulHslooded Atyniu at 

^ fint, beweiet tsmb Ihejt kloHI nay ha^v been diluted lalef hj im-Aiyui 
TUI ibm time of Biiddhisin the leUftotUI Ulcmtoio b furty Aryan, tzv the peilbd 
oT*' TfhidinSm'^ TwthcT pmple nor Rli|feii can clAicn loht C[t]il« Ary^. 

* lf+ as thlnla Echred^f, the AryaiUi' isri^tral va.t waa cn the Volj^ tken <30s 
aiun tlm iTtdo^lTanlBiu tc hm ktpt a ia^lh«lrtoriv cmisTBUciiL 

^ That ta to m.j, fiwjbenl rcfcTTK® ie nude to * fiw tribes.' Eodk sekolart 4«ny 
|b4l the t4bn Aryan atone^ ud cMn Ih^it hk« wrtrnp means 'truLDy.' 



fvffl/p Latin vkiiSi and these, agairij into prismas. The names, 
however, are not employed with strictness, and etymo¬ 

logically getis bet politically tribus, sometimes JS used as a 
synonym of Of the ten boo^ of the Kig-Veda seven 

are ascribed to vnrious priestly families. In the main, these 
books arc rituals of song as inculcated for the same rites by 
different family priests and their descendants. Besides these 
there are books which are ascribed to no family, and consist, 
in part, of more general material. The distinction of priestly 
family-books was one, possibly, coeitensive with political de¬ 
marcation. Each of the fami!y-lK>t>ks represents a priestly 
family, but it may represent, also, a political family. In at 
least one case it represents a political body.* 

These great political groups, which, perhaps, are represented 
by family rituals, were essentially alike in language, custom 
and religion (although minor ritualistic differences probably 
obtained, as well as tribal preference for particular cults); 
white in Jill these respects, as well in color and other racial 
peculiarities, the Aryans were distinguished from the dark- 
skinned aborigines, with whom, until the end of the Kig Vcdic 
period, they were perpetually at war. At the close of this 
period the immigrant ,\ryans had reduced to slas'ery manj o 
their unbelieving and barbarian enemies, and formally incor¬ 
porated them into.the state organization, where, as captives, 
slaves, or sons of slaves, the latter formed the "fourth ^te,” 
But while admitting these slaves into the body politic, the 
priestly Aryans debarred them from the religious congregation. 
Between the Annans themselves there is in this period a loosely 
defined distinction of classes, but no system of caste is known 
before the close of the first Vedic Collection. Nevertheless, 
the emphasis in this statement lies stiongly upon system, and 

1 RV. UL 3J- III il- la- UitH, p. iSo, intorwctl? Ideatt 

Sa Tit wUR tribal (LArt, JfttUssfitiit*/*, P* , ,, _ 

a Vievinutri. A fe* of ih* bymni ate art aaMSclbed ttr ptJesls at ell {som* "we 
nnrU *ainen; l*>™ by ‘mjatswrt,' Wngl, or, at lea*!. Hit prieiti). 


It may wot be quite idle to say at the outset thut the general 
caste-distinctions not only are as old as the I ndi>^ I ranian unity 
(among the Persians the same division of priest^ ’warrior and 
husbandman obtains), but, in all probability, they ar« much 
older. For so long as there is a cult, even if it be of spirits 
and devils, there are priests j and if there are chieftains there 

a nobility, such as one finds among the Teutons, nayt even 
among the American Indiatis, where abo is known the inevntx- 
bic division into priestchiefs and comifiton^St sonietimcs hcrcdi- 
taiyv sometimes wot- There must have been, theu+ from the 
beginning of kingship and religious survicet a division among 
the Aryans into royalty, priests^ and people, whoever were 
not acting as priests or chieftains, Wlien the people becotnes 
agricultural, the difference tends to become permanent, and 
a caste system bell's. Now, the \edic Aryans appear in 
history nt jnst the period when they are on the move south¬ 
wards inio India ; but they are no imipting host, The battles 
led the warriors on, but the folk, as a folk^ moved slowlyt not 
all abandoning the country which they had gained, but settling 
there, and sending onwards only a part of the people. *lhere 
was no fixed line of demarcation between die classes- Hie 
king or another might act as his nwn priest — yet were there 
priestly families. The cow-boys might fight — yet were there 
those of ihe people that were especially ' l^ngsmen/ rj/amdr^ 
and these wercp already, practically a class, if not a caste.^ 
These natural and necessary' socml divisions, which in early 
times were anything but rigid, soon formed inviolable groups, 
and then the caste system was complete. In the perfiSeted 
legal scheme W'bat was usage becomes duty. The warrior may 

i Cajrt^ at EjrsU eonns * aigiaifici Uol tben ti % lamiK betvHii 

tbfe wit* Euut tsuiraaL Thi ■TdiU. Fww practsolly ttMtt, Iminii? ilasi.. 

The wofd aiwi Ums ftrrt fflcntiil diitincUon Ealltroa]* 

Atr^ ■™1 ■* tlaiA'inifi-* Tte prrajekAt ebM^Uslinrtii^iii mboak Aryatii thtm- 
Htm fiiced In pf Unit, Mid ibe bttwe€B ArjnsitilK kft *oiW! re^id^ 

Twre driwn 54« i&ai'ijJy aa brtvnn Afyan and lUifr. 


not be a public pnest; the priest itiay not senx as warrior or 
husbandmaTi. The farmer * people " were the result of elimiDa^ 
ing: first the priestly, and then the fighting factors ftotn the 
whole body politic. But these castes were all Aiyans^ and as 
such distinguished most sharplyp from a religious point of views 
from the fourth caste"' j whereas among themselves they w-ere, 
in religion, equals. But they were pracltcally divided by inter¬ 
ests that strongly affected the development of their original 
litanies. For both priest and warrior looked down on the 
^people** but priest and warrior feared and respected each 
other- To these the third estate was necessary as a base of 
supplies, and together they guarded it from foes divine and 
mortal. But to each other they were necessary for wealth and 
gloryp respectively. So it was that even in the earliest periodi 
the religious litany, to a great ejetent, is the iKwk of worship 
of a warrior-ciass as prepared for it by the priest. Priest and 
king— these are the main factors in the making of the hymns 
of the Rig Veda, and the gods lauded are chiefly the gods 
]}atroiiii£cd by these cLasscs. The third estate hadrits favorite 
gods, but these wore little regarded, and were in a state of 
decadence. The slavesp loo, may have bad their own gods, but 
of these nothing is known^ and one can only surmise that here 
and there In certain traits, which seem to be un-.'^^ryan, may 
lie an unacknowledged loan from the aborigines* 

Between the Rig Veda and the formation or compiclion of 
the neat Veda, called the Atharvan, the interval appears to have 
been considerable, and the inherent value of the religion incuh 
cated in the latter cati be estimated aright only when this is 
weighed together with the fact, that, as is learned from *lhc 
Atharvan*s own statements^ the Aiya-ns were now advanced 
further southwards and eastwards, had discovered a new land, 
made new gods, and were now more permanently established, 
the last a factor of some moment in the religious development- 
[ndlcations of the difference In time may be seen In the 


T//E EEL/a/OjVS OF mO/A. 

geographical and physical limitations of the older period as 
compared with those of the later Aihan^n. When first the 
Aryans are found in India, at the time of the Rig Veda^ they 
are located, for the most part, near the upper Indus j^Sindhu), 
The Ganges, nsetittonud but twice, is barely knownn On the 
west the Aryans lingered in Eist KabulLstan (possibly in Kash- 
tneer in the north)’ and even Kandahar appears^ at least, to 
be knowTi as Arjan. That is to say\ the * Hindus^ were stiH 
in Afghanistan, although the greater mass of the peopk had 
already crossed the Indus and were progressed some distance 
to the east of the Punj^bH That the nice was still migrating 
may bo auun from the hymns of the Rig Veda itselL* Their 
journey was to the south-east, and both before and after they 
reached the Indus they left settlements, chiefly about the Indus 
and in the Punjab (a post-Vedic group)^ not in the southern 
but in the northern part of this district A 

The Vedic Aryans of this first period were acctuaintud wkh 
the Indus, Sutlej (^utudrl), Ecas (Vipa^, Ravi (Pam- 

ahni or Iravatl)? the pair of rivers that unite and fiow into the 
Indus, vij!.L Jhelum (Vitasta, Betiat)p and Chinlh (Asikni," 
Akcslnc!^); and knew the remoter Kubha Kabul) and 

the northern Suvdstu (Swat); while they appear to have had a 
legendar)'remembrance of the Rasa, Avestan Rahha (R.ingha)^ 
supposed by some to be identical with the xlraxes or Vaxartes, 
but probably (see below) only a n'ague * stream/ the old name 
travelling with them on their wanderings; for one would err if 
he rugarded similarity or even identity of appellation aa a proof 
of real tdentiLy/ West of the Indus the Kurutn and Gomal 
appear to be known also. Many rivers are mentioned of which 

1 Ccrtnpin KV. Ill, uid in L iji, j, the * God Indn, thou didst hdp 

ihjr Buivpllub i QM riiw afl^f iher gaaMd pfi£4u$d 

a ■Pininai, F^rJ tlKAS. k*. If,; ZilUlwr, Uf. i-H. I^|l, j), 

^ Laiter called tlie CAfldfahha^ for tlw Jimuia kx betofw. 

* TW» 1* tilt emir inlo whkh faJt$ nntnnlwfcr, whose ihtacf the 
ATjaiu wm MUl 5«Ct1ed aeaj tht Cftipian feaai been ^tklinl whm (p. ijJl 



the names are given, but their lf>catinn is not e^tablbhcii. It 
U from the district west of the Indus that the most famatis San¬ 
skrit grammarian comes, and long after the Vedas an Indie 
people are known in the Kandahar district, while Kashmeer 
was a late home of culture^ The Sarasvati river, the name of 
which is transferred at least once in historical times^ may have 
been originally one with the Arghandib (on which Is Kandahar), 
for the Persian name of this river (j becomes is Harah^^ati 
(Arachotos, Arachosia), and it is possible that it was really this 
river^ and not the Indus which was hrst lauded as the Saras^ 
vat I, In that case there would be a perfect parallel to what 
has probably happened in the case of the Rasa, the name — 
in both cases meaning only nhe stream^ (like Rhine^ Amo, 
etc.) — being transferred to a new river. But since the Iranian 
Harahvati fixes the first river of this name, there is here a 
stronger proof of IndcH-Iranbn community than is furnished 
by other examplesJ 

These facts or suggestive parallels of names are of exceed¬ 
ing impiortance. They indicate between the Vcdic Aryans' 
and the Iranians a connection much closer than usually has 
been assumed. 'Fhe bearings of such a connection on the 
' religious ideas of the two peoples are self-evident^ and will 
often have to be touched upon in the course of this history. 
It is of less importance, from the present point of view, to say 
how' the Af)^ns entered India, but since this {|iiestion is also 
connected with that of the religious environment of the tirst 
Hindu poets, it will be well to state that, although, as some 
scholars maintain, and as we be!ieve+ the Hindus mniy have 
come with the Iranians through the open pass of Herat (l iarai-va, 
Haroyu), it is possible that they parted frotn the latter south of 
the l-lindukush* (descending through the Kohlstan passes from 
the north), arid that the two peoples thence diverged south-east 


1 Compon GtLg^^ Oitir^in^££A^ ^ Si. $» alsQ Muir, OST. H, p. J55. 

t l_4ueD, L p. dEddv4 la tiTnr ot tlw pain tbe HiftdTLkkLih- 


and south-west respectively. Neither assumption would pre^ 
vent the country lying between the Harahvnti and Vitasti * from 
for generationSr a tommon camping-ground for both 
peopleSt who were united atilt, but gradually diverging. This 
seems, at least, to be the most reasonable explanation of the fact 
that these two rivers are to each people their fartliest known 
western and eastern f imits respeclivetyv With the exceptJon of 
the vague and uncertain RasE, the %'‘cdic Hindoos geographical 
knowledge is limited by Kandahar in the west, as is the 
Iranian’s in the east by the Vitasta." North of the Vimsti 
Mount Trlcota (Trikakud, “three peaksLs veneratedt 
this t€igether with a Mount MQjavat^ of which the situation w 
probably in the north, ii the extent of modern knowledge in 
respect of the tiaiural boundaries of the Vedic people. One 
hears, to be sure^ at a later time, of * northern Kurus,* whose 
felicity is proverbial; and it Is very tempting to £nd in this name 
a connection with the Iranian Kur, but the Kurus, like the Rasa 
and Sarasvatf, are re*located once (near Delhi), and no similar¬ 
ity of name can assure one of a true connection. If not coinci¬ 
dences, such likenesses arc too vague to be valuable historically.* 
Another much disputed point must be spoken of in connec¬ 
tion with this subject. In the Veda and In the Avesta there ts 
mentioned the land of the * seven rivers.’ Now seven rivers 
are often spoken of in the Rig Veda, but only once does this 
term mean the country, while in the ‘ Hymn to the Rivers" no 

1 From Kjiu^iikvr In la a palm * ^1 of Ljilii!rre l*i tbe 

fDTEQM dUtri<?t,icwidlji( ta |Jh»e AmtA, Ufc m bfulfd tan IndLin autom. 

iMt« iTiudon}. 

a Gdgtt Ucntlgts Ux o& wUh the Oatm^ hat ihli b \m- 

^ proboUe. It lid in tite ^ti|iix east ajad formi the botuid^ bofwem tin true 
bclicvcn ud Uit ^dQnwiP^onhLppees« (V»sht, 5,77; /«. rff. p. 131, ncfi^ t\ 

TL* Frnihn name li thr snnw with tltastl, *bkh b kxaled la tho FUnplL 

* On the Kvm n»iit|m Zltomw (jW. <it.h wko ttiinks Kuhtneef h meant, and 
Isr. p. 3^ Other pofiraphyal rcmlolKenDH ma,)? in t'edlc aj>d Brak- 
muiEc aUnslami to Bartria, Balkh (A V,); to the DerUker {aroaad Merr ? KV.), and 
to ifwiintaia, whence be desttaiM aTtcr the Bood ^[NiHibuHlIiaQa) t Car* 

^rJkmjina, 1.3. i, fi, * Mww’^w dcHcnt ' 


thaa tweaty-one streams are caimerated (RV. x. 75)* In 
order to make out the * seven rivers * scholars have made different 
combinations^ that most m favor being Miiller’s, the five rivers 
of the Punjab together with the Kabul and (Swat or) Saras- 
vati. But m point 0! fact ‘seven' quite as often means luiiny, 
as it docs nts exact number^ and this, the older use, may well be 
applied here. It is quite impossible to idcnti^ the seven, and 
it is probable that no Vedic poet ever Imagined them to be a 
group of this precise number. It would he far easier to select 
a group of seven conspicuous riverSj if anjTvhere, on the w^csl 
of the Indus. A very natural group ftom the Iranian side 
would be the Heririidp Kiltnund^ Arghandabp Kurum, Kabul^ 
Jndusp and Yiiasi^ Against thiSp how cverp can be urged that 
the tern * ^ven rivets" may be Bactrian, older than the Vedic 
period ; and ihatp in particularp the Avesta distinguishes Vab 
kert4 Urs^a, and other districts from the ' seven rivers.^ It is 
best to remam uncertain in so doubtful a matter, bcariug in 
mind that even Kurukshetra, the "holy landp^ Ls said to-day to 
be watered by * seven streamsp' although some say nine | apropos 
of which fact Cnnninghatn remarks, giving modem exampleSp 
that '‘the Hindm invariably assign seven branches to all their 
nvers. * 

Within the Punjab, the Vedic Ar^^ins, now at last really 
* Hindus,'.having extended themselves to the ^utudrl (^atadtu, 
Sutlej), a formidable barrier, and eventually Jiuving crossed 
even this, the last tributary of the Indus, descended to the 
jumna (Yamuna), over the little stream called Hhe Rocky* 
(Drishadvati) and the lesser Sarasvatl, southeast from Lahore 
and near Delhi in the region KTtrukahelra^ afterwards famed as 
the seat of the great epic war, and always regarded as holy in 
the highest degree. 

Not till the time of the Atharva Veda do the Anans appear 
as far east as Benares (Varinasl, on the * VafanavatP^)i though 

J jjr'iJt. SumT. riw 1 Tlwll»^ isf^ nL ^ 



the Sarayu h mentioned in the Rik. But this sc^tte\y i^ the 
tiibiitaQ' qf the Ganges, Go^m, for the njimc seems to refer to 
a more western stream, since it is assocbted with the Gomati 
(Gomil). One may surmise that in the time of the Rig Veda 
the Ar^^ans knew only by name the country east of Lucknow, 
It is in the Punjab and a little to the west and east of it (how^ 
far It is iin[)ossible to state wi(h accuracj^) where lies the real 
theatre of activity of the Rig Vedic people. ^ 

Some scholars believe that this people had already heard of 
the two oceans. This point again is doubtful in the ejitreme, 
N^o descriptions imply a knowledge of ocean, and the word for 
ocean means merely a * con flue nee' of waters, or in general a 
great oceanic body of water like the ain As the Indus is too 
wide to be seen across, the name may apply in most cases to this 
river- An allusion to * eastern and western floods/* which Is 
held by some to be conclusive evidence for a knowledge of the 
two seas* h taken by others to apply to the air-oceans. The 
ejcprcssion may apply simply to rivers, for it is said that the 
Vipa^ and gutudri empty into the * ocean ^ the Indus or 
the ^utudri's continuation/ One late verse alone speaks of 
the Sarasvati pouring into the ocean, and this would indicate 
the Arabian Sea.^ Whether the Bay of Bengal was known, 
even by hearsay and in the latest time of this period* remains 
uncertain. As a body the Ary-ans of the Rig Veda were cer¬ 
tainly not acc^uatnted with either oceaiit Some straggling 
adventurers probably pushed down the Indus^ but Zimmer 
doubtless IS correct in asserting that the popular emigration 
did not extend further south than the junction of the Indus 
and the Paheanada (the united five rivers)/ The extreme 
south-eastern geographical limit of the Rig %'edic people may 

* KV- Jr . a Ssi. 35. 

* UX. ^ 95, 3, Mm th* can l» oaljf tK^ Indoa^ 

* PATica-iudx J'i±hjnwl, Vmkui. • Ptinpli,* ihc ftrc stmoii, VitaitiU Asiknl, 

The Pun^iid point is ikwlr ap Vyw, JR AS 

^ 3J> Tlw Sarayu be tt» liufrild* ioe. ric p. ? 3 . 


be reckoned (not, however, in Oldenberg's opinion, with any 
great certainty) as being in Northern Behar (Magadha). The 
great desert, Marusthala, formed an impassable southern ob¬ 
stacle for the first imitsigrants.^ 

On the other hand, the tn^o oraans are well known to the 
Atharva Veda, while the geographical (and hence chronologi¬ 
cal) difference between the Kik and the Atharv-an is furthermore 
illustrated by the following facts : in the Rig Veda wolf and 
lioti are the most formidable beasts ; the tiger is unknown and 
the elephant seldom alLudcd to; white in the Athar^'an the tiger 
has taken the lion's place and the elephant is a more familiar 
figure. Now' the tiger has his domicile In the swampy land 
about Benares, to which point ts come the Athar\'aii Aryan, 
but not the Rig Vedcc people. Here toop in the Athan^an, the 
panther is first mentioned, and for the first time silver and iron 
are certainly referred to* In the Rig Veda the metals are 
bronze and gold, silver and iron being unknown^* Not less sig¬ 
nificant are the trees. I'he ficus leligiosa, the tree later called 
the " tree of the gods^ Qftrd-Sirtfirmj under w^hich 

are fabled to sit' the divinities in heaven, is scarcely known 
in the Rig Veda, but is well known in the Atharvan ; while 
India's grandest tree, the ficus indica, is known to 

the Athart^an and Brahmanlc period, but is utterly foreign to 
the Rig Veda. Zimmer deems it no less significant that fishes 
are spoken of in the Atharvan and are mentioned only once In 
the Rig Veda, but this may indicate a geographical difference 
less than one of custom. In only one doubtful^ passage is the 
north-east monsoon alluded to. The storm so vividly described 
in the Rig Veda Is the south-west monsoon which is felt In the 
northern Punjab. The north-cast monsoon is fell to the south- 

^ Md.?, OST. ILyji; pr^t IdenUfia ibfi RV. iii. 5 :^ 14 

wHh tht InltiUtMti flf Sftrthcna BtlOr. MinwUuU U caJiBi ilmply * llw datte 

a Tbt oixlkf d/M, i-atiEJ meaiti htamt ihvE Ereo, m iGm™- ha* 

W, Ai. p. 51. ffcicti*!, I, iliowf ihal efepliuiti are isHitio&Kl 

raJra otWrt thin to vapp^ (but Tartly Ed familr-booki^ 



east of the Punjab, possibly' another indication of geographical 
extension^ withal within the limits of the Rig Veda itself. 

The seal of culture shifts in the Brahmank period, which 
follows that of the Vedic poems, and is found partly in the 
■holy land^ of the west, and partly In the east (Behir, Tirhut).^ 
The literature of this period comes from Aryans that have 
passed out of the Punjab. Probably, as we have said, settle- 
ments were left all along the line of progress. Even before 
the wider knowledge of the post-Alexandrine imperial age (at 
which time there was a north-western military retirogression)^ 
and, from fhe Vedic point of view, as late as the end of the 
Brahmanic period, in the time of the Upanishads, the north- 
west seems still to have been familiarly known.* 

1 Weber, fjtdltiAt t ^ »s ^ OldefibcfE, pp. 599 ff., 4 tn. 

* Vef 7 Ljtdy PrahlB hu to lihom that Ihe pall Uhdect oI IuUa lata 
port nrfenUe to the we4em illMrtet? (Kafldahu}, anU hia madfi out aa Lstcje^ar 
ax for bli aanl ttami; (£PMGw XL^iL {l 



Thf. ii^Tnns of the Rig Veda may be divided into three 
those in which are especially lauded the older divini¬ 
ties, those in which appear as most prominent the sacrificial 
godSp and those in which a long-weakened polytheism is giving 
place to the light of a^clearer pantheism* In each category- 
there are hymns of difFerent age and quality, for neither did 
the more ancient with the growth of new divinities cease to be 
revered, nor did pantheism inhibit the formal acknowledgment 
of the primitive pantheon. The cult once established persisted, 
and even when, at a later ttmCt all the gods had been reduced 
to nominal fractions of the All^god, their ritualLstic Individuality 
still was preserved. The chtel reason for this lies in the 
nature of these gods and in the attitude of the worshipper, 
No matter how much the cult of later gods might prevalh the 
other gods, who represented the daily phenomena of nature, 
were still visible, awe-inspiring, divine. The firmest pantheist 
questioned not the advisability of propitiating the sun god, 
howe%"er much he might regard this god as but a part of one 
that was greater. Relief in India was never so philosophical 
that the believer did not dread the lightning, auj^ seek to avert 
it by praying to the special god that wielded it* But active 
veneration in later times was eilended in fact only to the 
strong Powers, while the more passive divinities, although they 
were kept as a matter of form in the ceremoniali yet had in 
reality only tongue-worshippers. 

With some few estcepttons, however, it will be found impossible 
to say whether any one deity belonged to the first pantheon. 

77 /^ A'EL/G/O^VS OA JA-D/A. 

The best one can do U to separate the mass of gods from those 
that become the popular gods^ and endeavor to learn what was 
the character of eadi^ and what were the conceptions of the 
poets in regard both to his naturOp and to bis relations with 
man. A different grouping of the gods (that indicated below) 
will be followed, therefore, in our exposition, 

/Vfter what has been said In the introductory chapter con¬ 
cerning the necessity of distinguishing between good and bad 
poetryp U may be regarded as incumbent upon us to seeh to 
make sur;h a division of the hymns as shall illustrate our words. 
But we shall not attempt to do this t^ere^ because the distinc¬ 
tion between late mechanical and poetic hymns is either veiy 
evident^ and It would be superfluous to burden the pages with 
the trash contained in the lormer,^ or the distinction is one 
liable to reversion at the hands of those critics whose judgment 
differs from ourSr lor there are of course some hymns that to 
one may seem poetical and to another^ artihcial. Moreover^ 
we admit that hymns of true feeling may be composed late 
as well as earl)V while as to beauty of style the chances are 
that the best literary pmduction will be found among the latest 
rather than among the earliest hymns. 

It would^ indeed^ be admissible^ if one had any certainty In 
regard to the age of the different parts of the Rig Veda, simply 
to divide the hymns into caily^ middle, and late^ as they are 
sometimes divided in phUolngical wwks, but here one rests on 
the weakest of alt supports for historical judgmenL, a Linguistio 
and metrical basis, when one is ignorant alike of what may have 
been accomplished by imitation, and of the work of those later 
priests who remade the poems of their ancestors. 

Best then, because least hascardous, appears to be the method 
which we have followed, namely, to take up group by group 

I Su£h for liLstuHX aj thr tiyiim to the RV. 31. Campw 3 - 4 ^ 

* fr* P^ir iA Uke hmA; like lvg Kwf »; like two jsoesm ^ like tvo 

irheels^i ILke twoahlpi^ lllc£ rno etc TMi Ji the^Ofitentof tke^laole hyma. 

rjf£ AVC y£D^- the UPP££ gous. 


the most important deities amuiged in the order of their rela¬ 
tive importance, and by studjHng each to arrive at a fair under¬ 
standing of the pantheou as a whole. The Hindus thei^elves 
divided their gods into highest, middle, and lowe^or those of 
the upper sk>% the atmosphere, and the earth. This division, 
from the point of view of one who would enter into the spirit 
of the seers and at the same time keep Sn mind the tinges to 
which that spirit gradually was subjected, is an excellent one 
For as will be seen, although the earlier order of regard may 
have been from below upwards, this order docs not apply to 
the literary monuments. These show on the contrary a ^ 
ship which steadily tends from above earthwards; and the 
into Vlch »»y l» »11 V.d» .l.,oljW 

are fir« that of the special worship of sky-gods, when less 
attention is paid to others ; then that of the atmosphenc and 
oieteorologlcal divinities; and finally that of teriestnal powers, 
each later group absorbing, so to speak, the earlier, and there- 
with preparing the developing Hindu Intelligetice for the rece]> 
tion of the universal god with whom clos^ the senes 

Other factors than those of an ie^rd development undou^ 
edlv were at work in the formation of this growth. Es,^ 
cially prominent is the amalgamation of the gods of the ow^ 
cl Jes with those of the priest-hood. Climatic environment, tt«, 
conditioned theological evolution, if not 
cult of the mid-sphere god, Indra, was partly e res 
changing atmospheric surroundings of the Hindus as they a - 
a «d fnto India. The storms and the sun were not those o 
o?d rhe tempests were more terrific, the display of divine pow r 
was more concentrated in the rage of the 
Appreciation of the goodness of the sun became tinged un b 
apprehension of evil, and he became a deadly 
oJA beneficent. Then the relief of ram after drought gave to 
indra the character of a benign god as well as of a 
\or were lacking in the social condition certain alterations 


T/f£ OF /AW^, 

which worked together with cUtnatk changes. The segiegated 
mass df the original people, the braves that hung about the 
kingp a warrior-class rapidly becoming a caster and politicaHy 
the most important caste, took the god of thunder and lightning 
for their god of battle. The fighting race natmally exalted to 
the highest the fighting god. Then came into protnincncc the 
priestly caste^ which gradually taught the warrior that mind 
was stronger than muscle^ But this caste was one of thinkers^ 
Their divinity w-as the product of rcfiectioiu Indra Temalned^ 
but yielded to a higher power, and the god thought out by the 
priests became God. Yet it must not be supposed that the 
cogitative energy of the Brahman desccudcd upon the people^s 
gods and suddenly produced a religious revolution. In India 
no intellectual advance is made suddenly^ The older divini¬ 
ties show one by One the transformation that they sulfered at 
the hands of iheosophic thinkerSn. Before the establishment 
of a gcneraL Father-god, and long before that of the pantheistic 
Albgod, the philosophical leaven was actively at work, [t will 
be seen operative at once in the case of the sun-god* and^ 
indeed, there were few of the older divinities that were um 
touched by it- It worked silently and at first csotericaJiLy^ 
One reads of the gods' *■ secret names/ of secteis in theology, 
which * are not to be revealed,* till at last the disguise is with¬ 
drawn, and it is discovered that all the mystery of former 
generations has been leading up to the declaration now made 
public: ^all these gods are but names of the One.' 

the svk^od. 

The hymn which was translated in the first chapter gives 
an epitome of the simpler conceptions voiced in the few whole 
hymns to the sun. But there is a lower and a higher ^uew of 
this god* He is the shining god fiar the sarja,^ 

t li ^ihLaifig' (dpu}, and Swrya (»1, ramiH the vxsmr 

Tff£ St/A-GOD. 


the red ball in the sky* But he is also an actire force, the 
power that wakens, rouses, enlivens, and as such it »s he that 
rives all good things to mortals and to gods. As the god that 
rives life he (with others>‘ is the author of birth, and is prayed 
to for children. From above he looks down upon earth, and as 
with his one or many steeds he drives over the firmament he 
observes all that is passing below. He has these, the physical 
side and the spiritual side, under two names, the glowing one, 
SOrj-a, and the enlivener, Savitar;* but he is also the good god 
who bestows benefits, and as such he was known, probably 
locally by the name of Bhaga. Again, as a herdsman s god, . 
possibly at first also a local deity, he is I'Qshan (the meaning is 
almost the same with that of Savitar). As the - mighty one 
he is Vishnu, who measures heaven in three strides. In gen¬ 
eral, the conception of the sun as a physical phenomenon will 
be found voiced chiefly in the family-books; “ The sightly 
form rises on the slope of the sky as the ™ steed 
carries him . . , ^even sister steeds cariy him, Ihis 15 tte 
prevailing utterance. Sometimes the sun is depicted under a 
medley of metaphors: “ A bull, a Hood, a red bud. he has 
entered his father's place ; a variegated stone he is set in the 
midst of the shy; he has adi-anced and guards the two ends of 
space."* One after the other the god appears to the poets as 
a bull, a bird,* a steud, a stone, a jewel, a flood, a torct holder, 
or as a gleaming car set in heaven. Nor is the sun inde^n- 
dent. As in the last image of a chariot,’ so, without symbolism, 
the poet speaks of the sun as made to rise by Varuna and 
Mitra; “On their wonted p.tlh go Varuna and Mitra w en in 

1 aoK Sitlw ““"‘r 

\ •7S- lm««deUelF 

the taiLTpfci^ f^cr tl* Hi|{ Veili 

i V. IT. t r EtMuport -n, and! ^ 

* CoEupjv ^L+ 177 . 1 . * 17- 5^ 

F 7. ViuniM ^ Hifl i^ 1*1 


the sky they cause to rise Sijrya, whom they made to avert 
darkness" ; where, also, the sun, under another image, is the 
“support of the sky.*” Nay, in this simpler view, the sun is 
no more than the “eye of ^^ir^3l Varuna,'” a cDnception for¬ 
mally retained even when the sun in the same breath is spoken 
of as pursuing Dawn like a lover, and as being the *soul of 
the universe' (i. 115. i-s). In the older passages the later 
moral element is almost lacking, nor is there maintained the 
same physical relation between Sun and Dawn. In the earlier 
hymns the Dawn is the Sun’s mother,from whom he proceeds* 
It is the '* Dawns produced the Sun," in still more natural 
language;' whereas, the idea of the lover-Sun following the 
Dawn scarcely occurs in the family-books.* Distinctly late, 
also, is the identification of the sun with the all-spirit {QimS, 
i. I IS- >)• following prayer: “Remove, O sun, all 

weakness, illness, and bad dreams-*' In this hymn, 37- 
SQrya is the son of the sky, but he is evidently one vrith Savitar, 
who in V. S:. 4, removes bad dreams, as. in x. too. 8, he 
removes sickness. Men are rendered ‘sinless’ by the sun 
(i’f- 54 - z ; *- 37 - 9), exactly as they are by the other gods. 
In dm, Varuna, etc. In a jxissage that refers to the important 
triad of son, wind and fire, 3t. 15S. r fl., the sun is invoked to 
‘save from the sky,* tJ., from nil evils that may oome from the 
upper regions ; while in the same book the sun, like Indra, is 
represented as the slayer of demons {asuroj) and dragons; as 
the slayer, also, of the poet’s rivals; as giving long life to the 
worshipper, and as himself drinking sweet sohuj. This is one 
of the poems that seem to be at once late and of a forced and 
artificial character (x. 1 70). 

ll¥. ij- It. 17+ 4^ Sjp I. Bui i3, 149 , ] Su-vitai bulda tbs 


J L tfS- M J7- 

i IIL 61. .1; vtL j, * vfl,^ ^ 

* L 43; CumpAflt L 9a. ei ; a: laj. V, 44, and pei- 

hapji 47. fip m btcr irlL 75. 5^ La an CMcpHon (lUr Ute>. 



Although Surya is differentiated erpUeitly from Savitar 
(v. Si. 4t “Savitar, thou joyest in Strya’s rays"), yet do many 
qI the hymns make no distinction between them. The Enhvener 
is naturally entoUed in fitting phrase, to Ully with bis talc: 
“The shining-god, the Enlivencr, is ascended to mlivcn the 
world”; “He gives protection, wealth and children’ (ii. i; 
iv. sa-’fi-i). The later hymns seem, as one might expect, to 
show greater confusion between the attributes of the phpical 
and spiritual surr. But what higher power under either name 
is ascribed to the sub in the later h>-mns is not due to a 
higher or more developed homage of the sun as such. On the 
contrary', as with many other deities, the more the praise the 
less the individual worship. U is as something more than the 
sun that the god later receives more fulsome devotion. And, 
In fact, paradoxical as it seems, it is a decline in sun-worship 
proper that is here registered. The altar-fire becomes more 
important, and is tei-ered in the sun. whose hymns, at most, 
arc few, and in part mechanical. 

Ikrgaigne in his great work. U has laid 

much stress on sexual antithesis as an element in %'edic wor¬ 
ship. It seems to us that this has been much exaggerated. 
The sun is masculine; the dawn, feminine. Hut there is no 
indication of a primitive antithesis of male and female rn their 
relations. What occurs appe.ars to be of adventitious char, 
acter For though sun and dawn are often connected, the 
latter is represented first as his mother and afterwards as bis 
< wife ■ or mistress. Even in the later hymns, where the manta 
relation is recognized, it is not insisted upon. But Hergaigne, 
is right in saying that in the Rig Veda the sun does not play 
the part of an evil power, and it is a good illustration of the 
difference between Rik and Atharvan, when Ehni cites, to 
prove that the sun is like death, only passages from the Athar 
van and the later Hrahmanic literature.* 

i Ehbi, 1p, 134. 

4 + 


When, later, the Ei Indus got into i region where the sun vras 
deadly, they said, '* Yon burning sun-god is death,” but in the 
Rig Veda they said, “ Von sun is the source of life,”' and no 
other conception of the sun is to be found 1 u the Rig \ eda. 
There are about a doien hymns to SQtya, and as many to 
Savitar, in the Rig Veda.^ It is noteworthy that in the family- 
books the hymns to Savitar largely prevail, while those to 
SQrya are chiefly late in position or content. Thus, in the 
family-books, where are found eight or nine of the dozen 
liymns to Savitar, there arc to Siirya but three or four, and of 
these the first is really to Savitar and the Alvins ; the second 
is an imitation of the first; the third appears to late ; and 
the fourth is a fragment of somewhat doubtful antiquity. The 
first nms as follows; “The altar-flte has seen well-pleased the 
dawns’ beginning and the offcriiig to the gleaming ones; come, 
O ye horsemen (Alvins), to the house of the pious man; the 
sun (Sfiiya), the shining-god, rises with light. The shining-god 
Sasitar has elevated hU beams, swinging his banner tike a good 
<hero) raiding for cattle. According to rule go Varuna and 
Milra when they make rise in the sky the sun (Surya) whom 
they have created to dissipate darkness, being (gods) sure of 
their habiution and unswerving in intent. Seven yellow' swift- 
steeds bear this SOrya, the seer of all that too%'es. Thou 
eomest with swiftest steeds unspinning the web, separating, O 
shining-god, the black robe. The raj-s of Sflrya swinging 
(his banner) have laid darkness like a skin in the waters. 
Unconnected, unsupported, downward estending, why does 
not this (god) fall down! With what nature goes he, who 
knows (Utcrally, ' who has seen*) ? As a support he touches 
and guards the vault of the sky ” (tv. 13 ), 

There is here, no more than in the early hymn from the first 
book, translated in the first chapter, any worship of material 

1 tr^ ^4, j. Htra the nin jftiM life la ttw 

i jiB. ukd hyinfl* aJ® wiitaiMsd ^ Vi^GciUkIIml* 



phenomena. SQrya is worshipped as Savitar, either expressly 
so called, or widi ail the attributes ot the spLrLtual. The hymn 
that follows this' is a bald imiuilton. in v. 47 there are 
more or less certain signs of lateness. in the fourth stanra 
(.‘four carry him, ... and ten give the child to dnnk that he 
may go," etc.) there is the juggling with unexplained numbers, 
which is the delight of the later priesthood. Moreover, this 
hymn is addressed formally to Mitra-Varuna and .^gei, and 
not to the sun.god, who is mentioned only in metaphor; while 
the final words ‘obeisance to heaven,' show that 

the sun is only indirectly atidressed. One cannot regard 
hymns addressed to Mitra-Vanina and Sury^a (with other gods) 
as primarily intended for Sorya, who in these hymns is looked 
upon as the subject of Mitra and Varuna, as in vii. 62 1 or as 
the “ eye " of the two other gods, and ‘like Savitar' in vii. 63. 
So in vii 66. 14-16, 1 fragment of a hymn h devoted 

exclusively to Shrya as ‘‘lord of all that stands and goes." 
But iif those hymns there arc some very lutctesting touches, 
Thus in vii. 60. i, the sun does not make sinless, but he 
announces to Mitra and Vanina that the mortal is sinless 
There are no other hynnns than these addressed to Sorya, save 
those in the first and tenth books, of which nine slan*as of 
t. CO (see above) may be reckoned early, while t. 115, "kere 
the snn is the soul of the universe, and at the same time the 
eye of Mitra -Vanina, is probably late; and i. 165 is ccflamly 
so, wherein the sun is identified with Yaina, Trita, etc,; is ‘ like 
Varuna'i and is himself a steed, described as having three 
connections in the sky, three in the waters, three in the sea. 
In one of the hvmns in the tenth book, also a mystical song, 
the sun is the 'bird ‘ of the sky, a metaphor which soon gives 
another figure to the pantheon in the form of Garutman. the 
sun-bird, of whose exploits are told strange tales m the epic, 
where he survives as Gamda. In other hymns Siirya averts 

1 If. 1^ 

4 ^ 

rJ/£ £££J<?/ajVS /iV£>/A. 

carelessness at the sacrifice, guards the worshipper, and sbys 
dcTnons, A mechanicAl lUtle hynm describes him as ineasur^ 
ing tbe * thirty stations/ Not one of these hymns has literary 
freshness or beauty of any kind. I’hey all belong to the class 
of stereotyped productions, which differ in origin and content 
from the hymns first mentioned.^ 


Turning to Savitar one finds* of course, many of the same 
descriptive traits as in the praise of Sdrya^ his more material 
self. Hut with the increased spirituality come new features. 
Savitar is not alone the sun that rises; he is also the sun that 
sets^ and is eitolled as such. There are other indications 
that most of the hymns composed for him are to accompany 
the sacTificGp either of the morning or of the evening. In Jl. 
38+ an evening song to Savttar, there are inner signs that the 
hymn was made for mbricationt but here some fine verses 
occur: *-'nie god extends his vast hand, his arms above there 
—and all here obeys him; to his command the waters move, 
and even the winds' blowing ceases on all sides/" Again: 
'^N"eitiicr Indra, Vamna, hfitra, Aryaman, Rudra* nor the 
demons, impair his lawv®' call attention here to the fact 
that the Rig Veda contains a stong current of demonology, 
much stronger than has been pointed out by. sdiolara intent on 
proving the primitive loftiness of the Vedic religion. 

In iii. fia. 7-5^ there are some verses to Push an , following 
which b the most holy couplet of the Rig Veda, to repeat 
which is essentially to repeat the Veda, It is the lamoua 
Gayatri or Savitn hjinnlct (to-ii): 

Of Savliar. Ihft ihax lon-E^^or ^Itjry may wts ™, 

And may bltaistlf Inspirie our prayerm,* 

* *- 3 T? *581 iT^t i??p rSg. H a rii iui* it* aira mark of In 37* tli4 

dte^ta j ha the Ciriid; \u i?n* tbe jeui mi Id 177^ th^ UTTilk; tvsc and 

Uw <^mpaxK Oarutnun, V ; x. 1*9! ^ In tli« thirty MaUnitv 

« Sec VVhJjtiiDy In revtaci cdittciL, li p, n i. 



dtJ) says of tJiis hymn that it b not remarkable 
in any way and that no good reason has ever been given for its 
fame^ The gtjod reason for this famej in our opinjoti^ is that * 
the longed-for gJory was interpreted later as a revealed indica¬ 
tion of primitive pantheisin^ and the verses were understood to 
ejepress the desire of absorption into the sno^ wbicb, as will be 
seen, was one of the first divine bodies to be accepted as the 
t)T>e of the All-god. This is also the intent of the stanzas 
added to L 50 (above, p. 17J. where Surya is *' the highest 
light, the god among gods/' my-stic w^ords, taken by later 
philosophers^ and quite rightly^ to be an expression of pan¬ 
theism. The esoteric meaning of the GayatrS presumably made 
It popular among the enlightened. Exoterically the sun was 
only the goal of the soul;, or, in pure p.inthei5m, of the sight 
In the following 1 the sin-forgiving side of Savitar is developed, 
whereby he comes into connection with Vstniua: 

God Savitar ik^T^'eih tiuw a song ffem oa; 

TcMiaj, wiih guiding word, let tnca him henv 
Hb who (l!is 4 fiby[(js unto the mbs of 
IsliaJl hBre on 113 hastow whaiBVfir ihlng \t best ; 

For thou^ O doAt upon tho |od« 

Who ucEificn di»erv«, lay immoiialily, 

TihB highest gift, and ihsn fo momli dosi extend 

A» their appOFlionment a long ttnduring ]Uo. 

Whatever thoyghlks^ thitig a^rtst the race of god* 

We do in foolii^hrtns iind human imolpfice. 

Do thou froni <) Savitari tutiigods and men 
Make us here ainlesAp etc. 

But if this song smacks of the sacrificej still more so does 
V. where Savitar is the "priest*s priest,^ the ‘arranger of 
sacriheet' and is one with Pusban. He is here the swift horse 
(sec above) and more (amous a^ the divider of time than any¬ 
thing else. In fact this was the first ritualistic glory of Savitar, 
that he divides the time for sacrifice. But he receives more in 

^ tv. 54, 


48 T//£ A'£L/G/OJirs 0£ 

the light of being Uie type of other luminous divlniu«. In 
the next hymn* another lale elfon (v. Sz ; see the dream in 
vsp 4)j there may be an imitation of thu Gajitri. Savitar is 
here the All-god and true lord, and frees from sin. There is 
nothing new or stnking in the hymns vi. 71 ; vii. 3S and 45. 
'Jlie same golden hands* and Tefctenecs to the saenfitia? occur 
here. Allusions to the Dragon of the Deep, who is calkd 
upon with Savitar (vii. j8. and the identiheat ion of Savilar 
with Bhaga (ib, 6) are the most important items to be gleaned 
from these rather stupid hymns, in other hymns not in the 
family-books (ii.-viiL.)^ there is a fragment, x+ ijg. 1-3^ and 
another, L 23, 5-S. In the latter, Agni's (Fire's) title, -son 
of waters,^ is given to Savhar, who is virtually identihed with 
Agni in the last psxt of the Kig Veda ; and in the former 
hymn there is an interesting discrimination made between 
Savltar and Foshan, who obeys him. The last hymn in' the 
collection to Savitar, x. 149* although late and plainly intendf^d 
for the sacrifice (vs, 5)* is interesting S3 showing how the phil¬ 
osophical speculation worked about Savitar as a centre^ ^ He 
alone, he the son of the waters, knows the origin of water* 
whence arose the world*" This is one of the early speculations 
which recur so frequently in the Brahmanic period, wherein 
the origin of *all this* (the universe) is referred to water. A 
h)Tnn 10 Savitar in the first book contains as excellent a song 
as IS given to the sun under this name. It is neither a morn¬ 
ing nor an evening song in its original state, but mentions all 
the god*s funcrions, without the later moral traits so prominent 
elsewhere, and with the old threefold division instead of thrke 
three heavens* 


t call on Agni fiisl (the god of firo> for weal ; 

I call on ^titra-Vanuia to xM We here; 

I ESfclS tipon the Night, who qnlclft all that moves; 

On ^viUa, ihc iihmaiig god, 1 call for helpk 


After this mtroductory invoc^itioa begins the real song bi 
a different metre. 

Tbrqugh of dadtri.^^ wencling coitii^ lie hither. 

Who puls to rcsE tJi* LmEnortal and the morlAl, 

Qn golden cOr uisEtfnt Ebinga behalding^ 

The god that muses, Savitor* the shmb.g; 

Cnmea he, Eiie ihinlng one, cotne^ forward, upward. 

Cornea with two ^lloW BEneds, the god ref^rid* 

Comes Bhiniog Savitor from oirt the diiianoe^ 
difficuitkai for awa^ compelling, 
liksi p^arl-adomed, high, vaiii^ied chariot. 

Of which the pole it golden, Ke^ 

Hath mounted, Savita^r, whose beams are bpllianf^ 

AgokLBT the darksome spoiies Biieugth assuming. 

AEnong the people goie the bmwn whiEc^footed 
(Steeds) that the chariot drag whose pole IS goldetu 
All peoples stonih and all thingB tnade, Toreveri 
Within the lop of Savitor, the beavenlj'. 

[Thijre are three heavens of Savitar^ two low Daes,^ 

One, mun^cBErajliing. in I he realm of Vamo. 

Asoti (hia) chariot-poie * stand oH immonaJs, 

Let hitn declare It who has understood it 1 ] 

Aoross niJ-BpaCcs gates he, [he eagle. 

Who mof'es in BeCTCEt Asuto,* well-guiding. 

Where is (bright) SQrja now? who underBlands It? 

Ami through which skj ii now hhi ray ex [ending? 

He looks accois the earth^s eight elevations,* 

The desert staticins thrcfc, and Ehe seven riven. 

The goTd'Cyed shining god is come, ih' Aroujer* 

To him ihat worships giving weal Eh and Ides^ingo. 

1 TWO ‘Ixiw^ below, I^Til<i^ that sbirVeT the weid meaiiLDg ^nkMk' but also 
^nadcr'pbcc,^ Tbi; exploiutien of this uucMlBparcd uth be fmmd bf 

amiparfng i 15^. ^ and eth ^ t. The ihrte places m wbao he appears qb 
both hwlitHks sod ie the mnitk The last Ib the abode of the dead Mheio Vama 
rrigns. Compare iv, The bneketed vee^ are prohab^y a late ptuzli attached 
le dwwotd ^ lap'of the preceding vmfc » Douhdul 

* The Spirit, kief of eril iprlrit^ ikiiHMU (as aborc, Uw ajHrjt^d). CoenpuO 

4 A innneticaJ eoaceptioe not paraJkkd Ie the Kl| Veda, tbough mountains are 
oiled protaibeiaii« ^ (doca 


T/iE EAL/GWjVS a/' 

Hie Use Acdirs anCj 

Goes eulh And Itcaveii Ixtvefn, compela den^tiiic poiir^i^ 

To SQiya a^irnni;:!^ juad through dai^samii Jpoce 
Eitendifi Eo hc^veup eic^i 


Vnth FQshaiip the 'bcstower of prosperity/ appears an aricient 
side of san-worship. While under hi^ other tiatnes the sun has 
lost; to a great ejrtent, the attributes of a bueoHc solar deity^ in 
the case of POshan be appears still as a god whose characteris¬ 
tics are bucolic, wardikep and priestly;^ that Is to sayp even as 
he IS veuerated by the three masses of the folk. It will not 
do, of courset to dlstfngmtsh too sharply between the first two 
divisions, but one can very well compare Pushan In these roli^ 
with Helios guiding bis herds, and Apollo swaying armed hosts. 
It is cusioiaary to regard POshan as too bucolic a deity^ but 
this is only one $ide of him^ He apparently is the sun, as 
herdsmen look upon him, and in this figure is the object of 
ridicule with the wairior-elass who, especially in one family or 
tribe, take a more exalted view of him, Consetiuently, as in 
the case of Vanina, one need not read into the h}inns more 
than they offer to see that, not to speak of the priestly view, 
there are at least two Pushans, in the Rig Veda itself/ 

As the god *with braided hair," and as the * guardian of 
cattle+" PCtshan offers, perhaps, in these particulars, the oirgioal 
of Rudra's characteristics, who, in the Vedic period, and later 
as Rudra-Qiva, is also a "guardian of cattle* and has the 
^braided hair/ 

Bergaigne identifies PCishan with Sema, with whom the poets 
were apt to identify many other deities, but there seems to be 
little similarity originally.* It is only in the wider circles of 

J Tbt hst itanu u in the ■:>( th« fevt; twu wnm foibw wittiunl iigaltlcutl 

a Hw tc?ai are traEuIared by Mutr, OST, r. p, ift ff. 

i Edigjitit is- jiL +jS- Co^njnre Hiltebtnitidt, fL, 456. 



each god's ace;tvity that the two approach each other^ BoUi 
gods, it is truet wed S&rya (the female sun-power), and Soma, 
like POshan^ finds lost c^tde. But it myst be recognized once 
for all that identical attributes are not enough to identif)' 
Vedic gods. Who gives wealth? Indra, Soma, Agni, Heaven 
and Earth, Wind, Sun, the Maruts^ etc. Who forgives sins? 
Agni. %"arujiia, Indra, the Sun, etc. \Yho helps in war? Agni, 
PCIshan+ Indra, Soma, etc. Who sends rain ? Indra, Parjanya, 
Soma^ the Maruts, Pushan, etc. Who weds Da™ ? The 
Alvins, the Sun., etc. The attributes must be functional or 
the identification is left incomplete^ 

The great disparity In descrlptioos of Pushan may be illus^ 
trated by setting vl. 4S* 19 beside x. 9a. 13* The former 
passage merely declares that Pushan is a war-leader “over 
mortals, and like the gods in glorythe latter, that he Is 
**distinguished by all divine attributes” ; that is to say^ what 
has happened in the case of Savitar has happened here also. 
The individuality of Pushan dies out, but the %'aguer he 
becomes the more grandiloquently is he praised and asso¬ 
ciated with other powers ; while for lack of definite laudation 
general glory Is ascribed to him. The true position of Pushan 
in the eyes of the warrior is given unintentionally by one who 
says/ “ I do not soom iheet O Pushan,'" Ic., as do most people, 
on account of thy ridiculous attributes. For Pushan docs not 
drink like fndra, but eats mush. So another devout 

believer says; “Pushan b not described by them that call 
hitn an eater of mush,”* The fact that he was so called 
speaks louder than the pious protest. Again, Pushan is simply 
bucolic. He uses the goad, which, however, according to Ber- 
gaigne, b the thunderbolt! So, too, the cows that Ffishao 
b described as guiding have been interpreted as clouds or 
"dawns.* But they "may be taken without interpretation' as 

I L13S. +. 

t ^ 5S. K 

T/fE OJ^ I.VD/A. 

ccwsJ PCLshan drives the cows^ he is armed with ^ 

^d eats mush; bucolic throughout, yet m sun-god. It is on 
these lines that bis finding-qualities are to be interpreted. 
He finds lost cattle,* a proper business for such a god : but 
Bergaigne will see in this a transfer from Fushan's finding of 
rain and of FOsbaiip toOi directs the furrow** 

Together w'ith Vishnu and Bhaga this god is invoked at 
sacrifices, (a fact that says little against or for his original sun- 
ship),^ and he is intimately connected with Indra. His sister 
is his mistress, and his mother is his wife (Dawn and Night?) 
according to the meagre accounts given In vi. 55. 4-5.' As a 
god of increase he is invoked in the marriage-rite, X. 85. jj- 
C As Savitar and all sun-gods are at once luminous and dark, 
so POshan has a clear and again a revered (terrible) appear¬ 
ance ^ he is like day and night, like Dyaiis (the sky); at one 
time bright, at another, plunged in darkness, vL 58, 1. Quite 
like Sa\itar he is the shining god who *Mooks upon all beings 
and sees them all together”; he is the '"lord of the path/* the 
god of travellers j he Is invoked to drive away evil spirits^ 
thieves, footpads, and all workers of evil; he makes paths for 
the winning of wealth he herds the stars and directs all with 
He carries a golden aic or sword, and is borne through 
air and water on golden ships 5 and it is he that lets down the 
sun's golden wheel. These simpler attributes appear for the 
most part in the early hymns. In what seem to be later hymns, 
he is the mighty one who carries the thoughts of all ” ; he is 

I In i_ SJ. Plka^bdii ^ %M to brins kina (lawaK " be femad lilw a Ubi ^ 
hcTil id caEtle.'' The rT^gmcnl b bte If, a* b Ihe of 15 are Iho sOii 

ifiaaocia^ CipmpafB tL 34. 5, “ Piubaii g& after tnu 
t 3 CoEnpan vL 54. 

■ Ho ti ihe '■KMi -of fToro darknejuT 33, i, 

< h; J 7 . j. 

* rt, »r. Hi 4a, II n.; J». 1| il He ii CBlkd lik. a wif-md with tha 

Maroli Id vI. 4S4 

* tJMy nhisA 1^ Dawn'D brother, ^ 123, 5. Is fsidtaH bt^her tfi ^ 

J j. 5. GidieriLill»intEf|]ntA PibJian as Uhe swiJ 

/’£7^/y^A' A.VJ? BMAGA as SV.V^GODS, 

like soma (the drink), and attends to the filter ; he is " lord of 
the pure”: the “one born of old,” and is especially ciUed 
upon to help the poets’ hymns,’ It is here, in the last part of 
the Rig Veda, tha t he appears as who ** goes and 

retutns,” escorting the souls of the dead to heave^ He is 
the sun's messenger, and is differentiated from Savitar in i. 
ijg. I.* Apparently he was a god affected most by the 
BharadvAja family (to which is ascribed the siith book of the 
Rig Veda) where his worship was eatended more broadly. 
He seems to have become the special war-god of this family, 
and is consequently invoked with Indra and the Mamts 
(though this may have been merely in his role as sun). The 
goals, his steeds, are also an attribute of the Scandinavian 
war-god Thor (Kaegi, Rig f note no), so that his bucolic 
character rests more in his goad, food, and plough, 

Bhaga is recognized as an Adityi (luminons deity) and was 
perhaps a sun-god ot some clsiss, possibly of all, a.s the name 
in Slavic is Still kept in the meaning ‘god,’ literally * giver.’ 
In the Rig Veda the word means, also, simply god, as in 
hMgabhakta, ‘given by gods" ^ but as a name it is well known, 
and when thus called Bhaga is still the giver, ‘the bestower 
{\i,{harih). As bhaga is also an epithet of Savihir, the name 
may not stand for an originally distinct personality. Bhaga 
has but one hymn,* There is in fact no reason why Bhap 
should be regarded as a sun-god. except for the formal ideniifi- 

I CmiTMt t. +1, W*d I. i6 1,1 jS, I). In the first ti}™> fetdi ita 

mj aiul drives a-nr ^ *1 

tli/lMt Iw ia a Who bips in boltk, i ‘ tar^iifet,'emticaftm ll* nf 

»tt (Ai in lit, 60,9). . ,i I-,■ 

* Fof the train rot dted oumpare life J7+ 7! "He i 7 ‘ 4 ®- ^ 5 ' 53 ^ ^ i ^' 

5^. sl r-4: «. 17- 1 U-t 3-»- ^ *3- 

Tin, e 1 r-i S : iti. !?. j. In X. I?. 4, Saritir, mo, pi Wes Uk Wits ot ih* d® 1 

i Thit is to i»T. one tiymn is addressed to Bliap irith Tarious Qlhtr gods, *11.41, 
ItRT he sofliii* to he petsonlfW pnd'ttKk rci 

hiTV thee.-* vs. i). In the BtShmiOAS ‘Uliaga is Uiod,' vrhidi apphts trtW* 1* 
tban tJ? tht Sbti, 


T//£ /^£iima^rs ia'-d/a. 

cation of him as an Adily4 that is as the son of Adili (Bound 
lessnoss, see below); but neither Surya oor SaviUt Is originally 
an Adityd, and in Iranic irngAa is only an epithet of Ormuid, 


To ]^iJ 9 HA.Y (vir 56^. 

Thi Tnaiv who Pashan 

VThh words like * mu^h-eaier lie/ 

By hitfi the god iA not dtaciibed. 

With Pashan joined in unison 
Thai best of wajrtiorst irueat lordp 
Indta, the evd detnobs sJays. 

^ U hti the best oi warrtort, drives 
The golden chariot of the aun 
Among the speckled Line (the clouda). 

WlLate“er wo ask of thee loday^ 

O wonder-worker, prat'd and wisot 
Accomplish thou for os that prayer^ 

And this our band, which hunta fnr kine^i 
Successful make for booty^a gain y 
Afar, O Pushan, ajt thou praiseiL 

We seek of thee auccesfi, which Car 
From ill, and near to wealth aball ba ; 

For full prosperity today; 

And full prosperity the mom/ 

To Bhaga (rii, 4i\* 

Early oti Agm call wep early India 

Early call Mitra, Vuiuqil, the Horaenien twaint 

F-arly, too, Bhaga, POshan, and the Lord of Strength; 

And early Soma wdl we call* and Rudra too. 

1 The hytjua ii sang bdwv setting out on a foiraj for cattle- Let One obBer^e 
bow unsypporLed Is |lw uramplinn of the ritBiihste u a^plKd to this hymn, that It 
ffltirt have htKn *^cgniposed fof ruhriatiorL" 

* Alhrr Moir, p. 17S, The clouds and cittle arc both Calkdgdr, ■ wandecEn^ 
wlikh bdpod in the poetk idtali^Uob gf tho two. 



This ^tan^a has been preftsed to thiJ hymn by virtue of Uie 
ciiEcb-word nearly' (in the mombg), with which really begins 
this prosaic poem (in different metre): 

The eafly-coft^u^ring mighty Hfaaga gi! 1 we. 

The Mjn of Bcmruiicssiies*^ the gifE-bcaiDWEr,^ 

Whom weak xnd strohgr e'en the kingi regarding* 

Cty MrfjiiJ" MifMh * IQ mo ihE gjver.** 

O Bhaga, leader Bhaga, bcsiower, 

O Bhaga^ help ihb prayert ta uh give (richca), 
O Bhaga« make tw grow in kinr und horses, 
O Bhaga, eke in men, men-wealthy be wet 

And now may we be iHeh, Ik i^ii^-holders.* 

Both mt the (day's) approach, and Eke al midday* 
And at the sun** d^ariure, generous 
The favor of the gods may «e abkk in- 

O god*, (tn ua> be lihaga roally 
By meaiva of n^m may we Aaij^-ri-hnldefai 
Aa sndi an one Ci Rhflgai -caU thee, 

Aa mKh, O Bhagn* bo lo-daj our leader. 

May ^vmi approach ths sneriRce, the holy 
flace, like to Dadhibra * like horses aclb^ 

Which hrhag a chariot near; so. leading Bhaga, 

Who finds good ihingSt taay they approach, and oitiig him. 

As this is the only hymn addressed to Bbaga, and as « 
proves Itself to have been made for altar service (tn style as 
well as in special mention of the ceremony), it is cvideni that 
Bhaga, although called Aditi’s-son, is but a god of wealth and 
(like An^a, the Apportioner) very remotely connected mth 

1 Co».p»« i*. 9P H, ^ 

Sto^ mcantas '* '“1' ’* *P‘'^ «« «»" B«“ 

b 1 * 3 ^ Md hwB It means <t ^^7 l«^ 

“■ “ISiSi'S p-M, » iMrf . ~i ««Jr 


physical functions, Uut the hymn appears to be so late that 
it cannot throw much light on the original conception of the 
deity. We rather incline to doubt whether Ehaga was ever, 
strictly speaking, a sun-god, and think that he was made so 
merely because the sun (Savitar) was called bhaga, A (Zew) 
Bigaios was worshipped by the Phrygians, while in the A vesta 
and as a Slavic god Bhaga has no especial connection with the 
sun. It must be acknowledged, however, that every form of 
the sun-god is especially lauded for generosity. 


In the person of Vishnu the sun is extolled under another 
name, which in the period of the Rig Veda was still in the 
dawn,ef ;;; ^lory. The hymns to Vishnu are few; his fame 
¥fste cbiefty on the ibree strides with which he crosses heaven, 
on his making fast the eanb,-ffnd on lu|i^unlficerce,’ He, 
too, leads in battle and is reveneJ under the title Qipivishta,* 
of unknown significance, but meaning literally ‘bald.’ Like 
Savitar he has three spaces, two called earthly, and one, the 
highest, known only to himself. His greatness is inconceiv¬ 
able, and he is especially praised with Indra, the two being 
looked upon as masters of the world,* His highest place is 
the realm of the departed spirits.* The hymns to him appear 
to be late (thus i. 155. 6, where, as the year, he has four 
seasons of ninety days each). Like I'iishan (his neighbor in 
many lauds) he is associated in a kite hymn with the Maruts 
(v. S7). His l.ilef populatiiy lies in the importance of his 
‘highest place’ (or step) being the home of the departed 
spirits, where he himself dwells, ittscmtable. This led to the 
spirit's union with the sun, which, as we have said, is one of 

» L aj. ly, tti.} IS4 ff.; riL log. 

i tiL *«. S-6. Vishnn {my be the cpltbrt of Ibdra \n L 6i. 7) mstii “iiiHflnei l[? 5 - 

i vL £9; v\L 99, Bui I* ordered abbut by indra iS. tlj tIEL £9.13). 

* i. 5. hi tU E- 3r Vbkna b with Fire (Apil^. 



the first phases of the psntheisitc doctrine. In the family- 
books Vishnu gets hut two hymns, both in the same collection, 
and shares one more with Indra [viL 99-ieo; vi. 69). In 
some of the faJnlly-collBCtions, notably in that of the Vi^vi- 
mitms, he is, if not unknown, almost ignored. As Indra s 
friend he U most popular with tlm Kan%'a family, but even here 
he hiis no special hymn. 

Xdne bom* Cod Visbnw. and tvone b*m hErcafteF 
reanhea to the limit of ihy 
Tw3ia tbou esiablish'at you higb vauli of litav«t+ 

, Thou nvadst fast ihe earth's (.‘jctremeit mountain, (vii. ^ 2.} 

Three st^ he madt, ihe henisflaan sure, 

Vishnu, and stEpfwd Sicro«i |the world), (L 22* iS-} 

Tht mighty deals wilt 1 pfCHclairtl of 

Who measured out tht icanh -a esttremest spart$* 

And fastijfled flmi (he hlgh^ii hahilstionp 
Thriofl aieppmg out with Slop aJhpowerful- 

O would that I m^ghi feach his path bclo^. 

Where joy she men whn hold the podt b honor, fi. 15+ I, f-J 

Under ail these names and images the sun is worshipped. 
And it Is necessaiy to review them ah to see how deeply the 
worship is ingrained. The sun is one of the most venerable 
as he is the most enduring of India's nature-gods. In no 
early passage is the sun a malignant god. He comes '*as kmc 
to the village, as a hero (o his steed, as a calf to the cow, as a 
husband to his wife."* He is the ‘giver.' the ‘generous one, 
and as such he is Mitra, ‘the friend.' who with ^a^una, the 
encompassing heaven, U, indeed, in the Rig Veda, a personally 
subordinated to his greater comrade; yet is this, perhaps, the 
son's oldest name of those that arc not descriptive of purely 
physical characterUtics. For Mithra in Persian keeps the 

I Thus, for I" ^ **“ 

J TOpjum Krtf, wd iBlh* mil of tl* 



proof that this title w^is giiren to the Indo-lntnk god before 
the separation of the two peoples. It is therefore (perhaps 
with Bhaga ?) one of the loost ancient personal designations of 
the snn,^—one, perhaps, developed from a mere name into 
a separate deity. 


Not only as identical with the chief god of the Greeks, but 
also from a native Indk point of view, it might have been 
expected that Dyaus (Zetis), the 'shining sky/ would play an. 
important role in the Hindu pantheon. But such Is not the 
case. There is not a single hymn addressed independently to 
Dyaus, nor is there any hint of especial preeminence of Dyaus 
in the halMozen hymns that are sung to Heaven and Earth 
together. The word is used hundreds of times, but gen¬ 
erally in the meaning sky (withoui personification). There is, 
to be sure, a formal aeknowdedgmenl of the fatherhood of 
Dyaus (among gods he is father particularly of Dawn, the 
il^vins, and Indra), as there is of the motherhood of Earth, 
but there is no further exaltation. No ciaggeration ^ the 
sign of Hindu enthusiasm —is displayed in the laudation, and 
the epithet 'father’ h given to half a dozen Vedic gods, as m 
Rome Ma(r)spiter stands beside Jup(p)jter. Certain functions 
are ascribed to I'leaven and hearth, but they are of secondaiy 
origin. Thus they bring to the gods the sacrifice,*^ as does 
Agni, and one whole hymn may thus he epitomked : ' By the 
ordinance of Varun.i made firm, O Heaven and Earth, give us 
blessings. Blest with children and wealth is he that adores 
you twain. Give us sweet food, gtorj- and strength of heroes, 
ye who are our father and mother/ ^ 

The praise is vague and the benevolence is the usual 
* bestowal of blessings" expected of all the gods in return for 

1 ll- 4 1 . ifh 

* ^ 7fl. 

AArO £A£T/f. 


pnise. Other hymns add to this soinethmg, from which one 
sees that these deities are not regarded as seli-created; for the 
seers of old, or, according to one poet, some wonderful divine 
artisan, “ most wondrous worker of the wonder-working gods," 
created them. Their chief office is to exercise benign pro¬ 
tection and bestow wealth, Once they arc invited to come to 
the sacrifice “with the gods," but this, of course, is not meant 
to exclude them from the list of gods.* 

The antithesis of male and female, to Bergaigne’s insistence 
on which reference was made above (p. 43)1 oven here in tins 
most obvious of forma, common to so many reiigions, shows 
itself so fiiintly that it fails utterly to support that basis of 
sexual dualism on which the h rcnch scholar lays so rnuch 
stress* Oyaus does, indeed, occasionally take the place of 
[ndra, and as a bellowing bull impregnate earth, but this is 
wholly incidental and not found at all in the hymns directly 
lauding Hea%'en and Earth. Moreover, instead of “ father and 
mother” Heaven and E-irth often are spoken of M “ the two 
mothers," the significance of which cannot be nullified by the 
expUnation that to the Hindu ‘two mothers’ meant two parents, 
and of two parents one must be male, — Bergaigne’s explana¬ 
tion. For not only is Dyaus one of the ‘two mothers,' but 
when independentSy used the word Dynus is male or female 
indifferently. Thus in x. pj. i : “ 0 Heaven and Earth be 
wide outstretched for us, (be) like two young women." The 
position of Heaven and Earth in relation to other divinities 
varies with the fancy of the poet that extols them. 'I'hey are 
either created, or they create gods, as well as create men. In 
accordance with the physical reach of these deities they are 
exhorted to give strength whereby the worshipper shall “over¬ 
reach all peoples and, as parents, to be the “ nearest of the 
gods," to be “ like father and mother in kindness." (i, T59 ; 
160. s, 5.) 

1 U tfo. 4, ir. t-J i Tfi. 53. », 

T//£ ££L/GmVS Of h\DIA. 

Ooc m&re ^ttiibule remains to be noticed* which connects 
Dyaus morally as well as physically with Havitar and Varuna. 
The verst in which this attribute is spoken of is also not with¬ 
out interest from a sociological point of view: “Whatsoever 
sin we have committed against the gods, or against a friend, 
or against the chief of the clan (family) ^ may this hymn to 
Heaven and Earth avert it.” It was shown above that Sari- 
tar removes sin. Here, as in later times, It Is the hyiiin that 
docs this. The mystery of these gods* origin puzzles the seer; 

“ Which was first and which came later, how were they begot¬ 
ten, who knows, 0 ye wise seers? Whatever exists, that they 
carry," * But all that they do they do under the command o£ 

The most significant fact in connection with the hymns to 
Heaven and Earth is that most of them are expressly for 
sacrificial intent. *' With sacrifices 1 praise Heaven and 
E,nrth” (t. 153. i)t “ For the sake of the sacrifice are ye come 
down (to os)*’ (iv. 56. 7)* In ri. 70 they arc addressed in 
sacrificial metaphors; in viL 53. i the poet says: “ I invoke 
Heav-en and Earth with sacrifices,” etc. The passivity of the 
two gods makes them yield in importance to their son, the 
active Saritar, who goes between the two parents. None of 
these hjTnns bc.trsthe impress of active religious feeling or has 
poetic value. They all seem to be reflecUve, studied, more or 
less mechanical, and to belong to a period of theological 
philosophy. To Eirth alone without Heaven are addituised one 
uninspired hymn and a fragment of the same character: “ O 
Earth be kindly to us. full of dwellings and painless, and give 
us protection."* In the burial service the dtad are exhorted 
to “go into kindly mother earth" who will be “wool-soft, like 
a maiden.'* * The one hymn to Earth should perhaps be placed 

t i, iSj. a TIk pmmr iif tlie hymn Omin aptn In 1.1 

*LiSs-i- «It. j 4.7. * tar. 15. 

A X. iS. to B iroakKilt nmiden^. 


paraUel wth simitar meditative and perfunctof)^ budations in 
the Homeric hymns: 

To Earth (t. 84). 

In. irtith, O ferosaxi extended Eanti> 

ITicm b&or'at the rtflder of ihe hUW 
Thoe whe, O mighiy mouniairkcaMs one, 

QuickencAt inialcd ihingii Wltli might. 

Th« 6 theii that iai, 

llio hymn* which light accompuayp 
Thcc who, O ihlning one, dmd Mnd 
Uke «scT steecfe the gitHhmg rain. 

ThoB mighiy art, who holdcsi up 
With strength on earsh the Toreflt trE*»p 
When rain the rain* lhat fmtn thy donds 
And Dynua' far-glcaminB bghlning com*.* 

On the bearing of these facts, especially in regard to the 
secondary greatness of Dyaus, we shall touch below. He is 
a god exalted more by modern writers than by the Hindus 1 


Vanina has been referred to already in connection with the 
sun-god and with Heaven and Earth. It is by Vanina’s power 
that they stand firm. He has established the sun' like a tree,' 
rlr., like a support, and ' made a path for it. He has a thou¬ 
sand remedies for ills; to his realm not even the birds can 
ascend, nor wind or swift waters attain. It is in accord,ince 
with the changeless order * of Varuna that the stars and the 
moon go their regular course | he gives long life and releases 
from harm, from wrong, and from sin.* 

1 The UgbtBlJilf- In 1. II. +. ■» “ tPhtlwr) Fi" "“1™ D?*" hella*" "i 

t L w. 7-a. Tbe d»fl«e lo (BtWphof i» «« ouBT^uJ. 

» TWi want "-aii. eiUier W** « <'*■> '• Hteiallv tW*' eap ’ er ‘ 

4 L 114 {opliondffll). 


ms j^ELic/ONs OF mniA. 

Varuna is th* most exalted of those gods whose orvgm is 
physical His realm Ls all above os; the sun and stars are his 
eyes; he sits above upon bis golden throne and sees aJl that 
passes belowj even the thoughts of nieii+ He is, above all, the 
moral contioUer ol the universe^ 

To Vahuka {1 3S). 

tlEnre'Er wev who thy pcDple are* 

O Vamai, thoH ihinkng god. 

Thy order htjure, day by dajfp 
Yet give uj norvef nor to death, 

Kot to ibe blow ni angry (foelv 
Nor to the wrath oT (foti} incecLsadJ 
Thy mtod for merty wo toleaie — 

Ah choiioteett » faai-liosmd iteed — 

By oieanft of »on^ O Vnjiina, 

(T ii Varuna) who knov» the tn-ck 
Of blrda that fty within iho nir. 

And know* the iMp* upon the flood;^ 

Know*, loo, the (god) of order firm, 

Thfl twdvc month* with ihtii progenyi 
And e'en which month ii ]atcr bom | * 

Knows, lonp the pathway of the wiQcb 
The wide, the higb^ the mighty (wlhdb ^ 

And knows who sit abave (the Wtnd)+ 

(God) of firm nnlcr, Varuna 

JHii place hath ta'^en within (Mi) home 

For lordship, hOf the very itrong.^ 

Thence ^ the things that are conoeaiod 
He looks upon, oonaidering 
WhaloVr ia done and to be done. 

May ho, the f^on of BoundJessnfas, 

The very strong, through every day 
Make good our paths, prolong our life, 

I Perhaps better with Ijudwlg ^ of (thee) in anger, of (thee) taceDsed.* 

K Off" Being (hiniscU) in the (heavenly) flood he "kawm the ifdpSv^" (fjodwlg.) 
* An lilcrcaliitjed month ki meant (not the prf mi tire ^ twelve days^ 
t Or ^reiy wlsc,^ of nxntal strength 

6 A 

IJesuing * ganntnt aH ol £E>1d, 

[lt Jfflfclji. dolhedt Is VaJunAp 
And round abcut htni wt liks sfitai 
A god wlaoEii wvjunrFft Injuro mU 
Nor chcJHUrm cheat afflaFig the folk, 
Nor any ^ttcrt plot against; 

Who for himself "mid pother) men ^ 
Ckny unequalled ^ined* and gains 

(Such glory) alM^ quisdtes- 

Far go my thQughll (in hlin)^ aa go 
Thfi eager cows that mcadowa secki 
t>esirtng (Wm). the mde-eyed (god). 
Together ki i;a talk again. 

Since now the offering sweet I brin& 
By thee beloved, and like a priest^ 
Thou eat*si^ 

[ Bct ihc wideeyed 
1 sec Ms Ehariot on the earth, 

My SOPS reemved. 

Hear lhi5 my cail. O VarufiA, 

Be merciful to me today. 

For ihee, de*iring helpt I ywn. 

Thou* wbe one. art of everything^ 

TTlC sky and earth ullkc* tbs king ^ 

A» such upon Ihy way ^ve ear. 

And loose from ui the ( threefold} bqradi 
The upper bond, the middle, brea3t> 

The lower, too* that we may live, 

In the portrait of such a god as this one comes very near to 
monotheism. The conception of an almost solitary dei^, 
lecoenwed as watcher of wrong, guardian of nght. and primi¬ 
tive creator, approaches more closely to urUaiiantsni than does 
the idea of any physical power in the Rig Veda. 

To the poet of the Rig Ycda Vanina is the enveloping 
.nven t * that is, in distinction from Dyaus, from whom he 




difTers i«to caelfi, » to speak, the invUible world, which ctiv 
braces the visible sky. His home is there where lives the 
Unborn, whose place is uniquCt above the highest heaven,* 

But it is exactly this loftiness of character that should make 
one shy of interpreting Varona as being originally the g<^ 
that is presented*here. Can this god, ‘most august of \edic 
deities,' as Bergaigne and others have called him, have hc' 
longed as such to the earliest stratum of Aryan belief? 

There are some twelve h>Tnns in the Rig Veda in Vanina's 
honor. '6f these:, one in the tenth book celebrates India as 
opposed to Varana, and generally it is considered late, io 
virtue of its content. Of the hymns in the eighth book the 
second appears to be a later imitation of the first, and the first 
appears, from several indications, to be of comparatively recetil 
origin.* In the seventh book (vii. S6—89) the short final hymn 
contains a dislincUy late trait in invoking Varuna to cure 
dropsy ; the one preceding this is in majsrm glsritim of the 
poet Vasistha, fitly following the cue that appears to be as 
new, where not only the mysticism but the juggling with 
“ thrice-seven,” shows the character of the hymn to be 
recent." In the first hymn of this book the late doctrine of 
inherited sin stands prominently forth (vii. 36 . 5) as an Indi- 
cation of tlie time in which it was composed. The fourth 
and sixth books have no separate hymns to Vanina. In the 
fifth book the position of the one hymn to Varuna is one 
favorable to spurious additions, but the hymn is not otherwise 
obnoxious to the enlieism of lateness. Of the two hymns in 
the second book, the first is addressed only indirectly to 
Vamna, nor is he here very* prominent j the second (ii. 28) is 
the only song which stands on a par with the hymn already 

^ Coni|»jv La itfHsrm ilL pp, 1 l6-t iS. 

S T\mr Lnsislance on the huly smo, tho +ppprtt iuuqm^ dawn, tJw onotuilon M 

Vamita with XntL Cmnpajie^ aiio^ bw refralii^ wiiL Fo# x. ii4^He below, 

* Ccrf»|u» Hillcbrandt'l Vartma nad MSt¥;w pt. J J ind sw olu msaf on the 
NuiniKTa of Veda fin ibe Oriftt/d/ StM^iuh 


translated. There remain the hymns died above from the 
first, not a family-book, is, moreover, noteworthy that m 
ii. 28. apart from the ascription of general greaincw, almost 
all that is said of Vanina is that he is a pnest, that he causes 
rivers to flow, and loosens the bond of sin." The finest 
to Vanina, from a literary point of view is the one 
above, and it is mainly on the basis of this hymn that the lofty 
character of Varena Jiasbecn interpreted by 
To onr mind this h>-mn belongs to the close 0 he fimt 
epoch of the three which the hymns represent. That it can¬ 
not be very early is ^-ident from the mention of the inter¬ 
calated month, not to speak of the image of Vanina eating 
the sweet ablation ‘ like a priest.* Its elevated language ,s m 
sharp contrast to that of almost all the other \ arena hymns. 

these are all the hymns where Vanina is prnired alone by 
himself, it becomes of chief importance to study him here, and 

L wh^re, as in Ui. 6 a, iv. 4.. d. 5-. ^ 

» lauded as part of a combination of gods (Mitre or Indra 
united with Vanina). In the last book of the l^g Veda there 
Is no hymn to Varuna,* a time when pintheistic monotheism 
chLgin- into pantheism, so that, m the last sUge of the 
Ri,. Ved^ V^runa is descended from the height, vthereafter 
he“is god and husband of waters, and punisher of secret sin 
(as in ii. aS). Important in contrast to the hymn translated 

above is v. 85+ 


HI will sing forth unto the universal king a high Jep 
h Janick anh ,p»rt (Iron. Iho sky) lor tho .on. ^ nrano ha 

•• ■ ''■ST'; “'r* "■ ‘ ° 

«tr wMima ilB I* to n» ... aoJ 

X Uol ** to to. M iPH. 


rm RELWJONS £?/ hVDiA. 

^ilended air in trees, strength in horses^ miik in cows, and has 
laid wisdom in hearts ; fire in water; the sun in the sky \ soma 
iti the stone. Varuna has inverted his water-banel and let the 
tw'O worlds with the space between how (with rain). ith this 
(heavenly water-barrel) he, the king of ev^ry created thing, 
wets the whole world, as a rain does a meadow. He wets the 
world, both earth and heaven, when he, \ aruna, chooses to 
milk out (rain) —^ and then do the mountains clothe themselves 
with cloud, and even the strongest men grow weak. Yet 
another great and marvellous power of the renowned spirit 
(Asura) will I proclaim, this, that standing in mid-air he has 
measured earth with the sun, as if with a measuring rod^ (li 
is due to) the marvellous power of the wisest god, which none 
ever resisted, that into the one confluence mn the rivers, and 
pour into it, and fill it not. O Yanina, loosen whatever sin we 
have committed to bosomdriendp comrade^ or brother j to our 
owm house, or to the stranger; what (we) have sinned like 
gamblers at play, real (sin)^ or what we have not known. 
Make loose, as it were, all these things. O god Varunap and 
may we be dear to thee hereafter,"^ 

In this h)Tnn Varutia is a water-god, who stands iti mid-air 
and directs the rain ; who, after the rain, reinstates the sun ; 
who releases from sin (as water does from dirt ?). According 
to this conception it would seem that Vanma were the 
^coverer^ rather than the ^ encompasser/ It might seem 
probable even that Yaruna first stood to Dyaus as cloud and 
rain and night to shining day^ and that his counterpart, 
OvfMv^f stood in the same relation to Zcik; that Ovpav&t were 
connected with ovpiv and Vanina with river, water.^ 

I VaniM'i la his onSf ilrlt. Compiiv Alt Ar. IL i. jr 7, 

* wat*r Mnd Vaitum, ehUdfeo of hujhL* Cm^pu^ with rtf^r, fi^ *- vari^ 

ifl old wocil f« TfiTTf H 11* etj^lo^r ^ duiifaiital 

on of LIh avjjih^ of Tar-roo/t^ Fertuipi dn* 

* Etra ts^ « ro/ * ikiiiE,* has bsm iu$|pelAed -uiL 



It is possible, but it is not provable, Hat no interpretauon of 
Vanina that ignores his laitiy side can be correct. And (his is 
fully recognised by Hiltcbrandt. On account of his “ thousand 
spies/* eyes- be has been looked upon by some as exdu^ 
sivcly a night-god. But this Is too one-sided an interpretation, 
and passes over the ali-iniportant fact that it is only in con- 
iunction with the sun (Mitra), where there is a strong antithesis, 
that the night-side of the god is exclusively displayed. Wholly 
a day god he cannot be. because he rules night and rain. He 
is fiar aeaiUaa the Asura, and, like Ahura Mazdao, has the 
sun for an eye, i..., he is heaven. But there is no Wuna in 
Iranian worship and Ahum is a sectarian speciahiat^n. W ith- 
out this name may one ascribe to India what is fo^d m Imn ^ 
I, has been suggested by Bcrga.gne that Varuna and Vmr^ 
the rain-holding demon, were developments from the same , 
one revered as a god. the other, a demon ; arid that the word 
means ‘ restrainer,* rather than * encompasser. 

From all this it will be evident that to clatn. an or|ginal 
monotheism as still surviving in the person 
possible; and this is the one point we would make ^erj one 
must admire the line hymn In which he is 
there is in it does not make ,t ^ 

calated month is decisive evidence, for here alone m the Rrg 
Veda is mentioned this month, which implies the fiv^ar 
cvclus, but this belongs to the' Brahmanic penod (Weber, 
BiitrSge, p, 3S)- Every explanation of the ^gmal 
nature of Varuna must take into consideration ^at he is a 
min-god a day-god, and a night-god in turn, and that where he 
is praisJd in Ihe most elevated language the raiivside disap¬ 
pears. although It was fundamental, as may be seen by compar- Varuna is exhorted to give ram, 

where Ws tkle is 'lord of streams/ his position that of ‘lord 

IT!» old ^ «.t .0 b. -th. I0.O Ot 

v^ik irtlb fuftf ifitri" I 




I ti-r* * 'rhe decrease of Varuna worship in favor of Indra 
::rpan,y fro.fhe .ore 

admirable than the monsoon^o^ who oyerpo^ 

and Ughming, as well as * ^ Varena is 

is mt claims an especially tenebrous 

Bergatgnc, on the ^ luminous 

character for M h 

deities by scholars dark. But to 

^K^'v'V^^^t^he'nfgbt star-Hlumincd, was bright. Even 

M,^idfrp:.ks oi ® hi brisiH bcv.» "of d,,» 

Rig vedo. os R Rood,, .dfb oil .he did-eo. 

Voiono side by side, Voroita is » onlveisoi ereomp^ef. ■"O™ 
I^eR ipb^leol. AS seeb Ms pbyReolside 
STL exception of bioi os o o.o<ol oetd sede lord of 
^ I't^e "s io » sbon. eootn« .« .be Bgoee of the eoto- 
1“^. Rariooyo. suods in md-oi. »d 
Lirel, that one otest diserimioole eeeo between 

't il vTSt'o rlets Htees dowt -id. ."dto be is b»oo,b. 
J,U U. bis weapons fali on dot siooee t wtod d b» bteotb. 

.,««..■ now e™ . y..d ... pn-w. ."A «•“» »«f ""-"dw I. 

u» phyHcal VwuBa ^ ^ W ps^ ^ waHms but ttes in hkra. 

^ni‘n“s 1" .-»■•—. “ ’™“™* 

: S^lL'lkb. eSiwi- »■'Ob’-- 

h that il di** “« ^ 

1 ]kr jS. 4, 7T ^ ^ 



On the other hand he is practically identified urith the suo. 
How ill this last agrees with the image of a god who ‘ lives by 
the spring of rivers,’' covers earth as with a garment,' and ■ rises 
like a secret sea (in fog) to heaven’ 1‘ Even when invoked 
with the sun, Mitra, Vanina still gives mini “To whomsoever 
ye two are kindly disposed comes sweet rain from heaven; we 
beseech >-ou for rain . , , yon, the thunderers who go through 
earth and heaven ” (v. 63), — a strange prayer to be addressed 
to a monotheistic god of light I “ Ye make the ^ 

ye send the rain^ ye hide the sky in cloud and ram lo 

ihe hymn preceding we read: ‘-Ve make firm heaven and 
earth, ye give growth to plants, milk to cows; O ye t at gt« 
rain, pour down rain I” In the same group another short 
hymn declares: “They are universal kings, who have 
(rain) in their laps j they are lords of the ram (v. 68). 
the next hymn: “Your clouds (cows) give nourishment, your 
streams are sweet." Thus the twain keep the order of the 
seasons (L r. 7-S) and protect men by the regular return of 
the rainy sc.ason. Their weapons are always 
i , 2 and elsewhere). A short invocation m a family-book 

eivL this praj'er: “ O Mitra-Varuna, wet our meadows with 
I fAfe,’ wet all places with the sweet drink" (in. 6^, 16). 

The interpretation given above of the office of \arena ^ 
\ regards the sun's path, is supported by a verse where ^ made 
;an allusion to the time'‘when they release the suns horsM. 

when after two or three months of rain the sun shines 
ag^in (V. 62. 1). In another verse one reads: “Ye direct 
the waters, sustenance of earth and heaven, richly let come 
vouT rains'* (viii. JJ* 

\ Now there is nothing startling in this view. In opposition 
the unsatisfactory' attempts of modem scholars, it is the 

IBS. Wl», ulti'Sit'lj, U 



tradilional int^rprcUtioD of Mitra and Vanina that Mitra is 
the god D^ day (fV^., the syn), and Vanina the god of night 
covering),^ while native belief regulpjly attributes to him the 
lordship of waten* The “thousand eyes' of Vanina ate the 
result of this view. The other light'side of Vamna as special 
lord of day (eicluditig the all-heaven idea with the sun as his 
*eye') is elsewhere scarcely refened lo^ save in late hymns 
and viii. 4%* In conjunction with the stoTm-godp Indta, the 
wrath side of Varum is further developed The prayer for 
release U from * long dartnessp’ i.t.f from death * in other 
wordSr may the light of life be restored {ii. 2jt i4”iS ! 
iB, 7), Grassmann, who believes that in \ aruna there is an 
early monotheistic deky^ enumerates all his ofhees and omits 
the gi™g of rain from the list;* while Ludwig deri^^s his 
name from var velle) and defines him as the lofty god who 
wills ! 

Varuna's highest development ushers in the middle period 
of the Kig Veda ; before the rUc of the later All-father, and 
even before the great elevation of Itidra. Rnt when SCkr)'aand 
Dawti were chief, then Vanina was chiefest. There is no^ 
monotheism in the worship of a god w'ho is regularly asso- ■ 
dated as one of a pair with another god. Nor is there in 
Varuna any religious grandeur which, so far as it exceeds that J 
of other divinities, is not'evolved from his old physicai side^- 
One cannot personify heaven and write a descriptive poem, 
about him without becoming clu^^ated in style, as compared 
with the tone of one that praises a rain-cloud or even the more 
confined personality of the sun. There is a stylistic but not a 
metaphysical descent from this earlier period in the * lords of 
the atmosphere/ for, as we shall show, the elevation of Indra 

1 Campiire fat, Br, tr 2.5,17,*^ whileinr b dark h V;mina’i." 

9 In IL ^3% S fueibi “ ind * “ Ln L 1 ^ 3 . 

■ T. 6i. Ip S; ^ r; 6+ 5 ; S5. a ; i& 7 * at ^ 1 1 51^ 1; 6?. la ^ 

Uk A41I744 ibBiKiMliBi wpinr 

+ tblfoduftioEi to-Grwiniiiii, IL a? ^ It. 47. *. v. 


But one must find the b » coverme * 1 ^/ 

i„ « Vurun*. is not ^nd dew* 

united with the snn, or ®siipplnnts him; 

Indra treats \arona as ^ represents the same 

:ind for the same reason, because each rep 

being frequently P“""^ Reserves comment. He 

The point of that the Varuna of 

says :' “ It h=ts somer ^ d^^adence. In this view we 

the hymns is a god _ appeal to these few hymns 

can by no means J ^^j^iousness of their authors 

is enough to prove tha intact" If, instead of ' still 

u..dimi.,rf V»P.,^ »d.n»in.d 

mtact,- the author ^ the true position, m 

by still later ^y^ti But a distinction must 

„L opinion. -cl decadence of 

be made between decadenc f^^ 

popularity. U has ptoportion as their popnlarily 

inherited e«ls that « _ . ,hat is to say, as they 

decreased their ^ individual to the folk they were 

became more relationship by the theosophist, 

expanded into vnder ^aiesly. Varuna is no longer a 

and Veda. He is already a god of spe^- 

popular god m tnc -k.ib^ _ . enough to sun the 

lation, ^“‘5^ ^jX^avimr-h^d* Most certainly his womhi^ 
later seers of *;“”;Xaritv n^tk that of Agni and tndra, is 

1 df /nrfiir, P- *7- 


ms SSL/G/OjVS of 

What made the popular gods was a union of near physical 
force to please the vulgar^ with philosophical mysticbm to 
please the priesh and Indta and Agni fulfilled the conditions^ 
while awfulf but distant, %''ainjnn did not. 

In stating that the great hymn to Vamna is not typical of 
the earliest stage of religious belief among the Yedic .Aryansp 
we should add one word in cjsplanatioo^^ Varunn's Ifails, as 
shown in other parts of the Rig Veda, are so persistent that 
they must be characteristic of his original function^ It does 
not follow^ however^ that any one hymn in which he is lauded 
is necessarily older than the hymn cited from the first boolt 
The earliest stage of religious development precedes the 
entrance into the Punjab, It may even be admitted that at 
the time when the Vedie Aryans became Hindus^ that is^ when 
they settled about the Indus, Varuna was the great god we sec 
him in the great hymn to his honor But while the relation 
of the Adityas to the spirits of .\hura in Zoroasteris system 
points to this^ yet it Is absurd to assume this epoch as the start- 
ing point of Vedk belief. Back of this period bus one in 
which Varuna was by no means a monotheistic deity, nor even 
the greatest divirJty among the gods. The fact^ noticed by 
Hillebrandt, that the Vasishtha family are the chief pratsers of 
Varuna, may also indicate that hts special elevation was due 
to the theological conceptions of one cla.n, rather than of the 
whole people, since in the other family books he is worshipped 
more as one of a pair, Varuna and Mitra, heaven and sun^ 


The mother of Vamna and the luminous gods is the * mother 
of kings,' Boundlessness a product of priestly theoso* 

phy, Adltt makes, perhaps, the first approach lo formal pao- 

1 Tbc nik k7Ki*r% Bilio, A DIU, tml iF»civb ■* snitirhww tv Adlti — the ^ coEidlud 
lad uncDofiiHd.' AdLtl is lu (fw irreiHllvn ud tctEunvc In sporuik 

ntHfis cJ tjmni in HTfchcr Rvdir but si* lui do h jdul 



theism in India, for all gods, men, and thlnp ait identified 
with her (i. 89. m)- Seven children of Adtti nnt mentioned, 
to whom is added an eighth (in one hymn}.' The chief of 
these, nho is/^r t*i« Adilya (son of Aditi), is \ a^n4_ 

Most of the others arc divimties of the sun (s. yi)- ' 
Varnna stands Mitra, and besides this pair are found ‘the 
tnie friend' Aryaman, Havitnr, Bhaga. and. laten fndra, as 
sun f»'> Daksha and An^a are also reckoned as Adity-as, and 
Shtya ii enumerated among them as a divinity distinct from 
SavUar. But the word aJiti. ‘unbound,' is often a mere epithet, 
of Fire, Sky, etc. Sloreover. in one passage, at least, 
simply means ‘freedom' (1- ^ 4 ; 

* un-bondage'; so, probably, in i. iSs- 3 p f 
Anca seems to have much the same meaning with Bh=^a, r,*., 
the sharer, giver. Daksha may, perhaps, be the ^ver 
‘stioufi’ one abstract Strength; as another name^ 

the sun (?). Aditi herself (according to hiuHer, Infinity; accord- 
;; " Hillbraudt. Eternity) is an abstraction that is bom later 
than her chief sons, Sun and Varuna.^ 

not earlier than the dose of the first \ edic pen^) took the 
seven Adttyas and reformed them into one monotheis ic (dual- 
btic) Spirit (Ahura), with a circle of si* moral 
thereby dynamically destroying every physical conception of 



We have devoted considerable space to Vanma because of 
the theological importance with which b invested his personal- 
itv If on^ admit that a monotheistic Varuna is i.r-Var«iu^ 
ii»e ,« i, him » .isn to. .h. Mindjm onem.lly w.mtip ^ 
g^t s«p.tor sod. .ho« .m.«. .ffaood to. 

. d sVi^lnt itust the ‘ WM 0< 

T/I£ J?£Lf€/OA'S OF /Xl>/A* 


of all the others,’ then the attempt to trace any orderly devel¬ 
opment in Hindu theology may as well be renounced; and one 
must imagine that this peculiar people, starting mth monothe¬ 
ism descended to polytheism, and then leapt again into the 
conception of that Father-god whose form, in the end of the 
Rig Vedic period, out-vanmas Varuna as encompass* r nnd lord 
of all. If, on the other hand, one sec in Varuna a god nho, 
from the ‘covering,* heaven and cloud and rain, from earliest 
time has been associated with the sun as a pair, and recognize 
in Vanina’s loftier form the product of that gradual elevation 
to whiclr were liable all the gods at the hands of the Hindu 
priests; if one see in him at this stage the highest god which 
a theology, based on the worship of natural phenomena, was 
able to evolve ; then, for the reception of those gods who over¬ 
threw him from his supremacy, because of their greater free¬ 
dom from physical restraints, there is opened a logical and 
historical path — until that god comes who in turn follows 
these half-embodied ones, and stands as the first immaterial 
author of the unuersc — and so one may walk straight from 
the physical beginning of the Rig Vcdic religion to its spiritual 
Brahmanic end- 

We turn now to one or two phenomenanieilies that were 
never much tampered with by priestly specidatlon ; tboir forms 
being still ^ bright and clear as when the first Vedic wor¬ 
shipper, waiting lo salute the rising sun, beheld in all her 
beauty, and thus praised 


Ai cemei a brUk hath ahe 3ipproA4:]3«d us, gkarning: 

All tilings that Uve she rouses now m aciiou, 

A fire h bom that for human bewga % 

light hath >he made, and driven away ihe liiukDcss. 

i That if wm Ibal the +pritaili« Arywn* werB iHikocdated with 

t«adiiii«, TUi li tlw sort o( Vafuna that Koth beVkm to ha’pe rristod 
auQiiE the alKiriftiial AiTaa irihet (aboft, p. 13^ wAz J)i » riii 77. 



Wide-reaeliiiiS huh ato riien. to all ippt««:hit^ 

And ihone forth dothctl io Kirt"*"” 

Of £Otd her dolor, fsir to see her loot lA 
Mother Of hint.' El^nieth. 

Ifcorins the £ods' ey^> aho. the prado^ maidetv^ 

^Leading alonK the white and alghtljf dawger 

Amom. now i» ««". revealed in 

With shining guEidoiui tmto all appeanng. 

o oear and dear one. light far off oar f«^ 

MaHe safe to US otir kines’ wide pasia^pl^«‘ 

Keep from □* hatred ; what Ls good, that ht^g na. 

And *end the linger wealth, O generoos maiden. 

With thy best beams for as do ihoa *id*ly. 

Aurora, goddess bright, our life estendmg; 

And food brttow. u Ihoo all goods possej-amg. 

Thou whom Vaiistha-S* sons eatot 

F^r-bom Aurortv daughter of Uyaus. <hr hngh, ont 

thi Uf bestow thou riohes high and vugh y, 

— O all ye gods with weal fotever goard «*• 

In the laudaiion 

5uel{ mYtyi™W|^*“ ^ descends not lower 

religious lynt In P ^ utterance. Nothing 

than or delicate than the Vedic 

Dawn-bytnns has ^ lii, fa,jest god- 

Dawn following ^ there Is love and admiration, 

dess, and ^ other deity. “ She comes 

sech as IS evoVed by ® u all to labor, with an hun- 

like and brings the shining light; gleam 

dred chariots come * Kiesslne this day; for in thee 
forth, O IJawn, and ^vc Even as thou hast rewarded 

la the life of ever)* living creature, 
the singers of old. so now reward onr song (i. 4 )* 

i The ^ ^ , 

/'//£ I^£L/G/0,yS or 

7 ^ 

"Hie kitie of Dawii are the brijght clouds that, like red cattle, 
wander In droves upon the horizon. Sometimes the rays of 
light, which stretch across the heaven, are miended by this 
image, for the cattle-herding poets employed thctr flocks as 
hgures for various ends. 

The inevitable selhsh pessimism of unripe reflection is also 
woven Into the later Dawn-hymns: “ How long will it be ere 
this Daw^fi, too, shall join the Dawns departed? Vanished are 
now the men that saw the Dawns of old; we here see her now ; 
there will follow others who w\\\ sec her hereafter j hut, O 
Dawn, beam here thy fairest; rich in btessingSt true art thou 
to friend and right. Mng hither (to the morning sacrihee) 
the gods (L 113). 

Since the metre (here ignored) of the following hymn Is not 
all of one modeh it is probable that after the fourth ver$e 1 
new hymn began, which wiuj distinct from the first ^ hut the 
argument from metre is nRConrincmg, and in any event both 
songs are worth citing, since they show how varied W'cre the 
images and fancies of the poets; “ The Dawns are like heroes, 
with golden weapons; hke red kine of the morning 00 the field 
of heaven ; shining they weave theh webs of light, like women 
active at work; food they bring to the pious worshipper. Like 
a dancing girl 15 the Dawn adorned, and opens freely her 
bosom; as a cow gives miik, as a cow comes forth from its 
stall, so opens she her breas-t^ so comes she out of the darkness 
(verses j-4) , ^ , She is the ever new, born again and again, 
adorned alwa^'s with the same color. As a player conceals the 
dice, so keeps she concealed the days of a man; daughter of 
Heaven she wakes and drives away her sister (Night). Like 
kine, like the waves of a flood, with sunbeams she appears, 
O rich DawTi, bring us wealth; harness thy red horses, and 
bring to us success (L 93), The homage to Dawn is natur¬ 
ally divided at times with that to the snn: Fair shines the 
light of mornings the sm awakens us to Coil; along the path 



of order goes Dawn arrayed in light. She exteadeth herself in 
the east, and gkamelh dtl she fills the sky and earth' ; and 
again: “Dawn is the great work of VariJ^ and Milra; 
through the sun is she awakened" (i. is+t lu. 6 i. 6 -j). In 
the ritualistic period Dawn is still mechanically lauded, and her 
beams "rise in the east like pillars of aacrifica (iv, 51. a); 
but otherwise the imagery of the sclecrions given above is that 
which is usually employed. The ' three dawns occasionally 
referred to are, as we have shown elsewhere,’ the three dawn- 
lights, white, red. and yellow, as they are seen by both the 

Vedic poet and the Florentine. 

Dawn becomes common and trite after awhile, as do all the 
eods and is in^'obed more to give than to please. ‘ Wake us.' 
^es’ a later poet, ‘Wake us to wealth, O Dawn, give to us, 
give to us; wake up, lest the sun bum thee with his light ^ 
a passage (v. 79) which has caused much learned nonsense 
to be written on the inimical relations of Sun and Dawn as 
portrayed here. The dull idea is that Dawn is Ja*y. and had 
better get up before Sfirya catches her asleep. The poet is 
not in the least worried because his image does not express a 
suitable relationship between the dawn and the sun, nor need 
others he disturbed at it. The hymn is late, and only import¬ 
ant in showing the new carelessness as regards the old gods. 
Some other trails appear in vii. 75.1 IT.i where Dawn is ' queen 
of the world,' and banishes the or evil spirit. She here 

is daughter of Heaven, and wife of the sun (+, j); t'L j 6 . i, 
Jhe is the eye of the world; and St, +, she is invoked as 

"^Thcre is, at times, so close a resemblance between Dawn- 
hymns and Sun-hymns that the imageiy employed in one is 

^ (0. hi tah. IBIO tt. is. UKI ir. 

-hcn, «»ts^S?rf I3a"a; but llw« I* H ibam 

feTrUB*, SAd that Is •bat iht port sajs la hJs o*# way. 


r/fM jz££ic/aj\^ or /,vdia. 

used Id the other, Thu5^ the hyiuD vi. 64 begins i ** The 
beums of D^tmi have ariseop shining as shine the waters' 
gleaming waves. She makes good pathSp , . . she baiushes 
darkness as a wanior drives away a foe (so of the siin^ iv. 

a; X. 37, 4; 170. 2), Beantiful are thy paths upon the 
itiountams^ and across the waters thou shinest^ self^gleaming 
(also of the sun). With the last expression may be compared 
that in vi. 6 ^. 5: ** Dawn, w 4 ose seat is upon the hiils.'^ 

Dawn is intimately connected not only with Agni but with 
the Twin tiorseraenp the A^^vins (equiEes)—if not so intimately 
connected as is Helen with the Dioskouro^ whOp Pischel^ 
are the A^'vins of Hellas, This rclationsbip is more empha¬ 
sized in the hymns to the latter gods^ hut occasionally occurs- 
in Dawn-hymnSi of which another is here translated In full 

To Daw'i!f ^tv, 

The Daughter uf H-eavtiii tMi beauicotis maidi 
TCfisplenrient }ta.vc3 ter Jtteter ^Xigtn), 

And now before (our iiglat) appears^ 

Red glows 3ibD like m shining marei 
Mother of kinc, wko timely 
The Honemen,^! ffiond .Aurora U« 

Both fHcnd nit tbou of the Horsemen twain. 

And mother art thon of the kVne, 

And thou, Auiotw, ruleu wcalih. 

We wiko (tec with our pre-be aa otie 
Who foes reraovoi; such thought is ourv 
O thou that art possesat of joy. 

Thy radiant beams benoheent 
Like hard* of Caltlu nOir appear t 
Aurora tlU the wide expanse. 

With light host thou the dark Ttmovfidp 
Filling (the world), O brilHajit one^ 

Aurorap help nS os thou us*^ 

With rays thou slretchcai through the heaven 
And through the fair wldo apace betvrecni 
O Dawn, with thy refulgent light 


Jt was that S^vitar (Poshait) is the rising and setting 
sun. So, antithetic to Dawn^ stands the Abendroth with her 
sister^ Night. This last^ generally^ as in the hymn just tmns- 
latedp is landed only in connection with Dawn, and for hciself 
alone gets but one hymn, and that is not in a family-book. 
She is to he regarded, tiiencfore, less as a goddess of the pan¬ 
theon than as a quasi-^gioddess^ the result of a poet^s meditative 
imagination, rather than one of the folk’s primitive objects of 
adoration; somewhat as the English poets personify elouds* 
that far above me float and pause, ye ocean-waves . , . ye 
woodSj that listen to the night-bird's singing, O ye loud waves, 
and O ye forests high, and O ye clouds that far above me 
soared; thou rising sun* thou blue rejoicing sky E — and 
as in Creek poetry* that which before has been ooiteci^^d 
of v^agueiy as divine sucidenly Is invested with a divine person- 
ality+ The later poet exalts these aspects of nature, and 
endows those that were before only half recognized with a 
little special praise. So* whereas Night was divine at first 
merely as the sister of divine Dawn, in the tenth book one 
poet thus gives her praise: 

HVJIN TO NlCIfT (at I37 )k 

Nigbt fthuving com«, who HOW 

Lookjf out afar wilh many eyw, 

And putt^tli aU her bcaudei on. 

Immortal godden, 

The depths and hdghlA alike ha^h dlled. 

And dnvet with light ihc dark avay 

Tn m4£ she comes, adom^ wdk 
A dar^rtEHta black now AlghMy made; 
l^y then thy debt O and go.' 

1 Tnuuferred by Roth tiiMn ibc pen«ldjnate jHMldon %h«e it standi In the 
wlsinal [>awn tu*rt pay» Night Tdr the latter^ matull nal wltbdrawian bf 
Ing bfcMtiL StrietEy speaJdng, iht I>nrn is, of Omw, the surtset light CQna^*vd vi 
a& identinl with that prafl^B*the iuhri*c a* 'glow7, 

rm: /!£U€/oji^ of /j^td/a. 


The bright wie Paining put aaldi] 

Her^ter Pmwit (the s^iuMt hgtii)* 

And I&3 ihfr cbtHcntsi hastet iwiy, 

Sa (kkcid art ihouj C.4> uj; at whose 
Appearing we retire to restt 
Ai birds homeward lo the iree. 

Td j»t axe come the thronga of mett; 

To rest, the beuls i to ttssIh the hifid«| 

And e*efl the greedy eagles rwh 

Keep ofi the iihc-woir and the wolf« 

Keep off the Lhief, O h^lowy Nighir 
Be thoa lO US a Aaiiour now. 

To thpfip O Nighty *■ ^twere on berdr 
To a [!OEiqueror (brQujbl)^ bring I sm hyimi 
Daughter ol Heaven, accept (the 


The Aqviiis who are, as was said above, the * Horsemen,' 
parallel to the Greek Dioskouroit are twins, sons of Dyaus, 
husbands, perhaps brothers of the Dawn, 'rhey have been 
variously * Interpreted," yet in point of fact one knows no more 
now what was the originai conception of the tw^ain than was 
known before Occidental scholars began to study them,* Even 
the andenu made mere guesses: the Alvins came before tbe 
Dawn, and are so-called because they nde on horses 

they represent cither Heaven and E^rth, or Day and 

1at Miiit Ihii hfim to bt. It b intowtting m Tv^cahng ihe taet wuNci 
(Dflt Ugen or pontbixii) m the pod's dhmI dfta^bd c4 nbgbtr It inusl, lbo»fpfe 
hm b«$Q eoftipowd Lb Uw OOfUikuid-i, whciv wdIivs ist ttu Iw^rdsaua's wont 


* SiyrianthMU, Dif A^fmi: Muir, OST^ v. pL a^; Ibigaigne, 

H, pr 43t; Miilkr, IdffmrtJ, M amas p. 508; Wfibw, /mi 4 V* pu 3 ^ Sa^Fona 

oa L iSo. a, mtcrpicvla tiio ^abtef d Uko Dawn. 



Sight, or Sun and Moon, or two earthly kings—such is the 
unsatisfactory Irformation given by the Hindus themselves.' 

Much the same language vrith that in the Dawn.'h).’niDS is 
naturally employed iti praising the Twin Brothers. I hey, like 
the Dioshouroi, are said to have been incorporated gradually 
into the pantheon, on an equality with the other gods,* not 
because they were at first human beings, but because 
like Night, were adjuncts of Dawn, and got their divinity 
through her as leader.* In the last book of the Rig Veda they 
are the sons of Saranyu and Vivass-ant, but it is not certain 
whether SaranyO means dawn or not; in the first book they 
sre born of the flood (in the sky).* They are sons of Opus, 
but this too only in the last and first books, while in the 
latter they are separated once, so that only one is called the 
Son of the Sky,* They follow Dawn ‘like men' (vni, s- a) 
and are in Brahmanic literature the ‘youngest of the gods. 

The twin gods are the physicians of heaven, while to men 
they bring all medicines and help in times of danger, 
were apparently at first only ‘wonder-workers,* for the original 
legends seem to have been few. Yet the striking similanty 
in these aspecu with the brothers of Helen must offset the 
fact that so much in connection with them seems to have been 
added in books one and ten. They restore the blind and 
decrepit, impart strength and speed, and give the power and 
seed of life; even causing waters to fiow, fire to bum, and 
trees to grow. As such they assist lovers and aid in producing 

'"‘^ThT Aevins a« brilliantly described. Their bird-drawn 

diAriat and all Its sippurteoances a^e o£ gold ; they are swift 

elda4 Ilin4ii ^ 1*^ csllipatfoiin 

■ f bclowl ihcf ciIlMi th€ low«* date of gwi-^ (Qlldfwjr, 

• In the Epk (« »• ^ ^ t 

* Tsitt. S. tIL 1- 7- »i P* *3S- 

A*£L/G/Oiy^ OF nm/A. 

as thought, igilt?p young, aud beautiful Tlirice they come to 
tile sacriiice, morning, noon, and eve; at the yoking of their 
car» the davin born* When ihe * banner before dawn' 
appears, the invocation to the Alvins begins; they 'accom¬ 
pany dawn.' Some variation of fancy is naturally to be looked 
for. Thus^ though* as said above. Dawn is bom at the 
Alvins yoking, yet Dawn is herself invoked .-to wake the 
A^-vins ; while again the sun starts their chariot before Daw^n ; 
and as sons of Zeus they arc invoked '*when darkness still 
stands among the shining clouds (cows).'^ ^ 

Husbands or brothers or children of DawUp the Horsemen 
are also Siifya^s husbands, and she is the sun^s daughter 
{Dawn or the sun as female. But this myth la not without 
contradictions, for Shryi elsewhere weds Soma, and the A^dns 
are the bridegroom^a friends; whom BOshan chose oit this 
occasion as his parents; he who (unless one with Soma) was 
the prior bridegroom of the same nfiuch^mairied damsel^ 

The current explanation of the A^ins is that they represent 
two periods between darkness and^ dawn, the darker period 
being nearer nighty the other nearer day. But they probably, 
as inseparabk twins^ are the twinlights or twilight, before 
dawn, half dark and half bright. In this light it may well be 
said of them that one alone is the sen of bright Dyaus, that 
both wed Dawm, or are her brothers. They always come to¬ 
gether. Their duality represents, then, not successive stages 
but one stage in day's approach, when light is dark and dark 
is light* In comparing the Alvins to other pairs* this dual 
nature is frequently referred to ; bot no less there a triality 
in connection with them w^hich often in describing them has 
been ignored. This is that threefold light which opens day; 
and, as in many cases they join with Dawn, so their color is 

3; idiL 12; viiL q. 17; L 34. ; 4. Mulr^ fit 

Compuc if. 334, 3^6. 

* MuIt. fof. p. 33?, K V, vi gS, 4: JL S3. 9ff. 

■ T^y W nra|kU€d to two ^p4, two birda, ett 

rj/£ A^y/iVS- 


inseparable. Strict])' spcalting, the break of red U the dawn 
and the white and yellow lights precede this.* I hus in v. 

-. u Red-birds flew round you as S&rya stepped upon youi 
chariot”; so that It is quite impossibie. in accordance with the 
poets themselves, to limit the Alvins to the twilight. They 
are a variegated growth from a black and white seed. T e 
chief function of the Alvins, as original^' conceived, was the 
rinding and restoring of vanished light. Hence they .^re 
in^-oked as finders and aid-gods in general (the myths are 

given in Myriantheus), , ^ x. , 

Some very amusing and some silly legends have been col¬ 
lected and told by the Vedk poets In regard to the preserva¬ 
tion and resuscitating power of the Alvins- how a. old 
was rejuvenated by them (this is also done by the three I^i> 
bus, masler-workmen of the gods) ; how brides are provided 
bv them; how they rescued Bhujyu and others from the danger 
of the deep (as in the classical legends) : how they replaced 
a woman's leg with an iron one; restored ^ 

drew a seer out of a well, etc., etc. :Many scholars follow Qer- 
gaigne In imagining all these miracies to ^ ^thro^morphired 
E^ms of solar phenomena, the healing of the blind repre^ - 
ing the bringing out of the sun from darkness, ett^ To us 
su^ iuterpretation often seems fatuous. No less unconvinc- 
b the claim that one of the A(vins repre«nLs the fire 
of heaven and the other the fire of the altar. The 
called mirir/,™-, the ‘savers’ (or ‘not untrue ones ); explained 
by some as meaning ‘gods with good noses. 

11„ itr, r, 5. 4. .. to tt- a 

» Pirtoja Uat B««.»*willi food iw*»’ l» W 

1 XfUgiff! P- MUfl. L J. 5S, WMl for iMi reueo, if lof no 

epic (WiltoB, olriwloss' h prehiWr tte^Ihrt li fhf 

other {tho^ Ito U o ^ di«5et*ibt«e tf the Rig Ve<te 

oU« >IIB1-V«vne, Heoieo-EKth. wv coiwoco. 

TIi£ M£LIG/OJ^S OF /aVD/4- 

liVMSi TO TM^ HotStHEJ*. 

Whether jre re&t on fu-exti^dcd caxth, or on ihe ica in honK? upon it 
Ena4«T come hither th^ncef, O jre Lha.t ride the s-tccds^ 1 \ ever i^or mia ^e 
mix the wri&c«r then notice now the Kinva [poet who rntgi]. 1 call upon 
the godi [[ndia, Vlilinii] ^ And the Awiti'^^oing ItoriwHaien.^ Th»e Hora-e- 
men. 1 call nuW that the^Work wonders, lo ftcke the wo-rkift (of sa£:ta€ce][| 
whcdt friendship is preeminently oum^ ind re3nlionshlp amO-tlg all the gods; 
in reference to whom arbw tacrihees + » # Jft toda^p O llorsernen, West 
or East jt Hand, ye of good tteedtr whether ai I>nihi'ii*it Anu'm Tufia^^tp 
or Vftdu'i, [ eail ye; come to me. If ye ily in the airi O ^vefs of great 
joy; or if through the iwo workis; or ff^ uxording lo your pleuurc, y« 
mount the car^ — thence come hiiherf O floreeincn. 

From the h)Tnn*'prcce<iing thii, the follovvlng verses:* 

WhaEever mantmess » \n the oetheTt in the *ky+ and omoog the five 
peoples, ^ni us lhatp O HorMomim , » ^ thli hot j^Mj-Jrink of yours with 
Inudatkin is poured out ■ this jornu aweet through which ye discovcredi 
Vritia . . - j\scend the iwift-roiling chariot, O Horsemen ; hither lei these 
my praues bring ye^ like a cloud » # ^ Come AS goardiAfU of homes; 
guardiaiLs of our bodies- Come lo the house for [lo give) children and 
offspring. Whether ye rklc on the flame car with India, or l» in the same 
house with the Windp whether uniEed with the ^ns of IloLmdleAintU or 
the klhhuj, or »lailid on \'ishnn^s wide steps (come to us). This is Ihe l>est 
help of the hor^femen, if tonday 1 shoidd coike thorn to^ got booty, or cat! 
them as ray ttrength to conquer in battle^ + » + Whatever raedidne {yo 
have) far or near, with this now^, t> wIm one», grant protectiom - , Awake;, 
O Dawn, the tfortemen, goddess, kind and great. . . . When, O Oawtip 
thou goest in light and vhiiaest with the Sun, then hither comes the Homo 
men's chariot^ to the house men have to protect. When the swollen 
italki are milked like cows with udders, and when the clioHc songi are 
sung, then they that adore the Horsemen arc preeminent^ + « » 

Here tho Alvins are assoclatetl with Indra, anti even find 
the evil demon; but, ptobablypat this stage lodra Is more than 
god of stomis. 

1 to b« oMtted. 

^ Flsdick V<d. St. k pt Ai fwittgojiig gods Ih^ sut CiiTled ^ Indm-lilnt^ 
i vUk ^ and tu. 

7 -J/£ AqyiA'S, 


Some of the expanded mjths and legends of the Alvins 
may be found in L ttd, 119. ‘ 58 ; 4 o. Here foUows one 

with legends in moderate number (viL 71): 

Betofa (.he Dinni hn watBr. Night, withdriweth t 
Ttn hlatt ottti leiTrt the nJtWj one ft pathway- 
Ve that haifo kinc and hot*«, jon mvpt* we t 
Bj day, at nighL keep far from □» yoar ar»w. 

Come hither, new. and meet the pioua mortal, 

And 00 your car, O Horsemen, bring him good things; 

Keep ofl from u» the dry icsi toying *tclmc«. 

By day. at night. O sweetest pair, protect n*. 

Yopr eharioi may the joydoiring chargers. 

The eirtVe stallions, bring ai Ltawn's hrsl commgi 
That car whwe reitis aie rays, and weatlh apon it; 

Como srilh the steeds that keep the season'* order. 

Upon the car, ihree-aealed. Ml of riche*. 

The helping car, that has a path all golden. 

On this approach. O lords of heroes, true one*. 
Let this food-bringing car ot yours approach US 

Ye heed from his old ago the man Cyavatw; 

Ye bcought and pive ihe charger swift to Fcda; 

Ve two from darkness' anEUbh rescued Atri; 

Ye set Jihusha down, released frota fettem-t 

This prayer, O lloriemen. and this song i* uttered i 
Accept the skilful p<»M. 

These pnyert. 8*l™ESne. 8a« asceuded. 

O all yw S‘>^* protect U* aye mlh hlesslngal 

__ , ,vt..h rhi' -\cviii5 briiiE either on thetr 

The sweets which the a^hs *& i. r .*k 

chariot, or, as is often related. In a hag: or they bi^t forth 

£r^ the hoof of their steed- Pegnsua' spring m Hehcon h^ 

been compared with this. Their vehicles are vanonsly picture 


* n* tut U oot pmEai to tbU hyma, 

lu which n wu compoaed. 

but bthoilpi U tl» took damilj) 


as birds, horses, ships, etc. It is to be noticed that in no one 
of thek attributes are the Alvins unique. Other gods bring 
sweets, help, protect, give offspring, give healing medicines, 
and, in short, do all that the Alvins do. But, as Bergatgne 
points out, they do all this pacifically, while India, who per¬ 
forms some of their wonders, docs so by storni. He protects 
by not injuring, and helps by destroying foes. Yet is this 
again true only in general, and the lines between warlike, 
peaceful, and ' sovereign' gods arc often crossed. 



Only ^>ne of the great atmospheric deities, the godsjmt 
nreemineotly govern the middle sphere between sky smd eai*. 
crdnim i Aryan lineage* One of the m.norgeds of the 
SI sphere, th? ancient rain-god, also has thxs antique d.g- 
Stv hS in his case the dignity already U mpatred hy the 
of a new and greater rival- In the case of the wmd- 

.hi is 

f .".rT —l mnl’’.Isy be rt.e Sem- 

'VodPP. The b.« 'p™ ^ 

, disdncUo, b^e 7.i«cSon 

” "s , m"s. h«e b«» O.C. Sts 

dt^veis ! * ^ j fg physics) (thoegh sentient) wmd, 

:Lt7e 17nnnt. «p™».» 

’ r,'““.let^trent the Vedie 

dte. nnd sen tn s^e. i^t. ^^nd_,pp;. 
cation »l the wn names. Ihtm ] ■ ^ 

dtmblc tcmiimkW ^P'^^ ^ Utc {Xm, and sel («> 

and Savitar. J«st as a uh^ical fed body in 

Uepledgcd ns . iCmtin’t «hich. by s ne,c, 

the sky) contrasted wit , fsentient) ph^icnl 

name is Vdta, Woden, replaced and lowered 

from the spiritual, so i . * 

^ the i. formed, tU spiritualizing ten- 


rtclothed in the more modern garb of speech, whidi \s in¬ 
vented for Savitar alone; w the retroactive tht-osophlc farcy, 
after creating Viyu as a divine power undtrijang phenomenal 
Vata, reinvests Vata also with the garments of Vayu, Thus, 
finally, the two, who are the result of intellectual differentia¬ 
tion, arc again united from a new point of view, and Sttrya 
or Savitar, Viyu or Vita, are indifferently used to express 
respectively the whole completed interpretation of the divinity, 
which is now visible and invisible, sun and sun-god, wind and 
wind-god. In these pairs there is, as it were, a perspective 
of Hindu theosophy, and one can trace the god, as a spiritual 
entity including the physical, back to the physical prototype 
that once was woTshipped as such alone. 

In the Kig Veda there are thre^ complete hymns to Wind, 
none oi these beiug in the lamily books* In 3t- the poet 
tabs on Wind to bring health to the worshipper, and to pro¬ 
long his Ulc. He addresses Wind as ♦father and brother and 
friend/ asking the power that blows to bring htm ambrosia, 
of which Wind has a store. These are rather pretty verses 
without special theological intentr addressed more to Wind as 
such than to a spiritual power. The other hymn from the 
same bock Is directed to Vata also, not to Viyu, and though 
it Is loftier in tone and even speaks of VSta as the soul of the 
gods, yet is it evident that no consistent m)^holo|^ has worked 
upon {he purely poetic phraseol^^^ which is occupied merely 
with describing the rushing of a mighty wind (x. i68). Never- 
thelesSf Vata is worshipped, as is Vayu, with oblations. 

IIVMN TO Wind (Vaia>. 

Now Vitals clariot's gnsaintjw I Bnatiug goes it* 
And ihunderiTijs Li U? noise; So heaven Lt laurchet, 
Gm oV the cal1h^ doLidi making, dust upn^aring ( 

1 Campus I 2 - 

T//£ COIJS. 


Then rusti wEtilier ' ^ 

T» Kin. lK.y ccn,e - ^cn.*n n ««*'"«■ 

V iiK ih«m cnni<.lnt. nn the «mecK^ot ^501..^. 

tibcntlieaod. , . 

Ue'ef slc=pttb he when, OH bh pathway '^denng, 
n= jjoei tLuKh ^r. The Criend b he of *«««. 

Firtt-bom and hnl>,-^»>«" ™ T 

And When« Hfose he? Spirit 

Soei« of ejeat’LOH, Eoeth wKem he w^ih , 

Whose ionnd b heard, but not h^ fonn. Tba 
Ui us with out ohlalioM duly honor. 

.b» ..j Ki. 

I„d,» :» f,3y boots >«»««“ 

V.d» oil the byions ™ “"/jh, s„, boot he h ossoci- 
Indn (vii. 9o-il= ? *J '. l ,p [,4, he has the only 

atedthtisin of songs «ca- 

remaining complete h> , the first two 

sionally are found. Ml of ,he sacrifice. It is 

dimply invite Viyn to come wt^ Indra^^^^ 

Vajt« who Mth Indm Tvashtar’s, son-lmlaw. but 

lie is spohen of as t hege^s 

the allusion is unexplained (m». -&■ 

the storm-gods (i- i 34 - 4 )- popular gods. These 

With Vaym is iorned ,he 

divinhics, whicli P Y popular go<l5. yet were the 

lower spliete, may be aXs^por quite correct. For, 

title ‘new gods' when compared with 

though the niay be claimed, such as 

many for whom a gre. recenl growth m 

the Sun, Va^na, D>^^. ^^.idcrable number of divinities, 
dignity, yet there rcmai ^ 

the hymns m whose ^ Ziobtate had been but lately 

to show that the gods that deserved 5 p«^ 

‘ C»tq“X«™ B”**' ‘ “”■ 


r//M 0£ /jYD/A. 

as it should b& applied to the plainer producls of theological 
speculation and abstraction rather than to Jndraatut hispccrs^ 
not Id speak of those newest pantheistic gods, as yel unknown. 
The designation popular must be understood^ then^ to apply to 
the gods most frequently^ most enthiisiastically revered (for in 
a stricter sense the sun was also a popular god); and reference 
is had in using this word to the greater power and influence 
of these godSf which Is indicated by the fact that the hymns 
to Agni and Indra precede all others in the family books, 
while the Sonia-h)iDns are collected for the most part into one 
whole book by themselves^ 

But there is another factor that necessitates a divnsioti 
between the divinities of sun and heaven and the atmos¬ 
pheric and earthly gods which are honored so greatly i and this 
factor is cxplanatocy of the popularity of these gods. In the 
case of the older divinities it U the spiritualSaation of a sole 
material appearance that is revered^ in the case of the popular 
gods, the material phenomenon is reduced to a minimum, the 
spirituality behind the phenomenon is eaaltcd, and that spiritu¬ 
ality stands not in and for itself, but as a part of a union of 
spiritualities. Applying this test to the earlier gods the utilon 
will be found to he lacking^ The sun^s spiritual power Is 
united with India's, but the sun is as much a physical phctiome- 
non as a spirituality^ and always remains so. On the other hand, 
the equation of Varunic power with Indraic never amalgamated 
the two ; and these are the best instances that can be chosen 
of the older gods. For in the ease of others it Is self-evident, 
Dyaus and Dawn are but material phenomena, slightly spiritual- 
lied, but not joined with the spirit-power of others. 

Many have been the vain attempts to go behind the returns 
of Vcdic hymnology and reduce Jndra, Agni^ and Soma to 
terms of a purely naturalistic religion. It cannot be done. 
Jndra is neither sun, lightning, nor storm; Agni is neither 
hearth-hre nor celestial fire ■ Soma is neither planet nor moon. 



Each 15 the trausient manifestation of a spirituality Ij-ing- 
behind and extending beyond this tnanifestation. Here alone 
is the latch-key of the newer, more popular religion. Xot 
merely because Indra was a ‘warrior god,’ but because Indra 
and lire were one; because of the mystery, not because of the 
appearance, was he made great at the hands of the priests. It 
15 true, as has been said above, that the idol of the warriors 
was magnified because he was such; but the true cause of the 
greatness ascribed to him in, the hymns lay in the Kcrct of his 
nature, as it was lauded by the priest, not in his form, as it 
was seen by the multitude- Neither came first, both worked 
together, but had it not been for the esoteric wisdom held by 
the priests in connection with his nature, Indra would have 
gone the way of other meteorological gods ; whereas he became 
chiefest of the gods, and, as lord of strength, for a time came 
nearest to the supreme power. 


Indra has been identified with ‘ stonn,’ with the * sky,' with the 
lyear'i also with 'suu' and with ‘ fire' in general,^ But if he 
be taken as he is found in the hjenns. it will be noticed at once 
that he is too stormy to be the sun : too luminous to be the 
storm ; too near to the phenomena of the monsoon to be the 
vear or the sky; too rainy to be hre; too alien from every one 
thing to be any one thing. He is too celestial to be wholly 
atmospheric ; too atmospheric to be celestial; too earthly to 
be cither. A most tempting solution is that offered by 
Bergaigne who sees in Indra sun or lightning. Yet does this 
explanation not explain all, and it is more satisfactory than 
others only because it is broader; while it is not yet broad 
enough, Indra, in Bergaigne’s opinion, stands, however, nearer 

1 For the dlffeiwu *1. p. ii9i Mdr. OST. e. p. 77 . 



to fire than to sun} But the savant does not rest content with 
hU own explanation: *‘lndira csl peul-£trej de tons ks dieex 
vddiquesr celui qtii rufsiste k plus longtemps ^ un genre 
d’analysc qni, appliqud h la plupait des autres, les r^ut plus 
m moins vitc en dcs pcrsonm^cations des etL^ments^ soit dcs 
pb4£nom^ne5 naturels, soit du culte " p. ihy). 

Dyaus' son* Indra, who rides upon the stonn and hurls the 
lightnings with his hands ; who ^ crashes down Irotn heaven * 
and ^destroys the strongholds' of heaven and earth; w^hose 
greatness "fills heaven and earth^; whose 'steeds are of red and 
gold'; who * speaks in thunder/and ^is bom of waters and 
cloud'; behind whom Kde the storm^gods; with whom Agni 
(fire) ts inseparably connected ; who "frees the waters of 
heaven from the demon,^ and 'gives raJn-blessings ai^d wealth " 
to man — such a god^ granted the necessity of a natiimlistic 
interpretation, nray well be thought to have been lightning 
itself originally, which the h)Tiins now represent the god as 
carT)'ing. But In identifying Indra with the sun there is more 
difiicult)’. In none of the early hymns 4s this suggested^ and 
the texts on which Ifergaigne relies besides being late are not 
always conclusive. "'Indra clothes himself with the glorj^ of 
the sun”; he "sees with the eye of the sun”—such texts 
prove little when one Tcmembeis that the sun is the eye of all 
the gods, and that to clothe ones'self with solar glory is far from 
being one with the sun. In one other, albeit a late verse, the 
expression 'Indriu a sun,' Is used ; and, relying on such texts, 
Bcrgaigne claims that Indra is the sun* But it is evident that 
this Is but one of many passages where Indra by implication 
is corapkared to the sun; and Comparisons do not indicate 
allotropy. So, in ii. ri. 20, which Bergaigne gives as a 
parallel, the words say expressly ludra [did so and so] a 
sun" * To rest a building so important on a basis so frail is 

1 La 1L prpi iSi, i66, rS?, 

i The chid tMla m Ii.3a 1; It. 3& 1 j rfL ^ ft; i. 4; a; ji. 112 > 


foitunaiely rare with Berj^aigne. It happens here hecaose he 
is aigiiing ftom the assumption that Indra primitively a 
general luminary^ Hence^ instead of building up Indta from 
early teitSp he claims a few late phrases as precious confix 
mation of hiis theory.^ W'hat was India may be seen by com¬ 
paring a few citations such as might easily be aniplified from 
every^ hook in the Rig Veda. 

According to the vTirynng fancies of the pc^etSp Indra is 
armed with stonesp clubs^ arrowsp or the thunderbolt (made for 
him by the artlhcer, Tvashtar)p of brass or of golch with many 
edges and points. Upon a golden chariot he rides to battlep 
driving two or many red or yellow steeds; he is like the sun 
in brilliancy^ and like the dawn in beauty ; he is muitiformp 
and cannot really be described ; his divine name is secret; in 
appearance he Is vigorous^ huge; he is wise and true and kind; 
all treasures are his* and be is a wealtb-hoLdur^ v^i as four 
seas; neither his greatness nor his generostty can be compre¬ 
hended ; mightiest of gods is he, filling the universe; the 
heavens rest upon his head ; earth cannot hold him ; earth and 
heaven tremble at his breath ; he is king of all; the mountains 
are to him as valleys; he goes forth a bull, ragingp and rushes 
through the air, whirling up the dust; he breaks open the 
rain-containing clouds, and lets the rain pour down ; as the 
Alvins restore the light, so he restores the rain ; he is (like) 
fire bom in three places ; as the giver of rain which feeds, he 
creates the plants ; he restores or begets Sun and Dawn (after 
the storm has passed); ^ he creates (In the same way) all things, 
even heaven and earth; he Is associated with Vishnu and Poshan 
(the sun-gofis), with the Alvins* with the Maruts (storm-gods) 
as his especial followers, and with the artisan Ribhus. With. 
Vanina he is an Aditya, but he is also associated with another 

J Otto ditiliDni g^virn by Berg^llJ* Ifl Hmiwrtiqts thl* pajat a« iM of tl» 
stpiLfii das*. ORlrw Allfpdti India Uwstin. 

I L ^ ^ 4 1 “ At*®" ilarSnfi Vfitrap tl»a dU'st maJ» ths mn dhiah lu 


muGJom or iivd/a. 

group of gods, tho Vasus (x. 66. 3), as VasiJp 3 ,tit or 'lord of 
the Vasus." He goes with niany forms (vi. 47* 18)-' 

The lumtuous character* of indm^ which has caused him to 
be identihed with light-gods, can be understood only w^hen one 
remembers that in India the rainy season is ushered in by such 
displays of Lightning that the heavens are often illuminated in 
every direction at once; and not with a succession of dashes^ 
but with contemporaneous ubiciuitous sheets of light, so that it 
appears as if on all sides of the sky there was one lining of 
united dazzling \Mien it Is said tltat Indra ^placed light 

in light,' one is not to understand, with Bergaigne, that India 
is identical with the sun^ but that in day (light) Indra puU 
lightning (x. 54. (mx Bergaigne ii* p. 1S7), 

Since Indians Ughtiiing^ 13 a form of href there is found in 
this union the first mystic dualism of two distinct gods as one^ 
This comes out more in Agni-worship than in Indra-worship* 
and will be treated below. The snake or dragon killed by 
Indra is Vritra, the restraincr, who catches and keeps in the 
clouds the rain that is falling to earth. He often is called 
simply the snake, and as the Budhnjra Snakep or snake of the 
cloud-depths, is possibly the l^ython (= Budhmya).^ 'I'here is 
here a touch of primitive belief in an old enemy of man — the 
serpent 1 But the Budhn)!^ Snake has been developed in 
opposite wa>^, and has contradictory functions.* 

Indra, however, is no more the lightning than he is the sun. 
One poet says that he is Ukt the sun ^ * another, that he is 
like the lightning (viii. 93. 9), which he carries in his arras 

J Idll^ Wity 4 ( VlL olhw nltmam, t^. Ai.). 

* BcraaJKBfr. it, iSj. 

i tEidra. Soda and Wi. 31 . * 5 - 

» Unkas the ryth«i bt, mther, tkmqn d PatRfutiDn, as ta bctk£ 

^ t?CEiioi3i of mry ^ lodiaj ViU, ViitTik, tts - faflldiflg' (44 j^ 

• bt eswlf and direrta the ^ Aod wixa. It te ibiiw, ai eiL]?hiLa«l shem fvilL 

3.ILL 44.4; L 4; ULjg, is). He If pralMd with VbhDU ta one hyEnt, 

^ dlstinit riom hJm. 

9 S 

(viii I a, 7) i another, that he is like the Light of dawn (x. S5- 
ja). So various are the activiiiesp so tnany the phenomena^ 
that with him first the seer is obliged to look back of aLL these 
phenomena and find in them one person; and thus he is the 
most anthropomorphized of the Vedic gods. He is bom of 
heaven or born of clouds (iv. iS), but that his mother is Aditi 
is not certain. As the most powerful god Tndra is again re¬ 
garded as the All-god {viii. 98. 1 - 3 ), With this final suprem- 
acyv distinction between battle-gods and gods sovereign, 
which Bergaigne insists upon — the sovereign gods belonging 
to wv/AwW r/w (lii. p- 3; ii. 

p, 1^^) — fades iLwny. As Vamna became gradually greatest^ 
so did Indra In turn. But Varuna was a philosopher's godt 
not a warrior's ; and Varuna was not double and mj-sticaU So 
even the priest (Agni) leaves Varuna, and with the warrior 
takes more pleasure in his twin Indra ; of him making an All* 
god, a greatest god, Varuna is passive; Indra is energetic; 
but Indra docs not struggle for his lordship. Inspired by 
he smites, tiiumphs, punishes. Victor already^ he descends upon 
his enemies and with a blow destrop them. It Is rarefy that 
he feels the effect of battle j he never doubts its issue. 

There is evidence that this supremacy was not gained with¬ 
out contradiction, and the novelty of the last extravagant Indni- 
worship may be deduced* perhaps, from such passages as viii. 
96. 15; and 100. 3, where are expressed doubts in regard 
to the existence of a real Indra. How late is the worship of 
the popular Indra, and that it is not originality that causes his 
hymns to be placed early in each collection, may be judged 
from the fact that only of India (and Agni ?) are there idols : 
viiL 1. 5; 24^ 10: gives ten cows for my Indra? 

\Miert be has slain his foe let (the purchaser) give him to me 
again.'-^ Thus it happens that one rarely finds such poems 

I notbanMn wiMild vet ua aUitiLon \da}s in L 143. 4-5 (Ifl Apll), l-rt iMi ii very 
dofibtryl {ZmtG^ idirtL p. 5**)- ApiS, S* an * p:ir w\^h Indrm, k itiat tbi 

wuuM have i» Jlffiilficifuct S« KJi Voda, 


TIf£ ££UCl0.yS OF 

to Indra as to and to other earlier deitiea, but almost 

always stereotyped desoriptioos of prowess, and mechanical 
invitations to come to the altar and rew^ard the hyirtfi'inaker. 
There are tew of Indra's many hymns that do not smack of 
Xffma and sacrifice. He Ls a warrior's god exploited by priests i 
as popularly conceived^ a sensual giant, friend, brother, helper 
of man. One example of poetry^ instead of ritualistic verse^ 
making to Indra, has been translated in the introductory 
chapter- Another, which, if not very inspiring, is at least free 
from obvious worship — which results in Indra being in¬ 
voked chiefly to come and drink — is as follows {vi. 30) : 

Great haih ho lndra+ far deed^ Kerotc ^ 

Ageless k he BloAe, akwe givia riches ^ 

Beyved tho heaven smd eAith liaih [tidra htrvtdied hlni« 

The half of him against both worida i>agetherl 
So high and groat I deem ha godly nature j 
What he hath slahlishcd there is none impairs 
Day after day a sun ii he conjipkaonHi, 

And, wisely Mrangh dividei the wide daminioiu^ 

To-day and now (thou makeat) the wddt of rivers« 

In that, O Icidra, ihou hast hewn them pathway 

The hUli have bowed them down as were they comrade?; 

By th^Cf O wUeLj strong, are space? fastenedr 
Til true, Itke ihect O Indra, b no olhert 
Ner |od nor mortal Is more venciabk. 

Thou slew St the dragon that the fk>od tncompw«4 
Thou didst lot out the waters to the ocean. 

Thou didst the waters- freei the doorii wede opernsg. 

Thou, Indra, brah'st the stronghold of the moimtabis, 

Betamest king of all that goes and movetht 
Begetting suu and heaven and dawn together- 


These gods, the constant followers of Indfa, from the present 
point of view are not of groat importance, except as showing 
an tmadtilterated type of nature-gods, worshipped without much 

TJ/£ MAXzrm 


esoteric wisdom (although there is a certain amount at mystery 
in connection with their birth). There is something of the 
same pleasure in singing to them as is discernible in the hymns 
to Dawn. They are the real storm-gods, following Rudra^ their 
father, and aceompanymg the great storm-bringeT, Indra^ Their 
mother is the variegated oow Fn^ni, the mother cloud. Their 
name means the shining, gleaming ones. 

Hymn to Titr Marl’ts (viL ^ r-xo)* 

IVha, tooth, arc the gleainlog n^ated hrioea, 

the glory of Kiidra^ oa bcautcoLLs chargera? 

For of them iht hlrihpiioe no nLin hath TrLtnOunl i 
they only know It, their mutual birthplace. 

With wings ojtpandod they aWnp eich Other,* 

and strive together, the ttinddoud falcons. 

Wise ho that knowvth thia secret knowledge, 

that rrifiu thn great one to them was motlierS 

This folk ihe Maruis shall make heroic^ 

vfetodous ever, increased In mimhoodi; 

In speed the swiftest, in light the lightest, 

with grace utihed and fierce in powers 

Your power fierce k j your strength, enduring; 

and htaice with the Maruts this folk is mighty. 

Your fnry fair is, jour hearts are wrothfuU 

like nukfiiacs wild Is your band courageous. 

From ua keep wholly the gleaming lightndng; 

let not yotir anger CORti; here to meet us. 

Your najDiCS of strong ones end^^red Invoke E, 

that these delighted may Joy, O ?i>famca. 

What little refiection or moral significaDce is in the M^nit 
hymns is illuatmted by I ^S. x^, thus tmosbted by Miiller : 

What then now ? When wUl ye lake us as a dear father lakes his son 
by both hands, O yn gods, for whom the sacred grass has been trimmed f 

1 Or ' pluck with k=aki,* as MOller innahEes, SEE- ^laaR, p 373, 

Bore theps ** (jaw an wicJer). In 16 Rudn is father and Prlpii, mother 
Compaie rill 04-^ 11 " The caw . . . the stwrther of ihc hiviifci^ iefids itJUt {t^}' 
In X. jS. 6 the >£wniLi ire mos of SSitdhu (fnduf 

m£ AMZ/C/OA^S 

liVhcTi: now ? On what emnd of jouff sire you goUig^ Iq hcaveil^ not OD 
earEh ? \Vb^ are jrour cowf ifwrtirvf ^ Where aw ypur newest rjivotA. 
Q^tarui^? Where w bleuingi? Where aJi delight* ? If yoLL^ $ona of 
Pri^if «rere morlal* and yoiir praiser an Immortal, then never ehould your 
prniser be luiwelconiei like a deer m pasture gras*, nor should be go on the 
path of Yatiia,^ Let not one uu after anotherp diibtuit. lo be cortq^uered^ 
□Ter<:oniG us; may it depart* together with greed. Truly they are lernble 
and powerful; ei'en to the desert the Kudriya* bring rain that I* never 
dried up. The lightning lows like a €ow, it follows as a tnothcr follows 
after her young, when lhe shower has been let loose. Even by day the 
Maruts create darknee* with the w^ter-bcaring dioudi when they drench the 
earth, etc* 

The Dumber of the Maruts was originally seven^ afterwards 
raised to thrice seven,^ and then given variouslyp* someiimcs 
as high as thrice sixty. They are the ser%^aniSp the butb of 
Dyaus, the glory of Rudra (or perhaps the ^ boys of Rticlra"), 
divinOp bright as suns^ blameless and pure. They cover them¬ 
selves with shining adornment, chains of gold, gemSp and tur¬ 
bans. On their heads are helmets of gold^ and in their hands 
gleam arrow's and daggers. Like heroes rushing to battle^ 
they streaiD onward. They are lair as deer; their roar is like 
that of Hons. The mountains bow before thenir thitiklng them¬ 
selves to he valleys^ and the hills bow down. Good warriors 
and good steeds are their gifts. They smite^ they kill, they 
rend the rocks, they strip the trees like caterpillars; they rise 
together, and, like spokes in a wheel, are united in strength. 
Their female companion is Rodasi (lightning, from the same 
root as rmfra^ the *red’)* They are like wild boars, and (like 
the Sun) they have metallLc jaws. On their chariots are 
speckled hides ; like birds they spread their wings; they strive 
in Bight with each other. Before them the earth sways like 
a ship. They dance upon their path. Upon their chests for 
beauty^s sake they bind gold armor. From the heavenly uddef 

f The Diunbet u not maty-KVem a* !^fdir aoddentiUj stilH, DST. v. p^ 147. 


they milk down rnim “Through whose wisdom, through whose 
design do they come? cries the poet* They have no real ad¬ 
versary. The kings of the forest they tear ssunder, and make 
tremble even the rocks. Their music is heard on every slde^^ 


The father of the Maruts, Rudra, is *the rnddy one,' /ar 
and so to him is ascribed paternity of the 'ruddy 
ones.' But while Indra has a plurality of hymns, Rudra has 
but few, and these it is not of special importance to cite. The 
features in each case are the same. The Mamts remain as 
gods whose function causes them to be invoked chiefly that they 
may spare from the fury of the tempest. This idea is in Rudra's 
case carried out further, and he Is specially called on to avert 
(not only ’ cow'-sia3ring" and man-slaying' by lightning,* but 
also) disease, pestilence, etc. Hence is he preeminently, on 
the one hand, the kindly god who averts disease, and, on the 
olher^ of destruction in every form. From him Father Manu 
got w^ealth and health, and he Is the fairest of beings, but, 
more, he is the strongest god (in 33. 3, to)* Frofii such a 
prototype comes the later god of healing and woe — Rudm, 
who becomes ^iva,^ 


There is one rather mechanical hymn directed to the Waters 
themselves as goddesses, where Indra is the god who gives 
them passage. But In the unique hymn to the Rivers it is 
Varuna who, as general god of water. Is represented as tboir 
patron. In the first hymn the rain-water is meant.^ A descrip- 

I V. 4|, 5 ^ L ss. I; SS. $ E Vp S4. i vliL 7. ^ l* 16^ L 3^ 1; £4.3^; 
V. G; L S; vliL 7. 34; t. s. 

r Ke C 4 rdn lighuiingst suid iwdldncl k)|^}icr in dL 46.3. 
i laicf (lientiSwi witJi Rodia. For Uiie UlUr In RV. ccHn|afft L 43J 

10^ iL 33.3-13. * Tii 47, and K. 7ir 



tion in somewhat jovial vein of the joy produced by the min 
after long drought forms the subject matter of another lyric 
(less an hymn than a poem), which serves to illustrate the posi¬ 
tion of the priests at the end of thb %^edic collection. The 
frogs are jocosely compared to priests that have fulhned their 
vow of silence; and their quacking Is likened to the noise of 
students learning the Veda- Parjanya is the god that, in dis¬ 
tinction from Indra as the hrst causey actually pours down the 

The Fftocs.i 

As prints thai ha ire ttwir vows fulfilled, 

Rependag a jeor complece^ 

Thfi fiDgs have qaw begun lo talk. ^ 

Parjonja has thed r vg-ke arotiSHL 

When down the heavchly waiere uporn him, 

Wha like a dry hog Liy within the river. 

Thes^ like the cows^ loud lowing (cows thoi calves havejii 
The vocal sound of frogs comn all together« 

When <m the lenging. iMrstj ones it rakietli, 

(The rainy season having qome upon them). 

Then /* ibey oy; and one the other 

Oreetft with his speech, &§ sons addnoa a father^ 

The One the other wdcomesi and together 
They both rejoice at foiling of the watcri; 

The spoiled frog hops when the rain has wet him. 

And with his yellow comrade Joins his uttenmo^ 

When one of ihiae th^ nthef^a voice repcateth. 

Just a* a atudem his Ceacher, 

Then like uti Eled member with fair vakeSi 
They all EOgeihej-siiig among the waters. 

1 vli loy. 

» AMA^^a Is like tatin tluwt of Jqj and wonder {Am./. JPAH XIV 

p 11% 



Oni? like an tst 4I0EI1 belloiT, go^t'like one kl«Ats ; 

Spotted li one, and one of them b yellow j 

Alike m name, but In appearance difiereat^ 

In many wa)'* the yoke iheyt speakings vary- 

An pilt»[n about IniondcatiD^i 

Talk aa they Stand before the well filled ven»lt 

$D fllajid ye lOutiii about ihk day once jeaHy, 

On which, O fro^ the lime of mm o^roa^heA, 

(Like) pne^b who sem^r have, they rake their toIoo^ 

And pray the prayer that once a year La uttered; 

(Like) heated priests who sweat at aacrificea, 

The^aJI come out^ Concealed of them ia no one. 

The sacred order of the (year) tirelye-Enembered* 

These hetoes lEuaid, and never do noglea Ik j 

When every year^ the rainy season coming. 

The burning heat riied.velh its dkmiauon.^ 

In one hymn no less than four gCKis are especially invoked 
for ram—Agni, Biihaspati. Indra^ and Parjanya. The two 
fii^t are satrificially potent; ErLhaspati, especially^ gives to the 
priest the song that has power lo bring rain ; he comes either 
*as Mitia-Vanina or POshan,^ and Mets Farjaaya rain ^ while 
in the same breath Indra is eahorted to send a Rood of rain,— 
rains which arc here kept back by the gods,^—and Agni b 
immediately afterwards asked to perfonn the same favor, appar¬ 
ently as an analogue to the streams of oblarion which the priest 
poms on the hre. Of these gods, the pluviiis is Parjanya: 

1 Llteralty/th^ otw-^iighti* fenwcotiA 

S To i^iis hynm 1 j iddad, in Ifttltillon of tht landntions of ^iicp?u 4 bf^nefsetm^ 
whJdi art auffised to an uWef hynm, ™di aMcrlUflg giJLi to tfi« Iwttp. 

Berg^gM regards lbs frogs ^ nirtwrokghaJ pJiCTCiBena t It li frora tills hyroD 
m a staiilng^BE jMtPOwd the bitter-d^y aignmcrtti of jMobt, who wnkl p«w tlw 
^iwriod of the Rig Veda*^ lo hawi Iwfftm about 350a iX, Ono lidg^tt ia wall dote 
Homer by id appad to tbo Batrtcl»myoma<Ma- 


r/m j^££/G/Oiys o/^ /a\dja. 

Pujanya loud tMictl m sdng, 

Tbe ffuetifj'in^ lOti hcavm ^ 

* hu provid/E ns pajtu^« l 

He who the fruitful 5«d of plants. 

Of EDH^ and mar^ and women fQnn% 

PI & li the god Parjanja. 

For him the melted butter pour 
In mouth, — a honejod nweet,— 

Aad may he conitant food bestow 1 ^ 

This god is the rAtn'cloud persisnLfied^* but he is scarcely ta 
be distinguished, in other placesp from Indra; although the 
latter, as the greater* newer god, is represented rather as 
causing the mio to flow, while Farjanya pours "it dowu^ Like 
Varuna, Farjauya also up&ets a water-barrel, and wets the 
earth. He Is identicaJ with the Slavic Perkuna. 

tor natural expression, vividness, energy* and beauty, the 
following hymn b unsurpassed. As a god unjustly driven out 
of the pantheon, it is, perhaps, only just that he shouid be 
exhibited, in contrast to the tone of the sacrifleial hymnlet 
above, in his true light. Occasionally he is paired with Wind? 
and in the curious tendency of the poets to dualize their divioi^ 
dea, the two become a compound, J^tir/anyat afa Parjanya 
and Vata"). There is, also, vii. loi, ooe mystic hymn to 
Parjsnya^ The following, 83, breathes quite a different 
spirit i* ■ 

Greet him, the one, wltb laudadoiu, 

Parjsmya praun^ ajid call him humbly hhlier; 

With mar and rattle poura the buB hlft waters^ 

And laya hla seed iu all the planu^ a fectus. 

He imhea the trees and 4linttes the evil demoB:gi tcM| 

While eveiT ernature fears before his LIuwk 

£"en he that hath not dnned. from this Etron^ god retreatif 

When smItB Fmjanya, tbuf^derine, tho^ie that evil do. 

1 iriL lua. t Coffopon BlDilef, Oefidfxtf L p. ssl 

■ 'rhli hyuHi li annllier of thtm that cvutTadfct t1» hut imiuptinn i?f the ritual 
bti. Fr«Q Internal evidffn» It u not llXeay that It inu norli* far 



A» vhtin a. chanoteef with whip ha hOT«is ttrik^s. 

So drivca he to ihe foni ha Picaanngcft of rain j 
Afar a liofi't mar is ralic^ abroad, whene'er 
Farjanya dotb croale the rain-coniainins dcmd. 

Kow forward nish. the whads, now ileafM^ bgiatninfa fall; 

Up spring the plaiiift. and thick become the shining iky. 

For Hveiy Hiring thing refreshnsctit begoi^ 

Whenever Parjanya's Med makea quick the wotnb ol earth- 

Beneath whose coarM the earth bath bent and bowed her. 

Beneath whoM cnniM the l,fcifiu) behtwiicd heattr them. 

Beneath whose course the plants stand multifanoui^ 

_thou, Paijanya — grant us great protection I 

Bestow Dyaus^ rain upon O ye Mamts 1 
M ake thick the stream that comes from that strong statUon 1 
With this thy [hunder come thou onward, hithtr, 

Thy waters pouringt a spirit and our father.^ 

Roar forth and ihutitler 1 Give the seed of increase 1 

Dotc with thy chariot full of water round us j 

The water-bag drag forward* loosed, tamed downwanl j 

Let hilJs and ^'alleys eriud be before thcel 

Up with the mighty kegS then pour it under 1 

Let ait the loosened sLreatrt* flow ssiftly forward; 

Wet heaven and earth wtih this thy holy duid 
And fair djmk may it be for all our cattlel 

When thou with rattle and with poaTp 
Parjanya, thundering, sinners slayesh 
Then all before lh« do reioice, 

Whatever creaturH live cm earth- 

Rwn bast thou rained, and now do thou restiain Iti 
The dosert* too, hast thou roadn fit for travel ; 

The planis hast thou befotten fot enjoyment; 

And irisdom biat thou found f<ir thy descendants. 

The different meters may point to a colle<:tion of smzill 
hjTims. ft Is to be observed that Parjanya is here the father- 

I Uw Trio Is like the m lacrilidal oil (Mlted buCtei) 


T//M ^£L/G/OArS OJ^ /iVZ>/4. 

god (of men); he is the Asnra, the Spirit; aod min comes 
from the Shining Sky (Dyaug)* How like Varutia! 

The rain, to the poet^ dcgcends from the sky^ and ig liable 
to be caught hy the demon^ Vritm^ whose rain-swollen belly 
Indra opens with a stroke, and lets fall the rain; ttr, in the 
older view just presented, Parjanya makes the cloud that gives 
the rain^ a view united with the descent of rain from the sky 
(Dyaus)* With Parjanya ag an Ary-an rain-god m^y be men¬ 
tioned Tma^ who, apparently, w^a^ a water-god^ Sptya, in gen¬ 
eral \ and some of whose functions Indra has taken. He appears 
to be the same with the Persian Thractaona Athwya; but 
in the Rig Veda he is interesting mainly as a dim survival 
of the pastJ The washing out of sins, which appears to he 
the original conception of Varuna^s sin-forgiving^^ finds an 
analogue In the fact that sins are cast off upon the innocent 
waters and upon Trita —^ also a water-god, and onoe identified 
with Varuna (viii 41* 6)* But this notion ig so unique and 
late (only in viiL 47) that Bloomfield is perhaps right in imput¬ 
ing it to the [later] moralizing age of the Brahmanas, with 
which the third period of the Rig Veda is quite in touchy 

1 SOBK Mppan <fvtn Indra to bfr w wH±i ibc i datnon, which Is 


i QthftnfciM il El the '*bond* of pin* whida are brake-ji or loosed^ m tlvE lait wfert* 
ot the fiMl Vafyia hjnra, na m l a ted iiboiw. But the two rfewi be iii4’ eq^ual 
uliqultr (abm, p. ^3, Od Trita JRAS. iSgj, |k 4i^i FAOS. 1S94 





Great are the heavenly gods, but greater is Indra, god o( 
the atmosphere. Greatest are Agni and Soma, the gods of earth. 

Agni is the altar-fire. Originally fire, Agni, in distinction 
from sun and Jightning, is the fire of sacrifice; and as such is 
he great One reads in. v. 3. 1-3. that this Agni is Varuna, 
Indra; that in him are all the gods. This is, indeed, formally 
a late view, and can be paralleled only by a few passages of a 
comparatively recent period. Thus, in the late hymn i. 164. 
46: “Indra, Mitra, Vanina, Agni, they say; he is the sun (the 
bird in the sky); that which is but one they call variously," etc. 
So X. 114. 5 and the late passage iii. 38. y, have reference to 
various forms of Agni. 

Indra had a twofold nature in producing the union of light¬ 
ning and Agni; and this made him mysteriously great. But 
in .4gni is found the first triality, which, philosophically, 
is interpreted as a trinity. The fire of the altar is one with 
the lightning, and, again, one with the snn. This is Agni’s 
threefold birth; and all the holy character of three is 
exhausted in application where he is concerned. It is the 
highest mystery until the very end of the Vedic age. This 
Agni it is that is the real Agni of the Rig Veda —the new 
.Agni; for there was probably an Agni cult (as simple fire:) long 
before the soma cult. India and Agni are one, and both are 
called the slayers of the demons, ‘ They are both united as an 
indissoluble pair (iii. 13, etc.). .Agni, with, perhaps, the 

1 vfiL jS. IL agj. 


J^EL/G/0,VS or /iYI>/A. 

exception of Soma, b the most importing god \n the Rig Ved^; 
and it is no chance that gives him the hrsi place in each family 
byniD-book; for in him are foiinch only in more fortunate 
circumsunces, exactly the same conditions as obtain in the case 
of Indra. He appealed to man as the best friend among divine 
beings; he was not far oif, to be wondered at; tf tenrlblc+ to be 
propitiated. He was near and hind to friends. And as he 
seemed to the i^lgar so he appealed to the theosophy which 
permeates tlie spirit of the poets; for he is mysterious; a 
mediator between god and man (in carrying to heaven the 
olTcrings) ; a threefold unity, typical of earth, atmosphere, and 
heaven. From this point of view, as in the case of Indra, so 
in the case of Agnt, only to a greater extent^ it becomes impos¬ 
sible to interpret Agni as one element, one phenomenon. 
There is, when a distinction is made* ati which is single, 
the altar-fire, separate from other fires ; but it is seldom that 
Agnt is not felt as the threefold one. 

And now for the interpretation of the modem ritualists, 
llic Hindu ritual had * the three fires*' which every orthodox 
believer wa 5 taught to keep up. The later literature of the 
Hindus themselves very correctly took these three fires as 
tj-pcs of the three forms of Agni known in the Rig Veda. But 
to the ritualists the historical precedence is inverted^ and 
they would show that the whole Vedic mythological view of an 
Agni triad is the result of identifying Agni with the three fires 
of the rituah From this crass method of interpretation it 
would result that all Vedic tnythologj^ wa5 the child of the 

1 Ob thia pciJiil depTMatea the upplkaUpfl of tlw rltiiilliUi; ro^luxl, 

ajid Hjn In wrnrif that canivc^ be teti ^ MimIa quJ mt rwi que de idk* 

ekpUcitinni n'esplli^ueiit mi pijEfit h d^l^LI du ntoel u pent tranw Min 
expbcatlcMi daiid le mythe, kiin dw pouvoir icfHr i ^plli|iKr le 

iB^lw f . . . N^IIb del Hfut Hi la terfc Mmh, imiLii b leiie «t le del ^T^teEnecil tpiUa 
e* psftjqinf rnitoBdiu, vcilli h domaiw d* h. fcpjtbokigifl mytliDlo^ 

deni; le rltuel qim b nprodb^tgn ^ (L Z4). 



As earthly fire Agist is first ignis:* ^-Driven by the wind, 
he hastens through the forest with roaring tongues. . - . 
black is ihy path, O bright iisimortall ” He mows down, as 
no herd can do, the green fields ^ bright his tooth, and golden 
his beard/' He devours like a steer that one has tied op.” 
This is common (ire, divine, but not of the altar. The latter 
Agni is of every hjTnn. For instance, the first stanza of the 
Rig Vedas “ Agni, the family priest, I worship; the divine 
priest of sacrifice; the oblation priest, who bestows riches^'* 
where he is invoked under the names of. different priests. Bill 
Agni is even more than this; he is the fire (heat) that causes 
production and reprddttction, visibly manifest in the sun. This 
dual Agni, it is to be noticed, is at times the only Agni recog- 
niiccL The third form is then added, lightning, and there¬ 
with Agni is begotten of Indra, and is, therefore, one with 
indra: “There is only one fire lighted in many places” {Val. 
lOp 2). As a jKKstical expression, Agni in the last form is the 
' Son of Waters,* an epithet not without significance in philo¬ 
sophical speculation! for water, through all periods, was re¬ 
garded as the material origin of the universe. 

Agni is one with the sun, with lightning (and thunder)^ and 
descends into the plants.® To man he is houso-priest and 
friend. It is he that has •^grouped men in dwelling-places*' 
(id. 1, 17) like Prometheus, in whose dialectic name, Proman- 
theus, lingers still the fire-creator, the twirling sticks 

which make fire in the wood. He is man's guest and best 
friend (Mitra, iv. 1,9; above)* 

An hymn or two entire willi show what was Agni to the 
Vedic poet. In the following, the Rig Veda^a first hymn, he is 
addressed, in the opening stanza, under the names of house- 
priest, the chief sacrificial priest, and the priest that pours obla¬ 
tions. In the second stanza he is extolled as the messenger 

1 1 58.4; T.j. ;; vL 5.4. 

« iiL 14. 4; L 71. 3 ; ti. > 7; 6, aj lit. 


77/£ ££L/CfOiyS 0£ 

wha brings the gods to the saciihcef himself rising up in 
saciificin] fiameSp and forming a link between earth and 
heaven^ Jn a later stanza he is called the Messenger (Anglnu 
—one of his ordinaiy titles : 

To Acjsf (L i)i 

I Torablp Agnl \ l^Qiw-priciCp 
And pml dime ^ jmcrificfr, 

Th* Dbladcm pii£st« who Wesalth- 

Agni, by aecrs of ptd adortdp 
To Ik adortd hj to-day — 

May ho the gods Lrnng here to m. 

Through Agnl can one wealdi ao^air% 

Prosperity rrom day to day. 

And fniiae of hcTOS titasllmt. 

O, Agnl! whaisoe'cr the rite 
That tJiQu siKTOtmd'st On every aide* 

That 9Bm0ce attains the godik 

May Agnl^ who oblation gives — 

Tbe wisest^ tr^t, most bunoui pdest^ 

This god spirit (all) the gods approach E 

Thou doest good to every tBan 
That servea ihcc, Agni * even this 
Is thy tme tdjrtaii, Angiras. 

To thee, O AgnL day by dayh 

l3n we with prayer at eve and dawni * 

Come, bringing lowly nrvErccce^ 

To theev the lord of sacriEce. 

And ahbiing guardian at the ritSt^ 
tn thine own dwdlmg magnlAed. 

As If a father to bis son,. 

He easy of acecae to uji. 

And lead ua onward to our weaL 

t Or of ilmm or nrder. 


This is juechanjcal enough to have been made for 3 .n estab¬ 
lished ritual, as doubtJcss it was. It is significant Uiat the 
ritualistic gods are such that to give their trtic character 
hymns of this sort must be cited. Such is not the case with 
the older gods of the pantheon. Ritualistic as it is, however, 
it is simple. Over against it may be set the following (vL &)£ 
Xow will I praise the strength of the variegated red bull 
(Agni), the feasts of the Know'er-of-beings* (Agni); to Agni, 
the friend of al^ men, is poured out a new song* sweet to him 
as clear As soon as he was bom in high^t heavurOi 

Agni began to protect laws, for he is a guardian of law (or 
order). Great jn strength, he, the friend ol all men, measured 
out the space between heaven and earth, and in gieatness 
touched the zenith i he, the marvellous friend* placed apart 
heaven and earth ; with light removed darkness ; separaled 
the two worlds like skins^^ Friend of all men, he took all might 
to himself. - + i In the waters^ lap the mighty ones (gods) 
took him, and people established him king. Mitari^van, mes¬ 
senger of the all-shining one, bore him from afar, friend of all 
men- Age by age, O Agni, give to poets new giodcus w'calth 
for feasts^ O ever-youthful king, as if with a ploughshare, 
rend the sinner ; destroy him with thy hamc, like a tree 1 But 
among our lords bring, O Agni, powder unbent, endless strength 
of heroes ; and may we^ through thy assistance, conquer wealth 
an hundredfold, a thousandfoldr O Agni^ thou friend of all; 
with thy sure protection protect our royal lords, O helper, thou 
who hast three habitations ; guard for us the host of them 
that have been generous, and let them live on, friend of all, 
now' that thou art lauded/' 

Ar)%in, as Kuhn^ has shown* is at least the conception if not 
the particular form of the legend alluded to in this h)mn, of 
fire brought from the sky to earth, which Promethean act is 

1 Of * 

< Jki Fjtt¥frr wmd ^ 

THE religions of INDIA. 


attributed elsewhere to the fire-pricst.' Agni is here Mitra, 
the frieod, as sun-god, and as such takes all the celestials’ 
activities on himself. Like Indra he also gives personal 
strength: “ Fair is thy lace, O Agni, to the mortal that de¬ 
sires strength ; — they whom thou dost assist overcome their 
enemies all their lives " (vl i6, ij, zj). Agni is drawn down 
to earth by means of the twirling-sticks, one the father, one 
the mother.* "The bountiful vroad bore the fair variegated 
son of waters and plants ;* the gods united in jnind, and payed 
homage to the glorious mighty child when he was boro ” (iii. 
i. 13). As the son of waters, Agni loves wood but retreats to 
water, and he is so identified with Indra that he 'thunders 
and * gives rain * (as lightning; ii. 6. 5; iii. 2)- 

The deeper significance of Agni-worship is found not alone 
in the fact that he Is the god in whom are the other gods, 
nor in that he is the sun alone, but that “ I am Agni, imraor- 
tality is in my mouth *, threefold my light, elernai fire, my 
name the oblation (fire),” iii, a6- 7- He « »» ® mysterious 

trinity. As a sun be lights earth j and gives life, sustenance, 
children, and wealth (lii. 3. 7); as lightning he destroys, as 
fire he befriends ; like Indra he gives victory (iii. 16* 1); liise 
Varuna he releases the bonds of sin; he is Vanina's brother 
(v. a. 7; vi. 3. 1; iv. 1. a); his ‘many names* are often 
alluded to (iiL 20. 3, and above). The ritualistic intciprcta* 
tion of the priest is that the sun is only a sacrificial fire above 
lighted by the gods as soon as the corresponding fire is 
lighted on earth by men (vi. 2. 3). He is all threefold; three 
his tongues, his births, his places ; thrice led about the sacri¬ 
fice given thrice a day (iii, 2. 9 i i?- • i * 5 * * * 

I RV.tL »€. 131 •‘Ttae,ApUifroiD ViK Ihedcr AUiaivan HMrled," Jiir umamfiota 
Id. PwiEasmhem), 1 b *. It's BHiijoi, ^Xfyiai, discos CHS 

1 CdEDpara W *- 1 . S«weHiDB» Agni is •bam wltti tlw fiBBtis," wb3d> twtrl the 

itSdw (lli.#S.3! ^ ^ 

sCMniara iLi; “bore in Same (nun watei,cfeud, ami pWU* 

tbQti art iJk 



1. 12. i). He is. the tapholder of tlie religious order, the 

guest of mortaisp found by the god^ in the heavenly waters ; lie 
is near and dear ; but he also becomes dreadful to the foe 
(ni. 1.3^; 0 . 5 ; vL 7, r ; S. 3 ; iii. i. 33; 22, 5 ^ irL 3. 7 j iii. 
jS. li iv, 4. 4 ; 1. 6). 

It 15 easy to see that In such a conoeption of a triune god, 
Mfhd Is fearful yet kitid, whose real name Is unknown^ while 
his visible manifestations are in earth, aiFp and heaven, whose 
being Contains all the gods, there is an idea destined to over¬ 
throw, as it surpasses, the simpler conceptions of the natural¬ 
ism that precedes it* Agni as tlie one divine power of creation 
is in fact the origin of the human nee : From thee come 

singer?,and heroes^* {vi. 7, 3), "llie less weight is, therefore, 
to he kid on Rergaigne's *lite origin of man'; it is not as 
simple hre* but as universal creator that Agni creates man ; St 
U not the ' dte-principlephilosophically elicited from con¬ 
nection of fire and water^ but as god-principle, all-creative* 
that Agni gets this praise. 

Several hymns are dedicated to Indra united with 

AgnI; and the latter even is identified with Dyaus (iv. 1. 10)^ 
this obsolescent god reviving merely to be absorbed into Agni. 
As w^ater purifies from dirt and sin (Varuna), so fire purifies 
(iv. 12.4)* It has been suggested on account of v. 12. 51 
* Those that w^ere yours have spoken lies and left thee,' that 
there is a decrease in Agni worship. As this never really 
happened, and as the words are merely those of a penitent 
who has lied and seeks forgiveness at the hands of the god of 

1 c P- ff. The question of prfestly naErxs eii. pp. 47^0^ »h«iki 

stiul villi Blunita u ^ nminofi Uiki (4 Wjpil iAl Sit 

Bhrign it the * ihiqiftf ^ On«| afld Vas^ihitlia la the: ■most sbljiijij/ (compq.™ Visas, 
fiat good but ^rlBS Tbs prims g^i UwEr tames from tbelr god, like 

Compan Gritsiimda in Ibe (book i Vt^^-iaHra, ■fricD^ of lU," Lfi 

the BhojaUt famU}' pKiok Kti.) $ VloudsYi telou^ivg In Anginsu (book iv*); 

Atri ^ithrt of A^nl in RV. (book t 4; Bhmdv:!^ 'bearing foodi^ Ibook 

vi.); Vuishtha (book fit); aod bciidef these and * bUck 

nz rm xeligio^vs of h\tyiA. 

truth, the suggestioti I5 not very acceptable. Agni com prehends 
not only all Ti<atura 1 isticgods, hut such later femininities as Revet* 
ence, Mercy, and other abstractions, including JJoundlessness. 

Of how great importance was the triune god Agni may be 
seen by comparing his three lights with the later sectanao 
trinity, where Vishnu, originally the sun, and (Rudra) (, iva, 
the lightning, are the preserver and destroyer. 

We fear the reader may have thought that we were develop¬ 
ing rather a system of mythology than a history- of religion, 
^Vith the close of the Vedic period we shall have less to say 
from a mythological point of view, but we think that it will 
have become patent now for what purpose was intumled the 
mythological basis of our study. Without this it would have 
been impossible to trace the gradual growth in the higher 
metaphysical interpretation of nature which goes hand in h,tnd 
with the deeper religious sense. W'jth this object we have 
proceeded from the simpler to the more complex divinities. 
We have now to take up a side of religion which lies more 
apart from speculation, but it is concerned very closely with 
man’s religious instincts — the worship of Bacchic character, 
the reverence for and fear of the death-god* and the eschato¬ 
logical fancies of the poets, together with those first attempts 
at creating a new theosophy which close the period of the 
Rig Veda. 


Inseparably connected with the worship of Indra and Agni 
is that of the ‘ mood-plant,’ the intoxicating personified 

drink to whose deification must be assigned a date earlier than 
that of the Vedas themselves. For the of the Hindus is 
etymologically identified with the hasma of the Persians (the 
of Plutarch),* and the cultus at least was begun before 

1 D* laid, cl Oiir. Compajns WlndiidiniMii, dtn Scmn^Mi dir 

Arirr awl MtJf, Samkrff veiL IL p. 471. lUUsbraHd^ 

t ^ 4^0, belSifw Axwiima to bhu Iha mwrt, ai doH foma bt 
hid£ hjmi3t ^ the RJe V«iia {'am bBkg«)4 



the separation of the two nations, since in each the plant is 
regartled ns a god. The inspiring effect of imoacntion seemed 
to be due to the inherent divinity of the plant that produced 
k; the plant was, therefore, regarded as divine, and the 
preparation of the draught was looked upon as a s.<icfed 

ceremony.^ . t »■ 

This offering of the juice of the /ffwu-plant in India was 

pcffonried thrice daily. It is said in the Rig Veda that sitma 
grows upon the mountain MOjavnt, that its or bis father is 
Wrjanyn, the rain god, and that the u'aters are his sisters. 
From this moimtaiiv or from the sky, accounts differ, 
was brought by a hawk.* Me is himself represented in other 
places ns a bird; and as a divinity he shares in the praise 
given to Indra, “who helped Indra to slay Vritra," the demon 
that keeps back the rain, Indra, intoxicated by does 

his great deeds, and indeed all the gods depend on si>ma for 
immortality. Divine, a weapon-bearing god, he often simply 
takes the place of Indra and other gods in Vedic eulogy. It 
U the god Soma himself who slays Vritra, Soma who over¬ 
throws cities. Soma who begets the gods, creates the sun, up¬ 
holds the sky, prolongs life, secs all things, and is the one ^st 
friend of god and man, the divine drop {indu), the friend of 

-Vs a god he is associated not only with Indra, but also mlh 
Ami, Rudro, and Pushan. A few passages in the later ^rtion 
of the Rig Veda show that totfia already was identified with the 
moon before the end of this period. Alter this the lunar yellow 

™7\Vhl»«y In /«/. Am. Or. Sm. iii. ! Muir, Of,g,w<,l Tr;Ar. vol 

» -,.4 H ttbcfv vUkt b dted. 

* 1..9S.95 3- The v«ti= ptuit b Wknowxi (hU* t]» f 

R^. m. 4 J.; ^ l^^<!^rs«9 In M ulr, *t. of. p. rt*. P^rhafii ihIp 

„ ,^4 ty flshtnlBg M » ha*k (IIk»BiStU). 

4 tiK pqiisagMi -ciltdi in MiliJi ftK*- 





1 , 

god regulariy vtas regarded mi the visible and divine SHo^ma of 
heavqn, reprcse tiled on earth by the plant,* 

From the fact that Soma \s the moon in later litcraturep and 
undoubtedly is tecogniited as such in a small number of the 
latest passages of the Rtg Veda, the not unnatural inference 
has been dra\m by some Vedic scholars that Soma* In h^mns 
still earlier, means the moon j wherever^ in fact, epithets 
hitherto supposed to refer to the plant may be looked upon as 
not incompatible with a description of the moon^ there these 
epithets are to be referred directly to Soma as the moon-god, 
not to -ffitfWir, the mere plant. Thus, with Rig Veda, x. 83. {a 
late hymn, which speaks of Soma as the moon **in the lap 
of the stars,*" and as ** the days* banner"^) is to he compared 
VI, 39, 3* where It is said that the drop (sems) lights up the 
dark nights, and is the day^s banner. Although this expression, 
at first view, would seem to refer to the moon alone, yet it may 
possibly be regarded as on a par with the extravagant praise 
given elsewhere to the jw/i-plant, and not be so significant of 
the moon as it appears to be. Thus, in another passage of the 
same book, the in similar language^ is said to “ lay light 
tn the sun,” a phrase scarcely compatible with the moon's 
sphere of activity,* 

The decision in regard to this question of interpretation is 
not to be reached so easily as one might suppose, considering 
that a whole book^ the ninth* of the Rig Veda is dedicated to 
Soma, and that in addition to this there arc m^ny hymns 
addressed to him in the other books. For Ln the greater num¬ 
ber of passages which may be cited for and against this theory 
the objector may argue that the generally extrava^nt praise 
bestowed upon Soma through the Veda is in any one ease 

r A CMTipbptv afcauBt aMa u ^ven by tlie Vedk tcirts ^ll bt fiounS \n lllllc- 
btaedt";! yddhiAi Myikiditgiff vgL L, when] ang il«Krn<4 ijtE!cTGiat i¥iy% of iti- 
neDtinil Ifw joiBi <d ibe plqiit, 

* AltluHigh »lDl£rpm;«d bf /x. fit. p, 31 1. "Tlu li fwuui 1 b 

RV+ i*i 4 ^. 33 . 

11 j 

merely particularired, and that it is not incongnious to say oi 
the divine - he lights the daft nights," when one 

reads in general that he creates all things, including the gods^ 
On the other band, the advocate of the theorj- may reply that 
every thing which does not apply to the moon-god Soma may 
be used mctaphoncally of him. Thus, where it is said, “ Soma 
goes through the purifying sieve,’* by analogy with the drink 
of the plant titma passing through the sieve the poet may be 
supposed to imagine the moon passing through the sieve-like 
clouds; and even when this sieve Is expressly called the 
‘shecpVtail sieve* and ‘wool-sieve/ this may slUl be, meta¬ 
phorically, the cloud-sieve (as, without the analogy, one speaks 
to-day of woolly clouds and the * mare’s tail'), 

So it happens that, with an hundred hymns addressed to 
Soma it remains still a matter of discussion whether the 
addressed be the plant or the moon. Alfred Hillebrandt, to 
whom is due the problem in its present form, declares that 
everywhere » in the Rig Veda Soma means the moon, No 
better hymn cm be found to lUustmte the difficulty under 
which labors the ftwif-ext^te than is. 15, from which Hiile- 
biandt takes the fourth verse as conclusive evidence that by 
only the moon Is meant. In that case, as will be seen 
from the ■pails,' it must be supposed that the poet leajw from 
Soma to soma without waining, Hillebrandt does not mclude 
the mention of the pails in his citation ; but in this, as »n other 
doubtful cases, it seems to us better to give a whole passage 
than to argue on one or two verses torn from their proper 


Hvw:* TO Soma (it 15), 

Qvtav; ts the hpnii to the pkm m M U pit»wd 

r This one hymeotw Of pmyvr (or Sstdilemchcmnee through tht fine 
(sieve), the hero. wKh swift car, Roine m die meeting w«h India- 

1 £**. £&. pp. 340^ 450- 



2^ Fhb one ibkcil^ much for the aublimu assembly a| gods, where fit 

3- Thw one hi despatched and led Upon a ihinin^ path, wheq the qcti're 
ones uret (himjfA 

4 . Thii Diie^ shaking his hoirif^ sharpctii (ihEm), the hull of the herd* 
* doing heiroic deeds foceibl_yi, 

5 . This one hastens, the strotig steed, irtEh bright golden bcamit becoming 

of streams the lonL 

6 This, one, pressing iurely through the knotty (sieve?} to good things^ 
comes doiHl into thn Tessets, 

7. This one, it to be prepared, the active ones prepare In the paila^ as he 
creates great food, 

8- Kiitit this one* who hw goctd weapons, who Is most InloxkatiJig, ten 
fingers and seven (or many) prayers prepare. 

Here^ as in k. 70, Hilkbinndi assumes that ihe poet turns 
suddenly from the moon to the plants Against this might be 
urged the use of the same pronoun throughout the hymn* 
It fimst be confessed that at first sight U is almost as difficult 
to have the plants undoubtedly meant In verses 7 and Sp repre^ 
Sented by the iudou in the pruccdiiig verses, as it is not to see 
the TDoon in the expression 'shaking his horns/ This phrase 
occurs in another hymn* where Hillebrandt* with the same 
certainty as he does here, claims it for the moonp though the 
first pare of this hymn as plainly refers to the plants k, 70* 
1, 4. Here the plant is a steer roaring like the noise of the 
Manits (S“^)t then {as above, after the term steer b 
applied to the plant), it Is said that he sharpicns bis hoitia^^ 
and Is 'sightly^’and further, *hc sits down in the fair place 
. * * on the wooly back/ etc., which bring one to still an- 
other hyiun where are to be found Kkc expiessionsp used, evt- 
dentlVp not of the moon, but of the plant, rw,, to ix* 37, a 
hymn not cited by Hillebrandt: 

3 CatapafQ lx wberv the nnw is lu^ i4 itfiklng, urging cpuI tl4 



Tttt fftr&ng (virile) lor diini. flows Into llie pariljin^ 

ve&Btl; Ebii sightly (as aboTtp where HUIehrmtlt says it is opithci of ihe 
moon), yellow, dery ono, is flc^wtng Into the piirif^-ing vessel: roaring liice 
its own place (as above). ThUi Strong one, dear, ihioing (or purifjuag 
LescIOf funs through the shiftiElg placia of the sky, slaving evil dfimons. 
through Ehe sheep^hair-sLcvc. On the back oi Triia this one lining (or 
purifying itrtlf) made bright the son with (his) risters.^ This Otte, ufayang 
Vritra» strong, prwseri out, flnding good things (aa above), uninjured, utm^t 
went aa if for booty^ 1‘liw god. Sent forth by scers, fuOft laio the vessek, 
the drop (hWm) for fndja, qukkly (or wllilngly). 

So far as we cad judge, after comparing these and the other 
passages that are cited by Hillebrandt as decisive for a lanar 
LaterpretatiDn of r^Wdip it seems quite as probable that the 
epithets and expressions used are employed of ilie plant meta- 
pborically as that tne poet leaps thus lightly from plant to 
moon. And tliere is a number of cases which plainly cnougb 
are indicative of tlie plant alone to make it improbable that 
Hillebrandt is correct in taking Soma as the moon 'every¬ 
where in the Rig Veda." It may be that the moon cult is 
somewhat older than Kas been supposed^ and that the language 
is consciously veiled in the ninth book to cover the worship 
of a deitj' as yet only partly acknowledged as such. But U is 
almost inconceivable that an hundred hymns should praise 
the moon ; and all the native commentators, bred as they were 
in the belief of their day that soma^ and the moon were one^ 
should not know that in the Rig Veda {as well as later) 
means the lunar deity. It seems, therefore, safer to abide by 
the belief that som^ usually means what it was understood to 
mean, and what the general descriptions in the Jtfwu-hymns 
more or less clearly indicate, ns., the intoxicating plant, con¬ 
ceived of as itself divune, stimulating India, and, therefore, 
the of the demon"s death. Indra being themi/rj 

effimns. Even the allusions to i&ma being in the sky is not 

I CMiipaiv j, whtne “Trtta'i maid™ urge « tie wUli tba 

?Li 4 driait for lodra.'’ 


incoinpatible with this. For he is carried thence Irom the 
place of siiorifice. Thus too in S3, i-a s *K> lord of prayer,^ thy 
purifier (the sieve) is extended. Prevailing thou entcrest its 
limbs on all sides. Raw that has not been cooked (with 

milk) does not enter into it Only the cooked going 

through, cnteis it. The sieve of the hot drink is extended in 
the place of the sky. Its glcatning threads extend on all sides. 
This (somt/j) swift (streams) preserve the man that purihes . 
them, and wisely ascend to the b.ick of the sky/" In this, 
as in many hjanns, the drink itma is clearly addressed; yet 
expressions are used whlch^ if detached^ easily might be thought 
to imply the moon (or the siirif as with Ecrgaignc) — a fact 
that should make one employ other expressions o! the sajnc 
sort with great circumspection. 

Or, let one compare, with the preparation by the ten fingersi, 
S5. 7; “Ten fingem rub clean (prepare) the steed in the 
vessels t nprise the songs of the priests. The intoxicating 
dropsp as they purify themselves, meet the song of praise and 
enter Indra.'" Exactly the same images as are found above 
may be noted in ix. 87, where not the moon, but the plant, 
is conspicuously the subject of the hymn t “ Run into the pail, 
purified by ms;n go unto booty. They lead thee like a swift 
horse with reins to the sacrificial straw, preparing (or rubbing) 
thee. With good w^eapons shines the divine (shining) drop 
staying evil-doers, guarding the asserabty; the father 
of the gods, the clever begetter, the support of the sky, the 
holder of earth, , . . Tills one, the s^ma (plant) on being 
pressed out, ran swUtly into the purifier like a stream let out, 
sharpening his two sharp horns Uke a buffalo \ like a true 
hero hunting for cowst he is come from the highest press* 
stone,” etc. It is the noise of dropping that is compared 
with * roaring." The strength given by (him) the drink, makes 

1 Or SKtfliirit ^ uid oralcnt of tWa hjmn^ Kitkbmdt irjifcrda tt ^ 

Ajddr«s4«d to IMludipall 


him appear as the ‘virile one,' of i^'hich force b the actirity, 
aed the bell the type. Given, therefore, the image of the bulb 
the rest follows easily to elaborate the metaphor. If odc add 
that is luminous (yellow), and that all luminous divinities 
are ‘horned bulls,'‘ then it will be unnecessary to see the 
crescent moon in Moreover, if be the same with 

Urihaspati, as thinks Hillebrandt, why are there three horns in 
V a, 17 > Agsin^ that the expresskrt - sharpening hiB horns 
does not refer necessarily to the moon may be concluded from 
X 86. IS, where it is stated expressly that the tirifiA is a s'harp- 
homed steer : “ Like a shan^horned steer is thy brewed dnnk. 
o Indra,” probably referring to the taste. The sun, Agni^ 
.nd indra are all. to the Vedic 

and the plant, being luminous and strong (bull-likO, 

The identity is rather with Indra than with the moon, if one 
be content to give up brilliant theorizing, and simply follow 
Its: “Th^ one that purifies himself yoked the sun's swiU 
steed^ver man that lie might go through the atmosphere, and 
these ten steeds of the sun he yoked to go saj-mg Indra is he 
drop (i/nfify* When had ever the moon the power to start the 
sun ? What part in the pantheon is played by the moon when 
it is called by its naluml name (not by the pnestly name, mzim) 
Is M-ir or (moon) a power of strength, a great god. 

The words scarcely occur, except in late hj-mns, and the moon, 
by his own folk-name. Is hardly praised “Oo^t in mechaniral 
conjunction with the sun. The floods of which 
are explained in ix. S6. = 4 -^ = “The hawk (or 
ihM from the Sky, O drop - seven milk-streams 

slug to the yellow one as he purifies himself with the wave in 
the sieve of sheep's wool. The active strong ones have sent 

6> Ml ^ » Som b ld,e.l(W ^tb lishlriBg iz. 41- ^ 


T//E E£L/G/0,VS OE MWW. 

forth tho wise setr in Ihe lap of the waters.’^ If one wishes 
to clear his mLad in respect of whit the Hindu attributes Ed 
the di'i^ine drink (expressly driokp and not moon)^ let him read 
ii* 104^ w^here he will find that *^lhe twice powerful god-rejok- 
ing intoxicating drink " finds goods, finds a path for hb friends^ 
puts away every harmful spirit and ever^^ devouring spiritt averts 
the false godless one and all oppression ; and read also is. 
a I, 1-44 “These J^■JflJd^irops for Indra flow rejoicings maddcti- 
ingt light- (or heaven-) finding, averting attackers, finding 
desliable things for the prcsser, making life for the singer* 
Like waves the drops flow into one vesseh playing as they 
will. These J^Jurir-dropST let out like steeds (attached) to a 
car, as they purify therruselves+ attain all desirable things.^* 
According to hr. 97+ 41^ and 37- 4 (and other like passages^ 
too lightly explained^ p. 3S7, by Hillebrandt)^ it is sawn that 
‘^produced the light in the sun" and “makes the sun rise,” 
statements incompatible with the (lunar) Soma's functions, but 
quite in accordance with the magk power which the poets 
attribute to the divine drink. Soma is*king over treasure.* 
Soma is brought by the eagle that all may "^see light (ijl 4S. 
3-4). He traverses the sky, and guards order —but not 
necessarily is he here the moon, for the drink, as a 

“"galloping steed," “a brilliant steer/" a “stream of pressed 
“"a dear sweet,"' ** ^ helper of gods+*' is here poured forth; 
after him **flow great water-floods”; and he “purifies himself 
in the sieve, he the supporter, holder of the sky'"; he “shines 
with the sun,” *'roars/" and “ looks like Mitra "; being here both 
*+the intoxicatiiig draught/^ and at the same time ““ the giver of 
kine+ giver of men, giver of horses, giver of strength, the soul 
of sacrifice ** (lx. 3). 

Soma is even older than the Vedic Indra as slayer of Vritra 
and snakes. Several Indo-Iranian epithets survive (of 
and respectively), and among those of Iran is the title 

* Vritra-slayer," applied to the others being "strong' and 


‘heav^a-winning/ j-t as It. tl.« Veda.* Alt of the™ are 
contained in one of the most tunar-like of the hj^ns to Soma 
which, for this reason, and becanse xt « f ‘ 

deitj- that seem to be not entirely menhan.ial, is 
nearly in full, with the original shift of metre m the middle of 
the hymn (which may possibly indicate that two hymns have 

been united). 

To So«A (t ^0- 

Thou. Sopia, iiw*t ^ underitaciding j 
Tboii {us} silong tie stralghiesl paitiwajj 

TTs ihroflEti ihy BukUn« that ourpton** f=«hen 
Among the pala got happitiM®. O In^a* 

Thod. Somii, didst become in wisdom 

In iltill* most sVUful, thou, obtaintng aU thtoB^ 
A bull in wile stredgth, tin™, and i« 6^^^* 
In ipleudoT wMt thou •pleadiA man-helTOldei. 

Thine, now, the la"* of kingly VaruWt?* 

Both high and deep the place of th^ O Soma. 
Thou briniant art &s Miira, the beloi'id. 

Like Arvaman. deserving service, art thou- 

VThate'er iby places be in earth or heaven. 

^Vhate'er in moudtalni. or in plants an 
In all of these, wall muided, not injurioya. 
Soon, our oUatioua jneettog, iftM 

Thou, Soma, ^ 

Thou king and VritTm-slajnci'a : 
Thou art tho stfrngUi tfert 

3 Or ’ wl 9 ff 

:S- ** 

•besomfritdd’- beth *" ddliyas. 


T/IE /f£L/G/QiVS OF 

An4 Soma, let it be thy will 
For ui to lire, noT let urn die ; * 

ThcHi lord of pleniet* wbo lovest praiB& 

Tboo, Honui, h\\s9 iipon the old, 

And on the young and pkmt man 
Al^ty to Uve, beflowcat. 

Do thou* O Soma, on all sLdeft 
Protect ns* king, from him ihac slna, 

No harm touch f ricad of suii as ihop- 

Whatever the enjoymctiis be 
Thou hMtt t» help thy worehippen 
With theie OUT benefactor be^ 

Thii sacrifice, this WMig, do lhou+ 
Wdl-pleascd, accept; come unto nil 
Make for onr wea!, O Soma* thou* 

fn song* we, CDftVeTaant uroidj^ 

O Somat thee do magnify i 
Be merdfid and coma to ui- 

All aapi unite in thee and all itrong powers^ 

All virile force that ovErtomM detraction! 

Filled full, for immortality^ O Soma^ 

Take to ihys^ the highest piaiee in henvim. 

The Eacri:6ce shad aB era bracewhatever 

Places thoft hast* revered with poated ohLitioiiJ- 
Homemder, Skima, furtherer with good heroes, 

Not hurting heroei, to our housea come thou. 

Soma the COW i Soma, the swift charger; 

Soma, the hero that can much accomplish 
(Useful at hornet m fewh and in a^semMy 
Hii father'* glory) — givesp to him that worship*. 

1 Or: an thou willftt for ns to live we shall mt dl®. 

3 Or: loidtr plantFbut uqI the Oiooia- 

■ Some unoMutiil wsrses Ifi the atsWu uatie an lieie Mialtted- 


In wni imhurm&d i in battle Still 1 saviour [ 

Winner ol be*v«l and watetli, lOn^-di^enderH 
Jiom mid loud Joj^ and fair of home atid glory^ 

A conquEfcr, thoB; m thee nia)^ wc be hapf>y. 

Thjoti liast> O SomPi plant begotten ; 

Tlia thou; and iboup the oowg; and thou hut 

Woven the wide space 'twiat the earth and heaven j 
Thau hast with li^t put far away the darkness. 

With mind divine, O thou divine ^ One, 

A share trf riches win for m, O hero; 

Let none reatrain thetr thoB art lord of valor ; 

Show thysdf foremost to both in battle.^ 

Of mor* popular songs, Hillebrandt cites as sung to Soma (1) 
viil. 69- S“i 0 : 

Sing loud to him, sing loud lo him t 
Priyamedtum, oh, sing to him, 

And sing to him the chiMren, loo; 

Eatol him ns a sure defence, ^ . * 

To Irndm U the prayer Bp-taitfed, 

The three daily jii^ffTa-oblations are made chiefly to Indra and 
Vayu ;^ to Imdra at midHiay; to the RihhitSt artisans of the 
go^p at evening i and to Agni in the momlog. 

Uomistaknble references to Soma as the mooUp aSpfor instance:* 
in 31* S5. 5 % ** No one eats of that which the priests know/* 
seem rather to indicate that the identification of moon and 
Soma was something esoteric and new rather than the received 
belief of pre-Vedlc times, as will Hlllebrandt. This moorh 
joma is distinguished from the r£?ffi/f-piant which they crush." 

The floods of are UJeened to* or, raiher, identified with* 
the rain^fioods which the lightaitig frees* and* as it were* brings 
to earth with him* A whole series of myths depending on this 
natural phenomenon has been eArolvcd, wherein the lightning- 

1 Orr ^Ijilfig. 

t tht I dra j poudueflt In vUL 4S, Sana b lavataed u < jviivd tkjil 
haa bw drank," tbe jdm df the t'tbrM feriDHitisd') pkaL 



fire as an eagle brings down foma to man, that is, the hc3%’enly 
drink. Since Agni is threefold and the GJyatrl metre is three- 
fold, they interchange, and in the legends it is again the metre 
which brings the ro/wtf, or an archer, as is stated in one doubt¬ 
ful passage.* 

What Stands out most clearly in f^Ara-laudations is that the 
wwff-hymns are not only quite raecHanical, hut that they presup¬ 
pose a very complete and elaborate ritual, i^rith the employment 
of a number of priests, of whom the hetats (ore of tho various 
sets of priests) alone number five in the early and Mvoa in the 
late books \ with a eomplicated service i with certain divimrics 
honored at certain hours; and other paraphernalb of sacer¬ 
dotal ceremony j while Indra, most honored with Soma, and 
Agni, most closely connected with the execution of sacrifice, 
not only receive the most hymns, but these hymns are, for the 
most part, palpably made for ritualistic purposes. It is this 
truth that the ritualists have seized upon and too awecpingly 
applied. For in every family book, besides this baksheesh 
verse, occur the older, purer hymns that have been retained 
after the worship for which they were composed had become 
changed into a trite making of phrases. 

Millcbrandt has failed to show that the Iranian Arnwitf is 
the moon, so -that as a starting-point there still is plant and 
drink-worship, not moon-worship. At what precise time, there¬ 
fore, the soma was referred to the mwn is not so impormnt- 
Since drink-worship stands at ope end ot the series, and moon- 
worship at the other, it is antecedently probable that here and 
there there may be n doubt as to which of the two was 
intended. Some of the examples cited by llillebrandt may 
indeed be referable to the latter end of the series rather than 
to the former; but that the author, despite the learning and 

1 IB tu f«mj.I t. *7- 3^ 0.1 tUi mytt 1^ 

f.™ tfe rit«A "* JAO;^ »>« "«> 




iagenuily of his work, has proved his point definitively, we nre 
far from believing. It is just like the later Hindu speculation 
to think out a subtle connection between moon and Jifwff-ptaiil 
because each was yellow, and swelled, and went through a sieve 
(cloud), etc. But there is a further connecting link in that 
the divinity ascribed to the intoxicant led to a supposition 
that it was brough t from the sky, the home of tlie gods \ above 
all, of the luminous gods, which the yellow resembled. 
Such was the Hindu belief, and from this as a starting-point 
appears to have come the gradual identification of fttma with 
the moon, now called Soma. For the moon, even tinder the 
name of Gandharva, is not the object of especial worship. 

The question so ably discussed by Hillebrandt is, however, 
one of considerable importance from the point of view of the 
religious development, if furrm from the beginaing was the 
moon, then there is only one more god of nature to add to 
the pantheon. But if, as wc believe in the light of the .Vvesha 
and Veda itself, soma, like was originally the drink- 

plant (the root /«, press, from which comes impitea the 

plant), then two important facts follow. First, in the identifi¬ 
cation of yellow romn-plant witli yellow moon in the latter stage 
of the Rig Veda (which coincides with the beginning of the 
Bralimanic period) there is a striking illustration of the gradual 
mystical elevation of religion at the hands of the priests, to 
whom it appeared indecent that mere drink should be exalted 
thus; and secondly, there Is the significant fact that in. the 
Indie and Iranian cult there was a direct worship of deified 
liquor, analogous to Dionysiac rites, a worship which is not 
unparalleled in other communities. Again, the surprising iden¬ 
tity of wonship in .Avesta and Veda, and the fact that hymns 
to the earlier deities, Dawn, Parjanya, etc., arc frequently 
devoid of any relation to the riwnniult, not only, show that 
Hergaigne’s opinion that the whole Rig Veda is but a collec¬ 
tion of hymns for ftfwj-worship as handed down in different 



familks must be modi^ed ; but also that, m we have essplamed 
of Vanina, the Iranian cult must have branched ofl 
£rom the Vedic cuk (whethen as Hmg thought, on account 
of a religious schism or not)^ that the hjinns to the less popu¬ 
lar deities (as we have defined the word) make the first period 
of Vedic cult \ and that the special liquor-cuJl; coiCLtnon to Iran 
and India, arose after the first period of Vedic worship, when, 
for example. Wind, Parjanp, and Vanina were at their height, 
and before the priests had exalted mystically Agni or Soma, 
and even India was as yet undeveloped* 


VEUiC pantheism, ESCHATOiOGY, 

Is last chapter we have tmccd the character of two 
great god^ of earth+ the altar-fire and the personified kind of 
beer which wa5 the Vcdic poets" chief drink till the end of this 
period. \S'ith the discover)' of surd^ Anmifr at {orj'zaqae; 

Weber, p. 19), and the diAcuity of obtaining the 

original rtfiwd-plant (for the plant used later for soma, the asd^ 
/ins a^tJd, or sarrosUmmit does not grow in the Ftinjib 

region, and cannot have been the origina] sama)^ the status of 
soma became changed. VVJiile surd became the drink of the 
people, samiJ, despite the fact that it was not now so ngrceable 
a liquor, became reserved^ from its old associations, ns the 
priests' (gods') drink, a sacrosanct beverage^ not for the vulgar, 
and not esteemed by the priest, except as it kept up the rite* 

It has been shown that these gods, earthly in habitation, 
absorbed the powers of the older and physically higher divini¬ 
ties. The ideas that clustered about the latter were transrened 
to the former. The altar-fire, Agni, is at once earth-fire, light¬ 
ning, and sun. 1'he drink samn is identified with the heavenly 
drink that refreshes the earthy and from Us color is taken at 
last to be the terrestrial form of its aqueous prototype^ the 
moon, which is not only yellow, but even goes through cloud- 
meshes just as sama goes through the sieve, with all the other 
points of comparison that priestly ingenuit)- can devise. 

Of different sort altogether from these gods is the ancient 
Indo-Iranian figure that now claims attention. The older 
religion had at least one object of devotion very diMcult to 
reduce to terms of a nature-religion. 


TJ££ ££LIG/O^S OF 


Exactly as the Hindu had a half-dmnc ancestor^ NfanUp who 
by the laicr priests is regarded as ol solar origin^ while more 
probably he Is only the abstract Adam (irian), the prc^eniEor 
o£ the race; so in Yatna the Hindu saw the primitive "first 
of mortals."^ While, however, Mitra, Dyaus, and other older 
nature-gods, pass Into a state of negative or almost forgotten 
activity, Yama, even in the later epic periods still remains a 
potent sovereign—the Icing of the dead. 

In the Avesta Yima is the son of the ' wide-gleaming ’ VLvangb- 
vant, the snn, and here it is the sun that first prepares the 
i&ma {fiiromd) for mann And so. too, in the Rig Veda it is 
Yama the son of Vivasvanl (x- 5S. 1 1 60^ 10) who first ‘' ex¬ 
tends the web” of sacrifice (vii. 33. 9, 12)* The Vedio 

poet, not infinenced by later methods of interpretation, saw 
in Yama neither sun nor moon, nor any other natural phe- 
noirienonj for thus he sings, differentiating Yama from them 
alh *^1 praise with a song Agnt, Phshan, Sun and Moon, 
Yama in heaven, Triia, Wind, Dawn^ the Ray of Light, the 
Twin Horsemen*' (x. 64- 3); and again: “ Deserving of lauda¬ 
tion are Heaven and Earth, the fourdimbed Agni, Yama, 
Aditi/' etc. (i. 9a. ii). 

Yama is regarded as a god, although in the Rig Veda he is 
called only 'king* (x. 14. i, it); but later he U expressly a 
god, and this is implied, as Ehni shows, even in the Rig Veda t 
* a god found Agni * and ^ Yama fou nd Agni * (x. 5' ^ 

His primitive nature was that of the * first mortal that died^ftn 
the words of the Atharva Vedan It is true, indeed^ that at a 
later period even gods are spoken of as originally * mortal/* 
but this is a concepdoo alien from the exrty notions of the 
Veda, where ^ mortal * signifies no more than ^ man/ Yama 

I Taill.S.Til. 4. i.U Tlii goda win JTnmgrtallty hf iBcaaiof * laCfUinj' 

la 1a.t« pri«lHrl44eb furiad. 



was the &tst mortal, and he lives in the sty, in the hotne that 
“holds heroes,'* r>., his abode is where dead heroes congregate 
(i. 35- 6; X* 64, 3).‘ The fathers that died of old are cared 
for by him as he sits drinking with the gods beneath a fan- 
tree (x. ijs. 1-7)* The fire that devours the corpse is inv-oked 
to depart thither (x. 16. 9). This place is not very definitely 
located, but since, according to one prevalent view, the saints 
guard the sun, and since Varna’s abode in the shy is compar¬ 
able with the sun in one or two passages, it is probable that 
the general idea was that the departed entered the sun and 
there Yama received him (i. 105- 9»' 

are the sun*s rays'; x, 15+ 4-5 t Hhe dead shall go, O Yama, 
to the fathers, the seers that guard the sun ■). ‘ Varna’s abode' 
IS the same with *sky‘ (x, *23, 6); and when it is said, ' may 
the fathers hold up the pillar (in the grave), and may Yama 
build a seat for thee there' <x, t&. 13), this refers, not to the 
grave, but to heaven. And it is said that ‘Varna’s sent is what 
is called the gods' home' (x. 135- 7>* But Yama does not 
remain in the sky. He comes, as do other Powers, to the 
sacrifice, and is ins-ited to seat himself ‘ with Atigirasas and the 
fathers' at the feast, where he rejoices with them (x, 14- 3"41 
15. 8), And either because Agni devours corpses for Yama, 
or because of Agni’s part in the sacrifice which Yama so joy¬ 
fully attends, therefore Agni is especially mentioned as Varna's 
friend (x. at. 5), or even his priest (xA 52. 3). Yama stands 
in his relation to the dead so near to death that ‘to go on 
Yama’s path’ is to go on the path of death; and battle is called 
‘Yama’s strife.’ It is even possible that in one passage Yama 
is directly identified with death (x. 165. 4, ' to Yama be rever¬ 
ence, to death ■; i. 38. Si 

I Lh4«Ie (iv. p. (34) vToB^y nnderaiMiib a Ml ho®. 

S'Yann^ leal' is hcl® what it U la tha not a dupd ftUthel), hul > faffliK. 

» Thli may imaa ‘t» Vam* (and} to death.' la the Athora Veda, v. *+. tj-l* 
b u wld Hot Death is the lent o< i™aii VaiPi^ of the Stacies. 


T//£ A^SL/O'JOJ^S /VD/A. 

connecfciQii between Varuna and Yainap and perhaps it is owing 
to this thaE parallel lo ' Vanina^s fetters" Is found also ^ Yania^s 
fetter,* i./,, death (x, 97. 16)- 

As Yams was the first to die, so was he the first to teach 
man the road to imiiiortalilyp which lies through sacrifice, 
whereby man attains to heaven and to iminortaUty* Hence 
the poet sxys, 'we revere the immortality bom of Varna" 
(i- S3. 5). This, loo, is the meaning of the mystic verse which 
speaks of the sun as the heavenly courser ‘given by Vama^" 
for, in giving the way to immortaUtyp Yama gives also the sun- 
abode to them that become immorlah In the same hymn the 
sun is identified with Yama as he is with Trtla (i. 163. 3). 
This particular identification is due, however, rather to the 
developed pantheistic idea which obtains in the later h^mns, 
A parallel is found in the next hymn: ‘'They speak of Indra, 
Mirra, Varuna, AgnI . . . that which is one, the priests .speak 
of in manyw*ays, and call him Agni, Yama, Firc^' (or Wind, 
1, 164. 46). 

Despite the fact that one Vedic poet speaks of Yaraa's name 
as ‘easy to understand" (sc. 12. S), no little ingenuity has been 
spent on it, as well ns on the primitive conception underlying 
his personality. Etymologically, his name means Twin, and 
this is probably the real meaning, for his twin sister Yam I is 
also a Vedic personage. The later age, regarding Vatna as a 
restraincr and punisher of the wicked, derived the name from 
_>vrm, the restrainor or punisher, but such an idea is quite out 
of place in the province of Vedic thought. The Iranian Ylma 
also has a sister of like DamCp although she does not appear 
till late in the literature. 

That Yamaha father is the sun, Vlvasvant (Saiiitar,' the artU 
ficer,* Tvashtar, i. 10. 4-5)/ Is clearly enough stated in the 

1 It Is fvm that the ■ Ga^ndlum. in 0% watm ZtA the inter-wonl^' 

tiu tks of c^umnipui^ty bfNwii aJid Vami!, which meuis, appamttlr', Uiat 

lurenti we ^loon uid Water; a ktc ^ 1 h vUL 4^ 13 (unlquch 



Rik : and that he was the first mortal, in the Atharvan. Men 
come from Vania, and Yatna comes from the sun as 'creator,' 
just as men elsewhere come from Adam and Adam comes from 
the Creator. But instead of an tlcbmic Adam and Eve there 
are in India a Yama and Yami, brother and sister (wife), who, 
in the one hjinn in which the latter is introduced (/jv. n't.), 
indulge in a moral conversation on the propriety of wcdiock 
between brother and sister. This hjmn is evidently a protest 
against a union that was unobjectionable to an older genera¬ 
tion. In the Yajnr Veda Yaml is wife and sister both. But 
sometimes, in the STirying fancies of the Vcdic poets, the art!* 
fiecr Tvashlar is differentiated from Vivasvant, the sunj as 
he is in another passage, where Tvashtar gives to Vivasvant 
hU daughter, and she is the mother of Yama.^ 

That men are the children of Yama is seen in x. i j. 4 i where 
it is said, ' Yama averted death for the gods; he did not avert 
death for (his) posterity,’ In the Brahmsnic tradition men 
derive frotn the sun (Taitt. b. vi. 5. 6, a),* So, in the Iraniaii 
belief, Vima is looked upon, according to some scholars, as the 
first man. The funeral hymn to Yama is as follows! 

Him whs once went over the great moiwlaina* and spied out a pith for 
many, the !»n of Vlva-ivint, who coUeetl men, Kang Yams, revere ye nifh 
oblations. Yama the first found us a way ... Thera where oui old father* 
are departed. .. . Vatna is magnified with the Aogirasas-... Sit here, O 
Yama, with the Angitwas and with the Fathers.. .. Kejoice, O king, in this 
oblation. Come, O Yama. with the venerable Angirasas. I call thy father, 
VlvttsTattt, sit down at this sacrlfiee. 

And then, turning to the departed soul: 

Go forth, go forth on the old paiha where are gone oui old fathers s 
thou shall set both joyoiw kings, Varna and Cod Varana. Unile with the 

t Ttw passMt, a. >?. )-», >» perhaps meant u a ftitdle, as QknMlield iOfiEosta 
{fAOS. =W. p- tja). At any rate, it is still a dubfons pusage- CooEpare UHlo 

Inodln i- p- 

» CIEhI brjf SdKTtn^ ^ 147+ 



with VcuntL, with the u-t^action of d»irc«, in h 3 gh»t heaven. . ** 
Yan^a wits give a resting place lo this spirit. Run put, on a gtwid path, 
the two dogs of Sarama, the four-e;^ spotted ones; go unto the faihen 
who rejoice with Yama. 

Several things ar-e here rioteworthy. In the Brst place, the 
Atharva Veda reads, ** who first of toortals diedt'^ * and this is 
the meaning of the Rig Veda version, although, as was said 
above, the mere fact that Vanina Ls called a god and Vama a 
king proves notJiing.* But it is clearly implied here that he 
who crossed the mouTitains and ' collected men/ as does Yima 
in the Iranian legend, U an ancient king, as it is also implied 
that he led the vnxy to heaven. The dogs of Vama are 
described in such a way as to remind one of the dogs that 
guard the path the dead have to pass in the Iranian legend, 
and of Kerbems, with whose very name the adjective 'spotted* 
has been compared.* The dogs are elsewhere described as 
white and brown and as barking (™. 55* s), and in further 
verses of the hymn just quoted (x. 14) they are called '^thy 
guardian dogs, O Yama, the four-eyed ones who guard the path, 
who look on men . , - broad-nosedt dark messengers of Yama^ 
who run among the people/' 

These dogs are due to the same fantasy that creates a Ker- 
berus, the Iranian dogs,* or other guardians of the road that 
leads to heaven. The description b too minute to make it 
probable that the Vedic poet understood them to be * sun and 
moon,' as the later Brahmanical ingenuity explains them, and 
as they have been explained by modern scholarship. It is not 
possible that the poet, had he bad in mind any connection 

1 AV, 

* Compan AV+ ri, SIL a: “Kang VajTin» tod Qod Brihupati,’’ wlwni both m 

■ H ^ (kfnwr#. SanfP^ U er d^wfi, itorieEh[a£ che 

tluil metoi'ruoiwr/ 

* Hen tbt Snul U ca^pelkd by a foar-€rwl dog or a whLcih |«Ibw 

KLn. Sefe tiw iSofrAf j/ fAd p LuuiTiL 


|>ctweBn (he dogs and (he sun and moon (or 'night and dajr’), 
would h,ivc described them as ' barking ’ or as ‘ broad-nosed and 
dark’: and all interpretation of Yatna’s dogs must rest on the 
interpretation of Vama himself.' 

Varna is not mentioned elsewhere’ in the Rig Veda, except 
in the sutement that ‘metres rest on Yama,’ and in the dosing 
verses of the burial hymn: "For Yama press the wn, for 
Yama pour oblation; the sacKlicc goes to Yama; he shall 
extend for us a long life among the gods,'' where the pun on 
Yama -J ). in the sense of 'stretch out.' shows that as 

yet no thought of 'restrainer' was in the poet’s imnd, although 
the sense of ‘twin' is lost from the name. 

In recent yeans Hillebrandt argues that because the Manes 
are connected with Soma (ns the moon), and because Yama 
was the first to die. therefore Yama was the moon, thn, on 
the other hand, together with Betgaigne and some other 
scholars, takes Yama to be the sun. Muller calls him the 
■seumg-sun.'* The argument from the Manes applies better 
,o the sun than to the moon, but it is not conclusive. The 
Hindus in the Vedic age, as later, thought of the Manes h^nng 
in stars, moon, sun, and air; and, if they were not good Manes 
but dead sinners, in the outer edge of the uoiverse^or under 
ground, in short, they are located in everj' conceivable place 
The Yama, 'who collects people,’ has been rightly compared 
with the Ytma, who ‘made a gathering of the people, but it 
is doubtful whether one should see in this an .^rj’un tmit; for 
'AiSv* ■Air?»A«« is not early and popular, but late (Aeschylean), 

i p™p«® 

KschALdc to BefsJsne. ^pplW to lima » B"- 

t p. ^ i; St X, to p-m that rtErt *tf ™l* «f ileail 

Utof'on it heBtf. A luoeibca™ U oolj >“ 


T/fJS /££L/C/OaVS fA^/,4. 

and the exptes^ion may easily have arisen independently in the 
mind of the Cjireek poet. From a companitive point of view, 
in the reconsE.ruction of \ama there is no eonclusive evidence 
which will permit one to identify his oHjginal character either 
with sun or moon. Much rather he appears to be as he 15 in 
the Rig Veda, a primittvo king, not hUtotically so. but poeli- 
cally, the hrst man, fathered, of the sun, to whom he retums, 
and in whose abode he collects hts o^spring after their inevita- 
bie death on earth, [n fact^ in Vatna there is the ideal side 
of ancestor-worship. He is a poetic image, the first of all 
fathers, and hence Uieir type and king. Vama*s name is un¬ 
known outside of the [ndo-Iranian circle, and though FJini 
seeks to find traces of him in Greece and elsewhere^* this 
scholar^s identifications fail, because he fails to note that 
similar ideas in m}'ths are no proof of their common origin^ 
It has been suggested that in the paradise of Yama over the 
mountains there is a companion-pEecc to the hyperboreansi 
whose felicity is described by Pindar. The nations that came 
from the north still kept in legend a rccolJection of the land 
from whence they came„ This suggestion cannot, of cotirse, 
be proved, but it is the most probable explanation yet given 
of the first paradise to which the dead revert. In the late 
\edic period, when the souls of the dead were not supposed 
to linger oo earth with such pleasure as in the skyv Yama's 
abode is raised to heaven. Later still, when to the Hindu the 
south was the land of death. Vama*s hall of judgment is again 
brought down to earth and transferred to the 'Southern district/ 
The careful investigation of Scherman Meads essentmlly to 
the same conception of Yama as that we have advocated. 
Scherman believes that Yama was first a human figure, and 
was then elevated to, if not identified with, the sun* Schcr- 
man^s only error is in disputing the generally-received opinion, 

1 EipedziUr ViMr in Smcdlnaviaii uijUubff. 

^ fSj94t, 



one that is on the whole cometj that Yam in the early period 
Is a kindly sovcreig^iip and in later times becomes the dread 
king of horrible hells. Despite some testimony to the con¬ 
trary, part of which is late interpolation in the epic, this is 
the antithesis which exists in the works of the respective 

The most important gods of the era of the Rig Veda we 
now have reviewed. But before passing on to the nest period 
it should be noticed that no small number of beings remains 
who are of the air, devilish, or of the earth, earthy. Like the 
demons that injure man by restraining the rain in the clouds, 
so there are dAf/fs^ ghosts, spooks, and other lower powers, 
some male VO tent, some good-natured^ who inhabit earth; whence 
demonolog}'. There is, furthermore* a certain c hrematheism j 
as we have elsewhere* ventured to call it, which pervades the 
Rig Veda, the worship of more or less personified things, dif¬ 
fering from pantheism in this,^ that whereas pantheism assumes 
a like divinity in aJl things, this kind of theism assumes that 
everything (or anything) has a separate divinity, usually that 
which is useful to the worshipper, as, the plough, the furrow, 
etc. In later hymns these objects are generally of sacrificial 
nature, and the stones with which is pressed are di%dne 
like the plant. Yet often there is no sacrificial observance to 
cause this veneration. Hymns art addressed to weapons, to 
the war-car^ as to divine beings. Sorcery and incantation is 
not looked upon favorably^ but nevertheless it is found. 

Another class of divinities includes abstractions, geneially 
female, such as Infinityt Piety, Abundance, with the barely-men¬ 
tioned Gungu, Riki, etc. (which may be moon phases). The 

1 m p- ! i- 

2 Tlilj tpLj^kufcii ph™ U nitta Eoiifcnn3(isii IsMiMly Pith panthriira. Iwt ibe dkv 

UEKtigit ihcinkl t» Ifurkifaflii d (AtiwridB} liuU^' papthdHn' | 

and Barth sfKatoi t4 fituillsUc^ piri&ln« thereby Ihe ddfinliom of diffi-iw 

flbjccti Md in fp. 37 i srhrainalheiam b u diitmct imm 

paattK-bm ^ It b trvm teUihtilnr 


ost imporumt of these abstractions Ms ■ the lord of strength,’ n 
pnestly mterpretation of Indra. interpreted as religions strT^ 
or prayer to whom arc accredited all of Indra's special a^ts. 
Hdlebrnndt interprets this god, Brahmanaspati or Brihaspati. as 
rtc moon; Mnllcr. somewhat doubtfnily, as fire; while Roth 
no a ow t at Brihnspati has anything to do with natural 
phenomena, but considers him to have been from Uie beginning 
ord of prayer. With this view we partly concur, but we would 
make the important modification that the god was lord of prayer 
only ns priestly abstraction of Indra in his higher development. 
It IS from this god is come probably the head of the later trinity 
Brahma throu^ personified brahma, power, prayer, with itt 
philosophical development into the Absolute. Noteworthy is 
the fact that some of the Vedic Aryans, despite his high pre- 
tensions, do not quite tike Brihaspati, and look on him i a 
suspicious nct*elty. If one study Brihaspati in the hymns, it 

» K a sacerdotal Indra. 

lie bre.aks the demon's power; crushes the foes of man ; con- 

smoes the demons with a sharp bolt; disperses darkness; 

hltrif "Ches; helps in 

battle; d^ovem Dawn and .Igni; has a band (like Ma^ts) 

sijng a^ut him; he is red and golden, and U ilntihed with 

P' that Brihas- 

pat takes Indra s place, and this seems to be the true solution, 
Indra ^ interpreted mystically by priests. In RV. 1 . tgc, Bri- 
hi^pati IS loo^ upon by ‘sinners’ as a new god of little value. 
Other minor deities can be mentioned only briefly, chiefly that 
the extent of the pantheon may be seen. For the history of 



rcligioa they are of only coHective itnporunce. The All-gods 
play an important part in the sacrifice, a group of -alt the 
gods,' a priestly manufacture to the end that no god may be 
omitted in laudations that would embrace all the gods. The 
later priests attempt to identify these gods with the clans, ‘ the 
All gods are the clans' (^r/i Br. v. 5- 1. 10), on the basis of a 
theol0gic.1l pun, the clans, pifas, being equated with the word 
for all. viftt. Some modem scholars follow these later priests, 
but without reason. Had these been special clan-gods^ they 
would have had special names, and would not have appeared 
in a group alone. 

The later epic has a good deal to say about some lovely 
nmiphs called the Apsarasas, of w'hom it mentions six as chief 
(Urvap. Menaka^, etc.).* They fall somewhat in the epic from 
their Vedic estate, but they arc never more than secondary 
figures, lovc-goddesscs, beloved of the Gandharvas who later 
are the singing guardians of the moon, and, like the lunar 
stations, twenty-seven in number. The Rik knows at first but 
one Candh.iTva (an infenor genius, mentioned in but one 
family-book), who guards Soma's path, and, when Som.i be¬ 
comes the moon, is identified with him, ix. 86. j6. As in the 
Avesta, Gandh.m’a is (the moon as) an evil spirit also; but 
always as a second-rate power, to whom arc ascribed magic 
(and madness, later). He has virtually no cult except in foma- 
hymns, and shows flcarly the first Arj-an conception of the 
mooti as a demoniac power, potent over women, and 
with Waters, 

Mountains, and especially rivers, are holy, and of course 
are deified. Primititi'e belief generally deifies rivers. But in 
the great river-hymn in the Rig Veda there is probably as much 
pure poetry as prayer. The Vedic poet half believed in the 
rivers’ divinity', and sings how- they *rush forth like armies,* 
but it will not do .to inquire too strictly in regard to his belief 

1 Mtkd, L 74x ££« C«4npftT^ 11 oltcEaiuLDf ZPMG. kuUL 6ji 



He was a poet, and did not e:rpecC to be caicehized. Of 
fernalc divinities there are several of which the diiore is doubt- 
fnl. As DawTi or Storm have been interpreted Saraml. and 
Saranyii, both meaning •nirmer/ The former ts India’s dog, 
and her litter is the dogs of Vama. One little poem^ rather 
than hymti^ celebrates the * wood-goddess' in pretty v^erses of 
playful and descriptive character* 

Long before there was any formal recognition of the dogma 
that all gods are one, various gods had been identilied by the 
Vudic poets, Espceialty, as most naturalty, was this the case 
when disperse gods having different names were similar in any 
way, such as Jndfa and Agni, whose glory is fire ; or Varuna 
and Mitra^ whose seat is the sky. From this casual union of 
like pairs comes the peculiar custom of invoking two gods as 
one* But even in the case of gods not so radically connected, 
H their functions were mutually approximate, each in turn 
became credited with his neighbor's acts. If die traits were 
similar which characteriaced each. If the circles of activity over¬ 
lapped at alb then those divinities that originally were tangent 
to each other gradually became concentric, and eventually 
W'ere united. And so the lines between the gods were W'iped 
out, as it were, by their conceptions crowding upon one an¬ 
other. There was another factor, however, in the development 
of this unconscious;^ or, at least, unacknowledged, pantheism^ 
Aided by the likeness or identity of attributes in Indra, Savitar, 
Agnt, Mitra, and other gods, many of which were virtually the 
same under a diffurent designation, the priests, ever prone to 
extravagance of word» soon began to aUribute, regardless of 
strict propriety, every' power to every god. With the exception 
of some of the older divinities, whose forms, as they are less 
complex, retain throughout the simplicity of their primitive 
character, few- gods escaped this adoration, which tended to 
make them all universally supfcme, each being endowed with 
all the attributes of godhead. One might think that no better 


fate could happen to a gud ttian thus to be magnifted. But 
when each god iu tbe pantheon was equally glorihcd, the effect 
on the whole was disastrous. J o fact^ it was the death of the 
gods whom it was the intention of the seers to exalt, And 
the reason, is plain. From this universal praise it resulted 
that the individuality of each god became less distinct^ every 
god was becornoj so to speak, any god, so far as his peculiar 
attributes made him a god at all, so that out of the very praise 
that was given to him and his confreres alike there arose the 
idea of the abstract gedhead, the god who was all the gods, 
the one god. ^Vs a pure abstraction one finds thus Aditi, 
as equivalent to *a3l the gods,"^ and then the more personal 
idea of the god that is father of alh which soon becomes 
the purely personal AlUgod. It is at this stage where begins 
conscious premeditated panthelsmt which in its first begin¬ 
nings is more like monotheisnu although in India there is no 
monotheism which does not include devout polytheism^ as will 
be seen in the review of the formal philosophical systems of 

It IS thus that we have attempted elsewhere^ to explain that 
phase of Hindu religion which Muller calls bcnothcistii. 

Muller^ indeedt would make of hcnothelsm a new rellglotir but 
this, the worshipping of each divinity in turn as if it were the 
greatest and even the only god recogniJiedp is rather the result 
of the general tendency to exaltation, united with pmthelstic 
beginnings. Granting that pure polytheism is found in a few 
hymns, one may y'el say that this polytheism, with an accom¬ 
paniment of half-acknowledged chrernatheism, passed soon into 
the belief that several divinities were ultimately and essentially 
but one, which may be described as homoiothelsm; and that 
the poets of the Rig Veda were unquestionably csotericalty 

"Aditi Is hJI Ui* foda vid tne^t AdIU li whMiMintr hu l»ea bora; 
AditJ U whaBr^PF will Im bonL" 

* itt fAf Jfig {Diiskf MeutaftaJj. 


r//M A’El/C/O^VJI^ OA 

uDit^riajis to a much greater extetit And in an earlier period 
than has generally been ackfiowledged, NCost of the hymns 
of the Rig Veda were composed under the Influence of that 
unification of deities and tcndcnc)^ to a quasi-monothcisni, 
which eventually results both in philosophical pantheism^ and 
in the recognition at the same time of a personal first cause. 
To express the difference between lleUenlc polytheism and 
the polytheism of the Rig Veda the latter should be called^ if 
by any new term, rather by a name like pantheistic polytheism^ 
than by the somewhat misleading word hcnotheisin. ^\Tiat is 
novel in it is that it represents the fading of pure polytheism 
and the engrafting, upon a polytheistic stock, of a speculative 
homoidusian tendency soon to bud out as philosophic pan¬ 

The admission that other gods exist does not nullify the 
attitude ol tentative monotheism. "^^ Who is like unto thee, O 
Lord, among the gods?'" asks Moses, and his father-in-law, 
when converted to the new belief, says: **Now 1 know that 
the Lord is greater than all gods." * Ilut this is not the quasi- 
monotheism of the Hindu, to wiiom the other gods were real 
and potent factors, individually distinct from the one supreme 
god^ who represents the All-god^ but is at once abstract and 

Pantheism in tlie Rig Veda comes out clearly only in one or 
two passages: ^"The priests represent in many ways the (sun) 
bird that is one”; and (cited above) ^"They speak of him as 
Indra, Mitra, Yaruna^ Agni, * ^ , that which is but one they 
call variously.*'^ So, too, in the Athan^an it is said that Varuna 
(here a pantheistic god) is **in the little drop of water,"* os 
in the Rik the spark of material fire is identified with the sun. 

The new belief is voiced chiefiy in that portion of the Rig 
Veda which appears to be latest and most Prahruanic in tone. 

1 Ejf, X*. II; Jtvfli. It. 

1 RV, au 114* 5j 11%.46; AV. K 16,3. 



Here a supreme god is described under the name of “Lord 
of Beings,"’ the “All-maker" “The Golden Germ,'' the “God 
over gods, the spirit of their being" (*■ iii)i The last, a 
famous hymn, Muller entitles “To the Unknown God," It 
may have been intended, as has been suggested, for a theo¬ 
logical puzele,^ but its language evinces that in whatever form 
it is couched—each verse ends with the refrain, *To what god 
shall we offer sacrifice f" till the last verse answers the ques¬ 
tion, saying, *the Lord of beings"^it is meant to raise the 
question of a supreme deity and leave it unanswered in terms 
of a nature-religion, though the germ U at bottom fire: “ In 
the beginning arose the Golden Genn; as soon as born he 
became the Lord of All. 'He established earth and heaven — 
to what god shall we offer sacrifice ? He who gives breath; 
strength, whose command the shining gods obey; whose shadow 
is life and death, . . . When the great waters went everywhere 
holding the gcitn and generating light, then arose from them 
the one spirit (breath) of the gods.,, , May he not hurt us, 
he the begetter of earth, the holy one who begot heaven , . , 
Lord of beings, thou atone embracest all things , . 

[n this dosing period of the Rig Veda —a period which in 
many ways, the sudden completeness of caste, the recognition 
of several Vedas, etc,, is much farther removed from the begin¬ 
ning of the work than it is from the period of Urahmanic specu¬ 
lation_philosophy is hard at work upon the problems of the 

origin of gods and of being. As in the last hj-ran, water is the 
origin of all things; out of this springs fire, and the wind which 
is the breath of god. So in the great h ymn of creation: ■* The re 
was then neither not-being nor being; there was no atmosphere, 
no sky. What bid (it)? Where and in the protection of what ? 
Was it water, deep darkness? There was no death nor iramor- 
tality. There was no difference between night and day. That 
One breathed . , . nothing other than this or above it existed. 

I nbgnifKldt JAOSp xt. lAi. 



Darkness was conoea^kd in darkness in the be^nning, Undif+ 
ferentiated water was all this (yntverse)/^ Creation is then 
declared to have arisen by virtue of desire, which^ in the 
beginning was the origin of mind^^ and 'Uhegodsp*"' it is said 
ftirthefT “were created after this.*^ Whether entity springs 
f rom non^entity or 7 ru£ is discussed in another hymn of 

the same book,^ The most celebrated of the pantheistic 
hymns is that in which the universe is regarded as portions of 
the deity opneeived as the priinnl Person s **Puriisha (the ^^ale 
Person) 15 thU all* what has been and will be * . . all created 
things are a fourth of him ’ that which is immortal in the sky 
is threcToerths of him.*'^ The hymn Is too well known to be 
quoted entire. All the castes, ail gods, aJI animals, and the 
three (or four) Vedas are parts of him.® 

Such Is the mental height to which the seers have raised 
themselves before the end of the Rig Veda, The figure of 
the Father-gcM], Pnijapatit Morel of beinga^* begins here; at 
first an epithet of Savitar, and finally the type of the head of a 
pantheon, such as one finds him to be in the Prahmanas^ In 
one hymn only (i. ut) is Frajapati found as the personal 
Father-god and Alhgoch At a time when philosophy created 
the one Universal Male Person, the popular religion, keeping 
pace, as far as it couith with philosophy, invented the more 
anthropomorphized, more human, Father-god — whose name is 
ultimately Interpreted as an interfogation, God Who > This trait 
lasts from now on through all speculation, 'fhe philosopher 
conceived of a first source. The vulgar made It a personal god. 
One of the most remarkable hymns of this epoch is that on 
Vac, Speech, or The Word. Weber has sought In this the 
prototype of the Logos doctrine (below), ^ The Wordj Vac 
(feminine) is introduced as speaking (i. 115); 

l ^ Deslr^ prlFTuI Hvd of nlEud,'* jl 4. 

i Jt, 7a {owultd tbe odpn of tbe tTDTn Aditi). 

* ^ 90^ Here ia pmbahly Lbe Atlmrrmn, 


l w»iider wtth ihe Rudias^ with the Yasos,^ with the Adityas^ Md with 
all the gMk; | support Mitna, Varuna, Indni^AgaL. and I he tiria A^^illd. . . . 
1 give wealth lo him that (fives sacnnca, lo him that presses the jit/nu. I 
am the queen, the beat of those worthy of saoitice^ . , . The gods have 
put mat US m:aiiy places. ... 1 am that through which one eats^ breathes^ 
MeSr hears. . - . I Jim that 1 love I make Strong, to be a priuE, a seer, 
a wbc mail. *Tis I h&nd KitdraV bow to hit ihn onbeliever; T prepare war 
for the people j 1 am entered into heaven and earth. I beget ihi faiher of 
Ihh <all) on the height; my place is in the waters, the sen ! thence 1 wtend 
myself among all creatures and touch heaven with my crown. Evm I blow 
like the wind, encompassing all creatureju Above heaven and above eanhd 
so great am 1 grown in majesty. 

Thw is nlmost Vedatitic pantheism with the Vishnuite doc¬ 
trine of ^special grace^ included^ 

The moral tORC of this period — if period it may be called — 
msy best be examined after one has studietl iho idea which tfie 
%^edic Hinda has formed of the life hereafter. The happiness 
of heaven will be typical of what he regards as best here. 
Bliss beyond the grave depends in lum upon the existence of 
the spirit after deaths and, that the reader may understand this^ 
we must say a few words in regard to the Manes, or fathers 
dead. “Father xMaiiti,^^ as he is called,^ was the first ^ Man/ 
Subsequently he b the secondary parGni as a kind of Noah; 
hut Yama, in later tradition his brother, has taken his place 
as norm of the departed fathers, Pitara.s. 

These Fathers (Manes), although of didercnt sort than the 
gods, are yet divine and have matiy godly powers* granting 
prayers and lending aid, as maybe seen from this in vocation: 

Fathers, may the sky-people grant us life’ may we follow 
the course of the living^* (x. 57* 5), One whole hymn is 
addressed to these quasi-divinitics (i. 15): 

* Rudru, Yaau», aad Aditfsa, tiM thf«c fsunwi groups cif giodi. TIk Vaiui af^ 
k Indn'ft train, the' stilAliij/ *r, pcrbips * ffood' gpdi. 

3J- <3; *- Ito. If the kka qT iniBsti VboniH he rtfccted, 1 

may ba niaitd ti9 -aifOTiw, the chUdreu of Maim, 



Anx maj the ln™t. iha highest, the mSddtem(»t Faihen^ th^ wortiij 
of tin? lifmrr, who withoLiE harm have rntcriKi mto the aj»rn (-world); may 
these Faihci^ kHowlng the JsesuwnK aid ua at our taH Thtf rETcrence be 
to-day to tbe FalherSi who of old and aflerwartlj departed,; who have 

■cttled In an eif ihly tphei«p^ or among people* living in fair placM (ihte 
godit?). I have found ihe gnudoia Fathera, the de»cendain(i) and the 
wide^tep^ of Vbihntis IhOuW who, silling on the satrifidal filrwW, wilimel| 
partake of the pressed dfiftk, ihese bjo trtoat apt to come hitber,,., Come 
hither with tdesamgs, D Father?: may they come hither^ hear uis address 
and bless 4?. - . - hlay ye not Injure tiS for whatever impiety w* have as 
men committed .., With those who a« our fonaaor Kalhers, iht^ woflhy 
of loffta, who are come to the drink, the Ik^I (fathetsj", may % ama 

rejoicing, wUUngty with them that ate willmg, eat the oblation* much as 
ts agrecahk fto them). Come nitin’mg. O Agnh with these {faihOT!i|t who 
thirsted among the g^ and hastened hithefi finding oblationa and praised 
with song*. Thcae gradou* onw. the teal poets, the Fathers that seat 
ihemselvos at the sacriddal heat t who arc roal eaters of oblation; diinlcor* 
of ohiaiion; and me set logeiher on one chariot with India zuid the gods. 
Come, O Agnl with ih™, a thousand, honored like gods, the ancient, the 
ori^al Fathers who wal themselves aE the ^^a[:ri£dal heat, +.. ThoUp Agnt, 
didst give the oblations to the Fathers, that eat according to their cdstom: 
do thou (too) eat, O god, the oblation olFcxed (to thee). Thou Icnowtst, 
o thou knower (or findcrl of bangs, how many are the Fathen—those 
who are here, and who are not here* of whom We know, and of whom wn 
kElQw nOC According lo custom eat thou the weD-made sactihce. ith 
those who, burned in fire or not burned (uow) enjoy ihemsdvei according 
to custom in the middle of the sky, do thou, bemg ihe lord form (For w) 
a spirit life, i occordieg to (oax) wiahe*.' 

Often the Fathers are invoked in similar latigusige Lq the 
hymn to the ”AU-gods^^ mentioned above, and occasionally 
no distinction is to be noUced between the powers and attri¬ 
butes of the Fathers and those of the gods. The Fathers, like 
the luminons gods» *^give light” (x- toy* i)p Exactly like the 
gods, they arc called upon to aid the living, and even ^not to 

1 Or: “ In an «rthly plact, In th* atmosphcrt, ofi” etc. 

i That I* wfw«i the Fathm Uvt tht* 1* the only pboe wheft tbe Fithm am 
laid to bv (dfisomdants) of VUibiut, and herc the may be -1 havt dimw- 

Mtd A'rf/rff (li™^ Bat in i J ^lihnii^^ wnMshipim iF)o4m m hli hodio. 

* Or: “^orB^ M Ikon wilt tld* body tof 4 corpit) la spirit Me."' 

U£A KfM 


harm ’ (ni. SS- ? J *• 6)* According to one vorse, the 

Fathers have not attained the greatness of the gods, who 
impart strength only to the gods.^ 

The Fathers are kept distinct from the gods. When the 
laui!.itioiis bestowed upon the former are of unequivocal char¬ 
acter there is no confusion between the two. 

The good dead, to get to the paradise awaiting them, pass 
over water (X. 63. 10), and a bridge (ii, 41 ■ «)* Here, by the 
gift of the gods, not by inherent capacity, they obtaio imtnor- 
tality. He that believes on Agni, sings! “Thou puttest the 
mortal in highest immortality, O .Vgni”! and, accordingly, 
there is no suggestion that heavenly joys may cease; nor is 
there in this age any notion of a GSiterMmmerun^. Immortality 
is described as “continuing life in the highest sky,” another 
proof that when formulated the doctrine was that the soul of 
the dead lives in hea%‘en or in the sun."' 

Other cases of immortality granted by different gods are 
recorded by Muir and Zimmer. Yet in one passage the words, 
*‘ two paths I have heard of the Fathers (eadst), of the gods 
and of mortals,” may mean that the Fathers go the way of 
mortals or that of gods, rather than, as is the usnal interpreta¬ 
tion, that mortals have two paths, one of the Fathers and one 
of the gods," for the dead may 1i%'e on earth or in the air as 
well as in heaven. When a good man dies his breath, it is 
said, goes to the wind, his eye to the sun, etc."—e-tch part to 
its appropriate prototype - while the “ unborn part” is earned 

ii. tt+i , . , 

I Caniian iluii OST* v, JSj, •haT t, lij. 5 *- '■ 

Uw to t)- sw..* J5p.«r, 1 ^. P W! C,‘Pr, 

X'-on' 1““^' W Ii* Fithm I. cf tW spdr .rM 

the H£L/GIO/ir$ OF JND/d. 


“to the world of die righlcoos” alter having been burned and 
heated by ihe funeral fire. All these parts are restored to the 
soul, however, and Agni and Soma return to it what has been 
injured. With this Muir compares a passage in the Atharva 
Veda where it is aaid that the Manes in heaven rejoke with all 
their limbs,^ We dissent, therefore, wholly from Uarth* who 
declares that the dead are conceived of as resting forever iti 
the tombj the narrow house of day/' I 1 ie only passage cited 
to prove this is iS. 10—13, ^bere are the words (addressed to 
the dead man at the burial): “Co now to mother earth . * , she 
shall guard thee from destruction's lap. . . . Open wide, O earth, 
be easy of access; as a mother her son cover this man, O earth," 
etc, Ending with the verse quoted above : ** May the Fathers 
bold the pillar and Vama there build thee a seat/^ * The fol¬ 
lowing is also found m the Rig Veda bearing on this point: the 
prayer that one may meet his parents alter death; the state¬ 
ment that a generous man goes to the gods; and a suggestion 
of the later belief that one wins Immortality by means of 
a son.* 

The joys of paradise are those of earth ; and heaven b thus 
describedi albeit in a late hymn :* “Where is light inexhaust¬ 
ible; in the world where is placed the shining shy; set me 
in this immortal, unending world, O thou that puriiiust thyself 
(Soma); where is king (Varna), the son of Vivasvant, and the 
paradise of the sky;® where are the flowing waters; there 
make me immortal. Mliere one tan go as he will; in the 
third heaven, the third vault of the sky; where are worlds full 
of light, there make me immortal; where are wishes and desires 

I AV. xrliL 4. £4; Mdfp^r. A pa^Eii ot the Aibarran MfE^sts 

tlw may hmn M la iRm, liui there k m oi lhi» In tlw 

Ve^ (ZlmnMiT+ lflt. p. 

■ Birth, tWrV JRtJigtm*, p, ly, the nircw "bouH cT claf," RV. tU. r. 

* t 115+ 6“ vih ±1; ched Miiikr, 1, p* 45. 

* It iij_ j ff. 

* j/jrpir, * t^bture pT the vkf* 



and the red {sua)’s highest place s where one can follow hU 
own habits^ and have satisfaction j there make me inintortal} 
where exist delight, joy, rejoicing, and joj-ance; where wshes 
are obtained, there make mu immortal/’* Here, as above, 
the saints join the Fathers, ‘ who guard the sun.' 

There is a * bottomless darkness' occasionally referred to 
as a place where evil spirits are to be sent by the gods; and 
a ‘deep place' is mentioned as the portion of ‘evil, false, un* 
truthful men'! while Soma casts into‘a hole* (abyss) those 

that are iTTeligious.* . „ , . *•_ 

As darkness is hell to the Hindu, and as m all later time 
the demons are spirits of darkness, it is rather forced not to 
sec in these allusions a misty hell, without torture indeed, but 
a place for the bad either 'far away/ as it is sometimes satd 
(/orfft i//j),or*deep down,’ ' under three earths/ exactly as t o 
Greek has a hell below and one on the edge of the earth. 
Ordinarily, however, the gods are requested simply to annihilate 
oifenders. It is plain, as Zimmer says, from the office of Vama s 
does, that they kept out of paradise unworthy souls; so that the 
annihilation cannot have been imagined to be purely corporeah 
Bui heaven is not often described, and hell never, in this penod. 
Yet when the paradise desired is described, it is a place where 
earthly joys are prolonged and intensified, Zimmer aigues 
that a race which believes in good for the good hereafter must 
logically believe in punishment for the wicked, and Schernian, 
strangely enough, agrees with this pedantic opinion/ If cither 
of these scholars had looked away from India to the western 
Indians he would have seen that, whereas almost all Amencan 

1 UiB>Uv. '*ht™ eiutom ■ (otssOns), ^ , 

1 (Lie tv te Bndeistopdisef seniuil plni»«r« tMiUr.Ai'. p. 307, 

WIL IBJ IT' iv 5. it li. Tt. S- Cvmpate Muir, (m.HI, pp Jii- 

w Lwtwig iJilrlo, tiut. “ “"**» *•* ^ tseavta. 

« Zjv. dr. p. luj. 


r/f£ /^££/GIO^rS 0£ AVI>/A. 

Indiana beUeve in a liappy hereofttsr for good warriors^ only 
a very few tribes have any beliel m puniisliiiient fpr the bad*- 
At most a Xidheim awaits the coward, Weber thinks the 
Ar)'aTi5 already believed in a personal iminditalityi and we 
agree with him. Whitney's belief that hell was net known 
before the Upanishad period (in his translatioTis of the A’a/Aa 
C^nisAaJ) is correct only if by bell torture is roeant^ and if 
the A^harvan is - later than this Upanishad^ which b im- 

The good dead in the Rig Veda return with Yama to the 
sacrifice to enjoy the juma and viands prepared for them by 
their descendants. Hence the whole belief in the necessity 
of a son in order to the obtaining of a joydul hereafter, U'hat 
the rite of burial was to the Greek, a son was to the Hindu, 
a means of bliss in heaven, Roth apparently thinks that the 
Rig Veda's heaven b one that can best be dcscnbeci in Dr* 
Watt's h>Tnn : 

There ^ a Jand of pure dcligh t 
WhcEic salnim 

Kl«n?a.1 dajf tiJEcliLdej the night. 

And pldSEir^ baniib pain; 

and that especial stress should be bid on the word ^ pure/ But 
there is very little teaching of personal purity in the Veda, and 
the poet who hopes for a heaven where he b to find * longing 
women/ * desire and its fulfitltnent' has In mind.» in all proba¬ 
bility, purely impure delights. It is nut to he assumed that the 
earlier morality surpassed that of the later day, whcti, even in 
the epic, the heroes really desired heaven Is one of drunken¬ 
ness and women Of the *good man ' in the Rtg 

Veda are demanded piety toward gods and manes and liberality 
to priests; truthfulness and couragej and in the end of the 
work there b a suggestion of ascetk "goodness- by means of 
Ai/or, austerity.* Grassman cites one hymn as dedicated to 

J X, 154. j; sa?. ^ Compare tbe maii ^3lOr^ mumit irilL 1 7^ 14- 



* Mercy/ It is really (not a hymn and) not on mercyp but a 
poom praising generosity, This generosity^ however (and in 
gen erat'this is One of the whole people), is iioL general gene- 
rosity^ but Ubeialit)^ to the priests/ The blessings asked for 
are wealth (cattle, horses, gold, etc,)* viriJe power, male children 
('heroic offspring") and Imraortalityt with its accompanying 
joys. Once there is a tirade against the friend that is false to 
his friend (truth in act as well as in word)once only, ^Kpoem 
on concord, which seems to partake of the nattire of art 

Incantations axe rare in the R% Veda, and appear to be 
looked upon as objectionable. So ui vii. 104 the charge of a 

* magician' is furiously repudiated; yet do an incantation 
against a rival wife, a inocking hymn of esultation after subdu¬ 
ing rivals* and a few other hymns of like sort show that magical 
practices were well known." 

The sacrifice occupies a high place in the religion of the 
Rig Veda, but it b not all-important, as it b later. Neverthe¬ 
less, the same pfesumptuous assumption that the gCKb depend 
on earthly sacrifice is often made; the result of which, even 
before the collection was complete (tv. 50)* was to teach that 
gods and men depended on the will of the wise men who knew 
how properly to conduct a sacrifice, the key-note of religious 
pride in the Brahmanic period. 

Indra depends on the sacrificial to accomplish his great 
works. The gods first got power through the sacrificial fire 
and ipma* That images of the gods were supposed to be 

13L 117+ Ttua U i:tewiy SWEI is the KVQntH ifecatt il the* Dnihraan 

wJio talkV ran in ^ t«nat™ Ihiw), 

■ 3 L rti flk 

■ CMOifnie Jt t4i; IJ9. In fc iS^ tbm b a pnim BiW«*d to thegoddewei 

StnlvaU and (in conjtmctian with I'lihnii, T»a»hUi, the Cnsatw, I'rijaiiaii, 

and the IteneineD) to mob; a. wooiw fraitfnl 

«U. 15,15 o-t ? ( Barth. Air.Th* iam(i(* of iiiila.i, ealtlet bonel, etutomair; that of man, b«eDdair} hot it la imidW la t iS.* (HiUebraad^ 
ZDMC. nt. p. ?0»), and ii rttnalliad in the nait petfod (tieiaw). 



powerful may be inferred from the late verses, *^wli0 buys 
this Irtdra,” etc. (above)jp but allusions to idolalry are else* 
where extremely doubtfuL'' 

1 FluUk iMLy b* aUnUcd to In that cf tlic ^^l^godA,' JS* Crarbe ihinkt, btal 

tt ia Ox mXf lumver, which kou tn hm crept In ^ ntisUlret Ei 

dcui in phattk InEhWBffl {wHL i. Ibnu^h »ieh a colt was luift opralf 

ftEkoffWlfcdigtd tUl ^i'la’WDTihip and Is no part of Ifrahwmiua. 



The hymns qf thq Rig Vqda incitricablj' confused; the } 
deities of an earlier era confounded, and again merged together | 
in a pantheism now complete; the introduction of strange 
gods; recognition of a hell of torture ; instead of many divini- 
ttes the One that represents all the gods, and nature as well; 
incantations for evil purposes and charms for a worthy pur- ; 
pose; (orroulae of matediedon to be directed against - those ; 
whom 1 hate and who hate me magical verses to obtain 
children, to prolong life, to dispel -^cvil magic/ to guard against 
poison and Other ills; the paralyiing extreme of ritualistic ; 
reverence indicated by the exaltation to godhead of the ‘rem¬ 
nant ’ of sacrifice; hymns to snakes, to diseases^ to sleep, lime, 
and the stars; curses on the * priest-piaguer’ — such, in general 
outline, is the impression produced by a perusal of the Atharvati * 
after that of the Rig Veda. How much of this is new? 

The Rig Veda is not lacking in incantations, in witchcraft 
practices, in himins to inanimate things, in indications of But the general impression is produced, both by 
the tone of such hj-rons as these and by their place in the col¬ 
lection, that they are an addition to the original work. On 
the other hand, in reading the Athan an hjmms the collective 
impression is decidedly this, that what to the Rig is adventi¬ 
tious is essential to the Athaivan. 

It has often been pointed out, however, that not only the 
practices involved, but the hymns themselves, in the Atharvan, 
may have existed long before they were collected, and that, 
while the Atharvan collection, as a whole, takes historical place 


Ty/A Ji^L/CWiVS 0/^ /rTOAf. 

after the Rig Veda, there yet may be comprised in the former 
much which is as old as atiy part of the latter work. It is also 
customary" to assume that such hym^ts as betoken a lower wor¬ 
ship (incantations, magical fomuiae, etc.) were omitied pur¬ 
posely from the Rig Veda to be collected in the Alharvan. 
That which eventually can neither be proved nor disproved is^ 
perhaps, best left undiscussed^ and it ts vain to seek scientific 
proof where only historic probabilities &re obtainable, ^'et^ if 
a closer approach to truth be attractive, even a greater proba¬ 
bility will be a gain^ and it becomes worth while to consider the 
problem a little with only this hope in view. 

Those portions of the Rig Veda which seem to be Atban^an- 
like are^ in generaJt to be found in the later books (or places} 
of the collection. But it w'ould be presumptuous to conclude 
that a work, although almost entirely given up to what in the 
Rig Veda appears to be late, should itself be late in origin. 
By analogy^ in a nature-religion such as was that of India^ the 
practice of demonology, witchcraft, etc., must have been an 
early factor. Bui; while this is true, it is clearly impossible to 
postulate therefrom that the hymns recording all thU array of 
cursing, dei-iltry, and witchcraft are themselves early, llie 
further forward one advances into the labyKnth of Hindu 
religions the more superstitions, the more devils, demons^ 
magic, witchcraft, and uncanny things generally, does he find* 
Hence, while any one supersettious pracltce may be antique, 
there is small probabilit)' for assnming a contemporaneous 
origin of the hymns of the two coLlections. The many verses 
cited* apparently pelbmelh from the Rig Veda, might, it is 
true, revert to a version older than that in which they arc 
found in the Rig Veda, but there is nothing to show that they 
were not taken from the Rig Veda, and re-dressed in a form 
that rendered them in many cases more intelligible; so that 
often what is respectfully spoken of as a < better varied reading' 
of the Atharvan may be better, as we have said In the Intro- 

THE EELIGIOU OF Tf££ ^^r/iAFFd VE£>4. 

duclory chapter, only iti lucidity; and the lucidity be due 
to tampering with a teat old and luiintelligible. Classical 
examples abound in illustrations. 

Xevcrtheless, although an 'antiquity equal to that of the ' 
whole Rig Veda can by no means be claimed for the Athirvati 
collection (which, at least in its tone, belongs to the Brahmanic ' 
period}, yet is the mass represented by the latter, if not con- ' 
temporancous, at any rate so venerable, that it safely may be 
assigned to a period as old as that in w'hich were composed the 
later hymns of the Rib itself. But in distinction from the 
hymns themselves the weird religion they represent is doubtless 
as old, if not older, than that of the Rig V'eda. For, while the 
Rig Vedic ftfttir-cult is fndo-Iranian, the original Atharvan (fire) 
cult is even more primitive, and the basis of tbs work, from 
this point of Wew, may have preceded the composition of Rik 

hji-mos. This Atharvan religion — if it may be called so_is, 

therefore, of exceeding importance. It opens wide the door 
which the Rik puts ajar, and shows a world of religious and 
mystical ideas which without it couki scarcely have been sus¬ 
pected. Here magic eclipses Soma and reigns supreme, The •' 
wizard is greater than the gods; his herbs and amulets are 
sovereign remedies. Religion is seen on its lowest side. It 
is true that there is *bad magic’ and ’good magic* (the exist¬ 
ence of the former is substantiated by the maledictions against 
it), but what has been received into the collection is appardntly 
the best. To heal the sick and procure desirable things is the 
object of most of the charms and incantations^ but some of 
the desirable things are disease and death of one’s foes. On 
the higher side of religion, from a metaphysical point of 
view, the Atharvan is pantheistic. It knows also the import¬ 
ance of the ■ breaths,’^ the vital forces; it puts side by side the 
dilferent gods and sa^'s that each *is lord.’ It does not lack 
philosophical speculation which, although most of it is puerile, 

* anr. ij. 


r//£ JiEL/G/OiVS 0£ /AWA. 

sometimes raises questions of wider scope, as when the sage iit 
quires who made the body with its wonderful parts—implying, 
but not stating the argument, from designp in its oiliest forim^ 
Of luapcaJ verses there are many^ but the conter-t is seldom 
more than thou, O plants preserve from hanup"' etc. 

Harmless enough^ if somewhat wcakj are also many other 
hymns calculated to procure blessings i 

blow to Uj ihfr windf 
hidings glow to m the suop 
messingB be to US the diijp 
Blest lO ihe night appear. 

Blest to UA the cbLwn fihiUL sbidc^ 

is a fair specimen of thb innocuous sort of verse** Another 
example maybe seen in this hyinn to a king: “Firm is the 
sky: b the earth; firm, all creation; firm, these htllsj 

firm the king of the people (shall be)/^ etc-’ In another h^mn 
there is an incantation to release from possible ill coming from 
a foe and from inherited ill or sin/ A free spirit of doubt 
and atheism^ already foreshadowed in the Rig Veda, is implied 
I In the prayer that the god will be mercifid to the cattle of that 
' man “whose creed Is *Gods exist/"* Serpent-worship b not 
li only known, but prevalent/ The old gods still hold^ as always, 
their nominal places, albeit the s^'^tem is pantheistic, so that 

( [Vart^na is god of waters: Mitra with Vanina^ gods of 

rain/ As a starting-poiot of philosophy ihe dictum of the 
Rig Veda b repeated: * Desire is the seed of mindp' and * lovCp 
iVh, desLrep was bom first/Here Aditi is dehned anew as the 

13 ^ X, ^ vtt- 6^ Cmspue RV. tIL ximI <pk ^ ]?> 

V. ^ ^ ^ X. xS. * xJw ^: wUL 6 anrf witli trH^VQnhlp^ 

r V. 34.4-^. O4 'Ibe (odi^ cDinpm k. Sr xS} xin. 4.15. Indn u StUya, 
14 vli, 11;; ^ idH. 4 \ xtIE. j.. l^^ptbcUta Id. l 7. 14, xi, 04 chxmis^ ccmpxxv 
fL 9,^ to PESton kfc; Ub 6^ ^mne AfDlnat'vHoiin 1 hxte^; IIL vj, I0 nbtxin 
On Uw sJUn uid nl^hu sh hyma xt idx:. $ And 4 In v., r a fuatrd xgxLns^ poison; 

ait bjTui to ft dnmiii 31* a diaim to dispel evil niAgte; >33, ma^ Id 
pioduce km| life; v. xgalnti «onns, etc., titt Adid, tE. S. 1-4 ^partly Rlk)i,. 



one in tihose lap Is the wide atmosphere — she is parent and 
child, gods and men, all in all^—'may she extend to us a 
triple shelter/ As. an example of curse against curse may be 
compared iu 7: 

Tht jiai-kaBed, god^bom plant, th^t frets from the curst m wattm (wiih 
OdO tfe^= hafl. washed away all curm, the cunw of my rival and of my 
sister; (that) whkh iht Brahmau in BJiger curaMKlp all thk lifis under tny 
fceL . - , With this plant protect thb (wife), prOEttt tny chUd, protect Oiat 
prepertyp ^ » May the cuibb return to ikt cumt. . _ . We finite even 

the ribs of the foe with the evil (eijuv/rei) eyer 

A love-charm in the same book (ii. 30) will remind the das- 
sical student of Theocritus’ second idyl: ^As the wind twirls 
around grass upon the ground^ so I twirl thy mind about, that 
thou may St become loiiug, that thou mayst not depart from 
me,* etc. In the following %'erses the Horsemen gods are 
invoked to unite the lovers. Characteristic among bucolic 
passages is the cow'-song in ii. i6, the whole intent of which 
IS to ensure a safe return to the cows on their wanderings: 
* Hither may they come, the cattle that have wandered far 
away,* etc. 

The view that there are different cotididons of Manes is 
clearly taught in xviiL 2. 4^-49i where it is said that there 
are three heavens. In the highest of which reside the Manes | 
while a distinction is made at the same time between 'fathers^ 
and * grandfathers/ the fathers* fathers^ 'who have entered air, 
who inhabit earth and heaven/ Here appears nascent the 
doctrine of ^elevating the Fathers^* which is expressly taught 
in the next era* The performance of rites in honor of the 
Manes causes them” to ascend from a low state to a higher 
one In fact, if the offerings arc not given at all, the spirits 
do not go to heaven. In general the older generations of 
Manes go up highest and are happiest. The personal offering 
is only to the immediate fathers. 


kELIGIOm GE /AI}/4. 

If, as was showD in the introductory cbapterp the Atharva* 
represents a geographical nd^^nce on the part of the Vedic 
AiyanSp this fact cantiot be ignored in estimating the pnnil- 
tivetiess of the collection. Geographical advanoe, acquaintance 
with other flora and fauna than those of the Rig Veda* means 
— although the argument of silence must not be exaggerated — 
a temporal advance also. And not less significant are the 
points of view to which one is led in the useful little work 
of Scherman on the philosophical hymns of the Atharvan* 
Scherman wishes to show the coimection between the Upan- 
isbads and Vedas. Hut the bearing of his collection is tow'ard 
a closer union of the two bodies of works, and especially of 
the Athan^an, not to the greater gain in age of the Upanishads 
so much as to the depreciation in venerabieness of the former* 
If the Athatvan has much more in common with the Brahmanas 
and Upanishads than has the Rig Veda^ it is because the 
Atharvan stands, in many respects, midway in time between 
the era of Vedic hymnologj' and the thought of the phlJosophi- 
cal period. The terminology is that of the BrIhmanaSp rather 
than that of the Rig Veda* The latter knows the great person ; 
the Atharvan, and the fomier know the original great person, 
the m<nms under the fauM etc. In the Atharv^an 

appears first the worship of Time^ Love^ ‘ Support * (Skajnbha)^ 
and the * highest ^ntArntr/ The quit of the holy cqw Ls fully 
recognized (xii* 4 and s). The late ritualistic terms, as u'ell j 
as linguistic evidence, confirm the fact indicated by the geo¬ 
graphical ad\Mnce, The country is known from western Baikh 
to eastern Beliar, the latter famiilarly.* [n a word, one may 
conclude that on its higher side the Athan^an is later than 
the Rig Veda, while on its lower side of demonology one may 
recognize the religion of the lower classes as compared with 
that of the two upper classes — for the latter the Rig Veda, 
for the Superstitious people at large the Athan an, a collection 

1 CbntjpM Mdr, CAST, il, iff. 

7//^^ OJ^ T/iE VE£^A. 


of which the ori^n agrees with its appHciiion. For* if it at 
first was devoted to the unholy fide of fires^ult, and if the fire^ 
cult is older than the jaMa-t:uix, then this is the cult that one 
would expect to see most affected by the conservative vulgar* 
who in India hold fast to what the cultured have long dropped 
as superstition^ or* at leasts pretended to drop; though the 
house^ritual keeps some magic in its fiTe-cnlt, 

In that case, it may be askedt why not begin the history of 
Hindu religion with the Atharvan, rather than with the Rig 
Veda ? Because the Atharv^an^ as a whole* in its language, 
social conditions^ geography, ^ryiinnant' worshig^ etc*j shows 
Uiat this Hterar)' collection is posterior to the Rik collection, 
As to individual hymns, especially those imbued with the tone 
of fetishism and witchcraft, anyone of them, either in its pres* 
ent or original form, may outrank the whole Rik in antiquity* 
as do its superstitions the religion of the Rik — if it ts right 
to make a distinction between superstition and religion^ mean¬ 
ing by the former a lower, and by the latter a more elevated 
form of belief in the supematurnh 

The dUference between the Rik^worshiper and Atharvan- 
w^orshipper b somewhat like that which existed at a later age 
between the philosophical Qivaite and DurgSite. The former 
revered but did not deny the power of a host of lesser 
mights, whom he was ashamed to worship too much ; the latter 
granted the all-god^head of ^iva, but paid attention almost 
exclusively to some demoniac divinity. 

Superstition, perhaps, aLwa^'s precedes theology ^ but eis 
surely does superstition outlive any one form of its protean 
rival. And die simple reason b that a theology is the real 
belief of few, and varies with their diangii^ intellectual point 
of view^ while superstition is the belief unacknowledged of 
the few and acknowledged of the many* nor does it materially 
change Irom age to age. The rites employed among the clam^ 
diggers on the Xew' York coast, the witch-charms they use, the 


r//£ X£L/GJOA^S 0£ 

incantations, cutting of flesh, fire-oblatlons, meaningless formu¬ 
lae, united with sacrosanct expressions of the church, arc all 
on a par with the religion of the lower classes as depicted in 
Theocritus and the Atharvati* If these mummeries and this 
hocus-pocus were collected into a volume, and set out with 
elegant extracts from the Bible* there would be a nineteenth 
centur)" Atharva Veda. What are the necessary equipment of 
a Long Island witch? First, **a good hot fire,"" and then 
formulae such as this: * 

a man b attacked by wicked people and how to banish 

them : 

^‘Bedgoblin and all ye evil spirits, I, N* forbid you my 
bedstead, my couch j I, N., forbid you in the name of God 
my house and home; I forbid you in the name of the Holy 
Trinity my blood and flesh, my body and soul; I forbid you 
all ihu naihholcs in my house and bome^ till you have travelled 
over every hill, waded through eveiy^ water, have counted all 
the leaves of evesy tree, and counted all the stars io the sky^ 
until the day arrives when the mother of Cod stiall bare her 
second son." 

If this formula be repeated three times, with the baptismal 
name of the person, it will succeed ! 

'*To make one's self invisible s 

** Obtain the ear of a black cat, boil it in the milk of a black 
cow^ w'ear it on the thumb, and no one will see you.'^ 

This is the Atharvan, or fire- and witch-craft of today — not 
differing much from the ancient. It la the unchanging founda¬ 
tion of the many lofty buildings of faith that are erected, 
removed, and rebuilt upon it—the belief in the supematunil at 
Its lowest, a belief which^ in its higher stages, is always level 
with the general intellect of those that abide in IL 

The latest book of the Atharvan is especially for the war¬ 
rior-caste, but the mass of it Is for the folk at large, it was 

^ Ttiu M duarn li ^fll dmU oniang; tba 4!f CaiwiH^ V. 


long before it was recognised us a tegitiiTiale Veda. It never 
SEandSp In the older period of Brahmanism^ on a par with the 
Siman ui^d R\\l> In the epic period good and bnd magic are 
carefully differentiated* and even to-day the Athan^an is repn- 
diated by southern Brahmans. But there i$ nq doubt that 
the silliest practices inculcated and formulated in the 
Athar\^an were the stronghold of a certain class of priests, or 
that such priests were feared and employed by the laity, openly 
by the low classes, secretly by the intelligent. 

In respect of the name the magical cult was referred^ histori¬ 
cally with justice, to the hre-priests, Atharvan and Angiras^ 
though little application to fire, other than in r^M^wor^hip, 
is apparent* Yet was this undoubtedly the source of the cult 
{the fire-cult is still distinctly associated with the Albania 
Veda in the epic), and the name is due neither to accident 
nor to a desire to invoke the names of great seers, as will 
Weber.^ The other name of Brahmaveda may have connection 
with the ‘ faUe science of Bnhaspati,’alluded to in a Upantshad.* 
This seer is not oveT^J^thodo3^ and later he is the patron of 
the unorthodo:^ Orvakas. It was seen above that the god 
Brihaspati is also a novelty not allc^ether reHshed by the 
Vedic Ar)'ans. 

From an Aryan point of view how' much weight is to be placed 
on comparisons of the formulae in the Atharvan of India with 
those of other Ai^'an nations ? Kuhn has compared* an old 
German magic formula of healing with one in the Athan'an, and 
because each says 'limb to lijnb^ he thinks that they are of 
the same origin^ particularly since the fortnula is found In 
Russian, The comparison is interesting, but it is far from con¬ 
vincing^ Such formulae spring up Independently all over 
the earth. 

I /nif. Uf.' p i£L4. 


■ uMil jptr^astiMJke ; KZ. kLIL 4^ 

THE /i^EL/CIOA'S OF /’AT?//!* 

Fin^lyt it Is to be observed that m this Veda first qcctirs 
the iuiptieatioD of the story of the flood (aa- 39* ®)» 
saving of Father Jlanu, who, however, is known by ww 
in the RiVl The supposition that the story of the Hood is 
derived from Babylon, seems, therefore, to be an unnecessary 
(although a pennlssible) hypothesis, as the tak is old cnoug 
in India to warrant a belief in its indigenous origin.* 

r 0» kflj 1. Oi Ath»™ U t* «rth •«! 

dticntm E» finiirfcal »nd W"*m <J htim hea,^; t AMe ^ 

™aci fire ItscU trtfL al 7). th* taxm Brafepiavedii periisp* l3»t _ 

tom ifce p®t tl* ^ 

ilom^Uc rttnuJ. The pmeot Atharrai fwnraU^ ha-** fin It* P"* 

to Art, but tbe itlll «tlM 



Nothing is more usual than to attempt a recoiistnictioii oi 
Aryan ideas in manners, customs, laws, and religious concep¬ 
tions, by placing side by side similar traits of individual Aryan 
nations, and stating or insinuating that the result of the com- 
parUon shows that ons is handling primitive eharacte^tics of 
the whole Aryan body. It is of special importance, therefore, 
to sec in how far the views and practices of peoples not Arj^n 
may be found to be identical with those of 
division of the anay into clans, as in the Ihad a^ the Veda; 
the love of gambling, as shown by Greel«, Teutons, and 
Hindus: the separation of captains and princes, « is illus¬ 
trated by Teuton and Hindu ; the belief in a flood, eommoti 
to Iranian, Greek, and Hindu ; in the place of departed spmts, 
,itb the journey over a ri>-er (Iranian, H.nd^ Scandmatn^ 
Greek'!; in the after-felicity of warnors who die on the field 
of battle (Scandinavian, Creek, and Hindu); m the reverence 
paid to the wind-god (Hindu. Iranian, 

Wotan); these and many other traits at different time^ by 
vario J writers, have been unit^ and compared to illustrate 
nrimitive Aryan belief and religion, 
r The traits of the Five Nations of the 

Lay be compared very advantageously wid. the traits of the 
Five Nations of the Iroquois Indiana the most united and 
intelligent of American native tribes. Tlieir institutions are no 
yet extinct, and they have beer desenbed by nuss.onanes of 
toe . 7 th eentury and by some modern writers, to whom can 


r//£ OF /iVD/A^ 

be imputed no hankering after Ar>an primitive ideas.‘ U is 
but a few jxara back since the last avnfar of the Iroquois 

incarnate god lived in Onondaga, S. "N, 

First, as an illustration of the extraordinary development of 
memori- among rhapsodes, Vcdic students, and other .Vryatisj 
among the Iroquois ■‘memory was tasked to the utmost, and 
developed to an extraordinary degree,” says I'arkinsn, who 
adds that they could repeat point by point vrith precision any 
address made to them.* Murder was compromised for by 
as among the Vedic. Iranlc, and Teutonic peoples. 
The Iroquois, like all Indians, was a great gambler, staking 
all his property* (like the Teutons and Hindus). In religion 
“ V mysterious and inexplicable power resides in manimate 
things Raises, rivers, and waterfalls [as conspicuously 

in India] are sometimes the dwelling-place oI spirits; but more 
frequently they are themselves living beings, to be propitiated 
by prayers and ofifeiings." * The greatest spirit amnng the 
Alffonqulns IS tins descendant of the moon, and son of t e 
west-wind (personified). After the deluge (thus the Hmdu^ 
elcO this great spirit (Manabo^ho, mdfm is Manu?) restored 
the world; some asserting that he created the world out of 
water But others say that the supreme spirit is the sun 
(Le Teunfi, Relation. 1633)- The Algonquins, besides a belief 
in a good spirit (wniwVaw), bad also a belief in a malignant 
manitout in whom the missionaries recognized the devi (w y 
pot Ormued and Ahriman?). One tribe invokes the ‘ Maker 
of Heawn.’ the ‘god of waters,- and also the ■ «ven spirits of 
the wind' (so, too, seven is a holy number in the ^ eda, etc.). 

tlH w«ks o( Sdmjkiatt »b 4 PirfimaD. 

fisiiit, im A'frt* tahwliittiWi. P- 1 * 1 . .1,1,1,, »]] - 

»-til« Olto liidiaii., die Hurtu ^ d«s|*«te 

PaMrsy. ti SlaswehLWtta The i«« Is t™ of *11 

4 p. 

EA/IJ.V DlVimriES. 


The Iroquois, liWe the Hiodu (later), behove that the ea^ 
rests on the back of a turtle or tortoise.* and that this is lu ed 
over by the sun and moon, the first being a good spmt; the 
second, malignant. I'he good spirit interposes be^een the 
malice of the moon and mankind, and it is he who makes 
rivers* for when the earth was parched, all the water being 
held back from earth under the armpit of a monster frog he 
pierced the armpit and let out the water (exactly as India kts 
out the water held back by the demon). According to some, 
this great spirit created mankind, but in the third generation a 
deluS destroyed his posterity.* The good spirjt 
Iroqtois is the one that gives good luck (psrhaps BWa). 
These Indbns believe in the immortality of the soul, bk Hful 
hunters, brave warriors, go, after death, to the happy 
grounds (as in India and Scandinavia); the cowardly and 
weak are doomed to live in dreary regions 
ness (compare Niflhci-" and the Iranian ^^^atolo^ ?). To 
pass Lr other religious correspondences, 

Lis, use of amulets, love^charms, magic, and sorcery which 
arc all like those of Aryans {to compare, al^ are the 
or exposing of tlic dead and the Hurons’ funeral ^ices), let 
one tSe as a good illustration of the value of 'compai- 

“ A™?tog”r*Xi.a bdirf tk. 01 .ho p““» 

, .Koam, ocro« 0 bridgo. pool a dog or t«o »h,ob Boori 
the eatc of paradise. The Hindu, Iiaman, Creek, and Scan- 
dinaliati, all have the dog, and much emphasis has been laid 
L the Lryrm ' character of this creed. The native Iroquois 
Indians believed that “the spintson theit journey (to hearen) 
were beset with diffictilties and perils. There was a swift river 

„ r{l E I ibe Hlnilii tDrtclsft iti Iti hiA 


tff ftf AVr WtrLit p, S;.) 
i CbxrteTQlx ip, PJikinaii- 



to be crossed on a log that shook beneath the feet, while a 
ferocious dog opposed their passage.” ' Hero is the Persians 
narrow bridge, and even Kerberos himself I 

It is also interesting to note that, as the Hindus tdenlify 
with the sun so many of their great gods, so the Iroquois 
.‘sacrifices to some superior spirit, or to the sun, with which 
the superior spirits were constantly confounded by the primi¬ 
tive Indian”* . 

Weber holds that because Greek and Hindu gave the name 
•bear- to a constellarfoii, therefore this b the ■*primitive fndo- 
Germanic name of the star.” ■ But the Massachusetts Indians 
•‘gave their own name for bear to the Ursa major (Williams 

‘ Kev,' cited Palfrey. L p. 3&l “ , 

Again, three, seven, and even ‘ thrice-seven,’ are holy not 

only in India but in America. 

In this new world are found, to go further, the analogues of 
Varuna in the monotheistic god Viracocha of the Peruvians, to 
whom is addressed this prayer; “Cause of all things I ever 
present, helper, creitor, ever near, ever fortunate one 1 Thou 
incorporeal one above the sun, infinite, and beneficent ; of 
the Vedic Snake of the Deep, in the Mexican Cloud-serpent; 
of the Vedic Lightning-bird, who brings fire from heaven, in 
the Indian Thunder-bird, who brings fire from heaven; of the 
preservation of one individual from a flood (in the epu^ Manu s 
•Seven Seem') in the same Ameitcan m)'th, even including 
the holy mountain, which is still shown;* of the ^lief that the 
sun is the home of departed spirits, in the same belief all over 

ifyiii of Sem World, pp. Sj. mj- * /*- PJJ- 



Americas^ of thobolkf that star. a« the soaU of the dead, m 
the same betkl held by the Pampas;' and evco of the 
Brahtnanic custom of sacrificing the widow (smtee), m the 
the Natche. Indians, and in Guatemala, of buramg 
^Twyow on the py«i of the dead husband.* The storm voad 
/Odin'f as highest god is found among the Choctaws; ^hde 

^.Mastl of Lath* is the ‘^"i„'*HrytT 


V^k pedod! with the gradual 

rateL?ar?het after death among 

the Creeks oen^e themselves m 

(Vedic sinner^ ,^,„y^ded 

, ^ trilis b,.»ve 

STbi bt ^ (or . «biU in bcvn. U can if U cb».^ 

;dter the soul ^ ^ ^xU^ting its old 

Sic" ;i"b n^ oenfn.. ^ 

,o in Nubc ibc ‘nl»tn.nt [».«• ofthc Ke)T«>“. “J™; 

to 5t« in ^ Dower ^ abstractiOTis of IndiA, 

1,5., of P»*' „p,„„ ,( 

to rec 0 ffni 2 e Brahma m El, ana in j 

to recogniK ^peciaUy «hcn one compares the boat- 

lo b n^ Or, ngnin, 

journey df rbe t nu to sec the Aevins; and to associate 

in the twin children of Rd to sec tne At'i . 

,■ t »?_ arorU n. ul- The Atneiici" IniJi™ “i“itvr“h 
1 Brim™, A*- f St^ Ll' 

npnl**,"»“-’““r!nT.^n ‘'AnSAi.. 

I rt! ttA tjjt Sduofctdt, UC 1*0 

T/fE OF 


the mundane egg of the Eg>TJtians with that of the Brahmans; 
Certainlyp had the Eg^plians been one of the Aryan families, 
all these conceptions had been referred long ago to the cate¬ 
gory d( ‘primitive Aryan ideas/ But how primitive is a certain 
religious idea will not be shown by simple comparison of Aryan 
parallels. It will appear more often that it is not ^ primitive^ 
but, so to speak, per-prirnith^ aboriginal with no one race, but 
with the race of man. When wc come to describe the religions 
of the wild tribes of India it will be seen that among Uiem also 
are found traits common, on the one hand, to the Hindu, and 
on the other to the wild trilics of America. With this waming 
in mind one may inquire at last in how far a consert^ative 
judgment can find among the Aryans themselves an yentity 
of original conception in the different forms of divinities and 
religious rites. Foremost stand the univ^ersal chrematheism, 
worship of inanimate objeet-S regarded as usefully divine, and 
the cull of the departed dead. This latter is almost universalp 
perhaps pan-Aryan, and Weber is probably right in assuming 
that the primitive Aryans believed in a future life. But 
Benfey’s identification of Tartars s with the Sanskrit Talitala, 
the name of a special hell in very' late systems of cosmogony, 
is decidedly without the bearing he would put upon it 'I'he 
Sanskrit word may be taken directly from the Greek, but of 
an Aryan source for both there is not the remotest historica .1 

Wheo, however, one comes to the Lord of the Dead he finds 
himself already in a narrower circle- ^ ama is the Persian 
Vima, and the name of Kerberos may have been once an 
adjective applied to the dog that guarded the path to paradise ^ 
but other particular conceptions that gather about each god 
point only to a period of Indo- Iranian unity. 

Of the great nature-gods the sun is more than Aryan^ but 
doubtless was Ary^an, for Surya Is HelioSt but Savitar is a 

1 Renouf, a/ Anrwxl pp. ^ 

Edf^iy iiiS’Du divinities. 


development especially Indian. Dyada-pitar is Zeus-pater, 
JupitCT,‘ Tfita, scarcely Triton, Is the Persian I'hraeiaoiia who 
conquers Vritra, as does Indra In India, The last, on the 
other hand, is to be referred only hesitatingly to the demon 
Aiidra of the .AvesU, Varuna, despite phonetic difficiiUies, 
probably is Ouranos; but Asura (Asen ?) is a title of many 
gods in India’s first period, sihile the corresponding Ahura is 
restricted to the good spirit, The seven Adityas 

are reflected in the JmijAa of Zoroastrian Puntamsm, 

hut these are mere imitations, spiritualized and momhied into 
abstractions. Bhaga is Slavic Bogu and Persian Bagha - hhtra 
is Persian Mithra, The Alvins are all but in name the Greek 
gods Dioskouroi, and correspond closely in detail (ndmg on 
horses, healing and helping, originally twins of twilight). 1 aci- 
tns gives a parallel Teutonic pair (Germ, 43)- ^^has, on the 
alhcr hand, while etymologically corresponding to Aurora Eos, 
is a specially Indian development, as Em has no cult. \ata, 
VS'ind, is an aboriginal god, and may perhaps be otan, in. 
Parjanya, the rain-god, as Biihler has shown, is one ^th 
Lithuanian Perkdna, and with the northern Fiogyu. The 
‘fashioner,' Tvashtar (son) b only Indo-Iranian; Thwasha 

probably being the same word. 

Of lesser mights, Angiras, name of fire, may be 
garvs, * fire-messenger ’ (compare ^yy«Xce), perhaps originally one 
with Sk. ‘ coal.' * Hebe has been idcntifi^ ' 

young woman, but this word is enough to show that Hebe Has 
naught to do with the Indian pantheon. The Gsndhar.'at 
moom is certainly one with the Persian Gandarewa, but can 
hardly be identical with the Centaur. Sarami seems to have, 
together with Sdrameya, a Grecian parallel development in 

1 t.utonk t. douttfij. - the ia..tUr irilh Dp-.s Ul^r be™ 

(pttod BO nhflortlB pwuidB. 

1 t'an, a™ D« *i!i« wry **U "itb 

^ i«, 34 . Irr*P« 

to coalite «<i 4 TJb^« l-t thB KOBB Bf 6«,» dM irrrxor. 


the E£LtGIOS\fS OF mtilA. 


Helena (a goddess in Sparta), Selene, Hermes; and SaranyQ 
may be the same with Erinnys, but these are not Aryan 
hiTiires in the fonn of their respective developments, though 
they appear to be so in origin. It is scarcely possible that 
Earth is ati Aryan deity with a cult, though different .Annii 
(and un.Aryan) nations regarded her as divine. -The ^lamts 
are especially Indian and have no primitis'c identity as gods 
with Mats, though the names may be radically connected. 
The fire-priests, Bhrigns, are supposed to be one with the 
The fact that the fate of each in later myth is to 
visit hell would presuppose, however, an Aryan notion of a 
tortuTC-hell, of which the RigA'^eda has no conception. The 
Aryan identity of the two myths is thereby made unce^in, 
if not implausible. The special development in India of 
the fire-priest that bringa down fire from heaven, when com¬ 
pared with the personification of ihc'twiiler’ (Promanth^) 
in Greece, shows that no detailed myth was current in prinii- 
ti ve times.^ The name of the fire-priest, brahman =fla{g) men(?), 
is an indication of the primitive fire^ult in antithesis to the 
jtfimi-cult, which latter belongs to the narrower circle of the 
Hindus and Persians. Here, however, in the identity of names 
for sacrifice fj'rt/fln, ya{fnCy and of barhis, the sacrificial straw', 
of sema — kaoma, together with many other liturgical similari¬ 
ties, as in the case of the metres, one must recogniie 1 fully 
developed rMH-cult prior to the separation of the Hindus and 

Of demigods of evil type the Vatvi are both Hindu and 
(ranian, but the priest-names of the one religion are evil names 
in the other, as the ifrt'rfr, gods, of one are the daer'as, demons, 
of the other.^ There are no other identifications that seem at 

1 ttul Ihe grotfal telW tJu* I™ ( AM ‘iml*. *« b»ucht In 

cartli fmm l-e*™ bj a [ictMiiillty is (at lost) AtrSB,» Kuhn has5Jio*B. 

a the tiErii ami wftfJ (|>«W ™1 P«ie*t») rf the Veda wilh the nil spblH 

of th* tame fflinws in the Asota. like Aatra ^ *r*. Conipeue. besides, the Into 
Innlin feasts, ntJka, that aceniDpiar ihi* Uacthanaliait b4|iinr-viinhlii. 


. 169 

att certain in the strict province of religion, although m nijr-th 
the form of Manus, who is the Hindu iNoah, has been associ¬ 
ated with ’I'cutonic Mannus. and Greek Minos, noted in I'hu- 
O-dides for his sea-faring. He is (o Yama (later regarded 
as his brother) as is Noah to Adam. 

\Vc do not lay stress on lack of equation in proper names, 
but, as Schrader shows (p. 59^ ff >. «!>■ few comparisons on 
this line have a solid phonetic foundation. Minos, Manu ; 
Ouranos. Varuna; \\\jtan. Vila, am dubious; and some equate 

flamtin with blotan, sacrifice. 

Other wider or naiTOwer comparisons, such as Neptuntis 
from apim, seem to us too daring to be believed, Apollo 

iutp^ry). Aphrodite (Apsaras). Artamis (nonexistent 
Pin Umana), have been cleverly compared, but the identity 
of forms has scarcely been proved- Nor is it important for 
the comparative mythologist that Okeanus is ‘lying mound 
iafdxSnay More than that is necessary to connect Ocean 
mythologically with the demon that surrounds (swallows) the 
watets of the sky. The Vedic parallel is rather Sasi, the far- 
off great ‘stream,' It is rarely that one finds Aryan equivalents 
in Ac land of fairies and fays. Yet are the Hindu clever 
artizan Ribhns* our ‘elves,’ who, even to this day. are distinct 
from fairies in their dexterity and cleverness, as every wise 
child knows. 

Bnt animism, as simple spiritism, fetishism, perhaps ^ 
cestoT-w^^hi^ and polytheism, wiA Ae polydaemomsm that 
may be called chremaAeism, exists from. Ae beginning of Ae 
reliious history, undisturbed by Ae prorimlty of Aeism, 
pantheism, or atheism; exactly as U>day in the O^iden^ ^ 
side theism and atheism, exist spiritism and fetishism (i^th 
Aeir inherent magic), and even ancestor-worship, as implied 
by Ac reputed after-effect of parental enrses. 

1 Ludwig interpret tKc Htliiui* ^ 

logically «NMWr€t«l U Orpbeiu, pahapi- 

tbt Ihnc teuons ponOitliaMl 

170 . 

TJ/£ A^£:L/(J/OaV^ /iV£>/A. 

\Vb^?n ihe circle is narrowed to that of ihc Indolranian 
connection the similarity in reli^on between the Veda and 
A vesta becomes much more striding tlian in any other groap, 
as has been shown. It is here that the greatest dtscrepincy 
in Opinion obtains among modern scholars. Some are inclined 
to refer all that smacks of Persia to a remote period of Indo 
Iranian unity, and, in consequencet to connect all tokens of 
contact with the west with far-away regioBs out of India. It 
is scarcely possible that sneh can be the case. But^ on the 
other hand, it Is imhislortcal to connect, as do some scholars^ 
the worship of somi and Varuna wkb a remote period of un^t>^ 
and then w'ith a jump to admit a dose connection between 
Veda and A vesta in the Vedk period. The Vedic Aryans 
appear to have Hved^ so to speak, hand in glove with the 
Iranians for a period long enough for the latter to share in 
that advance of Varnna-worship from polytheism to quasi- 
monotheism which is seen In the Rig Veda. This worship of 
Vamna as a superior god, with bis former equals ranged under 
him in a gTonp+ chiefly obtains in that family (be it of priest 
or tribe, or be the two essentially one from a religions point 
of view) w^hLch has least to do with pure rr?«r^-woTship, the 
inherited Indo-Iranian cult; and the Persian Ahura, wich the 
sue spiritualized equivalents of the old Vedic Adityas^ can have 
come into existence only as a direct transformation of the 
latter cult^ which in turn Is later than the cult that developed 
in one direction as chief of gods a Zeus; in another, a Bhaga; 
in a third, an Odin* On the other hand, in the gradual change 
in India of Iranic gods lo devils, untr^s^ there is an exact coun¬ 
terpart to the Iranian change of meaning from ifrra to daa^a. 
But if this be the connection, it is impossible to assume a-long 
break between India and the west, and then, such a sudden 
tie as is indicated by the allusions in the Rig Veda to the 
Persians and other western lands. The most reasonable view, 
therefore, appears to be that the Vedic and IranbrL Aryans 

£AA'iy iimou DiviyiTiEs. 


irere for a. long time in contact, that the contact began to cease 
us the two peoples separated to east and west, but that after 
the two peoples separated communication was sporadically 
kept up between them by individuals in the way of trade or 
otherwise. This explains the still surviving relationship as it 
is found in later hymns and in thank-offerings apparently 
involving Iranian personages. 

They that believe in a monotheistic Varuna-cult preceding 
the Vedic polytheism must then ignore the following facts; The 
Slavic equivalent of Bbaga and the Teutonic equivalent of 
Vata arc to these respective peoples their highest gods. They 
bad no Varuna. Moteover, there Is not the slightest proof 
that Ouranos in Greece’ was ever a god worshipped as a peat 
god before Zeus, nor is there any probability that to the Hindu 
Dyaus Pitar was ever a great god, in the sense that he ever 
had a Special cnit as supreme deity. He is physically great, 
and physically he is father, as is Earth mother, but he is reli¬ 
giously great only in the Hellenic-Italic circle, wtere exists no 

Uranos-c u It.* Rather is it appa rent that the Greek raised Zeus, 
as did the Slav Ilhaga, to his first head of the pantheon. 
Now when one sees that in the Vedic period Varuna is the 
type of Adltj^as, to which belong Bhaga and Mitra as distinctly 
less important personages, it is plain that this can mean only 
that Varuna has gradually been exalted to his position at the 
expense of the other gods. Nor is there perfect uniformity 
between I’eraian and Hindu conceptions, Asura in the Veda 
is not applied to Vamna alone. But in the A vesta, Ahura is 
the one groat spirit, and his six spirits are plainly a proicstant 
copy and modification of Varuna and his six underlings. T his, 
then, can mean — which stands in concordance with the other 

I i W ati* fSsi tfijpoxi*, PEbA If, tE. j ; ounpsti* Pratfcr^ 

p, 40 - 

z WaluKhelnUctL ^ UnwUM und Kwramerttiirt d*m Calm 4^ iLjrtrahLrt 

wofdftCL p. 4> 



parallels between the two rehgitms —only that Karatbustn 
borrows tbu Ahura idea from the Vedlc Aryans at a time when 
Varufta was become superior to the other gods, and when the 
Vedic cult is established in its second phase.‘ To this fact 
points also the esHdetice that shows how near together geo¬ 
graphically were once the Hindus and Persians. W bet her 
one puts the place of separation at the Rabul or further to 
the north-west is 1 matter of indlUerence. The Persians 
borrow the idea of Varuna Asura, whose eye is the sun. 
They spiritoaitse this, and create an Asura unlenown to other 

Of von Bradke's attempt to prove an original Dyaus Asura 
we have said nothing, because the attempt ha* failed signally. 
He imagines that the epithet .^sura was given to Dj-aus in the 
Indo-Iranian period, and that front a Dyaus Pilar Asnra the 
Iranians made an abstract Asura, while the Hindus raised 
the other gods and depressed Dyaus Pitar ,'Vsura { whereas it 
is quite certatti that Varuna (Asura) grew up, out, and over 
the other ,Asuras, his former equals. 

And yet it is almost a pity to spend dme to demonstrate 
that Varuna-worship was not monotheistic originally. W'e 
gladly admit that, even if not a primitive monotheistic deity, 
Varuna yet is a god that belongs to a very old period of Hindu 
literature. And, for a worship so antique, how noble is the 
idea, how esalted is the completed conception of him ! Truly, 
the Hindus and Persians alone of Aryans mount nearest to 
the high level of Hebraic thought. For Varuna beside the 
loftiest figure in the Hellenic pantheon sLtnds like a god 
beside a man. The Greeks bad, indeed, a surpassing aesthetic 
taste, but In grandeur of religious ideas even the daring of 
Aeschylus becomes but hesitating bravado when compared with 
. the serene boldness of the Vedic seers, who, first of their race, 
out of tnany gods imagined God. 

1 Whok Aryan m Trita, Mltifa,«c. 

EJA^LV I>ir/A /r/£S. 


In regard lo eschatolagj% as in regard to myths, It has been 
shown that the utmost caution in identification is called for. 
It may be surmised that such or such a belief or legend is 
in origin one with a like faith or Ule of other peoples. But 
the question whether it be one io historical origin or in 
utiiversal m^ihopoeiic fancyt and this latter be the only com¬ 
mon origin, must remain in almost every case unanswered/ 
This is by far not so entertaining, nor so picturesque a solu¬ 
tion as is the explanation of a common historical basis for any 
two legends^ with its inspiring “open sesame* to the door of the 
locked past. But which is truer ? Which accords more with 
the facts as they are collected from a wider field? As man 
in the process of development, in whatever quarter of earth 
he be located, makes for himself Independently clothes, lan¬ 
guage, and gods, so he makes myths that are more or less like 
those of other peoples, and it is only when names coincide 
and traits that are unknown elsewhere are strikingly similar 
in any two mythologies that one has a right to argue a prob^ 
able community of origin. 

But even if the legend of the fiood were Babylonian, and 
the Asuras as devils were due to Iranian infiuence — which can 
neither be proved nor disproved — the fact remains that the 
Indian religion in its main features Ls of a purely native 

As the most prominent features of the %''edic religion must 
be regarded the worship of jwwff, of naturogods that are in 
part already more than this, of spirits, and of the Manes: the 
acknowledgment of a moral law and a belief in a life bereafter. 
There Is also a ip^guer nascent belief in a creator apart from 

I Spiegel hMw Ufcat tht WKok idea ot lahire jumlitLiiient ii dcnml tnim iVnLi 
iEraMisfJk^ p 45®), ^ ^ ititufaUy («Jud3c«L 

The allaiJftD to tbo w|ipi»ed DabylocnLaB coinn maxa, iisi HV. tUL yS. a, wuM iiadt- 

ahj ttwt ibB nktloB witli BabrWfl U ™ of tradu, u AtfKTP*- Tl» artoufit 

dT the flood be drawn tlwBK « naj tlw ttwy mi liMiralion, but bsth I tlndu 
Hellenic vEHMns b« aj lutJn u U Uul of Uh AxoBioM rtd!*V!n% 



any natural phistiomenon, but the creed for the most part Is 
poetically, indefinitely, stated: ‘Most wonder-working of the 
w'onder-working gods, who made heaven and earth * (as above). 
The corresponding Power isCerus in Cerus-Creator (Kronos ?), 
although when a name is given, the Maker, Dhaiar, is employed; 
while Tvashiar, the artificer, is more an epithet of the sun than 
of the unknown creator. The personification of Ohatar as ere 
ator of the sun, etc., belongs to later Vcdic times, and foreruns 
the Father-god of the last Vcdic period. Not till the classical 
age (below) is found a formal ideniification of the Vedic 
nature-gods with the departed Fathers (Manes). I(jdTa, for 
example, is invoked in the Rig Veda to ‘be a frien^tl, be a 
father, be more fatherly than the fathers’) ' but this implies 
no patristic side in India, who U called in the same hymn 
(vs. 4 ) the son of Dpua (his father); and Dyaus Pitar no 
more implies, as say some sciolists, that Dpus was regarded 
as a human ancestor than dots ‘ Mother Earth' imply a belief 
that Eirth is the ghost of a dead woman. 

In the Veda there is a naturc-rcUgioii and an ancestor-religion. 
These approach, but do not unite; they arc felt as sundered 
beliefs. Sun-myths, though by some denied in toto, appear 
plainly in the %^edic hymns. Dead heroes may be gods, but 
gods, too, am natural phenomena, and, again, they are abstrac¬ 
tions. He that denies any one of these sources of godhead 
is ignorant of India. 

Muller, in his Anaent SamkHi IMerafart, has divided Vedic 
Uteiaturc into four periods, that of ihumiiHi songs; ttinnlrfis, 
texts; tri^kmanas; and sutrasi The mnntnit are in distinc¬ 
tion from fkti/ii/ns, the later hymns to the earlier gods.* The 
latter distinction can, however, be established only on subjec¬ 
tive grounds, and, though generally unimpeachable, is some¬ 
times liable to reversion. Thus, Muller looks upon RV. 
yiih as ‘simple and primitive, while others see in this 

1K 17.17. j iw. iir. p(i- 70 ,480. 



hymn a late maatra< iSetwecn tiift Rif Veda and the Brah- 
manaa, which are in pr®®- out in part 

bv the present form of the Atharva Veda, which, as has been 
shown, is a Veda of the low cult that is almost ignored by 
the Rig Veda, while it contains at the same time much that 
is later than the Rig Veda, and consists of old and new 
touether in a manner entirely conformable to the state o 
every other Hindu work of early times. After this epoch 
'there is found in the liturgical period, into which 
the later portions of the Rig Veda (noticeably parts of the 
first, fourth, eighth, and tenth boots), a religion which, in 
spiritoal^one. in metaphysical speculation, and even in the 
interpretation of some of the natural divinities differs not more 
from the bulk of the Rig Veda than does the social status of 
the time from that of the earlier test. Religion has become, 
in so far as tbe gods are concerned, a ritual. But, except in 
the building up of a Father^od, theology is at bottom not much 
altered and the eschatological conceptions remain about as 
they were, despite a preliminary sign of the doctrine of inetenv 
psychosis In the Atharva Veda, for the first time, hell is 
known by its later name (xii. 4- jb)- and perhaps its tortures; 
but the idea of future punishment appears plainly first in the 
Brahmanic period. Both the doctrine of re-birth and that of 
hell appear in the earliest Sutras, and consequently the assump¬ 
tion that these dogmas come front Buddhism does not ap^ar 
to be well founded; for it is to be presumed whatever religi^s 
belief is established in legal literature will have preceded that 
literature bv a considerable period, certainly by a ^eater 
length of time than that which divides the first Brahmanic law 


chapter IX. 


BESIDES the Rig Veda and the Athar^-a . 

othe«. called respectively the S5ma V eda and '‘1“^ 

The former consists of a small 

r I. ,1 U the Vaiur Veda, the Veda of sacnficial for- 
^^*e^ 'bui this Veda is far more ImportanU With it one is 
roiM !::- :c3td, and in. a .ond of ideas^at .e 

tacuJpooB. mjstfci»i, .cliposily, » *' ^"' ; 

U. ol .he« miO n«y U lo-oi .n ?“»» »f "■' '‘'* 

Bn^roa: whert ttw Vwlbi. art ffw 4^ ^ iwteat. 

-tta ^pr-. (M Adi™T% 


Veda, but it is not true that they represent tbeie the spirit <A 
the aee, as they do in the Brahiuatiic period. Of this B^^ic 
which we now turn, the Vajur Veda forms the fitting 
entrance. Here the priest is as much lord as he is wi 
Brlhitianas. Here the sacrifice is only the act, the sacrificia] 

Ri.), vajurveda 

conuins the special formulae which the pnest that to 

the erection of the altar has to speak, with espianatory renia 
added thereto. This of course stamps the collection 3S mechan¬ 
ical- but the wonder is that this collection, with the similar 
S^lUa^a scriptures that follow it. should be 
literature which centuries have to show. As expknatoT 
the sacrifice there is found, indeed, a good deal of legendary 
^:ff ^h^rsomotinres has a literary character. But nothtng 
is fot itself t everything is for the correct performance of the 

"^rgeographical centre is now changed, and instead of the 
Punjibf the ‘middle district' becomes tbe seat 
Nor is there much difference between the distnct 
be referred the rise of the Vajur Veda and that of the Brah- 
manas. No less altered is the religion. All is now ^ 

and the gods, though in general they are the gods of ^e R g 
vX are not the same as of old. The priests 

The old appellation of ‘spirit.’ is confined to 

e^spirits. There is no longer any such ‘ heno^eism as that 
t ♦i.B Kiff Veda. The Tather-god, ' lord of beinp, or simp y 
chief jcd.' Th. ic. U.oujh. .1 .be R« 

tlon tong beJfll* Uwy ^ j .ycl, tha chirf m ke VljwiBeri.« 

*Tt*« ir« -lUeiion: ind tl« MUtiajajI toltaetloni 


T//E J^£L/G/OaVS or mp/A. 

Vcdii h the first thought of the Vajur Veda, Other changes 
have taken placep The demtgods of the older period, the 
water-nymphs d( the Rik, here become seductive goddesses, 
whose increase of power in this art agrees w ith the decline of 
the warrior spirit that is shown too in the whole mode of think* 
ing+ Most important Is the gradual rise of Vishnu and the first 
appearance of Here ^raAma^ which in the Kik has the 

meaning sprayer' alone, is no longer mere prayer, btit, ns in 
later literature, holiness^ In short, before the Brahmanas are 
reached they are perceptible In the near distance, in the %'eda 
of Formulae^ the Yajus;* for between the Yajur Veda and the 
Br^manas there is no essential difference. The latter consist 
of explanations of the sacrificial liturgy, interspersed with 
legends, bits of history, philosophical explanations, and other 
matter more or less related to the subject They are completed 
by the Forest lk>oks, Aranyakas, which contain the speculations 
of the later theosophy, the llpani shads (below). It Is with 
the Vajur Veda and its nearly related literature, the Brah- 
manas, that Brahmanism really begins. Of these latter the 
most important in age and content are the Brahmanas (of the 
Rig Veda and Yajur Veda), called Aitareya and Qata-patha, 
the former representing the western district, the latter, in great 
part, a more eastern region. 

Although the " Northerners * are still respectfully referred to, 
yet, as we have just said, the people among whom arose the 
Brahmanas are not settled in the Punjab, but in the country 
called the middle district,’ round about the modem Delhi. 
For the most part the Pun jib is abandoned ; or ratJier, the 
literature of this period does not emanate from the Arjans 
that remained in the Punjab, but from the still emigrating 
descendants of the old Vedic people that used to live there. 
Some stay behind and keep the older practices, not in all 

1 The fjifFarat trails litre itCcmltd are glTta with JUiistra,U^ hy 

Sclkroedcr, Ed Mt U/fririMr Cultuft p, if. 


regards looked upoti as orthodox by their more advanced 
brethren, who have pushed east atid now live in the country 
called the land of the Kums and Paiyc|.las,^ They are spread 
farther easi^ along the banks of the Jiunna and Ganges^ south 
of Nepal; while some aro still about and south of the holy 
Kurukshetra or * plain of Kurus/ East of the middle distKct 
the Kosalas and Videhas form, in oppcKsidon to the Kurus and 
Paftcilas, the second great tribe (Tirhut). There are now two 
sets of * Seven Rivers,* and the holiness of the western group 
is perceptibly lessened. Here for the first time are found the 
FrJ/yfl-hymns, intended to initiate into the Brahmanic order 
Aryans who have not conformed to it, and speak a dialectic 
language.^ From the point,of view of language and geography, 
no less than from that of the social and spiritual conditions, it 
is evident that quite a period has elapsed since the body of 
the Rig Veda was composed. The revealed texts are now 
ancient storehouses of wisdom. Religion has apparently be¬ 
come a form; in some regards it is a farce^ 

“There are two kinds of gods; for die gods are god»t ^^d 
priests that arc learned in the Veda and teach it are human 
gods/' This sentence^ from one of the most important Hindu 
prose w^orks," is the key to the religion of the period which it 
represents; and it is fitly followed by the further statement* 
that like sacrifice to the gods are the fees paid to the human 
gods the priests.* Yet with this dictum, so important for the 

I ComiKUT /jtfn/. U, * Weber, iif. p, J3. 

» The Itr^JkMsma {or EriUinuna d( the hbitdml paths") ii. ff- a. ft; 

* The chief fsifldly prtMt, Sfe U iiW ia the Sr. U. 4. 4. J, U a i™ pf Jfi- 
^iKvwe. SpBiellnKs pn* prUat bKoom retlslflM lie=ul oi two ^lan* (an cxlraAnlinvj 
event, bowem-; eoljf odo JiniPe H pepoiled) and then JwwmltJjd tp U$ pddtLUkn. 
ProtEiblT, ;u in the bter age the linnu, the dUrf pHeaA was oftea at tl» meht tinw 
prirtl»]]y priiiw nuiitiief. It » sUd ia aflfllher port cf U» sonw book lUhi ^hK^gh 
the whole b diviM, yet it b the pricxi tM m^lm the M ucrl^ 

(ly. I, t- 4). In this perlnid munlcr U tiefiJSfld 23 IdUing n print; oUwr CawS Wti flot 
olied. Dturdcr. Weber, IS. Xr ftfts- 



understanding of the religion of the age, must be joined afr 
other, if one would do that age full jusdee: ‘The sacrifice is 
like a ship sailing heavenward; if there be a sinful priest in 
it, that one priest would make it sink * ( Cai. Hf* iv*. 2. 5 * * 

For although the time is one in which ritualism had, indeed, 
become more important than religion, and the priest more 
important than the gods, yet is there no lack of reverential 
feeling, nor is morality regarded as unimportant. 'Fhe first 
impression, however, which is gained from the literature of 
this period is that the sacrifice is all in all; that the endless 
details of its course, and the petty questions in regard to its 
arrangement, are not only the principal objects of care and of 
chief moment, but even of so cardinal importance that the 
whole religious spirit swings upon them- Hut such is not 
altogether the case. It is the truth, yet is it not the whole 
truth, that in these Brahmanas religion is an appearance, not 
a reality. The sacrifice is indeed represented to be the only 
door to prosperity on earth and to future bliss; but there is a 
quiet yet persistent belief that at bottom a moral ahd religious 
life is quite as essential as are the ritualistic observances with 
which worship is accompajiied, 

Todiiscrihe Brahmanisiti as impljitlg a religion that is piirely 
one of ceremoni'fiEii, one composed entirety of observnnceSj Is 
therefore not altogether correct. In reading a liturgical work 
it must not bo forgotten for what the work was intended. If 
its object be simply to inculcate a special rite, one cannot 
demand that it should show breadth of view or elevation of 
sentiment. Composed of observances every work must be of 
which the aim is to esplain observances. In point of fact, 
religion (faith and moral behavior) is here assumed, and so 
entirely is it taken for granted that a statement emphasizing 
the necessity of godliness is seldom found. 

ffcveitheless, having called attention to the religinus spirit 
that ilea latent in the pedantic Erahmanis, we are willing to 



admit that the age is overcast, not only with a thick cloud o 
ritualism, but also with an unpleasant mask of phariseeism. 
There cannot have been quite so much attention paid to the 
outside of the platter without neglect of the Inside. And it a 
true that the priests of this period strive more for the comply 
tion of their rites than for the perfection of themselves. It is 
true, also, that occasionally there is a revolting contempt for 
those people who are not of especial sen-Hce to the pnesu 
There are now two godlike aristocrats, the priest and the noble. 
The ‘people’ are regarded as only fit to be the *‘fo^ ^ 
nobllitv." In the symbolical language of the time the bricks 
of the "altar, which arc consecrated, are the warrior caste; the 
fillings, in the space between the bricks, are not consecratedi and 
these “fillers of space” are *' the people " Afr. vi. i. a. as). 
Yet is religion in these books not dead, but stuping; to 
wake ag.tin in the Upanishads with a fuller spiritual Ufe than 
is found in any other pn^Christiau system. Although the sub- 
icet matter of the Brahmanasls the cult, yet are there found m 
them numeious legends, moral teachings, philosophical fancies 
historical items, etymologies and other adventitious matter, all 
of which are helpful in giving a better understanding of the 
intelli-^nce of the people to w hom is due all the extant litera¬ 
ture of the period, I>ong citations from these ritualistic pr<^ 
auctions would have a certain value, in showing in native fo™ 
the character of the works, but they wonld make unendurable 
reading; and we have thought it better to arrange the multi¬ 
farious contents of the chief Urahmanss in a sort of order, 
although it is difficult alwa>-s to decide where theology ends 
and moral teachings begin, the two are here so interwoven. 


WTiilu in general the pantheon of the Rig Veda and Athaiva 
Veda is that of the Urahmanas, some of the older gods are 


r//£ J^EL/G/OiVS 01 /XI>/A. 

now reduced in Importance, and, on the other hand, as in the 
Vajnr Veda, some gods are seijn lo bn growing in importance. 
'Timcj* deihed in the Athari'anT is a great god+ but beside him 
still stand the old nt&l\c divinities r and chrematheism, which 
antedates even the Kig Veda, is still recognized. To the 
■ploughshare^ and the ’plough" the Rig Veda has an hymn 
(iv. 57. 5-S), and so the ritual gives them a cake at the sacri¬ 
fice Qif. ii* 6. 3. s). The number of the gods, 

ill the Rig Veda e<itimated as thirty-three, or, at the end of this 
period, as thousands, remains as doubtful as ever % but^ in 
general, all groups of deities become greater in number. 
Thus, in TS. i. 4. 11* t, the Rudras alone ntre counted as 
thirty-three instead of eleven; and, id. v. 5, 5, the eight 

Vasus become three hundred and thirty-three j but it U 
elsewhere hinted that the number of the gods stands in tho 
same relation to that of men as that in which men stand to 
the beasts; that \s, there arc not quite so m^ny gods as men 
11. 5, a* iS}, 

Of more importance than the addition of new deities is the 
subdivision of the old. As one finds in Greece a Z€vq vura- 
beside a so in the Yajur Veda and Brah- 

manas are found (an extreme instance) hail ‘to Kaya," and 
hail ■ to Rasmai,' that is, the god Ka is differenttated into two 
divinities, according as be is declined as a noun or as a pro¬ 
noun; for this is the god *M\ 1 io?” as the dull Brahmanas 
interpreted that verse of the Rig Veda which asks ■ to whom 
(which, as) god shall offef sacrifice ? ^ (Maiti iii. 13. 5.) 
But ordinarily one divinity like Agni is subdivided, according 
to his functions, as *lord of food/ ’ lord of prayer/ etc.* 

In the Brlhmanas different names are given to the chief 
god, but he is most often calletl the. Father-god (Praj 3 pati, 
Mold of creatures," or the Father^/jf/J). His earlier Vedk type 
is Brihaspattp the lord of strength, and* from another point of 

l Buth, iof^ tH. p. 


view, the Alhgod.^ The other gods fall into vafiows groups, 
tile most sigtiiflcaitt being the triad of Fire, Wind, and Sun,* 
Not much weight is to be laid on the theological aptsculaiions 
of the time as indicative of primitive conceptions, aithough 
they may occasionalty hit true. For out of the number of 
inane fancies it is reasonable to suppose that some might coin’ 
cide with historic facts. Thus the Ail-gods of the Rig Veda, 
by implication, arc of later origin than the othur gods, and this, 
verj' likely, was the case; blit it is a mere guess on the part of 
the priest. 'I'lie Qitapalho, ili. i. i8, speaks of the AU-gods 
as gods that gained immortality on a certain occasion, be¬ 
came immortal like other gods. So the .iditj'as go to heaven 
before the Angirasas £r. iv. 17), but this has no such 
historical importance as some scholars are inclined to think. 
The lesser gods are in part carefulJy grouped and numbered, 
in a manner somewhat contradictofy to what must have been 
the earlier belief. Thus the ‘three kinds of gods’ arc now 
Vasus, of earth, Rudras, of air, and Adityas, of sky, and the 
daily offerings are divided between them; the morning offering 
belonging only to the Vasus, the mid-day one only to {[ndta 
and) the Rudras, the third to the .Adityas with the Vasus and 
Rudras together.* Again, the morning and mid-day pressing 
belong to the gods alone, and strict rule is observed in dis¬ 
tinguishing their portion from that of the Manes (Qi/. iv. 
4. 35), The difference of se* b quite ignored, so that the 
‘universal Agni’ is identified with (mother) earth; as b also, 
once or twice, Pushan ijb. iiL ff, 5. 41 *- 4 - ' ^ i'* 5 * 4 - 7)- As 
the ‘progenitor,’ Agni facilitates connubial union, and is called 
“the head god, the progenitor among gods, the Jord of beings " 
(!L iii. 4. A, 4t Hi. 9. i- d). PDlshan is interpreted to mean 

I lt« liii analntr -llh Asnl In brio* nad* pen™ (imJrt),’ f«f. Er, 

* Cvmiixre suit. S. Iv. *. *»bs Pnjlpalt, ApJ, tapi, Sirja.' 

* far. Sr. L 4 - »; J- !■ 



cattle, and Brihaspati is the priestly caste {ik lii. 9. i. lo S.). 
The base of comparison is usually easy to find. ‘Hie earth 
nourishes,' and * Btlshan nourishes,’ hence Pushan b the Miib; 
or * the earth belongs to all ’ and Agni is called * belonging to 
all ’ (universal), hence the two are identified. The All-god^ 
meTcly on account of their name, are now the All; Aditi is the 
‘unbounded* earth (# 15 - in. 9. i. iv. 1. 1. ajr i. 1, 4 - 5 ? “t- 
2, 3. (*). Agni represents all the gods, and he b the dearest, 
the closest, and the surest of all the gods (ti. i. 6 . 2, 8 ff.). 
It is said that man on earth fathers the fire (that is, protects it), 
and when he dies the fire that he has made his son on «rA 
becomes his father, causing him to be reborn in heaven (ri. li. 

3. 3. 3-5 ; S'!. 1. a. afi). 

The wives of the gods {da'TufSin faiitlr jo/e/i), occasionally 
mentioned in the Rig Veda, have now an established pla^ and 
cult apart from that of the gods {il>. i- O'- The fire on 

the hearth is god /\gni in person, and b not a divine or mystic 
type; but he is prayed to as a heavenly friend. Some of these 
traits are old, but they are exaggerated as compared with the 
more ancient tbeology. \fhcn one goes on a journey or 
returns from one, ‘even if a king were in his house' he should 
not greet him till he makes homage to his hearth-fires, cither 
with spoken words or with silent obeisance. Tor .Agni and 
Prajapati are one, they are son and father {ih. ii, 4 - «■ 3 i 
vi, 1. 2. afi). The gods have mystic names, and these "who 
will dare to speak?' Thus, [ndra’s mystic name is Arjuna 
{ih. ii. I. 1, ii)- early period of the Rig Veda the 

priest dares to speak. The pantheism of the end of the Rig 
Veda is here decided and plain-spoken, as it is in the .AlharvM. 
.As it burns brightly or not the tire b in turn identified with 
different gods, Rudra, Vaiuna, Indra, and Mitra ii.3. i. g ff ). 
.-Vpii is all the gods and the gods are in men (id. iii. 1.3. 1 ; 
4, I. 19: ii. 3. a. I: Indra and King Yama dwell in men). 
And, again, the Father (Prajapati) is the All; he b the year 

of twelve iflonths and fis'e seasons i* S- 5* *'’')■ . 

' cta»«.ri..ic bit. ^ 

to cc,r»pond » -b- ■^JcK.onfold' mjap*". B..t ‘^e 
say’ twonty-ont verses) and he nuyteato trventysrne, lot f 
•the three Worlds’ are added lo the ahevc jevealeelt ™e gets 
nreaty, and the sea <;>• e{e 'e/«rO ■"ato ■’renlyfi.a 1 A 
rihTnambe, e( -.rids, U » said (.5. i. r. 4- <“ 

there are three worlds* and possibly a fonrt . 

soma is oow the moon, but as being one ha 
evil detnon. The other half became the belly 

3 i7>- Slightly different is the statement that Soma 

^thrairt .tr,T.ah'::£) »^e 

"d^r ih^'tfeS h" rarariw^e:; 

"tn^h’eXhy the -ing) the yathera. by dre »an,ag 
!:rn)'theg.d.,byday) -bb ™be,a g n^bt) the g^e, by 

"7?^ r gfd.^™a«a. 

ip Ftithere ' fire, of men’). Between mornmg and afternoon, 
liltive of gods id Manes respectively, stands nnd- 
? whkh a^idU to the same authority (ii 4- =- S), 

’ The passage first cited continues thus ; The 

re:i„rL"a ^ ■>“ 

I .3 th, f«. z 

thisperkbt Wtan e«n^^ him, Ih*Imp‘™ l< ' 

U,a™hhi™tli!<hl 1;^“'•'^’r J^^]y f,yr .ny Wor irtUy U> drink (rfl. <5! 

bnitac Codppws Wel«» JPJ/ttiJr- P- 9*' 


T/fE J^EL/E/OJ/S or 

are mortal/ In rc^rd to the relation between spring and the 
olher seasons,, the fifth section of this passage may be com' 
pared : * Spring is the priesthood; summer, the wamorcaste ; 
the rains am the (r7^) people/ ^ 

Among the conspicuous dmne forms of this period is the 
% Queen of Serpents, whose verses are d^anted over lire ; but she 
1| is the earth, according to some pas^siges (Ait. Br. v, 

Bn ih 1,4. 30; iv. 6 . 9. 17), In their divine origin there is* 
indeed^ according to the theolog}' now cLurent, no difference 
between the powers of light and of darkness^ between the gods 
and the * spirits** asants^ evil spirits. Many tales begin with 
the formula: *The gods and evil spirits, both bom of the 
Father-god* (fVr/: Br. L a. 4. 3 ). Weber thinks that this 
implies close acquaintance with Persian worship, a ^ort of tit' 
for-tat; for the Hindu would in that case call the holy spirit^ 
of the Persian a devil, just as the Fersian makes an 
evil spirit, out of the Hindu god^ t^a. But the rela¬ 

tions between Hindu and Persian in this period are still very 
uncertain. It Is interesting to follow out some of the Brah- 
manic legends* if only to see what was the conception of the 
evil spirits. In one such thcologidal legend the gods and the 
(evil) spirits^ both being sons of the Father-god, inherited 
from him, respectively, min<i and speech; hence the gods got 
the sacrifice and heaven, while the evil spirits got this earth* 
Again, the two entered on the inheritance of their father in 
time, and so the gods have the waxing moon, and the evil 
spirits, the waning moon iii, a. i. iS ; i. 7. a* 

But what these Asutas or (evil) spirits really are may be 
read easily from the texts. The gods are the spirits of light; 
the Asuras are the spirits of darkness. Therewith Is indis^ 
solubly connected the Idea th-^t sin and darkness are of the 
same nature, So one reads that when the sun rises it frees 

I F(W ta» A riw diffatnE ca&ta ^ thl* peii^ ^ NV^bcp, in tenth 

vti^latne of Iba libiiuAe 

r//£OLOGy T/f£ SAC/i^/£/C£. 1S7 

it5el! *from darkness, from siop’ as a snake from Its slough 
(/A ii. j. 1. 6)- And in another passage it is said that dark¬ 
ness and illusion were given to the Asuras as their portion by 
Uic Father-gtMl (rA iL 4. 2. 5)+ W'ilh this may be compared nlso 
the frequent grouping of the Asuras or Rakshas with darkness 
/A uL S. 2. 15 I ivp 3 p 4. 21), As to the nature of the gods 
the evidence b contradiotory* Both gods and evil spirits wtmo 
originally soulless and mortaL Agni (Fire) done was immortal, 
and it was only through him that the others continued to live. 
They became irnmortat by putting In their inmost being the 
holy (inimoml) fire (ik il. a. a. S)* On the other hand, it is 
said that Agni was originally without brightness; and Indra^ 
identified with the sun^ was originally dark (lA iv. 5. 4. 3; iii* 4, 
2, 15)- The belief in originally human condition of the 
gods (even the Father-god was originally mortal) is exemplified 
in a further passage, where it is said tlmt the gods used to 
live on earth, but they grew^ tired of man’s endless petitions 
and fled; aJao in another place, where it is stated that the 
gods used to drink together with men visibly, but now they 
do so invisibly {rA ii. 3. 4. 44 iii. 6. 2. z6)* How did such gods^ 
obtain their supremacy ? The answer b simple, ' by sacrifice * 
(gaL Br. Lil 1. 4. 3 : Bn iL 1.1). So nowr they llv'e by 

sacrifice s *The sun would not rise if the priest did not make 
sacrifice' (Cir/. Bn U. 3. i. 3). Even the order of things would 
change if the order Of ceremonial were varied : Night would 
be eternal if the priests did so and so; the months would not 
pass, one following the other, if the priests walked out or 
entered together, etc, {ik iv. 3.1* 9^10)* It is by a knowledge 
of the Vedas that one conquers all things, and the sacrifice 
is part and application of thLs knowledge, which in one passage 
is thus rcconditcly subdivided: ^Threefold b knowledge, the 
Rig Veda, the Vajur Veda, and the Sima Veda.^ The Rig 
Veda, the verses sung, are the earth ; the Vajus is air; the 

1 Tbe atlwrin Ia iwl yvt as a 


m£ OF LvniA. 

S&inati is the sky- He conquers eAitb, aitt and sky respectii^elj 
by these three %^edaSr The Rik and Saman are Indni and are 
speech ; the Vajus is Vishnu and mind^ (/i^- iv. 6* 7+ i ff.)* An 
item follows that touches on a modem philosophical question^ 

Apropos of speech and mind: "Whetc speech (alone) existed J 

everything was accomplished and known; but where mind 
(alone) existed nothing was accomplLshed or known' (ib. 1.4. 

4 - J“4t 7)- Mind and speech are male and female, and as 
yoke-fellows bear sacrifice to the gods; to be compared is 
the interesting dispute between mind and speech {ih 5^ S), 

As dependent as is man on what is given by the gods, so 
dependent are the gods on what is offered to them by men 
{miL Bn iL I- 7. 3^ S- 24)* ^ven the gods 

are now not native to heaven. They win heaven by sacnfiice„ 
by metreSp ctc+ Br. Iw 3+ 2. s). 

Whatr then, is the s-acrificc? A means to enter into the 
godhead of the gods> and even to control the gods* a cere¬ 
mony where every word was pregnant with consequences;^ 
every movement momentous. There are indicationSp however, 
that the priests themselves understood that much in the cere- 
tnoniaL was pure hdCus-pK>cus, and not of such importance as 
it was reputed to be. [Jut such faint traces as survive of a 
freer spirit objecting to ceremonial absurdities only mark more 
clearly the level plain of uninteiligent superstition which was 
the feeding-ground of the ordinary priests. 

Some o[ the eases of revolted common-sense are worth 
citing. Conspicuous as an authority on the sacrifice, and at 
the same tirne as a somewhat recalcitrant priest, is Ydjftavalkj'a, 
author and critic, one of the greatest names in Hindu ecclesi¬ 
astical history, [t was he who, apropos of the new rule in 

I Jtnd the pronnq^i^Qii ii^ ^ wotd or ttw iiewt U fabefuL Tbe fanuHu 

gc4b ^ ^ Twht^ir, the Ln anfer u^iwoDE^onocd fmjra^ 

^^iru whereby Use ji^rJaa was fram *««HiwCT^r srf IhdKt' 

to * Ei»dm«7nqa«nil,’ witb uiicxpKt«n ivHilt {( 3 r. L iS. 1. S; ^ a 4^ ei- 1) ! 


MJSA//.i/AjV/C r//£O/:0Gy A^r£> THE SACK/E/CM. 

tthlcsT so strongly insisted upon a^fter the Vc« 3 ic ^gc and al¬ 
ready beginning to obtain^ the rule that no one sliouLd eat the 
tlesh of the (sacredj cow Q Let no one eat beef* ^ , # Whoever 
eats it would be reborn (on earth) as a man of ill fame') said 
bluntly : 'As for me 1 eat (beef) if it is good (fitni)/ * It cer¬ 
tainly required courage to say this^ with the especial warning 
against beef, the meat of an animal peculiiirly holy 
iii, 1, 5+ 21). It was, again, Yajflavalkya (Qit, i* 3, i* 26), 
who protested against the priests* new demand that the beneht 
of the sacrifice should accrue in part to the priest j whereas 
it had previously been understood that not the sacrihcbl priest 
but the sacriftcer (the worshipper, the man who hired the priest 
and paid the expenses) got all the benefit of the ceremony. 
Against the priests' novel and unjustiiiable claim Yaj naval kya 
exclaims : *How can people have faith In this? Whatever be 
the blessing for which the priests pray, this blessing is for the 
worshipper (sacrificer) alonc.^’ It was ^'Ijftavalk^iu too, who 
rebutted some new superstition involving the sacrihcer's wife, 
wuth the sneer, 'who cares whether the wife,^ etc. ftJtf 

at/riirfAj iL These protestations are naively recorded^ 
though it IS once suggested that in some of his utterances 
Yiji^avalkya w'as not m earnest (rA iv. 1. i. 7). The high 
mind of this great priest is contrasted with the mundane views 
of his contemporaries m the prayers of himself and of another 
priest; for it is recorded that whereas Yajfiavalk}^^s pray'er to 
the Sun w'as *give me light ^ (or ^glorj't^ t^arm tm that 

of Aupoditeya waa ^glire me cows * (/^. I. 9. j. 16). The 
chronicler adds, after citing these prayers, that one obtains 

i ^rlw Trw4 It Of ' from tba shovkk!r' Tn IlL 4 . i. a ome £oola 

jOi DK er a goAt for a ntrj dEvl[npiSHlicd ai a £9 Lh« 

ETi»t is (ailed * cuw^ldLfcf' (Wn-iier, f W. pt 

9 Cafiapji^ fS. L ^ t. ai, * let ihe pd«t mrt * piM m? (or lu},* bol ^fuard 
thii wflrahjppw (ucTiftcer),' fwr li fay* ' ^ h* ladiuc^ no Wodni at sUl ; Ua* 

Is not for Uv bat for tho uciiSnr.” Ja birth pusacts,nurti eraphatl- 

rally, * for tbo HCii&iCcr a l p flc ." 



whatever he prap for, either illuminatioti or wealth.^ Yiljf^a 
va^lkya, however, is not the only protestant. In another pas¬ 
sage, iL 6* 3, t the sacTificer is told to shave his head 
alt around, so as to be like the sun; this will ensure his being 
able to ' consume (his foes) on all sides like the sun/ and it 
is added : Bui Asuri said, *What on earth has jt to- do with 
his head ? Let him not shave/^ 

* Eternal holiness- is won hy him that olTers the sacrifice of 
the Seasons. Characleristie is the ejtplaiiation^ ^for sucli an 
one Wins the year, and a year is a complete whole, and a 
complete whole is inde^ructlblc (eternal); hence his holiness 
is indestructible, and he thereby becomes a part of a par and 
goes to the gods; but as there 15 no destruction in the gods, 
his holiness is therefore indestructible" (ilf. ii, 6. 3. i). 

Not only a man's self but also his Manes are benefited by 
means of sacrihee/ He gives the ^kl.incs pleasure with his 
offering, but he also raises their estate, and sends them up to 
live in a higher world/ 'fhe cosmological position of the 
Manes are the that is, between the four quarters^ 

though, according to some, there are three kinds of them, nfma- 
Manes, sacrifice Manes (Manes of the sacrificial straw), and 
the burnt, the spirits of those that have been consumed in 
fire. They are, again, identified with the seasons, and are 
expressly mentioned as the guardians of houses, so that the 
Brahmanic Manes are at once Penates, Lares, and hlanes.* 

I Vam p* ’rmif 

^Aiari'f nAssxt as a Uieolofiiiui is liipgttMt, *lpwn the Sitakbra phlbuMplij’ ti 
iMJnut^Sjr cciDdi^etecI ^th ^ be net Anoi}^ plUi ibe sanu 

nuM rcompojn Weber, Lif. p. i 

I Tbs fiKrtfic^s ta iht Mjiraen are and ^ Imamli and 

3ire {kcu^muI addLUi^nf^ 

t Esidi ^neiriticin eef rtm %q a beUer It tb£ 

tinue. Aj a matter of cerednoalaJ di ii tJwt |J» runwtjtr fathen 

ij? poH Lm^ult^ly nil, wjilb ibe iinmediale pted^cenm nt a man arc the real 
beoefidaneft; they chrab up te the m the o^erlng. 

* Cwapart t'M 1 - S' n ii- Ji 7 t iOf 43; fi. 4^ J- ^4? W 5.4, ^ 

The sacrifice is by no means meant as an aid to the acquire* 
meiit of hfravenly bliss alone. Many of the great sacrifices are 
for the gaining of good things on earth. In one passage there 
is described a ceremony, the result of whkh is to be that the 
warrior, who is the sacriticurp may say to a man of the people 
'"fetch out and give me your store (/k i. j. 2. iv; j, 10). 
Every^body sacrifices, even the beasts erect .altars and fires J* 
That one should sacrifice without the ulterior motive of gain is 
unknown. Brah manic India knows no thankH^IFerlng. Ordi¬ 
narily the gain Is represented as a compensating gift from the 
divinity, whom the sacrificer pleases with his sacrifice* Very 
plainly is this expressed. He offers the sacrifice to the god 
with this teat: ^ Do thou give to me (and) i (will) give to thee ; 
do thou bestow on me (and) I (will) bestow on thee*’^ 
jii, 50; ^£1/. Bn ii. 5. 3. X9). But other ends are accomplished. 
By the Sacrifice he may injure his enemy, but in offering it, if 
he leaves too much over^ that part accrues to the good of his 
foe (Qiif. Bn 1* 2, 1. j; 9* i* iS). 

The sacrifice is iliroughout symbolical. The sacrificial 
straw represents the world; the metre used represents all 
living creatures, etc., — a symbolism frequentty suggested 
by a mere pun, but often as ridiculously expounded with' 
out such aid. Thu altaris measure is I he measure of 
mclres. The cord of regeneration (badge of the twke-bom^ 
the holy cord of the high castes) is triple, because food Is 
threefold, or because the father and mother with ihc child 
make three Bn lii. 5* l. 7 ff.; Ji i. 12)5 the Jagfifi 

metre contains the H^nng worlds because this is called 
(ik i. 8* 2 p I i)* 

Out of the varied mass of rules, speculations, and fancies, a 
few of general character may find place here, that the reader 

^ Thit {r£r lii U 3. 7) Is preceded a ar^meDt for HtUag up the 

firti iin4cF PteiadMi, iJw v( Jhc irJ^E fetr ^tan* itiaf do w Iw may 
Prfvt rewHHi Hjflifwiki isiher, xnd all of tb^ us kncwdlblj alOy. 



may gain a collective impression of (he religious literature of 
the lime. 

The fee for the sacrifice is mentioned in one place as one 
thousand cows. These must be presented in groups of three 
hundred and thirty-three each, three times, with an odd one of 
three colors. This is on account of the holy character of the 
numeral three. ‘But Asuri (appareniiy fearful that this rule 
would limit the fee) said “he may give more*" {QaL Br, iv. 5 . 
8 . u>. As to the fee, the rules are precise and their pro- 
pounders are unblushing. The priest performs the sacrifice 
for the fee alone, and it must consist of valuable garments, 
kiue, horses,‘ or gold ^ when each is to be given is careful^ 
stated. Gold is coveted most, for this is ‘immortality,’ ‘the 
seed of Agni,’ and therefore peculiarly agreeable to the pious 
priest.* For his greed, which goes so far that he proclaims 
that he who gives a'thousand klne obtains all things of heaven 
UL iv. s- I. ii). the priest has good precept to cite, for the 
gods of heaven, in all the tales told of them, ever demand a 
reward from each other when they help their neighbor-gods. 
Nay, even the gods require a witness and a vow, lest they 
injure each other. Discord arose among them when once they 
performed the guest ■offering; they divided into different parties, 
Agni with the %'asu 5 , Soma with the kodms. Vanina with the 
Adityas, and Indm with the Marnts. Hut with discord came 
weakness, and the eril spirits got the better of them. So they 
made a covenant with each other, and took Wind as witness 
that they would not deceive each other. This famous covenant 
ol the gods IS the prototype of that significant covenant made 
by the priest, that he would not, while pretending to beseech 

1 -tlB* Lut r«s U nol M eatamim. F« ao flWatioB t* Slriii the lee Ii a 
bw* or a white butt; elthor of them rt(»e*nl3jig U* p™p« tww ef Ihe uin 
Cfev, jIJir. IL t 3. S>t brt *"* * 

5. L Sw ?■)'■»■ »_i j _# # jx I 

LLi.l>s; It. 3.*. 14; 5 - f. Ij; f«if kind* of 

6^7, i4 0. {mtk \A also * Bwd/ a. ii. 4* 


good for tl« sacrificer,* secretly do him harm (sis he could by 
altering the ceremonial).* The theoi)' of the fee* in so far « 
it affects the sacrifices, is that the gods, the Manes, and men 
all cicist by what is sacrificed. Even the gods seek rewards; 
hence the priests do the same,* The sacrilicer sacrifices to get 
a place in Jei'aloka (the world of the gods). The sacrifice goes 
up to the world of gods, and after it goes the fee which the 
sacrificer (the patron) gives; the sacrificcr follows by ratcbiog 
hold of the fee given to the priests {ih. i. 9. 3. t). It is to be 
noted, moreover, that sacrificing for a fee is ie«gnized as a 
profession. The work (sacrifice is work, 'work is sacrifice,' it 
is somcwbere said) is regarded as a matter of business. 'f'b«<t 
are three means of Uvelihood occasionally referred to, telling 
stories, singing songs, and reciting the Veda at a sacrifice 

(Cat. Br. UL 2. 4. 16). _ 

As an example of the absurdities given as ‘the ways of 
knowledge' (absurdities which are necessary to know in order 
to a full understanding of the mental state under consideration) 
may be cited (V/. Br. iv. 5. 8. ii, where it h said that tf the 
sacrificial cow goes east the sacrificer wins a good world here¬ 
after; if north, he becomes more glorious on earth ; if west, 
rich in people and crops; if south, he dies; ‘such are the 
ways of knowledge.’ In the same spirit it is said that the sun 
rises east because the priest repeats certain vmes (AH. Br. 1. 
•j 4) No little stress is laid on geographical position. The 
e^t 'IS the quarter of the gods; the north, of men; the south, 
of the dead (Manes; ^at. Br. i. a. 5. 17)? while the west is 
the region of snakes, according toi». iii. i.*i. 7 - account 
of the godly nature of the east (“from the east came the gods 

1 la AH. ilL 13* pAwl t* ™llr hHw ta U to .Ulf 

w* tBlwB liT ^ '1“'* EtM-trtrt s«h »ndma b 

HTmldlfidr , , . 

S For atl«r *r n* eplt «hipln Hladal,®). , _ 

J.1 fT.; U3.6.».Jii Sv-J-tSi S'**!! 


T^I£ £EL/i^/0^'S OE JiYD/A. 

westward to men," H, ii. 6 - i- n) the sacriackl buUding, like 
occidental churches, is built east and west, not north and 
south. The cardinal points are elsewhere given to certain 

gods i thus the north is Rudra’s,' 

It has been said that the theological ideas are not clear. 
This was inevitable, owing to the tendency to identify various 
divinities, EstJecially noticeable is the identification of new or 
local gods w ith others better accredited, Rudra and Agni, etc. 
Rudra is the god of cattle, and when the other gods went to 
heaven by means of sacrifice he remained or earth ; his 1 ^ 
names are garva, Bhava, ‘ Beast-lord,’ Rudra, Agni iQit. 

T , 3 - Malt. S. i, 6 . 6 ). tndra is the Vasu of the spdn, The 
arc occasionally thirtj-lour In number,^ight Vasus. eleven 
Rudras, twelve Adityas, heaven and earth, “"<1 
the thirty-fourth; but this Prajipati is the All and Everyth mg 

fC-r/. Br. L d. 4- = 5 7- J <T-)- ‘V 

were all alike and good, three became superior, Agm. Iniha, 
and SOrya. But, a^in, the Sun is death, and Agni is head of 
all the gods. Moreover, the Sun is now India; the Manes 
are the seasons, and Varuna, too, is the seasons, as being the 
year (Ciif. Br. iv. 5. 4- H i- 6 . 4 - S- >®); as we 

have said, is the Earth; the fee for an oflenng to her is a 
cow. Why? Because Earth is a cow and Aditi is Earth; 
Earth is a mother and a cow is a mother. Hence the fee 
XS ft CO'W ^ 

The tales of the gods, for the moat part, are foolish. But 
they show well what conception the priests had of their divim- 

to p, up™ »thit non craunmads^wWotthoBow tact 

It™ li* Uiw “t *»■ WS ^ ^ “* 

cnatloci, the EePlua ot autumBal iiilmess- . , , j-fli 

irtt Sr H a I *1. ntr- reudi oOirtertoo.t tuicy there maj- be here It Is <!.& 
h. deter«l«. H re™ trep«sibJe lb.t sedl«follow non 
safjiert ? - Ttie ^ rlctoPTh becatise ^a =ja7^ Jlh thli 

^lunrkil^c BM ^ vtctiirr oitt Ida rftalj"^ L 5. ^ Jh i&). 


tics. Mao’s origioal skin was pm by the gods upon the cow; 
hence a cow runs away from a man ^causc she thinks be is 
trying to get back his sldn. The gods cluster about at an 
oblation, each crying out * xMy name/ r>., each is anxious to 
get it. The gods, with the evil spirits—‘both sons of the 

Father'_attract to themselves the plants; Vanina gets the 

barley by a pun. They build castles to defend themselves 
from the evil spirits. Five gods are picked out as worthy of 
offerings: Aditi, Speech, Agni, Soma, the Sun (five, because 
the seasons are five and the tegionsjrjt India and Wind 

have a dispute of possessibliT Prajapati, the Father, decides it 
The heavenly singers, called the Gandharvas, recited the V eda 
to entice (the divine female) Speech to come to them; while 
the gods, for the same purpose, created the lute, and sang and 
played to her. She came to the gods; hence the weakness of 
women in regard to such things. India is the god of sacrifice; 
the stake of the sacrifice is Vishnu's; Vayu (Wind) is the 
leader of beasts; Uhaga is blind;' POshan (because he eats 
mush) is toothless. The gods run a race to see who shall get 
first to the sacrifice, and India and Agni win; tliey ate the 
warrior-caste among the gods, and the All-gods are the people 
(i-ffir fif ) Vet, again, the Maruts are the people,and Varuna 
is the warrior^aste; and, again. Soma is the warrior-caste. 
The Father-god first created birds, then reptiles and snakes. 
As these all died he created mammalia; these survived because 
they had food in themselves; hence the Vcdic poet says ‘three 
generations have passed away.’* 

1 AUi™gt b lw« t(«r. U 7. + W. 

b e^rntiy th. G«<1 UuA i 

, IL-X , 6-.,. .J..., W. S- J- '3 i >'• V 'iV . ’■ 

nJicf muU dbting«3U., I* tl» th. sod from U* priert; 

UU. fTV» W-J. Th. firu itep 1. 


1 » 

Varuna t» now quite ihe god of night and god of purificatioiii 
as a water-god. Water is the * essence (sap) of LmmortalUjf, 
and the bath of purification at the end of the sacrifice (at**- 
hkriha) stands in direct relation to Varuna, The formula to 
be repeated U: “With the gods' help may I wash out sin 
against the gods; with the help of men the sin against men” 
{gaLBr. iv. 4* 3 - >55 “■ S- ^ 7 )- Varuna ari^ 

respectively, intelligence and will, priest and srarrior; and 
while the former may exist without the latter, the latter cannot 
live without the fonner, ‘ but they are perfect only when they 

cooperate * (J 6 , iv- 1.4- *)• . 

Of the divine legends some are old, some new. One speaks 
of the sacrifice as having been at first human, subsequently 
changing to beast sacrifice, eventually to a ri« offering, 
which last now represents the original sacrificial animal, man. 
Famous, too, is the legend of the flood and Father hfanu's 
escape from it (CoA Br. I S. 1. 1 ff-). the Vtdic mj-lh 

is retold, recounting the rape of by the metrical equiva¬ 
lent of fire (J 3 /VA Br. L i. 3. 10; Br. i. S- 2. to). An¬ 
other tale takes up anew the old story of Cupid and Psyche 
{PurUravas and Urva^i); and another that of the Hindu Pro¬ 
metheus story, wherein Matari^t-an fetches fire from heaven, 
and gives it to mortals (Jh///. Br. iii. 1.3.2; fuA Br, xi. 5. i- 

Interesting, also, is the talc of Vishnu having been a dwarf, 
and the tortoise aratar, not of Vishnu, but of Piajipati ; also 
the attempt of the evil spirits to climb to heaven, and the trick 
with which Indra outwitted them* For it Is noticeable that 

Bd-rt. RSeV«Ja.*.Ur-ilWhaspilttUtl» ' finthml cf Rod*.’ Tlie rtit 

l ■l«i> fa deiftsl . U" **" ^**’*®' 

god (PrappuU) « *lioply Th* FithCT (/tfd). 

I Camun .Vuit. S. lU. la. it Aii, ^r. U, S; (W. L i 3. 5T 'ri-1-1. J5i J-’- 
«- a. 1 .6; » nm i»»l «-« ‘"“'I* O" "i™ HOiSw*. 

HSUer, ASL. p. 419; Wd*r, XDH&, »UL i6i (»e the Bibliognplsrii Stni/fm, 1 5+ 

V 1V*hef has liaitita»l kh™ ^ these fmf. Strafin. L ^ flf. 

S Tim, St. iiL *. 9 .7i t"'* 1. i. S- 5 ; tt- *■ *• tJ J S- »■ ** 



the evil spirits are as stropg by nature as are the gods, and it 
is only by eraft that the latter prcvaiL* 

Seldom are the tales of the gods indecent. The story* of 
Pmjipati's incest with his daughter Is a remnant of nature 
worship which survives* in more or less anthropomorphic form, 
from tL time of the Rig Veda (a. bt.) to that of mediaeval 
Uteraltire.-and is found in full in the epic, as m the 
period; but the story always cods with the horror of the gods 

Old legends are varied. The victory over Vntra /I®* 
expounded thus: Indra, who slays Vritra, is I e sun. n ^ 
js^e moon, who swims into the sun's mouth on the “'hhl 
the new moon. The sun rises after swallowing him. and the 
moon is invisible because he is swallowed (“he who kn^s 
thU swallows his foes"). The sun vomits out the ^ 

the latter is then seen in the west, and increases ^ 

«rve the sun as food. In another passage it ts said th« w^n 
the moon is invisible be is hiding in plants and waters iS^t 
.fir. L 6 . 3. 17; 4 - t*-=*)• 


\Vhen the sacrifice is completed the priest return^it werj 
to earth, and becomes human. He formally puts off his sac^ 
ficial vow, and rehabilitates himself with humanity saying, I 
am even he that 1 am.”* As such a man. through service to 
Z g^ds become a divine offering, and no longer hum:m ^ 

tabto .!»> fo. »n,cd . 1 . the 

1 Coi.,.1* -we. J. L h ^ f^ ^ ‘ 1^’ lnd« amlMd .W 

BuPsbdT?. H , to'Vl. I. lli JJ. c™- 

. .Wtr^. w. ^ ^ tato 

part jIuIt, 0!>r.lT.p-4S- .t-nMrhw ije enougli, l»l they ethitit m 

(Ttl* gods, and th« Billvt«nni we twpi -*8 

* sit,* yt, drf-W » -a'"', t-'* ^ i- !.«■ - 9 - 3 - * 


THE J^£L/Cmvs OE 

sacriiicia] animaL Despite protectant legends such as that just 
recorded^ despite formal disclaimerSp liuman sacrifice existed 
long after the period of the Rig Veda, where it Ls alluded to; 
a period when even old men are exposed to die.^ The 
anaMAd^tirtjsAit h not a fiction ; lor that, on certain occasions, 
instead of this ‘man of straw" a real victim was offered, is 
shown by the ritual manuals and by BraJimanic texts.'^ llius, 
in tVr/. vi. i. i. iS: lie kills a man first , . . The cord 
that holds the man is the longest” It is note worthy that also 
among the Amezican Indians the death of a human victim by 
fire was regarded as a religious cerernony, and that. Just as in 
India the man to be sacrificed was allowed almost all his 
desires for a year^ so the victim of the Indian was first greeted 
as brother and presented with gilts, eiren with a wife* 

But this^ the terrible barbaric side of religious woiship^ is 
now' distinctly yielding to a more humane religiDn. The 'barley 
ewe is taking the place of a bloodier ofTering. It has been 
urged that the humanity^ and the accompanying silliness of 
the Brahmanic period as compared with the more robust char¬ 
acter of the earlier age are due to the weakening and softening 
effects of the climate. But we doubt wdiether the climate of 
the Punjab differs as much from that of Delhi and Patna as 
does the charaicter of the Rig Veda from that of the Brlhmanas. 
We shall protest again when we come to the subject of 

l vilk a; Zimenefn P- 37S 

a Compon Weber, im 777 {umI abora). The mail who 

la 3b,ughtcnU tami be Mibef a prieat luor a tnit a nafrior or a man of the 
tMrd eaUx (Wetef, atn^). 

* Lf MirfifTf np, PmVmASk^ iit. p. ho. The Cimtirt hotion tliat the 

Afnerira.Ti Isunu bis Tictims at the Make ttienily im pkiasuK Is Incenect. 

He fieqefDtljr did 90,113 bo does « ta^y, hat in the MTmtcealh century Ibis 
ifittn li pjt of a nllKieiia tEfemofiy. He pfafaoUr would have burned Ids cajjrtivw 
upray, but he gladly utihaed bis pkosure ex a meajlS ef propitiating his lodL la 
India it waJ ]nM ibe otto way. 

* SabaUtulea iDetaJ or of vietlmi ore also mentioned. 

* THat the Vodle kiinng the saoilktal beoft Ix^ting and smottolng^ 

WM 'my cniel Duj be seea ia the deacripUcint it, d. 



Buddhism against the too great influence which has bMo 
claimed for climate- Politics and society, m our opinion, had 
more to do with altering the rellgicma of India than had a 
higher lumperature and miasma. As a result of e^e an s o 

_foT the Brahmans are now the divine pampered sen-ants o 

established kings, not the energetic peers of a changing popu¬ 
lation of warrioTS —the priests had lost the inspiration that 
came from action ; they now made no new hymns; 
lormulated new rules ol sacrifice. They became 'titel^ctua^ 
debauched and altogether weakened in character \ . 

nous with this universal degradation and lack of fibre, is found 
the occasional substitution of barley and ncc sacrifi«is for 
tiiose of blood; and it maybe that a sort of selfch chanty wa^ 
at work here, and the priest saved the beast to sj^re bim^ 

But there is uo very early evidence of a humaue view of sacri¬ 
fice influencing the priests- , k..,. . nntc 

The Brahman is no Jain. One must read far to hear a note 

of the approaching doctrine of ' non-injury, 

one finds a contemptuous allusion, as in a pitying strain, to the 
poor plants and animals that follow after man in reaping some 
JTcTificial benefit from a ceremony-’ U does not seem to us 
that a recogniacd respect for animal Ide « 
creatures lies at the root of proxy sacrifice, t^o^h it 
came in plav. But still less does it appear probable that, as is 
often said, aversion to beast-sacrilice is due to the doctnne of 
and rti-birth in animal form. The notion begins 

to appear in the Brahmanas, but not m the 
transmigration. It was surely not because the Hin u 
afraid of^ating his deceased grandmother that he first abstained 
from meat. For, long after the doctrine of and 

is established, animal sacrifices are not only permitted but 

I Br.L i. J. 4- , . . jjnpji*, that the clu»(e at shod* is 

li/.. tb. 1«1, i, 

parbnee ^ ^htiTr 

TU£ R££/CJ0A^S OF /AW/f. 

eojoined^ and the epic characters shoot deer and evea eat 
^ CQws^ We thinks In short* that the change began as a sump- 
tuat)' measure only. In the rase of human sacrifice there is 
doubtless a civilized repugnance to the act, vhich is clearly 
seen in many passages where the slaughter of man is made 
purely s;^inhoUcaL 'fhe only wonder is that it should have 
obtained so long after the age of the Rig Ycda. But like the 
stone knife of saenhee among the Romans it is recei ved enstora* 
and hard to do away with, for priests are consenMtive, Human 
sacrifice miist have been peculiarly horrible from the fact that 
the sacrificer not only had to kill the man hut to eat him, as is 
attested by the formal statement of the liturgical works,^ But 
in the case of other animats (there arc five sacrificial animals, 
of which man is first) wc think it was a question of csrpcnse on 
the part of the laity. When the tifma becarne rare and expen¬ 
sive, substitutes were permitted and enjoined* So with the 
great sacrificeSi The priests had built up a great complex of 
forma, where at every turn fees were demanded* The whole 
expense* falling on the one mdivtdual to whose benefit accrued 
the sacrifice, must have been enormous i in the case of ordinary 
people impossible. But the priests then permitted the sacrifice 
of substitutes, for their fees still remained; and even ift the 
case of human sacrifice some such caution may have worked, 
for ordinarily it cost *one thousand cattle^ to buy a man to be 
sacrificed. A proof of this lies in the fact that animal sacrifices 
were not forbidden at any time, only smaller (cheaper) animals 
took the place of cattle. In the completed Brahmanic code the 
ruEe is that animals ought r^ot to be killed except at sacrifice, 
and practically the smaller creatures were substituted for aittle, 
just as the latter had gTadually taken the place of the old horse 
(and man) sacrifice. 

]f advancing civilisation results in an agreeable change of 
moTaUty in many regards, it is yet accompanied with wretched 

^ Weber, /m/iuA£ Sftvi/jtMf t |i, ^3;. 



trails in others- The whole silliness of superstition exceeds 
belief. Because Tihallabhei'n once broke his arm on changing 
the metre of certain formulae, it is evident to the priest that it 
is wrong to triHo with received metres, and hence “let no one 
do this hereafter.” There is a compensation on reading such 
trash in the thought that all this superstition has kept for us 
a carefull)' preserN-ed text, but that is an acdtlent of priestly 
foolishness, and the priest can be credited only with the folly. 
\\’hy is ‘horsc*grass' used in the sacrifice? ^cause the sacri* 
ftce once ran away and “became a horse.’ Again one is^ 
thankful for the historical side*1ighl on the horsc-sacrifice; 
but the witlessness of the unconscious historian can hut bring 
him into contempt.’ Charms that are said against one are of 
course cast out by other charms. If one is not prosperous 
■with one name he takes another. If the cart creaks at the 
sacrifice it is the voice of evil spirits; and a formula must 
avert the omen. J^rntf-husks are liable to tom into snakes; 
a formula must avert this catastrophe. Everything done at 
the sacrifice is godly; everything human is to be done 
in an inhuman manner, and, since in human practice one cuts 
his left finger-nails first and combs the left side of the beard 
first, at the sacrifice he must cut nails and lieard first on the 
other side, for “whatever is human at a sacrifice is useless" 
{fyrddharn vSi tad yajnasya yad mSrtusamy, Of religious puns 
we have given instances already. Agni says: “prop me on 
the propper for that is proper” (A'Vvr), etc., etc.* One of these 
examples of depra«d superstition is of n more dangerous 
nature. The effect of the sacrifice is covert as well as overt. 

I fW. Br, L j. J. l?J m. 4. 17- 

* (<rf.itf. ttt. J.4.lo; 6. j. J4l s- J- (“"I*" 6- 4- >4- ri. 

iU. ,. J. 4 ; J. t 4 : L 7 - 9 ! ri. ». *. H- Th, A Tl™ 

fa * In ar»tt«r port ^ the -wk tc eff«t Ha* ^ pmpen 

In life thtv hfa Bum ihB to hi* pandKiB, W tr tli 

biw as® usttOK tbe ILIM of liwlf pewpef™ ET^athcn QKAS. It. 



The word is as potent as the act. Consequently if the samitcer 
during the sacrifice merely mutter the words “let such an one 
die,” he must dici for the sacrifice is holy, godly; the words 
are divine, and cannot be frustrated Hr. iii. i. 4- t i 

Lv. t. I. i6). 

I All this superstition would be pardonable if it were primitive, 
but that it comes long after the Vedic poets have sung reveals 
a continuance of stupidity which is marvellous. Doubtless 
those same poets were just as superstitious, but one would 
think that with all the great literature behind them, and the 
thoughts of the philosophers just rising among them, these later 
priests might show a higher level of intelligence. But in this 
regard they are to India what were the monks of mediaeval 
times to Europe. 

We turn now to the ethical side of religion. But, before 
the sacrifice, one point should be explained clearly. 
The Hindu sacrifice can be performed only by the priest, 
and he must be of the highest caste. No other might or could 
perform it. For he alone understood the ancient teats, which 
to the laity were already only half intelligihle. Again, as liirth 
has pointed out, the Hindu sacrifice is performed only for one 
individual or his family. It was an cspeosivc rite (for the 
gaining of one object), addressed to many gods for the benefit 
of one man. To offset this, however, one must remember that 
there were popular ffites and sacrifices of a more general nature, 
to which many were invited and in wliich even the lower castes 
took pan ; and these were also of remote aniiquity. 

jMready current in the Brltimanas is the phrase ‘man’s 
debts.’ Either three or four of such moral obligations were 
recognized, debts to the gods, to the seers, to the Manes, and 
to men. V\TKH:ver pays these debts, it is said, has discharged 
all his duties, and by him all is obtained, all is w^on. And 
what are these duties? To the gods he ow'es sacrifices; to the 
seers, study of the Vedas; to the Manes, offspring; to man, 



hospitality (fa/. Br. L 7. 2. iff.; in Br, ti. 3. 10. 5, the 
last fails), Traiislatetl into raodero equivalents this means 
that man mast have faith and good works- Uut more really is 
demanded than is stated here- First and foremost is the duty 
of truthfttlncss, Agni is the lord of vows among the gods 
(RV. viii. II. t S Br. iii. 2, a. 34)- and speech is a divinity 
(Sarasvati is personified speech, <^at. Br. iii. 1. ^ 9 , etc.). 
Truth is a religions as well as moral duly, “This (All) is 
two-foM, there is no third; all Is cither truth or untruth ; now 
truth alone is the gods (ra/iw** « <r dd'St) and untruth is man. 
Jforeover, “one law the gods observe, truth" i^at. Br, 1, 1 
4; iii. 3. 3, 2; 4. 3. 3 ), There is another pass.ige upon this 
subject: “ Vo serve the sacred fire means truth; he who speaks 
truth feeds the fire; he who speaks lies pours water on it; in 
the one case he strengthens his vital (spiritual) energy, and 
becomes better; in the other he weakens it and becomes 
worse" m. ii. =- ‘9)‘ expressly named 

and reprobated as such, is adultery. This is a sin against 
Varuna.* In connection with this there is an interesting 
missage implying a priestly confessional. At the sacrifice 
the s.acrificer's wife is formally asked by the pnesi whether 
she is faithful to her husband. She is asked this that she 
mav not sacrifice with guilt on her soul, for “when confessed 
the guilt becomes less."* If it is ashed what other moral virtues 
are especially inculcated besides truth anti purity the answer is 
that the acts'commonly cited as self-evidently sins are mnrder. 
theft, and abortion; incidentally, gluttony, anger, and procras- 

1 W-e» it f« Ite sru cu™ It witaml to ™nd«r tU 

‘TJieBodi iirtt™tbalnni!i*i«l men MB iwlni-tli-' _^ 

» S'- iL 4 - 1 , S-S H1* “wl the ruherflpd (^VHontaln rala vt «ti^ 
1o bkU, Mmc, »»n, ^ “ NdtlKT g«b. M*««. n»r U94t> ih* 

Falhct’* law, ooh sotta hkp 

*Jri. J^.lL s a. VM«m «i»» « I” 

JSr, i.V 5. a. *oIlt cwifraaeil becomea 1c» “btamt It thereby betmHd tnilh 

r//£ £m/Gmvs of 


tinatbn.^ As tG thu ioankl virtue of obseci'ing days^ certain 
times are allowed and certain times are not allowed for worldly 
acts. But every day is in part a holy-day to the Hindm The 
list of \amies is about the samcp thereforej as that of the deca- 
Jo^e^—the worship of the right divinity j the obsen^nce of 
certain seasons for prayer and sacrifice; honor to the parents; 
abstinence from theft, murder^ adultery^. En^y aLone is omitted.* 

What eschatological conceptions are strewn through the 
literature of this era are vague and often contradictory. 'J’he 
souls of the departed are at one time spoken of as the stars 
(JtfiV/. S. % 4. 1. j); at another^ as nnitijig with and 

living in the world of the gods (C<r/. ^r. ii. 6^ 4. 

The principle of if not the thtroiy^ is already known, 

but the very thing that the completed philosopher abhors is 
looked upon as a blessing, rebirth* body and all, even on 
earth.* Thus in one passage* as a reward for knowing some 
divine mystery (as often happens* this mystery is of little Im¬ 
portance, only that * spring is bom again out of winter^), the 
savant is to be ‘ bom again in this world' t# ^asmm 

Qtf. Br^ 5^ *4)* The esoteric wisdom is 

here the transfer of the doctrine of metempsychosis to spring, 
^fan has no hope of immortal life (on earth) but, by estab- 

X It 4. 2. 6; 4. E. 14; J.. ^ ^ E. zS; ^ VIIm knerwi bi 4 a’’i 

ThcA lei cue ii«l Li ulff tlbu olaiM Es certaiji^ uEuertalE^ li 

the imtcrav.” 

^ nttk ruka uc EDle»tEiis. Th« frpm 

to Fit , tor k lenjolixU; tlKm^gh thb rein ti oppoicd bf Dailm Vlrtluiji, 

Br. L E. I. iO| on the eremnd that nn in tl^ godj b, mvk E>t bcuia; 

*^hcnct hv uJd bcan» for [□&''" 

* AdltiHli TcprBK^t JBP<^ **' The baU Ei ■ CfFtTn of Indn*" and so II tlr I^U 

eaji be made to roif jflr, 5. J, l 9 >, thcti p«w Hwy know tha.! JndrsL Qiuate to 

the hctiIUk. " SIm if tswn Into Iwiuil^ver) world E* (hjr hii iirtt in a. fHVfdou* 
•exlUvncc),*^ b 31 shpcrt formub {Pr. tI. z. z. a;}, whEdi t^pft9«nti the Jtaxma 
doctricd bk lit principk. fipuaBti tho ii here not Ihii 'wvrhh but 

the next. CoEDpaie Weto^ U. Z57 C; Itub’, OST. r. ^14 Ef. 

* Tto^h 7 'onlb vmj be rcftwed la him by the A^nm, (.'#1. Br. It. L 5 . i fl. 

Here tiie J 4 ea|ih «4 with Hcn^n end Earth 



Ibhing tlie holy fires, and especially by establishlag in hb 
inmost soul the imtnoruil clctnetiE of fire, be lives the full 
desirable length of life ii. a* 2. 14, To the later sage, 
length of life is undesirable). But in yonder world, where the 
sun itself is death, the soul dies again and again. All those 
on the other side of the sun, the gods, arc immortal} but all 
those on this side are exposed to this death. VVhen the suit 
wishes, he draws out the vitality of any one, and then that one 
dies; not once, but, being drawn up by the sun, which is 
death, into the very realm of death (how different to the con- 
ception of the son in the Rig Veda t) he dies over and over 
again.* But in another passage it is said that when the sac¬ 
rifice r is consecrated he *hecorne 5 one of the deities ; and 
one even finds the doctrine that one obtains ‘union with 
BrahmS,* winch is quite in the strain of the Upanishads : but 
here such a saying can refer only to the upper castes, for the 
gods talk only to the Upper castes ” (fff/. Br, si. 4- 4 - »1 
1. t. H'-io). TTic dead man is elsewhere represented as going 
to heaven * with his whole body,* and, according to one passage, 
when he gets to the nest world his good and evil are weighed 
in a balance. I'here are, then, quite diverse views in regard 
to the fate of a man after death, and not less various are the 
opinions in regard to his reward and punishment. According 
to the common belief the dead, on leaving this world, pass 
between two fires, asm^ikht, raging on cither side of his path. 
These fires bum the one that ought to be burned (the wicked), 
and let the good pass by. Then the spirit (or the man him- 

i Br. IL > > 7- Aprep« of Uw via 3t mar bfl nrvallanetl 1^ 

uxcfffi^ac to Br. iiL 44, tlw wo iitrer Titally ** Fvspk tMai thM hn 
but in trath bi Dolir tlK ond ^ 

b^kiwp diy abovB ^ uid wtwo th^y tJiliJc ta riws Sfi tbe mocnlng. wr* to 

tlw ciud of the nifht* tujM roondt bekm, abcie. liv ti^wsr 

toUt vtA*. WlKK*^ >rao»i tWa cif Kim, that he SHi, labtUM and Eilw^ 
maa of fftnn with tl* vtn- ^ Ccim|aa« Muir, 05T. 

T. p$. Ttb may 1* tlM reul 1 ®™ why tht V«da of u dafk and 

]]ghi Jiim. 



self in body) is represented as going up on one of two paths, 
^ther he ^oes to the Ma,ne& on a path which+ according to 
later teaching', passes southeast through the inoon, or he goes 
northeast (the gods^ direction) to the suti, which is his ' course 
and suy*' In the same chapter one is inlonued that the rays 
of the sun are the good (dead), and that every brightest light 
is the Father-god- The general conception here U that the 
sun or the stars are the destination of the pious. On the other 
hand it U said that one will enjoy the fruit of his acts here on 
earth, in a new birth; or that he will *go to the nes;E world*; 
or that he will suffer for his sins in helK The last is told in 
legendarj^ fornix and appears to us to be not an early view 
retained in folk-lore, but a late modification of an old legend. 
V.iruna sends his son Hhrigu to hell to find out what happens 
after death, and he finds people sufrering torture, and, again, 
avenging themselves on those that have vnonged them. But, 
despite the resemblance between this and Grecian myth, the 
fact that in the whole compass of the Rik (in the Athan^an 
perhaps in v, 19) there is not the slightest allusion to torture 
in hell, precludes, to our mind, the possibility of this phase 
having been an ancknc inherited belief.^ 

Annihilation or a life In under darkness is the first (Rik) 
hell The general antithesis of light (as good) and darkness 
(as bad) is here plainly revealed again. Sometimes a little 
variation occurs. Thus, according to QttL vi. 5. 4. 8| the 
stars are womcn-souls, perhapSi, as elsewhere, men also. The 

1 tvw, L 4. 3. II-aa fTba iJiiHtr shatl ^ufftr and (juicilj to yoBdier 
worVl^p iL 6b f {eoffl|iaPB SVcl*r, Asf. p- ae ff.; lilisi^ 

of wtiith a nwm modftra Ibrro b ffluad ’m Uks Opwiishad period. For ihc 
m 0 m the ihti. the fina on rithiff aid* ef the way, the dflpSriat^ to beAvem ’irith 
tttf whole iHdf/ CDKipare firf- Br. i 9. jk S“i5t S-1* ^ t vL 6. x 4; xL X 7- i 

Weber, /jv- r- F 3 * 4 - ^ ^ ^ 

world I* a dLsgrM^ ^ Muir and fur that Ptason they m <ijUrCted at ImriaV 
CiMnyare the cnsloHi nj dwalbed by the Fitxxh RusHOfurie^ beft. The Atufiritu* 
Indian hw I* liawa ill hla bonia for oae, and ibe buryl*^ qI tl» ii an 

anmual reUgiew cereEBDny. 

T/f£OM/^S OF C^MATfOiV. 


converse notion that darkness is the abode of evil appears at 
a very early date: “'^Indra brought down the heathen, dasyu^^ 
into the lowest darkness^” it ta said in the Athar^^a \eda 
(ix. 3 . t^y 

In the later part of the great ‘Brahmana of the hundred 
paths ’ there seems to be a more tnodem view inculcated in 
regard to the fate of the dead. Thiis^ In v'u i+ 2. the 
opinion of ^ sontet* that the lire on the altar is to bear the 
worshipper to the sky^ Is objected to, and it is explained that 
he becomes immortaU which antithesis is in purely Upanb 
shadic style, as will be seen below. 


In Vedic polytheism^ with its strain of pantheism^ the act of 
creating the world * is variously attributed to different gods. At 
the end of this period theosophy invented the god of the 
golden germ, the great Person (known also by other titles)* 
who is the one (pantheistic) god. In whom all things are con¬ 
tained, and who himself is contained in even the smallest 
thing. The Atharvan transfers the same idea in its delinca- 1 , 
don of the pantheistic image to VarunaT, that Vanma who is I 
the seas and yet is contained in the drop of water (iv. 16)+ I 
a Varuna as different to the Vamna of the Kik as is the 

1 CcHTiiPa» MV. IV. aSu 4: lodra ItmA tte hwtheik" Wet^ 

abxm, Uf, llwl the tJat Brahnunas li^ tOI are b™ 

in the MJrt wrJd, where they are niwiided or panlahed u thoy are gwd 

crf lad f whereaa In the RL^ Veda thfi fitwd rtjokfi In hearea, and rtw h^ are afiiiU 
hltaUfl. ThLi vhfw 1* to be imdlitoi^ howmr^ bf ch sSdevtheflrfaa u ttuae 

mentiot^, thil the food (or wi-e) may nslrtre! 0« earth, or bo united with 
psdi, or IjewM MnliflMt or start (the btw m ‘watoT* lo the B^ndii,»nd tWi 
niay explain lh« atateMat that the »gd 1* • Lo tbe raids! ol watcrt 

1 Tbere 3* in this afu m notion oC tbe repeated creat^q^i. fou&d h lattr Elteratuit 
f>B the eantrwTr St H eiprwdf aatd in the Ml|8 VetLu rt. 4 S. k, IhaE Kcaren aM 
earth aie created but mkc: “ Only om waj hpcarea Otal^ Wily OD® was earth 
treaied,” ZlJiuaert AIL, 



Atharvan Iiwira to his older prototype, Phiiosophically the 
Rile, at its close, declares that “desire is the seed ot mind," 
and that “being arises from not-being." 

Jn the Utahmanas the creator is the All-god in more anthropo- 
norphic form. I'he Father-god, Ppajipati, or Jlrahmi (per¬ 
sonal equivalent o( brakma'^ is not only the father of gods, 
men. and devils, but he is the All. Thb Father-god of unir 
s'ersal sovereignty, Brahnii, remains to the end the person^ 
creator. It is he who will serve as creator for the Puianic 
S&nkh}^ philosophy, and even after the rise of the Hindu 
sects be will still be regarded in this T^ht, although his acti«ty 
will be conditioned by the will of Vishnu or Qiva. In pure 
philosophy there will be an abstract First Cause; but as there 
» no religion in the acknowledgment of a First Cause, this too 
wiU soon be anthfopomolrphlzed^ 

The Brahmanas themselves present no clear picture of crea¬ 
tion. All the accounts of a personal creator arc based merely 
on anthropomorphized versions of the text * desire is the seed. 
Praj^paii wishes offspring, and creates. There is, on the 
other hand, a philosophy of creation which reverts to the tale 
of the ‘golden germ.'* The world was at first water j thereon 
floated a cosmic golden e^ (the principle of fire). Out of 
this came Spirit that desired; and by desire he begat the 
worlds and all things. It is improbable that in this somewhat 
Orphic mystery'there lies any pre-Vedic myth. The notion 
comes up first in the golden germ and egg-bom bird (sun) of 
the Rik. It is not specially Aryan, and b found even among 
the .American Indians.* ft b thb Spirit with which the Father- 
god is identified. But guess-work philosophy then asks what 

I fXhen tiw p4ttd,jjfc Uf« b cxpblEK^ H b \a tenria rf mn at fi±fc Thm 

LdiA Bi bciPifi.« b ftF« m at RV. K J J- a; 

Lbe goldcp nuiil Aft 

mm b It* tsesinflini' tc ctl«S /tr, jL 7.1. i;,' 

xL 1,6, S- Tbc *1 vm, b Ihe MiJ,' RV* 171. 



upheld this god, and answers that a support upheld all things 
So Support becomes a god in his turn, and, since ^ mus 
reach through time and space, this Support, Skambha. becomes 
the All-fiod also; and to him as to a great divinity the Atharvan 
sings some ot its wildest strains. Whet, once speculation ,s 
set going in the Urahmanas. the result of its travel » to land 
its followers in intellectual chaos.* The gods create the bather* 
god in one passage, and in another the Fatber-god creates the 
gods. The Father creates the rmters, whence rues the golden 
egg. Hut, again, the waters create the egg. and out of the egg is 
bSn the Father. A farrego of contradictions isall i^t these Ules 
amount to, nor are they redeemed even by a poetical garb. 

In the period immediately following the Br^ man as, or 
toward the end of the Brahmanic period, as one will, there w a 
famous distinction made between the gods, ^me go^it is 
said, arc spirit-gods J some are work-gods. They are bom of 
spirit and Of works, respectively. The ddference, « 

not essential, but functional; so that one rnay conclude from 
this authority, the Nirukta (a grammatical 
work! that all the gods have a like nature; and that the spint- 
gods, who are the older, differ only in lack of specific functions 
from the work-gods. A not uninteresting debate follows this 
passage in regard to the true n.tture of the gods. Some ^plc 
wy they arc anthropomorphic; others deny this. .And cer- 
ta nly what is seen of the gods is not anthrcpom^hic ; for 
csample, the sun. the earth, etc," ‘ In such a ^r,od of theo¬ 
logical advance it is matter of indifference to which o a group 
o 7 gods. all esseniUlly one, is laid the task of cre^on. And 
indU from the Vedic period until the completed systems of 
philosophy, all creation to the philosopher » but 
and Stories of specific acts of crearion are not regarded by him 

I ^ Iji Mid r-17- 

ph. U* 



as delracting from the creative faculty of the First Cause. The 
actual creator is for him the factor and agent of the real god. 
On the other hand, the vulgar worshipper of every' era believed 
oitly in reproduction on the part of an anthropomorphic god; 
and that god’s own origin h« satisfactorily explained by the 
my-tb of the golden egg. The view depended in each case not 
on the age but oii the man. 

If in these many* pages devoted to the Brdhmanas we have 
produced the impression that the religious Uteraturc of this 
period is a confused jumble, where unite descriptions of cere- 
monies, formulae, mysticism, superstitions, and all the output 
of active bigotry ; an 6lta podrtda which contains, indeed, odds 
and ends of sound morality, while it presents, on the whole, a 
sad view of the latter-day saints, who devoted their lives to 
making it what it is; we have ofTcred a fairly correct view of 
the age and its priests, and the rather dreary series of illustra¬ 
tions will not have been collected in vain. We have given, 
however, no notion at all of the chief object of this class of 
writings, the liturgical details of the sacrifices themselves. 
Even a rdsumd of one comparatively short ceremony would be 
so long and tedious that the explication of the intricate formali¬ 
ties would scarcely' be a sufficient reward. \\ ith Hlllebrandt s 
patient analy-sis of the New- and Pul I- Moon sacrifice,' of which 
a sketch is given by von Schtoeder in his Littratur umi Cu/fur, 
the curious reader will he able to satisfy himself that a minute 
description of these ceremonies would do little to further his 
knowledge of the reli^on, when once he grasps the fact that 
K the sacrifice is but show. Symbolism without folk-lore, only 
with the imbecile imaginings of a daft mysticism, is the soul of 
itj and its outer form is a certain number of formulae, mechani¬ 
cal movements, oblations, and slaughterings. 

1 iVrtM u»Mf II ^ 'rlw «r loSllatito, Imi Iwcn dttcrilMl 

bj UfldMT; ttw and bjr VVflber, 


But wc ought not to closo the account of the era vithout 
giving counter* illustrations of the legendary aspect of this 
religion; for which purpose we select two of the besi*known 
tales, one front the end of the Brihraana that is ctillcd the 
Aitorcya; the other from the beginning of the datapath a; 
the former in abstract, the latter in full. 

the SACftlFlCE OF DOGSTAIL »iL rj). 

Hari^ndra, a king bora irt the great race of Ikshtaku, had 
no son. A sage told him what blessings are his who has a 
son; ' He that has no son haa no place In the world ; in the 
person of a son a man is reborn, a second self is begotten.' 
Then the king desired a son, and the sage instructed him to 
pray to Varuna for one, and to offer to sacrifice him to the god. 
This he did. and a son, Kobita, at last was born to him. Cod 
Varuna demanded the sacrifice. But the king s.atd: * He is not 
fit to be sacrificed, so young as he is; wait till he is ten days 
old.' The god waited ten days, and demanded the sacrifice. 
But the king said : ‘ Wait till his teeth come.' The god waited, 
and then demanded the sacrifice. But the king said: ‘Wait 
till his teeth fall out’; and when the god had w'aitcd, and 
again demanded the sacrifice, the father saids ‘Wait till his 
new teeth come.* But, when his teeth were come and he was 
demanded, the father said: ‘ A watrior is not fit to be sacrificed 
till he basreceived his armor' (iJ., until he is knighted). So 
the god waited dll the boy had received his armor, and then 
he demanded the sacrifice. Thereupon, the king called his 
son, and said unto him J '1 will sacrifice thee to the god who 
gave thee to me.’ But the son said. ‘ Ko, no.' and took his 
bow and fled into the desert. Then Vanina caused the king 
to be afflicted with dropsy,' When Rohita heard of this he 

1 Tt* walcrilEbwu ilnwly impnWJ to Ihit end Is the Rig Veil, 't^* tifa md 
tlMT ei BhrigH (rritBwl W 

tWM god- 



WM about to rtitum, but Indira, disguised as a priest, met bite, 
and satdi ‘Wander on, for the foot of a wanderer is like a 
dower; his spirit grows, and reaps fruit, and all his sins are 
forgiven in the latigue of wandering.'' So Rohita, thinking 
that a priest had commanded him, wandered; and every year, 
as he would return, Indra met him, and told him stiJi to wander. 
On one of these occasions Indra inspires him to continue on 
his journey by telling him that the krita was now auspicious ; 
using the names of dice afterwards applied to the four ages,* 
Finally, after sin years, Rohita resolved to purchase a substi¬ 
tute for sacrihee. lie meets a starving seer, and offers to buy 
one of his sons (to serve as sacrifice), the price to be one hun¬ 
dred cows. The seerhasthreesons,aiid agrees to the bargain j 
but “the father said, 'Do not take the oldest,* and the mother 
Said, 'JJo not take the youngest,* so Rohita took the middle 
son, Dogstail.'* Vaiuna immediately agrees to this substitu¬ 
tion of Dogstail for Rohita, "since a priest is of more value 
than a warrior." 

The sacrifice is made ready, and Vi^amilra (the V^edic seer) 
is the officiating priest. But no one would bind the boy to 
the post.’ * If thou wilt give me another hundred cows I will 
bind him,' says the father of ElogstaiL But then no one 
would kill the boy. * If thou wilt give me another hundred 
cows I will kill him,* says the father. The Apri verses'are 
said, and the fire is carried around the boy. He is about to 
be slain. Then Dogstail prays to 'the first of gods,' the 
Fatber-god, for protection. But the Father-god tells him to 
pray to Agni, 'the nearest of the gods.’ Agni sends him to 
another, and he to another, till at last, when the boy has 
prayed to all the gods, including the All-gods, his fetters drop 

* TW* b Hi* gwm of Uw pllgilniaBMipetriBa (i* lieloiw). 

i Jttrtuia (M. lit, 3»i) tirtnpobbil; or tlw firtt allaitoli to the Four Ago*. 

*TIh!i* (conpan a/ri, 'Mewlnfl,' b the Awrtal »» ™w* te the Rif Vrfa 
ijitrodiitla* Ihe iutUnc They m (neamt aa prapItiiUaiii, aod eppear to 1» ao 
pvt of ^ tiluoL 



off; Hail^candra’s dropsy- ceases, and all ends well.* Only, 
when the avaritaous father demands his son back, he is refused, 
and Vi^vdmitra adopts the boy, even dispossessing his own 
protesting sons. For fifty of the latter agree to the exaltadon 
of Dogstail: but fifty revolt, and are cursed by Vi^vamitra, 
that their sons* sons should become barbarians, the Andhras, 
Putidras, gabaras, PuHndas, and Mulibas, savage races (of this 
time), one of which can be located on the southeast coast. 
The conclusion, and the matter that follows close on this talc, 
is significant of the time, and of the priest's authority. For it 
is said that ' if a king hears this story he is made free of sin,' 
but he can hear it only from a priest, who is to be rewarded 
for telling it by a gift of one thousand cows, and other nch 

The matter following, to which we have alluded, is the ^e 
of sacrificial formulae to defeat the lung s foes, the descnplion 
of a royal inauguration, and, at th« ceremony, the oath which 
the king has to swear ere the priest will anoint him (he is 
anointed with milk, honey, butter, and water, ‘for water is 
immortality')! “ 1 swear that thou mayst take from me what¬ 
ever good works I do to the day of my death, together with 
my life and children, if ever I should do thee haim.” * 

UTieti the priest is secretly told how he may niin^Uie king 
by a false invocation at the sacrifice, and the king is made to 
swear that if ever he hurts the priest the latter may rob him of 
earthly and heavenly felicity, the respective positmns of the 
two and the contrast between this era and that of the early 
hyi^ns. become strikingly evident. U is not from such an age 
as this that one can explain the spirit of the Rig Veda. 

I A A Hrnin, In ,te fW bo«k d- Wp ™ 

. -n-J- to Wm, and » • "MdenW nntitiarty Iprobabb Uw 

nilddle pwled the lim port ot cub ^poond hartop 




The next adectioti U the famous story of the flood, which 
we translate literally in its older formJ The object of the 
le^nd m the Ilrahmana is to explain the importance of the 

Ida (or lit) ceremony, which is identified with Ida. Mana’s 

“ In the morjjiiig they brought water to Man« to wash with, 
even as they bring it to^iay to wash hands with. While he 
was wishing a fish came into his hands. The fish said. • Keep 
me. and I Will si,™ thee.' ‘What wik thot. save me from?’ 
A wi l sweep away all creatures on earth. I will save 
thee from that ’ ■ How am 1 to keep thee?' * As long as we 

^ snrnll. said he (the fish), ‘wc are subject to much destruc¬ 
tion f fish eais fish. Thou shaJt keep me first in a jar, W'hen 
I outgrow that, tbou shalt dig a hole, and keep me in it. 
When I outgrow that, thou shall take me down to the sea. 
for there I shall be beyond destruction.’ 

“It soon became a (great homed fish called a) fhmha, for 
this grows the Jarpst, and then it said; ‘The flood will come 


me and build a ship. V\‘hen the flood rises, enter into the 
ship, and I will save thee,’ After he had kept it he took it 

hidas tlifi fish 
had told him he looked out for (or worshipped) the fish; and 

built a ship. And when the flood rose he entered into the 
ship Then up swam the fish, and Manu tied the ship’s rope 
to the honi of the fish * and thus ho sailed swiftly up toward 
the mountain of the north. -1 have saved thee' said he (the 
fish). Fasten the ship to a tree. But let not the water leave 
thee stranded while thou art on the mountain (top). De.seend 

^ ' descended slowly, 

and that descent of the mountiun of the north 13 called the 



* Descent of Mnnu.’ The flood then swept off all the creatures 
of the earth, and Mann here remained alone. Desirous of 
posterity, he worshipped an<l performed austerities. While he 
was performing a sacriflee, he offered up in the waters clarified 
butter, sour milh, whey and curds. Out of these in a year was 
produced a woman. She arose when she was solid, and clari¬ 
fied butter collected where she trod, Mitra and Varuna met 
her, and said; ‘ Who ait thou ? ’ ■ Manu’s daughter,' said she. 
‘Say ours,’ said they. *NV said she; *1 am my father's.' 
They wanted part in her. She agreed to this, and she did 
not agree; but she went by them and came to Manu. 

Manu: *Ti\Tio art thou?' *Thy daughter,' said she. ‘flow 
my daughter, glorious woman?' She said* 'Thou hast 
begotten me of the offering, which thou madest in the water, 
clarified butter, sour milk, whey, and curds. I am a blessing; 
use me at the sacrifice. If thou uscst me at the sacrifice, thou 
shalt become rich in children and cattle. Whatever blessing 
thou iuvokest through me, all shall be granted to thee.’ So 
he used her as the blessing in the middle of the sacrifice. 
For what is between the introductory .^nd final offering is the 
middle of the sacrifice. W'ith her he went on worshipping and 
performing austerities, wishing for offspring. Through her he 
begot the race of men on earth, the race of Manu ; and 
whatever the blessing he invoked through her, all was granted 
unto him. 

*■ Now she lathe same with the Ida ceremony; and whoever, 
knowing this, performs sacrifice with the Id^ he begets the 
race that M.Tnu generated; and whatever blessing he invokes 
through her, all is grunted unto him.” 

There is one of the earliest malar stories in this tale, i 
Later writers, of course, identify the fish with JlrahmS and ^ 
W'ith Vishnu. In other early flTahnmnas the ai-atars of a ' 
god as a tortoise and a boar were known long before they 
were appropriated by the Vishnultes. 



Is the Vcdic h>Tniis fEtan fears die gods, Imagines God. 
In the Brjihmaiias man subdues the gods, and fears God. In 
the Upanishads man ignores the godSt ^nd becomes God/ 

Such in a word is the iheosophic relations between the 
three periods represented by the first Vedic Colleciioup the 
ritualistic Brdhmanas, and the philosophical treatises called 
Upanishads. Vet if one took these three strata of thought 
to be quite independent of each other he would go amiss. 
Rather is it true that the Brahms a as logically continue what 
the hymns begin; that the Upanishads logically carry on the 
thought of the Brahmanas. And more^ for in the oldest 
Upanishads are traits that connect this class of writings (if 
they were writien) directly, and even closely with the Vedic 
hymns themselves; so that one may safely assume that the 
time of the first Upanishads Is not much posterior to that of 
the latest additions made to the Vedic collections, though this 
indicates only that these additions w^ere composed at a much 
later period than is generally supposed.’ In India no Uterary 
period subsides with the rise of Its eventually 'succeeding* 
period. All the works overlap. Parts of the Brahmanas suc¬ 
ceed. sometimes with the addition of whole books, their proper 

l CaiHjuxe ffr. 11, ^ f-4i where \hm lr 3 lh^-%tid glm Imu of wndast; utd 
KiiuhTtakl Briliftma UpiBuhad, j. S: “Tliti aparil (lifmh) H pHinlian of Use 
mu-kt, ihs loni oC tlie world; he b mi* ^ptrH" mriclfj, la “rbe Itrah 

sunk teadm that Ik b i £od like other and ns to lay lhat 

ht muy lie united wHh a fjod after death Th^ UpaaJihul philoufihef ■ 1 Aia 

S C^oipare SdawBiift, /fjmmfWf p, pr IjSi 

PA/ifTI/EISM^^ THE l/PAjVfSffADS. 217 

literary successors, the Upanishads. Vedtc h>mns are com¬ 
posed in the Brahmanic period.’ The prose Sutras, which, in 
genera!, are earlier, sometimes post-date metrical ^astra-mlei. 
Thus it is highly probable that, whereas the Upanishads began 
before the time ot Buddha, the gatapatha Br^hmana (if tiot 
others of this class) contiaued to within two or three centuries 
of our era; that the legal Sutras were, therefore, contemporary 
with part of the Brih manic period;' and that, in short, the 
end of the Vcdic period is so knit with the beginning of the 
Brahmanic, while the Brahtnanic period is so knit with the nse 
o( the Upanishads, Sdtras, epics, and Buddhism, that one can¬ 
not say of any one: ‘this is later,’ ‘this is earlier'; but each 
must be taken only for a phase of indefinitely dated thought, 
exhibited on certain lines. It must also be remembered that 
by the same class of works a wide geographical area maybe 
represented ■ by the Brahmanas, west and east; by the Shtras, 
north and south; by the Vedic poems, northwest and c:^t 
to Benares (AV.); by the epics, all India, centred about the 
holy middle land near Delhi. 

The meaning of Upanishad as used in the compositions 
themselves, is either, as it is used to-day, the title of a 
philosophical work; that of knowledge derived from esotcnc 
teaching; or the esoteric teaching itself. Thus trshma 
uptiniskad is the secret doctrine of and * whoever 

follows this i-AirrirW means whoever follows this dot- 
trine This seems, however, to be a meaning derived from 
rhe nature of the Upanishads themselves, and we are almost 
incUned to think that the true significance of the word w^ 
orieinally that in which alone occurs, in the early penod, the 
combination and this is purely external: “ he makes 

1 Or in the* ^ *** t"'* w™iib 

Js with put of Ui* Vedlc mlie^n. 

t Tta unXiitoM US thi* cIm* rf irf 

01 tlinr iuw bw 

T//£ ££Z/C/aAS /4V£f/A^ 


the common people ■sittinjr below ^ ot “sub¬ 

ject,^ it is said in QiK -^a ii. 4- 3^ 3 ^from the literaJ meaEkSng 
of ‘sitting l>elow ')+^ Instead^ therefore^ of seeing in if/ti/iistiJ, 
Upanisbad, tbe idea of a session^ of pupils sitting down to 
hear jnstruction (the prepositions and verb are never used in 
this sense)t it may be that the Upanishads were at first 

works of the rituaiislio Br^manas contained in the 
Aranyakas or Forest Booksp that is, appendices to the Brah¬ 
man a^ ostensibly intended for the use of pious forest-hermits 
(who had passed beyond the need of sacrifice); and this, in 
point of fact, is just what they werej till their growth resulted 
in their becoming an independent branch of literature. The 
usual explanation of ‘ Upanishad,^ however^ is that it represents 
the Instruction given to the pupil ^sitting under^ the teacher. 

Although at present between two and three hundred Upanb 
shads are known, at least by name, to exist* yet scarcely a 
dosten appear to be of great antiquity^ Some of these are 
integral parts of iJr^hmanas^ and apparently were added to the 
ritualistic works at an early period.* 

While tnan^s chief cITort in the Bmh manic period seems to 
be by sacrilicfr and penance to attain happiness hereafter^ and 
to get the upper hand of divine powers ; while he recognizes a 
God, who, though supreme, has yet, like the priest himsclfp 
attained his supremacy by sacrifice and penance; while he 
dreams of a life hereafter in heavenly worlds, in the realm of 
light, though hardly seeking to avoid a continuation of earthly 
re-births; ne^'erthclcss he frees himself at times from ritualistic 
observances sufhcieutly to cominue the questioning asked by 
his Vedic ancestors^ and to wonder whither his immortal part 
is definitively going, and whether that spirit of his will Live 
independently, or be united with some higher power, such 
£s the sun or RraJimi. 

1 Ciited t#r iliiitr iti SBE. 1. /irW. p, Uwsft. 

■ Weber, /phT. Lit. |k x^e ; Muller^ p, IxvilL 

P^XT//^/S-U -^ r//£ 21 & 

The pbilosophlcal writings cnU-eil L'p^nishads ^ take up tb is 
question in t*Arni;stT but the answer Is already a^sured^ and the 
philosophers, or poets, of ihls period seek less to prove the 
truth than to eaepound iL The soul of man will not only join 
a heavenly Power. It b part of that Power^ Martas spirit 
(self) is the world-spirit* And what is tins? While all the 
UpH-tnishads are at one Ln answering the first question, they are 
not at one In the method by which they arrive at the same 
result. There is no systematic philosophy i but a tentative! 
and more or less dogmatict logic. In regard to the second 
question they are still less at one; but in general their answer 
is that the world^spirit is All, and everything is a part of ft or 
Him. Yetj whether that All is personal or impersonal, and 
what is the relation between spirit and matter^ this is still an 
unsettled painL 

The methods and results of this half-philosophical literature 
will most easily be understood by a few examples* But, before 
these are given, it will be necessary to emphasize the colloquial 
and scrappy nature of the teaching. Legend, parable, ritual- 
istic absurdities, belief In gods, denial of gods, belief in heaven, 
denial of heaven, are all mtngledi, and for a purpose- For 
some men are able, and some are unable^ to receive the true 
light of knowledge, but man's fate depends on hh knowledge. 
The wise man becomes hereafter what his knowledge has pre¬ 
pared him to be- Not every spirit is fitted for immortality, but 
only the spirit of them that have wisely desired it, or, rather, 

ITb* lelitian bc4w«n llw (Html weeks disairacd in tJw laH ctiaptwj 

B*d U* Eafh Upaatsiadi wiU be s™ btiter with the help of a cooente cximplt 
As hu bectk eiplained before, VediawMU to tlm IIIiuIil not wsly tbe ^Coilko- 
tiem^of hymna, Isul aH the Ubfaiy ttmcwcted wilb tW» mfkcU^Q^ for instanA^ Hw 
twe BrfhminM (of the Kig Veda), camelr, the Aitarey* afld the KauihJtalfi (ar 
Now, redi of IheM ItrahnuuiM nracltidrt with ui AfinyalOh thit 
b, n Portst-Book foraft, lolitHde): ai>4 in eMh Foreit BWk Is ^^n Upa- 

ftldsiiL Forc*atnple.tfe tliiri b®ak of iKe KliishTtaJd Areifrrtfci la Uw Kauslifetl 
Uiuiiksh;^, Se tb- Chaodopa *tiid Brihad rcipcrtt^ly to U* 


220 Tff£ fiEUGfO^'S OF 

not desired it; for Evccy desire mast have been eitinguished 
before one is fitted for this end. Hence:, with advaacing 
belief in absorption and pantheism, there still lipgeirs, and 
not as a mere superfluity, the use of sacrifice and penancci 
Rites and the paraphernalia of religion are essential till one 
learns that they are unessential. Desire will be gratified dll 
one learns that the most desirable thing is lack of desire. But 
so long as one desires even the lack oj desire he is still in the 
fetters of desire. The way is long to the eatinction of emotion, 
but its attainment results in happiness that is greater than 
delight; in peace that surpasses joy. 

In the CKposition of this doctrine the old gods are retained 
as figures. They are not real gods. But they are existent 
forms of God. They arc portions of the absolute, a form of 
the Eternal, even as man is a form of the same. Absolute 
being, again, is described as anthropomorphic. ‘This is that' 
under a certain form. Incessantly made is the attempt to 
explain the identity of the absolute with phenomena. The 
power which is originally applied to prayer, is now 

taken as absolute being, and this, again, must be equated with 
the personal spirit (ego, self, One finds himself back 

in the age of Vedic speculation when he reads of prayer (or 
penance) and power as one. For, as was shown above, the 
Rig Veda already rucogniaes that prayer is power. There the 
word for power, AraAmti, is used only as equivalent of prayer, 
and Brihaspati or Brahmanaspati is literally the ■ god of power,' 
as he is interpreted by the priests. The significance of the 
other great word of this period, namely dV/wd, is not at all 
uncertain, but to translate it is difficult. It is breath, spirit, 
self, soul. Yet, since in its original sense it corresponds to 
spiritus (comparable to athmen), the word spirit, which also 
signifies the real person, perhaps represents it best. We shall 
then render AnrAma and SfmJ by the absolute and the ego or 
spirit, respectively j or leave them, which is perhaps the best 

JtJtAffMAA'/C P^iVTIfli/SM.— m£ t'PAA'ISifADS. Z21 

n-ay, in their native form. The physical breath, prSna, is oeca- 
sionally used just like atm&. 'I'hus it ja said that all the ^iods 
are one god. and this is Jtr 3 na, identical with (Brihad 

Aranyaka Upanishad, j. 9,9); otJffAna is so used as to be the 
same with spirit, though, on the other hand, ■ breath is bom of 
spirit' (Pra^na L'p- 3. 3>, just as in the Rig Veda (above) it Is 
said that all comes from the breath of God. 

One of the most instmetive of the older tfpanishads is the 
Ch^ndogya. A sketch of its doctrines will give a clearer idea 
of Ifpanishad philosophy than a chapter of disconnected 

All this (universe) is brahm&. Man has mtelligent force (or 
* will).^—flcTSter death, will exist in accordance with his will , 

in life. This spirit in (my) heart is that mind making, breath- 
bbdied, IfghtTormcd, truth-thoughted, etlier-spiritcd One, of 
whoih are all "works, alt desires, afl smells, and all tastes; who 
coniprehends the universe, who speaks not and is not moved ; 
smaller than a rice-com, smaller than a mustard-seed. ... 
greater than earth, greater than heaven. This (universal | 
being) is tny ego, spirit, and is hrshma^ force (absolute being). ^ 
^Vftcr death f shall enter into him (3. 14).' This all is breath | 
(= spirit in 3. 15, 4), 

After this epitome of pantheism follows a ritnalistic bit; 

Man is sacrifice. Four and twenty years are the morning 
libation; the next four and forty, the mid-day libation; the 
next eight and forty, the evening libation. The son of ItarS, 
knowing this, lived one hundred and sixteen years. He who 
knows this lives one hundred and sixteen years (3. 16). 

Then, for the abolition of all sacrifice, follows a chapter 
which explains that man may sacrifice symbolically, so that, 

1 Thb tuEhSflf l» MtTibE«lto(;aiJillly3,to*laiM Ihr^.«* oppnKl totbei*™ 

Vedanllc doctffiui ot (;mlwa,« ahatl twi* to ivwrt 1* « later dapler. "Tie hemy 
la a want, la nfanUBE the liulividul Vplril u at uir tlaie dlstiact (rtm 
the Supre™ Spirit, ttwogfi CSadUyatscbei Ihatll li iiWanldT ahsorbbd lota tta 



for example, gifts to the priests (a necessary adjunct of a real 
sacrifice) here become penance, liberality, rectitude, non-injury, 
truth-speaking (tf, 17, 4)- There follows then the identifica- 
tiou of brahma with mind, sun, breath, cardinal points, ether, 
etc., even puns being brought into requisition, Ka is Kha and 
Kba is Ka (4. JO. s); ' earth, fire, food, sun, w-atcr, stars, man, 
are brahma, and brahma is the man seen in the muon (4. 12, 1). 
And now comes the identity of the impersonal brahma with the 
personal spirit. The man seen in the eye is the spirit ; this is 
the immortal, unfearing brahma (4. tj, 1=8. 7, 4). He that 
knows this goes after death to light, thence to day, thence to 
the light moon, thence to the season, thence to the j-ear, thence 
to the sun, thence to the moon, thence to lightning: thus he 
becomes divine, and enters brahma. They that go on this 
path of the gods that conducts to brahma do not return to 
human conditions (tb, 15, ti). 

But the Father-god of the Brahmanas U still a temporary 
creator, and thus he appears now (ib. ty>t The Father-god 
brooded over* the worlds, and from them extracted essences, 
fire from earth, wind from air, sun from sky. These three 
divinities (the triad, fire, wind, and son) he brooded over, and 
from them extracted essences, the Rig Veda from fire, the 
Yajur Veda from wind, the Sama Veda from sun. In the 
preceding the northern path of them that know the absolute 
(btahma) has been described, and it was said that they return 
no more to earth. Now follows the southern path of them 
that only partly know brahma: 

“He that knows the oldest,jrwrrfiiw, and the best, fratham, 
becomes the oldest and the best. Now breath is oldest and 
best” (then follows the famous parable of the senses and 
breath, 5. 1. i). This (found elsewhere) is evidently regarded 

1 “God ‘ Who* b alt,»lr fipue) Is God 'Who,’*’ as tt On* mW ‘elllKT Is aether.’ 

i * DM peniincv u ovtc peuLUCG renoltis Iq nudltitJoa^ * Dnwdtd’ 

U MiUler’s apt *oh 1 flit twilit 

^^A//AfAA/C />A2VTJ/£ISJL^T//£ l/£AiV/S//A£}S. ^23 

as a nerw doctrine, for, after the deduction has been made 
that, because a creature can live without senses, and even 
without mindt but cannot live without breath, therefore the 
breath is the ^oldest and the text conttnues, * If one told 

this to a dr^^ stick, branches would be produced and leaves 
put forth ^ (S- 3)-^ The path of him that partly know^ the 

which is expressed iu breathy etc.^ is as folloM^: He 
goes to the moon, and^ when his good works are used up^ he 
^ultimately mist) rains down, becoming seedi and begins life 
over again on earth, to become like the people who eat him 
(5. 10. 5); they that are good become priests, warriors, or 
members of the third estate ; while the bad become dogs, hogs^ 
or members of the low castes/ A stor]f is now told, instructive 
as illustrating the time. Five great doctors of the law came 
together to discuss what is Spirit, what is draAmn. In the 
end they are taught by a king that the univeriial Spirit is 
one's own spirit (5. iS. i)< 

It is interesting to see that^ although the Rig Veda distinctly 
sap that ■ being was born of not-being * (Jm/m sdif aJJja/a, x, 
72. j)/ yet not-bcing is here derived quite as emphatically 
from beingr For in the philosophical explanation ol the uni¬ 
verse given in 6. i- 1 iT. one reads t Being alone existed in 
the beginning, one, and without a seconci Others say^not- 
being alone ^ . but how' could being be bom of not-bcing f 

Being alone existed in the beginning.*^* This being is then 
represented as sentient. **lt saw (and desired), *may I be 
many/ and sent forth fire (or heat); fire (or beat) desired and 
prcxluced water i water, food (earth); with the living spirit the 

1 Campus Atira. U/. ft, 

* Thi* li tbe 4vifM4f w doctrine. 

K In J. U. 11. abrH hAvt m DotEcvd tho fonnulii fusertEng th^l 'bothbeing and 
bdog. existed In the bs^nniti^(i. ? J AOS- xvL I 

* Opposed h 3 ^ 1 and TmH. i- 7^ * IL i, 10); " Kot-faelng »ras 

Jietfli in tbo tffjtlBnlnfr Froln U aj™ beUig.’^ And so faf. ri-1.1.1 Ja 

word onV+ fne here not4»lfl|| ii the so™ spirits <d Godl^ 


T/I£ A£L/G/OjVS of 

divinity entered fire, walCTt and earth ** (6. 5). As inind comes 
from food, breath from water^ and speech from fre, aH that 
makes a man is thus derived from the (trne) being (6. j. 6 ); and 
^'heti one dies his speech is absorbed into mind, his mind into 
breath, his breath into iire (heat), and heat into the highest 
godhead (6. B. 7). This is the subtile spirit, that b the Spirit, 
that is the True, and this is the spirit of man. Now comes 
the grand conclnsign of the Chandogya. He who knows the 
ego escapes grief. ^Vhat Is the ego? The Vedas are namesp 
and he that sees ^ruAma in the Vedas is indeed (partly) wise;, 
but speech is better than a name ; mind Ls belter than speech ; 
will is better thJin mind; meditation, better than will; reflec¬ 
tion, than meditiition; understanding, than reflection; power, 
than undcfstanding; food, than power j water, than food ? heat 
(fire), than water; cther^ than heat; memoiy, than ether; hope, 
than memory i breath (=spint>t than hope. In each let one 
ego in AIL Who knows this is supreme in knowl¬ 
edge ; but mote supreme in knowledge is he that knows that 
in true (being) Is the highest being* True being is happiness; 
true being is ego; ego is all; ego is the absolute^ 

The relativity of divinity is the discovery of the Upanishads- 
And the relativity of happiness hereafter is the key-note of 
their religious philosophy. Pious men are of three classes, 
according to the completed system. Some aie good men+ but 
they do not know enough to appreciate, intellectually or spiritu- 
ally, the highest. Let this class meditate on the Vedas, They 
desire wealtht not freedom. The second class wish, indeed, 
to emancipate themselves; but to do so step by step 5 not to 
reach absolute but to live in bliss hereafter. Let these 

worship the Spirit as physical life. They will attain to the 

1 M Vedk (wUvB of Qrt^JdT5gt*^il3 B(tK^o^^bdBg h Ti!fated, m the AUiirra 
hona^ tfl TIjm a Lord alKi dfcfided «>ri. &) tbs U pjwtjhiuii Tbe mpnmH 
being it ihm ttne, ^ irltluHJE parts \n ElUi l4i«f Upuiiilaad <visd4REn, 

peaujioc. and the gfM of Ood an to Icnow 

SXA/iAf4XJC UPAy/S^iADS. 235 

bliss of the realm of light, the realm of the personal creator. 
But the highest class, they that nash to eraandpate themselves 
at once, know that physical life is but a form of spiritual life ; 
that the personal creator is but a form of the bplritj that 
the Spirit is absolute brahma; and that in reaching this they 
attain to immortality. These, then, are to meditate on spirit 
as the highest Spirit, that is, the absolute. To fear heaven as 
much as hell, to know that knowledge U, after all, the key to 
brahma; that brahma is knowledge ; this is the way to emanci¬ 
pation. The gods arct but they are forms of the ego, and 
their heaven is mortal. It is false to deny the gods. Indra 
and the Father-god eiist, just as men exist, as transient forms 
of brahma. Therefore, according to the weakness or strength 
of a man's mind and heart (desire) is he fitted to ignore gods 
and, sacrifice. To obtain brahma his desires must be weak, 
his knowledge strong ; but sacrifice is not to be put away as 
useless. The disciplinary teaching of the sacrifice is a neces-. 
sary preparation for highest wisdom. It is here that the Upan- ^ 
ishads, which otherwise arc to a great extent on the highway 
to Buddhism, practically contrast with iL Buddhism ignores ^ 
the sacrifice and the sudia in a priest’s life. The Upanishads 
remin them, but only to throw them over at the end when one 
has learned not to need them. Thilosophicalty there is no 
place for the ritual in the Upanishad doctrine; but their 
teachers stood too much under the dominion of the Brahmanas i 
to ignore the ritual. They kept it as a means of perfecting 
the knowledge of what was essential. 

So ‘by wisdom’ it is said 'one gets immortality.' The 
Spirit develops gradually in man; by means of the mortal he 
desires the immortal; whereas other animals have only 
hunger and thirst as a kind of understanding, and they are 
reborn according to their knowledge as beasts agaio. Such 
is the teaching of another of the Upaoishads, the .\itarcya 



This UpatiUhad contains some rather striking pass^es: 

** Whatever man attains, h-e desires to go beyond it; it ^ he 
should reach heaven itself he would desire to go beyond it 
(a. i. 3. i). ^'Brahma is the A, thither goes the ego ’ (a. 3- 
S 7^ “A is the whole of Speech, and Speech is t nth, an 
Truth is Spirit*’ (a. 3- 6 * 5 -m).' "The Spirit brooded over 
the water, and form (matter) was horn ^ 

physically water is the origin of all things" (i. i)- 

“Whatever belongs to the father belongs to the son, whatever 
belongs to the son belongs to the father ^ 

three births: he is bon of his mother, reborn in the person 
of his son, and finds his highest birth in death ” (2. s)* 

In the exposition of these two Upanlshads one gets at once 
the sum of them all The methods, the illustrations, even the 
doctrines, differ in detail; but In the chief end and object of 
the Upanishads, and in the principle of knowledge as a means 
of attaining iiraHma, they are united- Thb it iS that causes 
the refutation of the Vedlc ‘ being from not-being/ It is even 
said in the Aitareya that the gods worshipped breath (the 
spirit) as being and SO became gods (groat); while devils wor¬ 
shipped spirit as DOt-being, and hence became (inferior) devils 

(2. ti S. 6)+ 

It was noticed above that a king Instructed priests. This 
interchange of the rdles of the two castes is not unique. In 
the Kaushitaki Upanishad (4. « 9 )r Mcurs another instance of a 
warrior teaching a Brahman. This, with the familiar illustra¬ 
tion of a Gandhara (Kandahar) man, the song of the Kums, 
and the absence of Brahmanic literature as such m the list of 

1 Tbi» V«dlt dodtlJ* Is eoDsplcmWs in Uw Brtjimajts, Compart fat. Br. 
»jL 5. t. «: " VSe is th* Unborn om; fpom Vftt tb* sU-malia' msda oW- 

tttrefc" 5«e WeiKT, W. S^l«^ It 427 

1 Cowiar* j. V. a I. Ip ’ ’''-■»*« Misfed in Ihe begfoalni. TWs is ill® 

otl«l and lafesl Wsdo Mplanstim of tV iralfer of tho pli>vlal unirttfe. Fyofe 
the tin* of the Ved» In raodiaeoal Ivniia, *4 is nofeded by tho Cfeek trafelkn, 
water b mgwdisd U tb® oiigliul olenwit 


workii, cited vii. i| would iodicite that the Chafidogyi "iis 
least as old as the jJrihmatia literature.^ 

Id their present form several differences remain to be pointe 
out between the Vedic period and that of the Upanishads. 
The goal of the soul, the two paths of gods and of hrshma, have 
been indicated. As already expl^ned, the road to the abso¬ 
lute brahma lies beyond the path to the conditioned brahma. 
Opposed to this is the path that leads to the world of heaven, 
whence, when good works have been exhausted, the spirit 
descends to a new birth on earth. The course of this second 
path is conceived to be the dark half of the moon, and so 
back to man. Both roads lead first to the moon, then one 
goes oa to brahma, the other returns to eartlc U will be seen, 
that good works are regarded as buoying a man up for a lime, 
till, like gas in a balloon, they lose their force, and he sinks 
down again. What then becomes of the virtue of a man who 
enters the absolute brahma, and descends no more > He hiii> 
self goes to the world where there is “no sorrow and no snow, 
where he lives forever ^BrthaJ Araa^s- lo); but “his belove 
relations get his virtue, and the relations he docs not love get 
his evil" (/i^Aitshi/. 1 % I. 4 )* ’^bis Upanishad fire, sun, 
moon, and lightning die out. and reappear as brahma. This 
is the doctrine of the Gatterdammfraji^, and succession ot 
aeons with their divinities ( i . 12). Hem again is it distinctly 
stated that prS/ta, breath, is brahma f that is, spirit is t e 

absolute (2. 13)- , , 1 -rk„v^ 

What becomes of them that die ignorant of the ego f I y 
go either to the worlds of evil spirits, which are covered with 
darkness—^thc same antithesis of light and darkness, as g 
and evil, that was seen in the BrSbrnanas — or are reborn on 

earth again like the wicked (/fh, 3)- 

It is to be noted that at times all the parts of a man are 

1 The GurfMra olshl ijAiemt e lal* Si»gHF*ial u vflV »» 

lieritaser »that tMi is not «aiMdotl«. 

ns m£ J^£L/G/OAS /A'I>/A. 

said to become For just as diffcreriit rivera enter 

ihc c^cean and their names and forms are lost in it, so the 
sixteen parts of a man sink into the godhead and he becomes 
vithoat parts and immortal ijs. 6-5)? ^ puf*-dy pan¬ 

theistic view of absoiption, in distinction from the Vedic view 
of heaven, which latter^ in the form of immortal joy hereafteT^ 
still lingers in the earlier Upanishads. 

It is further to be observed as the crowning point of these 
speculations that, just as the bliss of emancipation must not 
be desired, although it ts desirable, so toOp though knowledge is 
the fundamental condition of emancipation, yet is delight in the 
true a fatal error: “They that revere what U not knowledge 
enter into blind darkness ; they that delight in knowledge come 
as it were into sill! greater darkness " 9). Here, what is 

not real knowledge means good works, sacrifice, etc But the 
sacrifice is not discarded. To those people capable only of 
attiiiinliig to Toctitudct sacrifices, and beUel in gods there is 
given some bliss hereafter; but to him that is risen above this^ 
who knows the ego (Spirit) and real being, such bibs is no 
bliss. His bliss is union with the Spirit. 

This is the coinpletioii of Upanishad philosophy. Before it 
b a stage where bliss alone, not absorption, is taught.* But 
what is the ego, spirit or self First of all it is con¬ 

scious ; next it Ls not the Person, for the Person is produced 
by the a/ma. Since this Person Is the type of the persoual 
* god, it IS evident that the ego is regarded as lying back of 
personality. Nevertheless, the teachers sometimes stop with 
the latter. The developed view is that the irnmortali^^ of the 
personal creator is commensurate only with that of the world 
which he creates, ft is for this reason that in the Mnndaka 
(t* 2* 10) it Is said that fools regard fulfillment of desire in 

I GoueK, PAiUuf/^f <>/ »QU«ht bn iJmw that ti» jhltk 

V«iantUtn ia the only befief tauftht in thn ypanldad^ ipwrips th* 

wli|ht of ili™ llial oppwe hti (in quj riaw) hw ivrtepl&j aijertloiL 

BS^ffA/ANlC PAiVrJ/£/SM.^ rif£ U£AA’JS/f4lfS. 229 

heavenly happiness as the best thing; for altbaugh they haw 
their reward in the top of heaven, yet, when the elevation 
caused by their good works ends, as it will end, when the 
buoyant power of good works is exhausted, then they drop 
down to earth again. Hence, to worship the creator as the 
Stma Is indeed productive of temporary pleasure, but no more- 
“ If a man worship another divinity, ifft'tt/il, with the idea that 
he and the god are different, he does not know” 

Atan. Up. 1-4- lo). “ Without passion and without parts " is 
the brahma {hfund. a. J. 9), The further d^trinc, therefore, 
that all except brahma is delusion is implied here, and the 
extinction of gods lo brahma ” is once or twice formulated.^ 
The fatal error of judgment is to imagine that there is in 
absolute being anything separate from man’s being. ^Vhen 
personified, this being appears as the supreme Person, identical 
with the ego, who is lord of what has been and what wiU he. 
By perceiving this controlling spirit in one’s own spirit (or 
self) one obtains eternal btlss; '* when desires ceaM, the 
mortal becomes immortal; he at^ns brahma here” in life 
{Katha 2. S- Araa, Ifp. 4. 4. 7)- 

How inconsistent are the teachings of the Upanishads in 
regard to cosmogonic and eschatological matters will be evident 
if one contrast the statements of the diHercnt tracts not only 
with those of other writings of the same sort, but even with 
other statements in the same Upanishads. Thus the Mundaka. 
leaches first that Brahma, the personal creator, made the 
world and explained brahma (1. i- i>. It then defines brahma 
as the Imiterishable, which, like a spider, sends out a web of 
being and draws it in again {jk G, j). It state with all dia. 
linctn ess that the (neuter) brahma cotne-i from The (masculme) 

1 S« U* Parumn tooiW, AH, Br. aS. traiMa U wl«l, 

diefiradItliilite-UgJ'inlo* ra(q.™n la iB«ni,»aoB in wn, sun in 6*^ 

Tb. Wflg^n »yt* «•*“ ^ ^ ' 

» wbiin yiy at Ibfl otJ-wPidsdiaMmmd trabum. 



One who is alhwbet ulhkoowitig {$L 9)* This hoavunly Person 
13 the Imperishable ego; \t is withom fomi; higher than the 
impezishable (i. 3* to f.; 2. 1. 2); greater than the great 
(3+ 2^ S). Against this is then set (2. 3. the great being 
^ra^jfia^ without passions orparESp wUhout intelhgcnce such 
as was predicated of the ^fma; and (3. f* 3) then follows the 
doctrine of the j>cr3oiial *Lord, who is the m-aker* the Person, 
who has his birth m ^rtrAmti ' (parusAji? Ar^ijAttitiwmjy, That this 
Upanishad Us pantheistic is plain Troni 3. t, where Vedanta 
and Yoga arc named. According to this tract the wise go to 
AraAma or to ego (3. 2^ g and 1, 2. n), while fools go to 
heaven and return againn 

On the same plane stands the where egO;^ Spirit^ is 
the True, the Lord^ and is in the sun* Opposed to each other 
here arc darkness' and * immortality/ as fruit, respectively, of 
ignorance and w'isdom* 

In the Kaushitaki Upanishad, taken with the meaning pul 
into it by the commentators, the wise man goes to a very 
different sort of — one where he is met by nymphs, 

and rejoices in a kind of heaven. This AraAma is of two 
sorts, absolute and conditioned; but it Is ultimately defined 
as “^breath*' ^\'henever it Is convenient, 'breath^ is regarded 
by the commentators as ego, ^spirit*; but one can scarcely 
escape the conviction that in many passages * breath' was 
meant by the speaker to be taken at its face value. It Is the 
vital powen With this vital power (breath or spirit) one in 
dreamless sleep unites. Indra has nothing higher to say than 
that he is breath (spiril)^ conscious and immortaL Eventually 
the soul after death comes to Indra, or gains the bright heaven* 
But here too the doctrine of the dying out of the gods is known 
(as in 7 ^i/L 3. i o. 4). CosmogonicaJly ail here springs from 
water (e. 4, 6, f ; 2* t, [3 : 3* tt 2 ; 4. 20)^ 

Most striking are the contradictions in the Erihad Aranyaka: 

In the beginning there was only nothing; this (world) w^as 


covered wilh death, that is hunger he desired,” etc, (i. a- t). 
‘■In the beginning there was only ego {plma)." Alma articu¬ 
lated “I am,” and (finding hinmelf lonely and unhappy) 
divided himself into male and female,* whence arose men, etc. 
(1.4. t), .Xgaini “Jn the beginning there was only 
this (neuter) knew Stnul ... brahma was the one and only 
. . . it created" (1. 4. lo^ti); followed immediately by “he 
created” (la). And after this, in 17. one is brought back to 
“in the beginning there was only Stma: he desired ‘let me 
have a wife.* ” 

In 2. 3. 1 If. the explicitness of the differences in brahma 
makes the account of unusual value. It appears that there are 
two farms of brahma^ one is mortal, with form, the other is 
immortal, without form. Whatever is other than air and the 
space between (heaven and earth) is mortal and with form. 
This is being. Us essence is in the sim. On the other hand, 
the essence of the immortal is the person in the circle (of the 
sun). In man's body breath and ether are the immortal, the 
essence of which is the person in the eye. There is a visible 
and invisible brahma {lytmh ); the real brahma is incompre¬ 
hensible and is described only by negation^ (3. 4 - 1 1 9 - 
The highest is the Imperishable {ntuier), but this secs, hears, 
and knows. It is in this that ether (as above) is woven 
(3. 8. 11), After death the wise man goes to the world of 
the gods (i. S- 16); lie becomes the atma of all beings, just 
like that deity (1. S- lo); he becomes identical (Miow can ooe 
know the knower?' Tipatar) in 2.4 ^ *-<3 i acceding to 
3. I. 13, the doctrine of samshra is extolled ("they talked of 
karma, ^tolled karma, secretly”), as something too secret to 
be easilyp ev'en to priests^ 

That different views are recognised is evident from TSitt. 
a. 6: "If ooe knows brahma as a^al he becomes only arat 

1 CooipoiTE UulHn, 

1 Ttw andregjTiMa OTitar ttw liraluaajsai- 


T/f£ J^£l/G/OA-S OF 

(ncm-existencc); i£ he knows Uial '^raAma is" (i>+i a saJ 
^raAmti), people know him as thence eiistingJ’ Personal afma 
b here insisted on (*"He wished *niay I be many ""); and from 
atmir, the conBcioits in highest heaven]^ came the ether 

(2. ip 6)* Vet, imtnediately afterwards: In the beginning 
was the non-eaislent; thence arose the existent j and That 
made for himself an ego (spirit^ conscious life, iVmJ; fnif 
n^tjjram aiuruM, s. j). In man ^raAma is the snn- 
Here too one finds the ^raAman^A j>iMriWiiras (j. 10. + 
= Kiushit. 2. 12, or extlnaion of gods Sn AnTAma. But 

what that AraAma ia, except that it U hliss^ and that man after 
dentil reaches ' the bLissrmaking it is impossible to say 

(3. d; 2. S)i Especially as the departed soul *eats and sits 
down singing* in heaven (5^ 10. 5). 

The greatest discrepancies in eschatology occur perhaps in 
the Aitareya Aranj^akan After death one either **gets AraAma ** 
(i. 3. 1. a), *^conies near to the immortal spirit'" {1. 3. S. 14)^ 
or goes to the heavenly world/" Knowledge here expressly 
conditions the hereafter; so much so that it is represented not 
(as above) that fools go to heaven and return^ but that aJl, save 
the very highest^ are to rccognixe a personal creator (Prajapati) 
In breath {= ego = and then they will '^go to the 

heavenly world(a. 3. S. 5)* “become the sun ** (2. i. 8, 14), 
or *“go to gods'* (2- 2- 4. h)* Moreover after the highest 
wisdom has been revealed, and the second class of men has 
been disposed of, the author still returns to the ^shining 
sky/ as the best promise (3). Sinners are bom again 

(2. 1, 1, 3) on earth, although hell Is mentioned {2. 3. 2. 5). 
The origin of world is water, as usual (2. u 8. t). The highest 
teaching is that all was who sent forth worlds 

and formed the Person (as guardian of worlds), taking 
him from waters*. Hence Sfma, Prajapati (of the second-cl^ss 
thinkers)^ and AraAma are the same. Knowledge i^ AraAm^ 
(z. 4- !■ I } 6. I. S-l). 

0J^J/LWAA7C J*A.YT//E/SM — T/fE 3:13 

En the Kena, where the besl that can be said in regard to 
dniAma b that he la faJrana, the nne that ‘likes this' (or, 
perhaps^ b *llkc this^), there is no absorption into a world- 
spirit, The wise * become iminorlar ; ‘hy knowledge one 
gets iminortality' p “w^ho knows this stands in heaven (i^ 2 ^ 
1, 4- 4. 9). The general results are about those fonnulatcd by 
Whitney in regard to the Katlia: knowledge gives continuatioD 
of happifiess in heaven; the punishment of the unworthy is to 
continue the round of rebirths. Hell is not mentioned 

in the Aitarcya Upanlshad itself but in the Aranyaka^ 5 )* 

That^ however, a union with the universal mma (as well as 
heaven) is desired, would seem to be the c^e from several of 
the passages cited above^ notably Brihad Aran.^ i, 5. 20 (j(? 

j<i}; ^he that knows this becomes the d/wd of all creatures, as 
is that divinit)^ so is be'; though this Is doubtless the 
rrnjya d/Md, or joy-making Spirit (I'ditt. 2. S). 

Again two fonns of iftnAma are explained (MSit Up. 6,15 ff.): 
There are two forms of ^nrAma, time and nol^time. That which 
was before the is not-time and has no parts. Time and 
p.nis begin with the sun. Time Is the Father god, the Spirit. 
Time makes and dissolves all in the SpiriL He knows the 
Veda who knows into what Time itself is dissolved. I'his 
manifest time is the ocean of creatures. But i^niAma exists 
before and after time/ 

As an example of the best style of the Upanisha^ we will 
cite a favorite passage (given no less than four times in various 
versions) where the doctrine of absorption is most distinctly 
taught under the form ol a tale. It is the famous 

I \\m qnltc apw mih /-f. At. $l. and Jaunal 

aaii, p, cm irapUea llul beJM in hell h^mum bw thin ihl* period- TbSa ki iwl 14 

bCc i tfadimg. Hell U V*dic iukI Unfanunfic. . „ . 

i TtiK tn panthiiiitic liyk, I* Mprewed thua 4)- the Hght Rsl 

uiica Ih™ b4 dir HP iKltlwr hdHg iwr iwt 4 *inB 1 tli* Bkwsd Oam ?i]o« 

eil*t 5 tbwt There U o® liicwess a^ Mm QiiM I* Oft^ Oloflf.*' 


YSjftavnlkya had two wiveSr MaitreyJ and Katya3rafil 
Now ^Cait^cyi ^vas vt;rsi;d in holy koowl(^EigL* but 

Katydyani had only such knowl^gc as women have. But 
when Vajhavalkp was about to go away into the forest (Kq 
become a hermit), he said: SViaitreyh I am going away from 
this place, Eehold, I will make a settlemuiit betw^een thee and 
that Kiiyayam.* Then said Maitmyi: *Lord^ if this whole 
earth hi led with wealth were minCf how then ? should I be 
immortal by reason of this w ealth f " * Nay/ said Yajfiat^lkya. 

^Even as Ls the life of the dch would be thy life; by reason of 
wealth one has no hope of immorEality/ Then said MaitreyE: 
“With what 1 cannot be immortali what can I do with that? 
whatever my Lord knows even that tell me.' And Yajfia^'n.lky^ 
said: ‘Dear to me thou art, indeed, and fondly speakest. 
Therefore i will explain to thee and do Uion regard me as I 
explain/ And he said: ■ Not for the hosband^s sake is a 
husband dear, but for the ego^s sake is the husband dear. 
Not for the wife's sake is a wnfe dear; but for the ego*s sake 
is a wife dear; not for the son's sake are sons dear^ but for the 
ego^s sake are sons dear; not for wealth's sake is wealth dear, 
but for the ego's sake is wealth dear; not for the sake of the 
Bmliman caste b the Brahman caste dear, but for the sake of 
the ego is the Hrahnian caste dear; not for the sake of the 
Warrior caste is the Warrior caste dear^ but for love of the 
is the Warrior caste dear; not for the sake of the worlds are 
worlds dear, but for the sake of the ego are worlds dear; not 
for the sake of gods are gods dear^ but for the ego’s sake are 
gods dear; not for the sake of Mu/s (spirits) are Mtilj dear^ 
but for the ego’s sake are Mu/s dear; not for the sake of 
anything is anything dear, but for love of one's self (ego) 
b anything (everything) dear; the ego (self) must be seen, 

I IJri 5 w 4 i 4 ; 5- 


heard, apprehended, regarded, MSitreyi, for with the seeing, 
hearing, apprehending, and regarding of the ego the All is 
known, . . - Even as smoke pours out of a £rc lighted with 
damp kindling wood, even so out of the threat lieing is blown 
out all that which is. Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sima Veda, 
Athar\'a (-Angiras) Veda, Stories, I'alcs, Sciences, Upani- 
shads, food, drink, sacnhces; all creatures that exist are blown 
(breathed) out of this one (Great Spirit) alone. As in the 
ocean all the waters have their meeting-place; as the skin is the 
meeting-place of all touches; the tongue, of all tastes; the nose, 
of alt smells \ the mind, of all precepts; the heart, of all knowl¬ 
edges; ... as salt cast into water is dissolved so that one 
cannot seize it, but wherever one tastes it is salty, so this Great 
being, endless, limitless, is a mass of knowledge. It arises 
out of the elements and then disappears in them. After death 
there is no more consciousness.^ I have spoken.' Thus said 
Yajflavalkp. Then said MJitreyi: ‘Truly my Lord has 
bewildered me in saying that after death there is no more con- 
sdousness.' Aod Yajilavalkya said: ' I say nothing l>ewildcr- 
ing, but what suffices for understanding. For where there 
is as it were duality (i/tviAim), there one sees, smelts, hears, 
addresses, notices, knows another; but when all the universe 
has become mere ego, with what should one smelt, see, hear, 
address, notice, know any one (else) ? How can one know him 
through whom he knows this alt, how can he know the knower 
(as something different)? The ego is to be described by 
negations alone, the incomprehensible, imperishabie, un¬ 
attached, unfettered; the ego neither suffers nor fails. 
Thus, Maitreyl, hast thou been instructetl. So mubh for 
immortality.' .4nd having spoken thus Vajflavalkya went 
away (into the forest). 

Returning to the Upanishad, of which an outline was given 
in the beginning of this chapter, one finds a state of things 

1 iVa /Mjt* iuJi/tf ^ "Mfi. 

2 ^ 

r//£ ££l/G/OiVS Of IXDIA, 

Trhich, in gedcml, may be said to be ctiaractemtic of the ^hole 
Upanishad period. The same vague views in regard to cos¬ 
mogony and eschatology obtain in all save the outspoken 
sectarian tracts, and the same unceTtainty in regard to man's 
future fate prevaiis in this whole cyete.* A few extracts wiil 
show this. According to the Chilndog>'a (4. 17. i), a personal 
creator* the ohi Faiher-god of the BrlhmanasT Praj^pati, made 
the elemertts proceed from the worlds he had ^brooded^ over 
(or had done penance over^ 3^ ^9+ ** net-being 

was first; this became being (witli the mundane egg, clc^)^ In 
sharp contradiction (6, i)j ^ being was the first thing* it 
wllledt’ etc., a conscious divinity, as is seen in ib^ 3, where 
it 13 a ^deity/ producing ekments as “deities* {if. S. 6) which 
it enters “with the living JrwJ/ and so dcv^elops names and 
forms (so 2-7)^ The latter is the prevailing view of the 

Upanishad. In i. 7. 5 ff. the a/ma is the same with the uni¬ 
versal in 3, 12* 7* the IrtiAma is the same with ether 

without and within, unchanging; in 3. 13* 7, the Might above 
heaven" is identical with the light in man; in 3. 14. i* all is 
btA/tfffa (neuter), and this is an intdligeat universal spirit. 
Like the ether is the aima in the hearty this Is brnAma 1 IT.); 
in 4, 3 p air and breath ate the tw^o ends (so in the argument 
above* these are immortal as distinguished from all eke); in 4. 
10+ 5 v 3 rA inim Imi rr u bbam (brabma is ether) ; in 4. 15* 

I* the ego U brtiAmn; in 5. iS* t the universal ego is identified 
with the particular ego (S/rnd) ; in 6. S the ego is the True, 
with which one unites in dreamless sleep ; in 6. t5„ i, into 

or ^highest divinity- enters man^s spirit* like salt m 
water (sL 13). In 7. 13-26* a view but half correct Is stated 
to be that * breath " is all^ but it is better to know that pr MamJ 

I Souc of tbv U hive beea 10 that all of the uDlrtidliflkitif 

Bur flint be due tm tlie compoKEi Ne:Terllhckad« aa IIk anKnoinly at opLofon bn 
fiefCflrd to Esosmogonr if quttc u u tliat Is rspHl dtHarpeiDfi^ lU iht? 

EKis cviiiM ^HrilxLted to tiK ^orti of bher STStenutLiKM to bcm| 

U lota tlielr luoni mr leu HtJiodoi 


ittdam^sm, the immortal (all) is infinit)', which rests in its owa 
greatness, with a cojreclive ‘but perhaps it doesn’t’ {yadi r 3 
fia). This inftniry is ego and rt/wstf.' 

What is the reward Jor knowing this ? One obtains worlds, 
unchanging happiness, or, with some circumnaviga¬ 

tion, one goes to the moon, and eventualiy reaches i>rahm\t 
or obtains the worlds of the blessed (5. 10. 10). The round 
of existence, JiwwJrtrj, is indicated at 6. 16, and expressly stated 
in 5. 10. 7 (insects have here a third path). Immortality is 
forcibly claimed; ‘The living one dies not’ (6. ii. 3). He 
who knows the sections 7. 1$ to ifi becomes iUmilaanda and 
“lord of all worlds"; whereas sn incorrect view gives perish¬ 
able worlds. In one iTpanishad there is a verse (frW. 4. 3) 
which would indicate a formal duality like that of the 
Sankbyas;* but In general one may say that the Upanishads 
are simply pantheistic, only the absorption into a world soul 
b as yet scarcely formulated. On the other hand, some of the 
older Upanishads show traces of an atheistic and materialistic 
^aAid) philosophy, which is swallowed up in the Rowing 
inclination to personify the creative principle, and ultimately 
is lost in the erection of a personal Lord, as in the latest 
Upanishads. This tendency to personify, with the increase of 
special sectarian gods, will lead again, after centuries, to the 
rehabilitation of a triad of gods, the trtmiir/i, where unite 
Vishnu, ^iva, and, with these, who are more powerful, Brahmi, 
the Prajapati of the Veda, as the All-gotl of purely pantheistic 
systems. In the purer, older form recorded above, the /irrwj^dt 
(Person) is sprung from the JfwJ. There is no distinction 
^tween matter and spirit. Conscious being (ia/) wills, and 
so produces all Or Sfma comes first; and this is conscioua 

I Id 4 . Li pkasDJC, with ctber lu u 4l»i^ 

p. auT, ihA ^ Ka. 

f TM* UpaJiliUail to bu perhapfi ui tarlj <;infE« tr^rt (di»l 

tr the aUitiliSB to Rudo below, Ik accept^ u od^uL 


j^MiiGio^rs o/ livmA. 

sat^ and the cau&e of the worlds; which eventually 

becomes the Lord. The titmB in mao^ owing to his euviron- 
Rient, cannot see whole, and needs the Yoga dlsdplinc of 
asceticism to enable him to do so. Hui he Is the same ego 
which is the AIL 

The relation between the absolute and the ego Is through 
wilL ^^This (neuter) willed^ ^xMay ] be many^" and 

created" {C/ajm/,, above). Sometimes the imporsona], and 
sometimes the personat spirit willed^^ 3* 6), Anti 

when it is saldj in Antfi* 1.4- that ^Tn the beginning 

egOj spirit^ a/wn^ alone eitisted/' one finds this spirit (self) to be 
a form of (/^. lO-i i). Personified in a ^ctarian sense^ 

this spirit becomes tlie divinity Rndra ^iva^ the ISlessed One 
(Q'efafi ti/ara, 5, ii)>^ 

] In short, the teachers of the Upanishads not only do not 
declare clearly what they believed in regard to cosmogonic and 
eschatological matters, but many of them probably did not 
know clearly what they believedn Their great discovery was 
that man^s spirit was not particnLir and mortal, but part of the 
immortal universal. Whether this universal W'^is a being aiive 
I and a personal or whether this personal being was but a 
'transient form of iinpersonal, imperishable being:® and whether 
the union with being, ItraAmay would result in a sur\dval of 
individual consciousness^— these are evidently points they were 
not agreed upon, and^ in all probability, no one of the sages was 
certain in regard to them* Crass Identifications of the vital 

1 Aj k f«cr^hA4vtaBd 3 ti Eht dcKtrinr of gnuse hy Vie 1ft |b« Rig S'«fa, in Uw 
Cvtf-, tfw AatASi md tlm <*“. a. aj] .U. j. j. but Qirtrlicfi: 

eb^ th^f? ftriUi ibc smarian phuc, titii radlral aubvci^Lpn oC Tlw U 

doctiTw nhkh becacneft » pcweefftl ftt a, Uter date, the tcadanE that &ftlv;it3eq] a 
gilt ^ GifA. Ttilp Spiril El not g/at by wtsdom; tlw Spirit eftwses u his ^wft llw 
bodj of that tftftti Mfiqm I Ee eftOOK?^'* 

* Sw abuviL Ai dfeKrlptlfe^ uf Uk cftwdwjsi Spirit, lhat H the famoca 

ven£ I " If Ihe eUjee thinki to tf the ibla tEiiala he: U »lafn; tlwr both ueuIct^ 

fttftEid DoC; thift one (tht Spl4t) twE, *nd Ei not sl^n" a, igj j loo«lj 

Kftderad by i&ncraaD, * If the red ^ytz ihiftk St etCr 

pHticlple with breath, as one with ethetj which is twice 
emphasized as one of the two immortnl thIngSp were provistoiH 
ally accepted. Theta breath and tnimorial spirit were made one* 
Matter had energy from the beginning, dra^ma: or was chaos, 
without being. But when asa/ becomes that sat 
becomes energized being, and to asat there Is no 

rehitn. I n eschatology^ the real (spirit, or sell) part of man 
(ego) either rejoices forever as a conscious part of the 
conscious world-self, or exists immortal in —imperisb- 

abte being, conceived as more or less conscious.* 

The teachers recognize the limitations of understanding j 
« The gods are in Indra, India is in the Father-god, the Father- 
god (the Spirit) is in ^rflrAmrf"—^‘ But in what is brahma 
And the answer is* Ask not too muoh^^ {Brihaii, Arm^ Up* 

These probiems will be those of the future formal philoso¬ 
phy, Even the Upanishads do not fumbh a philosophy alto* \ 
gether new. Their doctrine of harmHf their identiheation | 
of particular ego and universal ego, is not original. The | 
* breaths/ Ehe ^nine doofTs,* the Mhree qualities,^ the parusha as 
identical with ego, are older even than the Erlhmanas (Scher- 
man, Avh nV. p. 6a), 

ft is not a new philosophy, it is a new religion that the f 
Upanishads olTer.^ This is no religion of rites and ceremouies, 
although the cult is retained as helpful in disciplitilngand teach¬ 
ing ; it Is a religion for sorrowing humanity. It U a religion 
that comforts the affiicied, and gives to the soul ^ that peaces 
which the world cannot give/ In the sectarian Upanishads 
this bliss of religion is ever present. Through knowing ilira 
who is more subtile than subtile, who is creator of ev'erything, 

1 Tbe fnet Kfnarkcd ThU^ut Hut ndJoHy dJffrnnt lyitenw oE ^ 

bollt qpodi llu U|KLTii«h 4 ilA ^ cnougli iQ Iww ftitiUfuciu m the (kdimtiafid of 
Uw Utbex. 

s CiaEopisiv Gjuth, p. 7 *. 


T//£ I^EL/G/0.\^ /jVD/A. 

who ha^ many fonns^ who embraces cvcr^'thinf^ the Blessed 
Lord — one Jo peace without end4. 14-15). 

These teachers, who enjoin the highest morahty {* seU-restruint, 
generosityv mercy* are God'S commandments in SriAinf 
Aran. 5, i) refuse to be satisfied wath virtue's reward, and+ 
being able to obtain heaven, *seek for something beyondn' 
And this they do not from mere pessimism, but from a convic¬ 
tion that they will find a joy greater than that of heaven, and 
more enduring, in that world where is the light heyoDd the 
darkness '' (CV t A j- S); “ where shines neither sun, moon, stars^ 
lightning, nor fire, but all shines alter Him that shines alone, 
and through His light the universe is lighted" (Martif. 2. 2 *10). 
This, moreover, is not a future joy. It is one that frees from 
perturbation in this life, and gives relief from sorrow. In the 
Chlndog)^ (7p 1. 3) ^ m^n in grief comes seeking this new 
knowledge of the univeml Spirit; ** For," says he, 'M have 
heard it said that he who knows the Spirit passes beyond 
grief.So in the I^a, though this is a late sectarian work, it 
is asked, What sorrow can there bo for him to whom Spirit 
alone has become ail things ? " (7)^ Again, He that knows 
the joy of ifraAma, whence speech with mind turns away with- 
out apprehending it, fears noi^" ( a, 4)1 for ^^fear comes 
only from a second" ^raft. 1, 4- 2), and when one 

recognizes that all is one he no longer fears death (/h 4 ^ 4 - 

Snch is the religion of these teachers. In the quiet assurap- 
don that life is not worth Uvii^, they are as pessimistic as was 
Buddha. But if, as seems to be the case, the Buddhist be¬ 
lieved in the eventual extinction of his individuality, their 
pessimism Is of a different sort* For the teacher of the 
Upanishads believes that he will attain to unending joy; not 
the rude happiness of * heaven-seekers^" but the unchanging 
bliss of immortal peace. For him that wished it, there was 
heaven and the gods. These were not denied; they were as 


real as the fool" that desired theiiL But for him that coo- 
Queted passioD, and knew the truth, there was e«stence 
without the pain of desire, life without end, freedom from 
rebirth. The spirit of the sage becomes one with the Eternal j 
man becomes GckL 



For a long time after the Vedic age there is little that gives 
one tm insight into the views of the people. It may be pre- 
sumedp since the orthodox systems never dispensed with the 
established cult, that the form of the old Vedic creed was kept 
intact, Yett since the real belief changed, and the cult becvne 
more and more the practice of a formalityt it becomes neces¬ 
sary to seek, apart from the inherited ritual^ the faith which 
formed the actual religion of the people. Inasmuch as this 
phase of Hindu belief has scaredj been touched upon else¬ 
where, it may be well to state more fully the object of die 
present chapter. 

VVe have shown above that the theology of the Vedic period 
had resulted, before its dose, in a form of pantheism, which was 
accompanied, as is attested by the Atharva Veda, with a demon¬ 
ology and witch-craft religion, the latter presumably of high 
antiquity. Immediately after this come the esoteric Brdhmanas, 
in which the gods are, more or less, figures in the eyes of the 
priests, and the form of a Father-god rises into chief prom- 
ihcnce, being sometimes regarded as the creative force, but at 
all times as the moral authority in the world. At the end of 
this period, however, and probably even before this period 
ended, there is for the first lime^ in the Upanishads^ a new 
religion, that, in some regards, b esoteric. Hitherto the secrets 
of religious mysteries had been treated as hidden priestly wis¬ 
dom, not to be revealed. Butt for the most part, this wisdom 
is really nonsense; and when it is said in the BrAhmanas, at 
the end of a bit of theoiogical mystery, that it is a secret, or 


that * the gods love that which is secret,’ one is rot persuaded 
by the examples given that this esoteric knowledge Is ititcUec- 
mally \-al\iable> But with the Upanishads there comes the 
antithesis of inherited belief and right belief. The latter is 
public property, though it is not taught carelessly. The 
student is not initiated into the higher wisdom till he is drilled 
in the lower. The most unexpected characters appear in the 
role of instmetoTs of priests, namely, women, kings, and mem¬ 
bers of the third caste, whose deeper wisdom is promulgated 
oftentimes as something quite new, and sometimes is whisf 
pered in secret. Pantheism, samtSfA^ and the eternal bliss of 
the individual spirit when eventually it is freed from further 
transmigration, — these three fundamental traits of the new 
religion arc discussed in such a way as to show that they had 
no hold upon the general public, but they were the intellectual 
wealth of a few. Some of the Upanishads hide behind a veil 
of mystery; yet many of them, as ^S'indisch has said, are, in a 
way, popular; that is, they are intended for a general public, 
not for priests alone. This is especiiliy the case with the 
pantheistic Upanishads in their more pronounced form. But 
still it is only the very wise that can accept the teaching. It 
is not the faith of the people. 

Epic literature, which is the nest living literature of the 
Brahmans, after the Upanishads, takes one, in a trice, from the 
beginnings of a formal pantheism, to a pantheism already dis¬ 
integrated by the newer worship of sectaries. Here the imper¬ 
sonal Simii, or nameless Lord, is not only an anthropomorpluc 
giva, as in the late Upanishads, where the philosophic 
is equated with a long recogniaed tj^K of divinity, but Sima is 
identified with the figure of a theomorphic tnaJih 

I Literally, fraomfiralton, the doefetM of t»rth*; 

fint.uJjD PUto: «tirii/(oM t« rvyjtdwi eHvo ifll 

rvE iiOlfSt ft* »l*t» mtiaiiAt, fram 'the other ptaw,’ baTft te rarth; 

ttH-n. with adrandnu tmh KUtuitU agun, add lo bh; »liworj hkh « 

Jes$ clabi^Uy uolteS with tiw heitdectrlite. 


77 /^ ^MUSIOjVS of 

Is thtttf tkerij nothing mlh which lo bridge this giilf ? 

In our opinion the religion of the iaw-bcjoks, as a legitimate 
phase of Hindu religion, has been too much ignored. The 
religion of Upanishad and Vcdinta, with its attractive analo¬ 
gies with modem specuiatioiii has been taken as illustrative 
of^the religion of a vast period, to the discrediting of the 
belief represented tn the manuals of law. To these certainly 
the name of literature can scarcely be applied^ but in their 
rapport with ordinary life they will be found more apt than are 
the profounckr speculations of the philosophers to reflect the 
religious belief taught to the masses and accepted by them. 

The study of these books casts a broad light upon that 
interval between the Vedic and epic periods wherein it is 
customary to imagine religion as being, in the main, cuU or 
philosophy. Nor does the interest cease with the yield of 
necessarily scanty yet ver>' significant facts in regard to escha¬ 
tological and cosmogonic, views. The gods themselves are 
not what they are In the rites of the cunning priests or In the 
dogmas of the sages. In the Hindu law there is a reversion 
to Vedic belief; or rather not a reversion ^ but here one sees 
again, through the froth of rites and the murk of philosophy, 
the undc^stream of faith that still flows from tho old fount, 
if somewhat discolored, and waters the heart of the people. 

At just w'haE time w'as elaborated the stupendous system of 
rites, w^hich are already traditional in the Dfiihmanas, can 
never be known. Some of these rites have to do with special 
ceremonies* such as the royal inauguration^ some are stated 
f^i'fflrf-sacrifices.^ Opposed to these xwrf^feasts Is the simpler 
and older fire-cult+ w^hich persists in the house-rituals. All of 
these together make up a sightly array of sacrifices.^ The 

1 WvtRT fao-f kte-b pubtlibed on Uw xudSon, Uic Ra]uE]r& jldU 

tbr ritn, full of InlemtiiiE details dfiH fferLtiifu. 

a Tt« tnditkieial iacfl6c« are tTfrenty-0« Sn fliunbcr, dErlxkd Into three tlWMa 
j| irttn Tbe fomit are (i^ ohliU™ of tucirr, JpIUc, caro, etc. . 

ji'Wfl aacrificKi; (J) Mhiul sajaifkxB^ aj piUt erf Siic first two. Tho 



wwir-ritual is developed in the Brahtnanas. But with this 
of works there must have beep from ancient times an¬ 
other which treated of the fire-ritual, and of which the more 
modern reprusentarivcs are the extant Sutras, It is with 
Sutras that legal literature hegins, hut these differ from 
ritualistic Satras. Vet both are full of religious meat In 
these collections, even in the more special, there is no arrange¬ 
ment that cortcspoods to western ideas of order. In a com¬ 
pleted code, for example, there is a rough distribniion of 
subjects under different heads, but the attempt is only tenta¬ 
tive, and each work presents the appearance of a heterogeneous 
mass of regulations and laws, from which one must pick out 
the taw for which he is seeking. The earlier legal works were 
in prose; the later evolved codes, of wlttch there is a large 
number, in raetrc- It is in these two classes of house-ritud 
and law-ritual, which together constitute what is called Smnlt, 
tradition-ritual {in distinction from the so-called C^ruti, revela¬ 
tion-ritual), that one may expect to find the religion of the 
time; not as inculcated by the promoters of mystery, nor yet 
as disclosed b}' the philosopher, but as taught (through the 
priest) to the people, aud as accepted by them for their daily 
guidance in matters of every-day obsert'ance. tVe glance first 
at the religions obscrvancses, for here, as in the case of the 
great sacrifices, a detailed examination would be of no more 
value than a collective impression; unless, indeed, one were 
hunting for folk-lore superstitions, of which we can treat now 
only in the mass. It is sufficient to understand that, accord- 
in- to the house-ritual and the law-ritual {dharm^i- 

and dharmD imra)^ for every change in life there was 
an appropriate ceremony and a religious observ-anw; lor 
every day, oblations (three at least); for every fortnight and 

junbtt ot the ne- wxl fvU *» ^ 

i Ttw httiS iiie Hsetiic^l oxleJt i part of Sranti •(■smjtji!- 

TY/A J^£L/C/0/^S 0£ MW//. 


wason, a sacrifice. Rtligiotis fomufac were said over the 
child yet ufiborn. From the moipent of biriJi he was syf- 
rounded wUh observances.^ At such and such a time the 
child's head was shaved ; he was taken out to look at the sun; 
made to eat froiu a golden spoon; invested with the sacred 
cord* etc** etc* When grown up, a certain number of years 
were passed with a Guru, or tutor* who taught the boy his 
Veda; and to whom he acted as body-servant (a study and 
office often ent short in the case of Aryans who were not 
priests). Of the sacraments alone* such as the obser»'ances to 
which we have just alluded, there are no less than forty accord¬ 
ing to Gautama's laws (the namiMile^ eatmg-ritCj etc.). The 
pious householder who had once set up his own fire, that is, 
got in a [Tied* rnust have spent most of his time, if he followed 
directions, in attending to some religious ceremony. He had 
several little rites to attend to even before he might say hb 
prayers in the morning; and since even to-day most of these 
personal regulations arc dutifully obser\^cd, one may assume 
that in the full power of FrahmanJiood they were very' straitly 

It isp therefore, important to know what these works, so closely 
in touch with the general public, have to say in regard to religion. 
W'hat they inculc.iie will be the popular theology of completed 
Brahmanism^ For these books are intended to give Instrucrion 
to all the Aryan cartes, and, though this instruction hltrates 
through the hands of the priest, one may be sure that the 
Understanding between king and priest was such as to make 
the code the real norm of ju^ce and arbiter of religious 
Opinions. For instaucep, when one reads that the king is a prime 

1 The FItc Paiaiskjnnt Sacrliku <ONmuH») an?, mmitUpe to Si mu m. 7 ®^ 
study Uw Veda for leictdag lt^; ocrilkt to iSe MaiwsmDd to 

foodi Ici f btuti {gr ipirltiji ; aad ho?ipita.ljty. 

« In tlw repoit «r tlic Or. Cotk^reM Tor iSSo, |k B.. WiitUms hsa xv^ 

Hllnn 0/ tlw dAlly 0/ Uw modera orilsedcrSi Huidu f /Wa la 



^nd that, ^uiti pr^ the priest mny be banished^ 

but never may be punished coiponilly by the king^, because the 
former is a Still greater divinity^ ^ taken for granted 

that such was received opinion. When we come to take up 
the Hinduism of the epic we shall point out that that w'ork 
contains a reli|;;ion more popular even than that of the legal 
literature^ for one knows that this latter phrase of religion was 
at first not taught at all, but grew up in the face of opposi¬ 
tion. But for the present, before the rise of epic ' Hinduism,^ 
and before taking up the heretical writingSp it is a great g;am 
to be able to scan a side of religion that may be called popular 
in so far as it evidently is the fakh wJiicb not only w^as taught 
to the masses, but which, as is universally assumed in the law, 
the masses accept; w^hereas philosophers alone accept the 
afmii religion of the Upanishads, and the Brdhtnanas are not 
intended for the public at alh but only for initiated priests. 

\\Tiat+ then, is the religious belief and the moTal position of 
the Hindu law-books? In how' far has philosophy aHectcd 
public religion, and in w^bat w^y has a reconciliation been 
affected between the contradictory beliefs in regard to the 
gods ; in regard to the value of works on the one hand, and 
of knowledge on the other; in regard to hell as a means of 
punishment for sin on the one hand, and reincarnation (sum- 
sara) on the others In regard to heaven as a reward of good 
deeds on the one hand, and absorption into God on the other ; 
in regard to a personal creator on the one hand, and a First 
Cause without personal attributes on the other ? 

For the philosophical treayses are known and referred to in 
the early codes ; SO that, although the completed systems post¬ 
dated the Sfitnis^ the cosmical and theological speculations of 
the earlier LTpanishads were familiar to the authors of the 
legal systems. 

The first general impression produced by a perusal of the 
law'-books is that tJic popula^r religion has remained unalFccted 


T//£ ££L/G/0^rs /aVDIA^ 

by philosophy. And this ta correct io so f[ij 3 ls that it must 
be pul first in drsoribin^ th^ codes, which^ iti tht^ in 

keeping the ancient observances, retfect the inherited faith. 
When, ihererore, one says that pantheism^ succeeded poly¬ 
theism in India, he must qiialdy the assertion. The philos^ 
ophers are pantheists, but what of the vulgar? Do they give 
up polytheism; are they inclined to do so, or are they taught 
to do ao? No. Tor there is no fornml abatement in the rigor 
of the older creed. Whatever the wise man thought, and 
whatever m his philosophy'' was the instnicticm which he 
parted to his pcers^ when he dealt with the world about him 
he taught his inLellcctual inferiors a scarcely modified form of 
the creed of their fathers. How in his own miiid this wise 
man reconciled the two sets of opinion has been shown above. 
The works of sacrificet with all the inherited belief Implied 
them^ were for him preparatory studies, ^rhe elasticity of his 
philosophy admitted the whole world of gods, as a temporary 
reality* into his pantheistic scheme. It WMs^ therefore, neither 
the hypocrisy of the Koman augur, not the fear ol results that 
in his teaching held him to the inheritance he had received. 
Gods^ ghosts, demons^ and consequently sacrifices, rites, ordeals, 
and formulae were not incongruous with his philosophical 
opinions. He himself believed io these spiritual powers and 
in the usefulness of serving them. It is true that he believed 
io their eventual doom, but so far as inan w^as concerned they 
were practically real Tisere was, therefore* not only no reason 
why ihe sage should not inculcate the old rites, hut there was 
every reason why he should. ^j^peciaJly in the case of pious 
but ignorant people, whose wisdom was not yei developt!d to a 
full appriciatioii of divine relativity, was it incumbent on 
him to keep them, the lower castes, to the one religion that 
they could comprehend- 

I EfruiK betc tlh^ Idler dbtiiii»ibfi befvun Ok Vcdlnta and SliilchjA ijitemL 
Frofxrlj »pca)daK, the btter u duaElsti^ 

the popular brahman 1C FAITH. 


It IS thus that the apparent inconsistepcy in exoteric and 
esotcnc beliefs explains itself. For the two are not contra- 
dictoty. They do not exclude each other. Hindu pantheism T 
includes polytheism with its attendant patrolatry, demonoiogy, J , 
and oonsequent Titttalism,' 

With rare exceptions it was only the grosser religion that 
the vulgar could understand; it was only this that they were 
taught and believed. 

Thus the old Vedic gods are revered and worshipped by 
name. The Sun, Indra, and all the dignities embalmed in 
ritual, are placated and ‘ satiated’ with offerings, just as they 
had been satiated from time immeiiiiOrial. Hut no hint is given 
that this is a form; or that the Vedic gods are of less account 
ihm they had been. ^loreovur, it is not in the itihenied 
formulae of the ritual alone that this view is upheld. To be 
sure, when philosophical speculation is introduced, the Father- 
god comes to the fore; Brahma* sits aloft, indulgently advising 
his children, as he docs in the intermediate stage of the 
Brdhmnnas; and StmS {^raAmd) too is recognized to be the 
real being of HrahmS, as in the Upanishads.* But none of this 
touches the practice of the common law, where the ordinary 
man is admonished to fear Varna's hell and Varima’s bonds, as 
he would have been admonished before the philosopher grew 
wiser than the Vedic seers. Only personified Right, Dharraa, 
takes his seat with shadowy Brahmi among the other gods. 

1 AH bttf D«ldlw WBUdf ti Blwltted “ “ 

(for the .1™) !o M. Yt. j,t ■ 1^8 ^ 

tli to wdiiiLs ind Us to lU* MciBlc*. hr lone of ti= (pw to 

Ibougb tl»y onrt (bclo*)! 


T//£ J^£L/G/O^VS INDIA. 

\Miat U the sj>eech which the judge on the bench is ordered 
to repeal to the witnessezi ? I'hus the Saw^gh^er I^lanuj 
**When the witue^ises are collected cogetlier in the courtp in 
the presence of the plaintilT and defendantp the (ilrahman) 
judge should call upon them to speak, kindly addressing them 
in the following manner: ' liS'hatever you know has been done 
in this affair . t - declare it all. A witness who in testifying 
speaks the truth reaches the worlds wrhere all is plenty ^ ^ 

such testimony is honored by Brahma. One who in testifying 
speaks an untruth ts, all unwnlUng^ bound fast by the cords of 
%^anjna,^ till an hundred births are passed/ , . * (Then, 
spCniking to one witness): * Spirit (soul) U the witness for the 
Spirit, and the Spirit is likewise the refuge of the Spirit. 
r>espise not, therefore, thine own spirit (or soul), the highest 
witness of man. Verily, the wicked think * no one sees us/ 
but the gods ate looking at them, and also the person within 
(conscience), lE/iriA^ fA^ IFa/irf^ (the person in the) 

heart, /vrt, ff AvJfA/p fAt /Kvfl 

and Dhartna know the conduct of all corporeal beings. . . . 
Although, O good man, thou regardcsl thyself thinking, *i am 
alone," yet the holy one (saint) who sees the evil and the good, 
stands ever in thy heart It is in inith god Yam a, the son of 
Vivasvant, who resideth in thy heart; if thou beesl not at 
variance with him (thou needesl) not (to) go to the Ganges 
and to the (holy land of) the Kurus (to be purified)/"" 

Here there is no abateinent in Yedic polytheism, although 
it is circled round with a thin mist from Inter teachings. In 
the same w'ay the ordinary man is taught that at death his 
spirit (soul) will pass as a manikin out of his body and go to 
Yama to be judged; white the feasts to the ^fanes, of course, 
imply alwap the belief in the individual activity of dead 
ancestors. Such expressions as *Thc seven daughters of 

\x* U tiui lonl of |mnhhiry^nt aM fc}i;pl4tth a 

Ectptre fpunijhnxiit^ &Fta (vrer Idug^** 


2 S 1 

Vanina * varunir tmJSf A^-v, Gn/i^ 51 ?+ 3- 3) show tliat 

even In detnil the old views arc atiSl retained, 'rhere is no 
advance, except in suptrslittoiis+* on the main features ol tlic 
old religion. So the same old fear of words Is found, resulting 
in new euphemismsH One must not sajr Vsetill/ but 

call it Mutky' (Caut. 9. 21); a factor in the makmg 

o! African languages also, according to modern travellers. 
Images of the gods are now over-recognized by the priest, for 
they must be revered like the gods themselves (/A 12; P^r. 
GriA, 5. 3. 14. 8- etc,)* Among the developed objects of the 
cult serpents now occupy a prominent place. They are 
mentioned as worshipful in the Brahmanas. In the SQtra 
period offerings are made to snakes of earth, air, and heaven 5 
the serpents are satiated* along with gods, plants, demons, 
etc. (gankh, 4. 9. 3; t5. 4; A^v. 2. i. 9; j. 4. i; Parask. 2. 
14, 9) and blood is poured out to (bem (A(v. 4. 8. 27).* But 
other later divinities than those of the earliest Veda, such as 
Wealth (Kubera), and Dhanna, have crept into the ritual. With 
the Vedic gods appears as a divinity in K.bad. i. S- 31 the love- 
god Kama, of the Atbarvati; while on the other hand Rudra the 
bcast'lord (Pa<;upati, Lord of £:altle)tthc 'kindly' (Jiva, appears 
as ‘ great godt' wliose names are ^ankara, Prishdtaka, Bhava, 
^rva, Ts^na (Lord); who has all names and greatness^ 
while he yet is described in the words of tlie older test as *the 
god that desires to kill' (.A^'v. s. 2, sj 4. 8. 9, ig.* 29, 32; 
gr^ 3. 34)* On the other hjxnd Vishnu is also adored, and 
tK^ in connection with the Aoyov, or Vac {ib, j. 3. 4)- Quite 
in Upanishad manner — for it is necessary to show that these 

1 In Bcw litffr fp^ InstMiBi!’. 3 t5 PStphSl S. 3' r ^ "^^lly iJld* dlLrty fits 

^piwnti a from nraoiQ( away'; and Elien Ia an crdcal gkfli beCflUi- 

Ld$ ^fcKlDw). 

J liW b pouTTd out to Uw tiemenf h «tisf thai they nwy tilw tJsb and iws 

filhw palt otf tlie Br. IL 7. t. 

» Hm, 4. g. MfDB art Ham, Mridli, giva, flhatap MaUdtra 

Ugra. Dhimj, Papipiitii KwJrt. «>nkaTit, 

rJ/£ £££/GIONS OF 


were then really known — h the fermula ■ thou art a sttident 
(Breathp) and art given over to Ka ‘ (i^. i. zo. 3.), or 
in A^valiyana no Upaniahads are given in the 
list of llteraturep which includes the ^ Eulogies of men/ ItiSa^sas, 
Purlnas, and even the Mahibharata (3.3. 1; 4- 4)« 

I. 13. t-, (and that of a very domestic nature) 

are recognired^ which would corroborate the explanation of 
Upanishad given above, as being at first a subsidiary work, 
dealing w'ith minor points.^ .Something of the sciolism of the 
Upanishads seums to lie in the prayer that of the four paths 
on which walk the gods the mortal may be led in that w'hich 
bestows * freedom from death' ( PAr* j+ t+ 2)^ and many of the 
teachers famous in the Upanbhads are now revered by name 
like gods 3^ 4. 4, ctc.)^ 

On turning from these domestic Sfitras to the legal Sutras it 
becomes evident that the pantheistic doctrine of the Upan^ 
ishadsp and in part the Upanishada themselves^ were already 
familiar to the law-makers, and that they influencedt in some 
degree, the doctrines of the law, despite the retention of the 
older forms, Xot only is samsara the accepted doctrinet but 
the if/wJ, as if in a veritable U panishad, is the object of relig¬ 
ious devotion. Here, how'ever, this quest is permitted only 
to the ascetic^ w'ho presumably has performed all ritualistic 
duties and passed through the stadia that legally precede 
his own+ 

Of all the legal Sutra-writers Gautama is oldest, and perhaps 
is pre-buddhistk. 'rurning to his work one notices first that the 
Mimamsist is omitted in the list of learned men (aS. 49)1^ hut 
since the Upanishads and Vedanta arc expressly mentioned, it 
is evident that the author of even the oldest S&tra was 

I Tlifipe Ute 4 eiCril»d Ip 14 af Lht BrtAad *bldi 

txah of EQfiAaphjr&ks cenamo^ilal min. 

^ E^pcdjlly mciitSoiied In Uk btrr VM44liti^ tsekw); on. a 

Wsiseh of tbe Vdainu im bekiWp 

r//£ POPULjiJ^ FAlTtt. 


acquainted wiiti whatever then corresponded to these works.' 
The opposed teaching of hell versus sasis^tu is found tn 
Gautama. But there is rather an interesting attempt to unite 
tlicm. Ordinarily it is to hell and heaven that reference is 
made, * the one that knows the law obtains the heavenly 
world'{sS. 52): *if one speak untruth to a teacher, even in 
thought, even in respect to little things, he slays seven men 
after and before him' (seven descendants and seven ancestors, 
jj- ji). So in the case of witnesses; ‘heaven (is the fruit) for 
speaking the truth; otherwise hell' (13, 7); ‘ for stealing (land) 
heir (is the punishment, ib. r;). Now and then comes the 
philosophical doctrine: ‘one does not fall from the world of 
Brahma’ (9. 74): ‘one enters into union and into the same 
world with Brahma * (8. 25). 

But in 21,4-d there occurs the following statement: ‘To be 
an outcast is to he deprived of the works of the twice-hom, 
and hereafter to be deprived of happiness; this some (call) 
hell,* It is evident here that the expression ujfWA/f (depriva¬ 
tion of success or happiness) Is placed optionally beside 
Harabt! (hell) as the view of one set of theologians compared 
with that of another; ‘lack of obtaining success, reward' 
stands parallel to •hell.' In the same chapter, where Manu 
says that he who assaults a Brahman “obtains bell for one 
hundred years" (M. si. *07), Gautama (11. ao) says “for one 
hundred years, lack of heaven " {ars'anQam)t which may mean 
hell or the deprivation of the result of merit, i.r., one hundred 
years will be deducted from his heavenly life. In this case 
not a new and better birth but heaven is 3s.sumed to be the 
reward of good acts. Now if one turns to it, 29-30 he finds 
both views combined. In the parallel passage in Apastamba 

1 Tlie cooHDCtiUtar (14,11, dteS by Bilhfer) defines VedJnta as tbe pMt 
tke Aranra]B.t which aw ne* tipoiasladj, tlwt Ji, spparentb *» a laol' Veda^nd ‘ 
(mfd^sii'd). thouRh Ihb meaiilnt la not admitted by »lw adioJan. v 1 » will k* Ib 
MUa only the ineaning aim.' 

T//£ 0£ 

Only better or Tror&e re^blrths are promised as a reward for 
good or evil (2. 5, 11* 10-11); but kero it is said: The castes 
and orders that remain by their duty, halving died, having en¬ 
joyed the fruits of their acta^ with the remnant of their (tneril) 
obtain re-birth, having an excellent country, caste, and family^ 
having long lifCj learning, good conduct, wealth, happiness^ and 
wisdcini. They of dlfTcrent sort are destroyed in various 
ways^"' Here, heavenly joys (such as are impUed by 
in 36) are to be enjoyed first, and a good birth 
afterwards, and by implication one probably has to interpret 
the next sentence to mean *they are sent to hell and then 
re-born in various low births/ This> too, is Manu's rule 
(below). At this time the sacred places which purify arc in 
great vogue^ and in Gautama a list of them is given (19. *4), 
viz.: ** all mountains, all rivers, holy pools, places of pilgrimage 
{r>.j riverTordSj tir/Aif/ity, homes of saints, cow-pens, and 
altars.” Of these the HrfAas arc particularly interesting, as 
they later become of great importance* thousands of verses in 
the epic being devoted to their enumeration and praisep 

Gautama says also that ascetics, according to some teachers, 
need not be householders first {5. i)» and that the Brahman 
ascetic slays at home during the rainy season, like the heretic 
monks (rk 13), If one examine the relative importance of the 
forms and spirit of religion as taught in this, the oldest tMarmd- 
su/ra,' he will be impressed at first with the tremendous weight 
laid on the former as compared with the latten But^ as was 
said apropos oE the Brahmanic literature, one errs who fails to 
appreciate the fact that these works are intended not to give 
a summary of religious conduct, but to inculcate ceremonial 
rules. Of the more importance, therefore, is the occasional 
pause which is made to insist, beyond peradventure, on the 
superiority of moral rules. A very good instance of this is 
found in Gautama. He has a list of venial sins. Since tying 

1 Tilt Huiin ((Ira) innKaUim at JiS. is h EpU^rpolatEd, auDCPfiUng to 

r//£ £J^A^.VAAVC 25 S 

i^ one pf thp most bemous offences to a Hindu lawgiveFp and 
the penances are severe, all the treatises state formally that an 
untruth uttered in fun, or when one \s^ in danger, or an oath of 
the sort Implied by Vlato ; di^poSurtov ov ^f^aair maif^ 
all these are veniah and so are lies told to benefit a (holy) 
eoWp or to aid a priest; or told from religious motives of 
any sort without self-interest. This Is almost the only 
example of looseness in morals as taught in the law* Hut the 
following case shows most plainly the importance of morality 
as opposed to formal righteousness. After all the fort)' sacra¬ 
ments (to w'hich allusion was made above), have been re¬ 
counted, there are given ^ eight good qualities of the son\j 
vnz,, meTcy+ forbearance, freedom from envy, purity^ calmness, 
correct behavior^ fieedoin from greed and from covetousness- 
Then follows: He that has (performed) the forty sacraments 
but has not the eight good qualities enters not into union with 
Brahm^^ nor into the heaven of BrahmiJ But he that has 
(performed) only a part of the forty sacraments and has the 
eight good qualities enters into union with Brahma^ and into 
the heaven of Brahma.*' "rhis is as near to heresy as pre- 
buddhistic Brahmanism permitted itself to come- 

In the later legal SQlra of the northern Vaslstha* occurs a 
rule which^ while it distinctly explains what is meant by liber- 
allty^viz., gifts to a priest, also recognizes the ^heavenly reward^: 
“ If gifts are given to a man that docs not know the Veda the 
divinities arc not satisfied” (3- 3), In the same work (6. t) 
^destruction* is the fate of the sinner that lives without ob- 

1 Iffi'fv then ii p1afiil]r an alb^join tc» the Iwa of fcUdtf vi the 
tVbrther the I^Elevta thiU Ihe sjuTit will b# uDiltd with Ur^tiAa Qf ilmpljr 

Hite In hb he elo^ ncit 

^ GoiUtiUTUt ii pm^bb a Northen^Cr. Th# ^tltra, It frhould be ctbserTcd, are 
not »indiHdual an bt Iwpll^d by tb* lume oi the to whom ibcj an> 

Credited. They were tash tuti ol a afhoDl, faranta^ but they vt AlLribulod uM' 
fOfniJy to a special teacher, who Eeprcwnti Uw 4:4irjf^4r, u hai bHa ahawn by M [iller* 
F^r what la known In rrgaid In tbc Eotly'' Sfll^makert ^ I nlrodiKtiod 

to w[»1uGD» U. -and ol the iSacrod Booka^. 

2S6 J?£lJe/ONS 0£ /ATS/nrf. 

servancfi of good custom; yel is k said id the same chapter 
(27): “ f f a twice-bom man dies with the food of a ^Odra (lowest 
t::aste) in bis belly, be would become a village psgt or he is 
born again in that (^udra's) family'*? and, in respect to sons 
begotten when be has in him such food: ** Of whom the food, 
of him are these sons; and he himself would not mount to 
heaven , * . be does not find the upward path*" (19, aS), In 
iit. S. 17 the Brahman that observes all the rules *does not fall 
from the locality of ErahmiL Further, in 

10. +1 ^fLet (an ascetic) do away with all (sacrificial) works; 
but kt him not do away with one thing, the Veda ; for from 
doing away with the Veda (one becomes) a fjudra/’ But, in 
the same chapter : Let (the ascetic) live at the end of a vib 
lage, in a temple (*god*s house*);, in a deserted house, or at 
the root of a tree; there m his mind studying the knowledge 
(of the ^ ‘SO they cite (verses) : * Sure is the freedom 

from re-birtb Id the case of one that lives in the w'ood with 
passions subdued , . . and meditates on the supreme spirit * 
. . . Let him not be confined to any custom . . . and m regard 
to this (freedom from wordiy pursuits) they cite these verses : 

* There is no salvation (literally * release*) for a philologist {na 
fabdaf^strSMiratasya nor for one that delights in 

catching (men) in the world* nor for one addicted to food and 
dress, nor for one pleased with a fine houses By means of 
prodigieSr omens, astrology, palmistrj% teachings and talking 
let him not seek alms ... he best knows salvation who (cares 
f for naught)* . . . (such are the verses). Let him neither harm 
[ nor do good to anjlhing. * . . Avoidance of disagreeable con¬ 
duct, jealous)^ presumption^ selfishness, lack of belief^ lack of 
uprightness, self-praise, blame of others, harm, greed, distrac- 
tioOf wrath, and cnv)% is a rule that applies to all the stadia of 
life. The Erabman that is pure, and wears the girdle, and 
carries the gourd in his hand, and avoids the food of low castes 
fails not of obtaining the world of Brahma " {Jh. 10, iS ff.). Yama, 



the M^ne^^T and evil spirits arc referred to in the IqV 

lowing chapter (20^ 25)^ and hell in the same chapter is 
declared to be the potlicti of such ascetics as will not eat meat 
\*‘hen requested to do so at a feast to the Manes or gods 
^ (^t 1, — rather an interesting ver^e* for in ^fanl>l's code the 

corresponding threat is thut^ instead of going to hell 'for as 
long^ as many years, as the beast has hairs,^ as here, one 
shall experience *tvventy-one rebirths/ the hell^octrine in 
terms of while the same image occurs in >ratni in 

the form *he that slaughters beasts unlawfully obtains as many 
rebirths as there are hairs on the beast ^ (n 35,38). The 
passive attitude some times ascribed to the Manes is denied; 
they rejoice over a virtuous descendant (ii. 41); a bad one 
deprives them of the heaven they stand in (16* 36)* The 
authorities on morals are herc^ as elsewhere^ ^lanu and other 
seersj the V'^edas, and the Father-godj who with Yama gives 
directions to man in regard to lawful food^ etc+ (14. jo)^ The 
moral side of the code, apart from ritual impurities^ is given^ 
as usuab by a list of good and bad qualities (above), while 
formal laws in regard to thefts murder (especially of a priest), 
adultery and drunkenness (20. 44; t. 20)^ with violation of 
caste-regulations by intercourse with outcasts, are * great crimes.* 
Though older thm Apastaniba, who mentions the Purva-mi- 
mlmsa^ Vasislha^ too, knows the Ved3iUa (3. 17), and the 
Mlmamsa 3+ 20, M+ xi$. 111 

From the Sutras of Baudha)mna's probably southern school 
something of additional interest is to be gained^ Here ^daik^ 
ness^ takes the place of hell (2. 3. 5. 9), w^hich+ how^everj by a 
citation is explained (in 2. 2. 3.34) as ^ Yama^s hall/ A verse is 
cited to show that the greatest sin is lack of faith (i^ 5, 10^ 6) 
and not going to heaven is the reward of folly (f 3 . 7) s while the 
reward of virtue is to live la heaven for long (4. S* 7). The 
same freedom In regard to ascetics as occurs in other Sutra 
works is to be: found in this author, not in the more suspicious 

m TI/£ ££l/(^/OA^S OF mn/A. 

final chapijerap but m that part of the work ^hich is accepted as 
□Idestr^ and agrees with the data found in the ItrShmanaSj where 
the pre-buddhistic monk is called Bhikshu, ^beggar/or Sannyasifi 
^he that renoynces^’ just as these terms are employed in the he¬ 
retical writings. As among the Jains (and liuddhjsts)^ the Itrah- , 
manic ascetic carries a few simple utensils^ and wandots about 
from house to house and village to vUlagCt begging food. Some 
authorities (among the Brahmans) say that one may become 
an ascetic as soon as he has completed his study, though ordi¬ 
narily this may be done only after passing through the house¬ 
holder stadium. On becoming an asccUc the beggar takes the 
vow not to injure any living thing (B^udh. ii. lO* ij, 2. 11, 29), 
exactly as the Jain ascetic takes the vow of non-injury. Mote 
than this, as will be seen belowp the details of the Brahman 
ascetic's vows are almost identical with those of the Jain 
ascetic. He vows "not to injure living beings, not to lie. not 
to steal, to be continent, to be liberal; with the five minor 
vows, not to get angry, to obey the Teacher, not to be rash, 
to cleanly and pure in eating-* To this ascetic order in 
the Brahman priesthood may be traced the origin of the 
heretical monks. Even in the Br^manas occur the termini 
technici of the Buddhist priesthood, notably the ^ratnana or 
ascetic monk, and the word MMa, Awakened ' 

The ' four orders * are those enumerated as the householder, 
student, ascetic, and forest-hermit. If one live in all four 
Orders according to rule, and be serene, he will come to peace, 
that iSp salvation (Apastamba, fp 21. i* 2)+ 

According to this later legal writer, who belongs to Soutbem 
India.* it is only after one has passed through all the preceding 

1 CoiBf^ HIihki"i iTiU^HCtlnn, p. SHE, wL iir. 

S B2udh. ii. Comp^ Jieobi'a InirctdiMtlcR. ft. td SBE^ tqL xxIL 

* niiHla tlDbmhi^hii. ffc. mi) m tlw dtstrici of the Apciaiiuri?fyi iChaal 
iwtkofth# I*«ihiefflcy,thcptt6i:r puticd tlw pwMasioni^anii 

of the Madnii Pf^deKV. Aputmoki htusclf rAm ba Nartlxrotn aa Ef Uay vtn 
rarvijoen (/«. fii,).. 

T//^: PA/r/A 


stadi:^ that he may give up works (sacriiicej etc.) and devote 
blmseLI to seeking the about, without caring for 

earth or heaven^ renouncing truth and falsehood* pleasure and 
pain' tOt 13)- H'here follows this passage one significant ol 
the opposition between purely Upanishad^ideas and those of 
the law-givers: * Acquirement of peace (salvation) dependSp it is 
said, on knowledge; this is opposed by the codes. If on knowl¬ 
edge (depended) acquirement of pcace^ even here (in this world) 
one would escape grief " 14-ib)- Further* in describing the 

forest-herrairs austerities (iS. 13. + ffr)^ verses from a Purina are 
cited w^hich are virtually Upanishadic: ‘ The eight and eiglity 
thousand sects who desired offspring (went) south on Arya- 
man's path, and obtained (a* their reward) graves; (but) the 
eight and eighty thousand who did not desire offspring (went) 
north on Aryaman^s path and make for themselv^es imnior- 
lality/ that is to say "abandon desire for offspring; and of the 
two paths (which, as the commentator observes, are inenlioned 
in the Uh^ndogya Upanishad), that which gives immortality 
instead of death (graves) will be yours/ It is admitted that 
such ascetics have miraculous powers; but the law-maker 
emphatically protests in the following Sutra agaiti&t the sup- 
poEitfon that a rule which stands opposed to the received rites 
(marrUge^ sacrifice* etc.) is of any pow’er, and asserts that for 
the future life an endless rew'ard fruit’)j called in revelatton 
‘ heavenlypMs appointed (j^-S-u), The next chapter, how- 
evert limits, as it were, this dogma, for it is stated that immor¬ 
tality is the re-binh of one's self in the body of one's son, and 
a verse b cited* *Thou procreaicst progenyt and that's thy 
Immortality, O mortal/ with other verses* which teach that 
sons that attend to the Vedic rites magnify the fame and 
heaven of their ancestors, who ^ live in heaven until the de¬ 
struction of creation" (3 Mmasamfi/tivtl/, 2. 9. 2^ 5). But 
‘ according to the Bhavishyat-Purftna ' after this destruction of 
creation *they exist again in heaven as the cause of seed ' 



(/i, 6)+ And theft follow^ a quotation from ihn F.ither-god: 
■^We live with those people who do these (following) ihingis; 
(attend to) the three Vedas* live as sly dents, create children^ 
sacrifice lo the Manes, do penance, make sacrifice to the gods^ 
practice liberality; he that extols anything else becomes air 
(or dtist) and perishes^ 3 ); and further: ^only they that 
commie sin perish * (not their ancestors)* 

The animus of this whole passage is apparent. The law¬ 
maker has to contend with them that would reject the neces- 
sLty of following in order the traditional stadia of a priest's 
life; that imagine that by becoming ascetics without first 
having passed through the preliminary stadia they can by 
knowledge alone attain the bliss that is obtained by union with 
(or Brahml)* In other words the jurist has to con¬ 
tend with a trait eminently anti-btahmanlsllc, even Buddhistic. 
He denies this value of knowledge, and therewith shows that 
what he wishes to have inculcated Is a belief in the temporary 
personnal existence of the Manes; in heaven till the end of the 
world-order; and the annihilation of the wicked; while he has 
a confused or mixed opinion In regard to one's own personal 
immortality, believing on the one hand that there is a future 
existence in heaven with the gods, and on the other (rather a 
materialistic view) that immonality is nothing but continued 
existence in the person of one’s descendants, who are virtually 
one's self in another body: only the body 

is different ” (Jk a). As to cosmogony H is stated to be (not 
the emanation of an afm^) but the ** emission (cTeation) of the 
Falhergod and of the seers** (the latter being visible as slars^ 
Of. 13, 14). In this there is plainly a received popular opinion^ 
which reflects the Vedte and Brahmanic stage, and is opposed 
10 the philosophical views of ihe Upanishads, in other words 
of the first Vedantic philosophy ^ while it is mixed up with the 
late doctrine of the cataclysms, which mi ft each succeeding 
creation. The equal annihilation of the wicked 



and unorthodox is to bo noticed. They lioro 

subject neiititr to hell nor to rebirth, but they '^become dust 
and perLsh ” (/!&. 8, 9). 

I’hroughotit the whole legal literature one will find this same 
antithesis of views in regard to the fate of good and bad, 
although It Is seldom that annihilation is predicated of the 
latter. Usually hell or rebirth are their fate ■ ■ two views, 
which no one can really reconcile. They are put side by side; 
exactly as in priestly discussion in India and Europe it still 
remains an unsettled question as to when the soul becomes 
immortalOccidental experience teaches how easy it is for 
sudi views to stand together unattached, although they are 
the object of speculation. This passage is perhaps, histor¬ 
ically, the most satisfactory (as it is philosophically unsatis¬ 
factory) that can be cited in answer to the questions that wetii 
posed above. But from other parts of legal literature a few 
mom statements may be culled, to illustrate still further the 
lack of uniformity not only iu popular belief, but in the 
teaching provided for the public. First from the same work 
of Apastamba, in 2. i j. 29. 9-10 it is said that if a witness in 
court perjure himself he shall be punished by the king, “ and 
further, in passing to the next world, hell" (is his portion); 
whereas “(the reward) for truth is heaven, and praise on the 
part of all creatures." Now, let one compare first 2. 5, 11. 
10-11; “Men of low castes are reborn in higher castes in suc¬ 
cessive births, and men of high castes in low castes, if they 
respectively perform and neglect their duties." And then this 
Vedantic passage of the same author (i. S. a iff.); “Let one 
(as penance for sin) devote himself to the Yoga (mental disci¬ 
pline) which has to do with the highest Utmil. , . . Nothing 
is known higher than the acquisition of d/wl. We shall (now) 

1 Jq India tta Utter <)iii«liiHi l*i doo tfc* Iiniiiediate!i- al dolh unite 'etlli 
tlw or dw» a Itavil to lU In Enn^: Ases the sobI wait the Last Day, o» 

j(et t& hcaVTii InirBediateh' f Compare Maine, Bar/j ioo- anJ Cmfam, p, 7J. 


T//£ A£l/G/0A£ nVD/A. 

cit« some fi/zw^-acqui^itioo-verses, yii*z All living CTeatwres 
(are) the citadel of him ihat rests in secret, the mdestnjctible 
one, the immaculate one. liiimonal they that devote them¬ 
selves 10 the iDDveless one who has a movable dwelUng . . . 
the great one whose body is light, universal, free * * . the 
clernaJ fpart) in all creatures, the wise, immortal, unchanging 
one, limhless^ voiceless, formlesSt toucJiless, purest, Uie highest 
goal. He that evciy w liefe devotes himself to Him as 

1 Lord), and always lives accordingly ; that by virtue of Yoga 
■j recognizes Him, the subtile one, shall rejoice in the top of 
I heaven. ... He, atmd, comprehends all, embraces all, more 
subtile than a lotus-thread and huger than the earth. . * , 
From him are created all bodies; he is the root, he the Ever’^ 
lasting, the Eternal OnSp"' 

This discipline it will be obsened Ls enjoined as penance 
and to get rid of faults, that is, to subdue the passions. As 
the same chapter contains a list of the faults which are to bo 
overcome before one atrives at peace (salvation) they may 
be cited here: " Anger, joy, WTiUh, greed, distraction, injury, 
threats, lying, over-eating, calumny^ envy^ seaual desire, and 
hate, lack of sttjdying lack of Yoga— the destruction of 
these (faults) is based on Yoga ” (mental ooncentratton). On 
the other hand : He that devotes himself, in accordance with 
the law, to avoiding anger^ joy, wrath, greed, distract ion* in¬ 
jury', threats* lieSt over-eating, calumny and envy; and practices 
libcraUly^ renunciation, uprightness, kindness, subduing (of 
the passions), self-control; and U at peace with all creatures \ 
and practices ^'oga ; and acta in an Aryan (noble) w^iyi and 
does not hurt anything ? and has contentment — qualities 
which, it is agreed, appertain to all the (four) stadia—he 
becomes sHnaj^dMiri '* (ik 23. 6)+ that is * one belonging to the 
all-pervading* (All-souI). There appears to be a contradiction 
between the former passage, where Yoga is enjoined on 
ascetics alone; and this, where Yoga ts part of the discipline 

the popular BRAffMAiV/C FA I TIL 


of all four stadia. Bui what was in the authors mind was 
probably that all these vices and moral virtues are cnumciaied 
as such for all; and he slips in mental concentration as a virtue 
for the ascetic, meaning to include all the virtues he knows, 

A few further illustrations from that special code which h^ 
won for itself a preeminent name, ‘the law-book of Manu, 
will give in epitome the popular religion as taught to the 
masses \ withal even better than this is tai^ht in the Sotras, 
For Father Manu's law-book, as the Hindus call it, U a 
popular C&stra or metricai* composite of law and religion, which 
reflects the opinion of fcahmanism in its geographical strong¬ 
hold. whereas the Sutras emanate from various localities, north 
and south. To Manu there is but one Holy Land, the Rums’ 
plain and the region round<ibout it (near Delhi). 

The work takes us forward in time beyond even the latest 
S&tras, but the content is such as to show that formal Brah¬ 
manism in this latest stage still keeps to its old norm and to 
Brahmanic models. 

It deserves therefore to be ejamined with care from seve^ 
points of view if one would escape from the belief of the phil¬ 
osopher to the more general teaching. In this popular religion 
alt morality is conditioned by the castes,* which is true also to 
a certain degree of the earlier SOtras. but the evil fruit of this 
plant is not there quite so ripe as it is in the later code. The 
enormity of all crimes depends on who commits them, and 
against whom they are committed. The three upper castes 

I Thoaaht Ijy idKilan to hai™ bwa dawlnped ait of He tode of the 
SUniTv; bit toOftbed by the ^ ilaou, » am, <nlicr nno of 

legal eharactotoontolMd In the epStiioUeliewhelt 

* Altho^h Sotm ~T be metritol t» te pwt, yrt 

In tbc CM 0* gfatrt, thEl tte wwk S» Sfft^BiiEd tw ^ BPEwnil 

'“^The prieet alone, In the poft-Vedl* ap, has the right to tead> the bitoI toiW} 
be lu* tommniW from bodUr poohJirneol i Ibe right to^ 

pdrtleea. The three □Piwr oastee bare the right duty of ^todyin* the 

teits icir a itumber ot jYsart 

264 r//£ ££Z/C/QAS OF INDIA. 

alone have reJigious privileges. The lowest castCp outcasts, 
women, and diseased persons are not allowed to hear the holy 
texts or take part in ceremonies.^ As to the riles, they are 
the inherited ones, sacrifices to gods, offerings to Manes and 
spirits, and alt the ceremonies of house and individual as 
explained above; wi th especial and very minute rules of ob¬ 
servance for each of the four stadia of a priest’s life.* T'hnfc 
is no hint in any of this of the importarice of the knowledge of 
the aims. But in their proper place the rules of marality and 
the higher phrlosophicaj views arc taught The doctrine of 
re-birth is formally stated, and the attainment of the w^orld of 
Brahma by union of ceremonies and knowledge is In* 

culcatcd. T^^ ascetic should seek, by meditation,, to go to 
Brahma (or brahma) for when he is utterly IndilfercnL, then, both 
here and after deaths he gains everbsting happiness. There* 
fore he should study the %'‘edas, but especially the teachings in 
regard to the Supreme Spirit, and the Upanishads; studying 
the Vedanta is a regular part of his final discipline (vL 
In another part of the work the distinction made in the 
L^panishads is upheld, that religious acts are of two sorts, one 
designed to procure bliss, and cause a good man to reach 
equality with the gods j the other performed without selfish 
motive - by which latter “even the five elements are overcome,** 
that Ls, the absorption into brahma is efiected. For “among all 
virtuous acts the knowledge of the spirit, alma, is highest : 
through this is obtained even immortality. One that sees 
spirit in all things and all thing;* in spirit sacrifices to spirit 
and enters Brahma {or brahma).** '*The spirit (orselQ is all 

1 Wtbcf hai. ihewR, itHTr that the gOdrfi did kkhic of itw nwre pcrpoliir 

and it first a.pfumlff tvmt iwh a pairi in thcrcL 

2 The ■ Eattf ^ Or itodia of a priMfs lift^ sludcnt, homclMibScr, henuit, 

mwA nui bo tonfosed with tbe {potjtieah flnlcri' t^c^. wwikir, 

furner^ akse — to wfikh, frecn Uh» to tlmt, were jddjL>d mmy + miHd aulji»v’ it 
aj +(wtaflt5,^ mud natiiral jtulahi. M the Hipe of Mann's c«l< there were ahtadj 
flf these hqlfswijifcnUalid pviips. 

r//£ FJ/m. 


divinities; ihe All is on spirit." j\nd in Up^nish^dic 

vein the Person is then proelainied as lard of gods, whom 
some call fim, some call Manu^ some call Indra^ some call 
ftir^ and some call eternal But though this be the 

view of the dosing verses, yet in the beginning of itic work Is 
this Person represented as being produced from a First Cause* 
It would be out of place here to analyse the conflicting philo¬ 
sophical views oi the Manu code. Even his common tatots 
are uncertain whether he belonged to the pantheistic Vedanta 
or dualistic Slnkhp school. For them that believe in no 
Many the solution is simpler. Although Manu is usually called 
a Puranic Eankhyan, yet are both schools represented^ and 
that without regard to incongruous teaching, Manu is no 
more Sankhyan than Vedantic. Indeed in the main part of 
the work the teaching is clearly more Vedantic. But It 
suffices here to point out that the ^/WdT-philosopby and religion 
is not ignored; it is taught as essential. Nevertheless, it is 
not taught in such a way as to indicate that it is requisite for 
the vulgar. On the contrar>', it is only when one becomes an 
ascetic that he is told to dev'ote himself to the pursuit of the 
knowledge of In one passage there is evidence that two 

replies were given to this fundamental question in regard to 
works and knowledge. For after enumerating a list of good 
acts, aniong which arc knowledge and Vedic ceTemonles, it is 
asked which among them most tends to dcUverafice. The 
answer is vitaL Or it should be, but it Is given in an ambig¬ 
uous form {xii. ^sHS): ""Amid all these acts the knowledge 
of self, d/wJt is the highest, for it produces immoTtality, 
Amid all these acts the one most productive of happiness, both 
after death and in this life, is the Vedic ceremony," 

Knowledge gives real immortality; rites give temporary bliss. 
The Upanishads teach that the latter is lower than the former, 
but each answers the question- There were two answers, and 
Manu gives both. That is the secret of many discrepancies 


r/f£ ££L/G/0,VS 

in H indu rule s« The 1 aw-giver oitinot admit abso-l iiteiy and onee 
for all that the Vedic ceremony is of no abiding use* as it can 
be of no use to one that accepts the higher teaching. He 
keeps it as a training and allows only list ascetic to be a phi¬ 
losopher indeed. But at the same lime he gives a^ a sort of 
peroration to his treatise some ^elegant extracts' from philo¬ 
sophical works* which he believes theoretically, although prac¬ 
tically he will not allow them to inHuenc^ his ritualism. He 
is a true Brahman priesL 

Jt is this that is always so annoying in Brahmanic phLIos- 
ophy+ For the slavery of tradition is everywhere^ Not only 
does the ritualist, while admitting the force of the philosopher's 
reasons, remain by Yedic tradition^ and in consequence refuse 
to supplant * revelation* with the higher wisdom and belter 
religion, which he secs w^hile he wsM not follow it; but eA-en 
the philosopher must needs be "orthodox,' and, since the strip- 
turcs themselves are self'Contradiciory* he is obliged to use 
his energies not in discovering truth* but in reconciling his 
ancestors' dogmas, in order to the creation of a philosophlcaL 
system which shall agree with everything that has been said 
in the Vedas and Upanishads. When one sees what subtlety 
and logical acumen these philosophers possessed, he is moved 
to wonder w'hat might have been the outcome had their minds 
been as free as those of more liberal Hellas, But unfortu¬ 
nately they were hound to argue within iLmks* and were as 
much handicapped in the race of thought as were they that 
had to conform to the teachings of Rome. For though India 
had no church* it had an inquisitorial priestly caste, and the 
Unbeliever was an outcast. \\'hat is said of cuslom is true of 
faith I '^l^t one walk in the path of good men, the path in 
which his father walked, in which his grandfathers walked; 
walking in that path one does no wrong” (Manu iv. 17S). Real 
philoSH;>phy^ unhampered by tradition, is found only among the 
heretics and in the sects ol a later time. 

/fA'A//JfA.V/C FA/r//. Ul 

The gods of old are accepted by the orthodox as a matter 
of cotirse* akhough theoretkally they are bom of the All~god, 
who is wiihout the need of ceremonial rites. To the other 
castes the active and most terrible deity is represented as being 
the priest himself. He not only symbolizes the fire-god, to 
whom Is offered the sacrifice, but he actually is the dmnirj 'm 
person. Hence there is no greater merit than in giving gifts 
to priests, x\s to e^hatologyv opinions are not contrasted any 
more. They are put side by side, tn morality truth, purity, 
and harmlessness aie chiedy inoulcated+ But the last (ascribed 
by some scholars to Buddhistic influence) is not permitted to 
interfere with animal sacrifices. 

Some of the rules for the life of a householder will show in 
brief the moral excellence and theoretical uncertainly of Manuks 
law^ode. The following extracts arc from the fourth, the Ten 
Commandments from the sixth, and the description of the 
hells (twenty-two in all}^ from the fourth and twelfth books of 
Manu’s code, 'J'hese rules m*iy be accepted as a true rcffexlon 
of what was taught to the people by stringent Brahmanism as 
yet holding aloof from Hinduism. 

A householder must live without giving any pain (to living 
creatures). He must perform daily the ceremonies ordained 
in the Veda, In this way he obtains heaven* Let him never 
neglect the offerings to seers, gods, spirits (sprites), men, and 
Manes. Some offer sacrifice only in their organs of sense (not 
in external offerings); some by knowledge alone* Let him 
not explain law and riles to the ^^dra (slave) caste ; iE he does 
sOt he sinks into the hell Ik^undless, Let him not take presents 
from an avaricious king who disobeys the law-codes; if he 
does so, he goes to twenlycne hells (called Darkness, Denser 
darkness, Frightful, Hell, Thread of Death, Great Hcl). Burn¬ 
ing, IMace of Spikes, Frying-pan, River of Hell, etc,, etc*, etc,). 
Let him never despise a warrior, a snake, or a priest. Let 

1 Tt^oi^caJly, t«Picnry“«q^; Inal an citra (ftk Jww. in by nuaiakn. 

26 S Tim mUCJOA^S OF 

him never despise himself. Let him s^iy what is tme and what 
is agreeable, buS not disagreeable truth or agreeable false' 
hood. Let him not dispute with anybody, but kt him say 
"Very'well.' Let him not insult anybody. Remembering his 
former births, and studying the Veda again and again, he gets 
endless happiness. Let him avoid unbelief and censure of the 
Yedast reviling of gods, hatted, pride, anger, and cruelty. He 
that even threatens a priest will go to tht hell Darkness for 
one hundred years; if he strikes him he will be born in twenty* 
one sinful rebirths (according to another passage in the 
eleventh book he goes to hell for a thousand years for the 
latter offence). Priests rule the world of gods. But deceilfuk 
hj’pocritkal priests go to hell. Let the householder give gifts, 
and he will be rewarded. One that gives a garment gets a 
place jn the moon j a giver of grain gets eternal happiness; 
a giver of the Veda gels onion with Brahma ; these 

gifts, of course, are all to priests). He that gives respectfully 
and he that receives respectfully go to heaven; otherwise both 
go to hell Lei him+ without giving pain to any creaiurer 
slowly pile up virtue, as does an ant its house, that he may 
have a companion in the next world. For after death neither 
fattier, nor mother, nor son, nor wife, nor relations are his com¬ 
panions; his virtue alone remains with him. The relations 
leave the dead body, but its virtue follows the spirit; with his 
virtue as his companion he will traverse the darkness that is 
hard to cross; and virtue will lead him to the other world with 
a luminous form and etherinl body. A priest that makes low 
connections is reborn as a slave. The Father-god permits a 
priest to accept alms even from a bad man. For fifteen years 
the Manes refuse to accept food from one that despises a free 
gift. A priest that sins should be punished (that is^ mulcted^ 
a priest may not be punished corporally), more than an ordb 
nar>^ man, for the greater the wisdom the gTisaier the offence. 
They that commit the Five Great Sins Jive many years in hells^ 

T//£ £^A//A/AjV/C £A /r//r 2^^ 

and nftewards obtain vile births; the flayer of a pKest be- 
Cdtne^ in turn a dog, a pig, an ass^ a camel, a cow, a goat, a 
sheep, etc., ei(X A priest that drinks mtoxicititig liquor he* 
comes Vniriotis insects^ one after another. A priest that steals 
becomes a spider* snake* etc., etc. By repeating sinful acts men 
are reborn in painful and base births, and are hurled about in 
hells j where are sword-leaved trees, etc., and where they are 
eaten, burned* spittdd, and boiled ; and they receive births 
in despicable wombs; rebirth to age* sorrow, and unquench¬ 
able dealh. But to secure supreme bliss a priest must study 
the Veda* practice austerity* seek knowledge* subdue the 
senses, abstain from injur>', and serve his teacher. Which of 
these gives highest bliss ? The knowledge of the spirit is the 
highest and foremost, for it gives immortality. The perfonn- 
ance of Vedic ceremonies is the most productive of happi¬ 
ness here and hereafter. The Ten Commandments for the 
twicc-hcuti are : Contentment, patience, self-control, not to steal, 
purity, control of passions* dev'otion (or wisdom), knowledge, 
truthfulness, and freedom from angen 'rhesc are concisely 
summarized again in the following: * Manu declared the con¬ 
densed rule of duly for (alt) the four castes to be i not to injure 
a living thing; to speak the truth [ not to steal; to be pure; 
to control the passions' (vi. qi , i. 6j). The ^noudnjury" rule 
docs not apply, of course, to sacrtfice iil a&S), In the 
epic the commandments are given sometim^ as ten, some¬ 
times as eight. 

In order to give a completed exposition of Brahmanism we 
have passed beyond the period of the great heresies, to which 
we must soon revert. But before leaving the present division 
ot the subject, w^e select from the mass of Brahmanic domestic 
rites, the details of which offer in general little that is worth 
noting, two or three ceremonies which possess a more human 
interest, the marriage rite, the funeral rite, and those strange 
trials* known among so many other peoples, the ordeals. We 



sketch these briefly, wishing merdy to illustmte the religious 
side nf each oereiiionyt ^ it appears in one or more of its 


Traces of exogamy may be suspected in the bridegroom's 
driving off with his bride^ but no such custom^ of course^ ts 
recognized in the law. On the contrary, the groom is supposed 
to belong to the same village, and special rites are enjoined 
he be from another viltage.* But again, in the early rule 
there \s no trace of that taint of famtly which the totem-scholars 
of to-day cite so loosely from Hindu lawv The girl is not pre¬ 
cluded because she belongs to the same family within certain 
degrees. The only restriction in the House-rituals is she 
shall have had ‘^on the mother's and fathers side'^ wise, pious, 
and honorable ancestors for ten generations (A^vL 1-5). Then 
comes the legal restriction, which some scholars call "primitive,' 
that the wife must not be too nearly related. The girl has her 
own ordeal (not generally mentioned among ordeals I): The 
wooer that thus selects his bride (this he does if one has not 
been found already either by his parents or by his own incli¬ 
nation) makes eight balls of earth and calls on the girl to choose; 
one {* may she get that to which she is born *). I f she select a 
ball made from the earth of a field that l>cars two crops, she 
(of her child) will be rich in grainy if from the cow-stall, rich 
in cattle; if from* the place of sacriflee, godly; if from a pool 
that does not drys gifted ^ if from the gambleris court, devoted 
to gambling; if from cross-roads, unfaithful; if from a barren 
field, poor in grain; if from the hurying-ground, destructful of 
her husband. There are several forms of making a choice, but 
we confine ourselves to the marriage.* In village^Ufe the bride- 

1 The gkl ti of hoHig^U ^ ^5 nake her own choloE ajnong ^IfTcivnt 
iufton. Buying a wUe Is ivpf«3hfr»dH! by I tw ffiwly ^VicrefoiTT eiUitftftswy). 

The rite of P^rriaps a i^tvinro gkrl, bul £M^iiuniaBBri abo wzn tmowB 

the early law. 



grcKjm is escorted to the ^rFa hodso by young women who 
tease him* The bridegroom presents presents to the bride, 
and receives a cow. 'fhe bridegroom takes the bride’s hand^ 
saying ‘I take thy hand for weaP (Rig Veda, i* S5, ^G), and 
leads her to a certain stone, on which she steps first wiXh the 
right foot (toe). Then three times they clrcurnambiilate the 
fire, keeping it to the right, an old Aryan custom for many 
rites, as in the ikhf/ of the Kelts; the bride herself offer¬ 
ing grain in the fire^ and the groom repeating more Vedic 
verses* They then take together the seven solemn steps (w'lth 
verses)/ and so they are married. The groom, If of another 
village, now drives away with the bride, and has ready Vedic 
verses for every' st;ige of the jonmey. After sun-down the 
groom points out the north star, and admonishes the bride to 
be no less constant and faithfuL Tlirce or twelve days they 
remain chaste^ some say one night; others say, only if he bu 
from another village. The new husband must now sec to the 
bouse^firc, which he keeps ever burning, the sign of his being 
a householder. 


Roth has an article in the Journal of the German Oriental 
Society (viii, 467) which is at once a description of one of the 
funeral hymns of the Rig Veda (5^. iS) with the later ritual, 
and a criticism of the be*ariiig of the latter on the former.* 
He show's here that the ritual, so far from having Induced the 
hymn, totally changes it. The h)Tim was written for a burial 
ceremony. The later ritual knows only cremation. The ritual, 

I Tbe ^ hw frtifti Vamjaa'ft fetter,’ hf s^bolkiilh JwwijiTig tlw 

JiaJr. Tkey step nowthEMU^ uul he - One s.trp Ivw np; twu far ^rcbg^} three 
for ffiwif fp* litek; (vn ior diiTUrtii ? ibt for the Ha5QB:i| seiren far iriinidihjp. 

Bt Uwt to cne; maj we tefMi' lon^-Ured 

i Ttwre is aiwthcf hiimJ hysm^ il ifr, Ira *dfUb the Fire h ItivnkeS t& tufli the 
doadr anU U™r liloi to the fiUher&; hh coriwe^d piirti diWrfbuted ’eye la the 
pUb, bremb to tbe cfc; 


rm OF nvi^/A^ 

thtircforcT forces the hytnn into its serviccT and makes it a cre« 
matlon-hjTnn. This is a very good (tlioiigli very extreme) ex¬ 
ample of the dififercrtce in age between the early hymns of the 
Rig Veda and the more modem ritoah Muller^ ii- p. I giv'cn a thorough account of the Later and ritualistic 

paraphernalia. We confine ourselves here to the older cere¬ 

^rhe scene of the Vedic hymn is as follows ^ I'he friends 
and relatives stand about the corpse of a married min. !h" 
the side of the corpse sits the widow. The hymn begins: 
^a)epait, D Death, upon some other pathway, npon thy path, 
which differs from the path of gods . . . harm not our children, 
nor otir heroes. ■ f . These living ones are separated front the 
dead; successful to-day was our call to the gods- (l^his man 
IS dead, hut) wf go back to dancing and to laughter, estending 
further out still lengthened lives.” Then the priest puts a 
stone between the dead and living: -M set up a wall for the 
living, may no one of these come to this goal ^ may they live 
an hundred full harvests, and hide death with this stone. . . 

The matrons assembled are now bid to advance wiihout 
tears, and make their offerings to the fire, while the widow is 
separated from the corpse of her husband and told to enter 
again into the world of the living. The priest removes the 
dead warrior’s bow from bis hand: *‘Lct the women, not 
widows, advance with the ointment and holy butter; and with¬ 
out tears, happy, adorned, let them, to begin with, mount to 
the altar (verse 7, p. 174, below). Raise thyself, wom.^n, to the 
world of the living; his breath is gone by whom thou liest; 
come hither; of the taker of thy hand (In marriage), of thy 
wooer thou art become the wife^ (verse 8). T take the bow 
from the hand of the dead for our (own) lordship, glory, and 
strength/" Then he addresses the dead: "*Thou art there, 
and we ore here; we wOl slay every foe and every attacker (with 


27 J 

the power got from thee). Go thou now to Mother Earth, who 
is wide opened* favorable, a wool-soft maiden to the good man; 
may she guaid thee from the lap of destmclion. Open, O earth, 
be not oppressive to him; let him enter easily; may he fasten 
close to thee. Cover him like a mother, who wrap,s her child 
in her garment. Roomy and firm he the earth, supported by 
a thousand pillars ; from this time on thou (man) bast thy 
home and happiness yonder: may a sure place remain to him 
forever. I make firm the earth about thee; may I not be 
harmed in laying the clod here; may the fathers hold this 
pillar for thee, and Varna make thee a home yonder." 

In the Atharva Veda mention is made of a colhn, but none 
is noticed here. 

Hillcbrandi {/uf. at. xh 711> has made it probable that 
the eighth verse belongs to a still older ritual, according to 
which this verse is one for human sacrifice, which is here 
ignored, though the text is kept,* Just so the later ritual 
keeps all tiris text, but twists it into a crematopf rite. For in 
the later period only young children arc buiied. Of burial 
there was nothing for adults but the collection of bones and 
ashes, .At this time too the ritual consists of three parts, cre¬ 
mation, collection of ashes, expiation, How are these to be 
reconciled with this hymn ? Very simply. The rite is de¬ 
scribed and verses from the hymn are injected into it without 
the slightest logical connection. That Is the essence of all 
the Brahmanic ritualism. The later rite is as follows; Three 
altars arc erected, northwest, southwest, and southeast of a 
mound of earth. In the fourth comer is the corpse; at whose 
feet, the widow. The brother of the dead man, or an old 
servant, takes the widow’s hand and causes her to rise while 
the pri^t says '‘Raise thyself, woman, to the world of the 

I TT* Ikw wkh II 

btidrseonie tack le**"! 10 IMe- niarrLi^cE a kiigWB t® ill ita eodfli, biit 

it l» fep»tbeBd«l bf Ita «« code thal tDjoiiU iL (If. tl. Sj.} 


TWA A^£L/C/OjVS mD/A. 

living.” Then follows th& removal of the bow; or the break 
ing of it, in the case of a slave* The bod)* i.s now burned, 
while the priest says ** These living ones ate separated from 
the dead”; and the mourners depart without looking around, 
and must at once pcrfoTiii their ablutions of lustration. . 4 fter 
a time the Collection of bones is made with the v*ersc 
thou now to Mother Earth*' and Open, O earth.” Dust b 
dung on the bones wkh the w*Ofds Roomy and firm be the 
earthand the skull Is laid on top with the verse “ I make 
firm the earth about thee.” Tn other words the onglnal hymn 
js fitted to the ritual only by displacement of verses from their 
proper order and by a forced applscaijon of the words. After 
all this comes the ceremony of expiation with the use of the 
verse ** I set up a wall"* without application of any sort. 
Eurther ceremonies, with farther senseless nse of other verses, 
follow' In course of time. These are all explained minutely in 
the essay of Roth^ whose clear demonstration of the modern¬ 
ness of the ritual, as compared with the antiquity of the hymn 
should be read complete. 

The seventh verse (above) has a special literature of its 
owHt since the words **let them, to begin with, mount the 
altarp*" have been changed by the advocates of widow- 

burning, to mean *to the place of fire"; which change, how¬ 
ever, is quite recent. The burning of widows begins rather 
late in India^ and probably w^as confined at first to the pet wife 
of royal persons. It was then claimed as an honor by the first 
wife* and eventually without real authority, and in fact against 
early law, became the rule and sign of a devoted wife, llte 
practice was abolished by the English in 18291 consider¬ 
ing the widow's present horrible existence, li is questionable 
whether it would not be a mercy to her and to her family to 
restore the right of dying and the hope of heaven, in the 
place of the living death and actual hell on earth in which 
she is entombed to-day. 



Fire and w-ster are ih^ means employed in India to test 
guilt in the earlier pericxl. Then comes the oath with judg^ 
nmtit indicated by subsequent misfortucie. All other fortnss of 
ordeals arc first recognized in late law-books. We i^peak brst 
of the ordeals that have been thought to be primitive Aryan. 
The Firc-ordeal: (i) Seven fig-leaves are lied seven times 
upK)n the hands after rice has been rubbed upon the pa inis; 
and the judge then lays a red-hot ball upon them^ the accused, 
or the judge himself^ invoking the god (Fine) to indicate the 
innocence or the guilt of the accused- The latter then walks 
a certain distance^ * slowly through seven circles, each circle 
sixteen fingers broad, and the space between the circles being 
of the same extent/ according to some jurists ^ but other 
dimensions, and eight or nine circles are given by other 
authorities^ If the accused drop the hall he must repeat the 
test. The burning of the hands indicates guilt. The Teutonic 
laws give a difrerent measurement, and state that the hand is 
to be sealed for three days (mnnus sub sigillo triduum tcgalur) 
before inspection. I'his sealing for three days is paralleled by 
modem Indie practicet hut not by ancient In Greece 

there is the simple )(tpQw (Ant^ ^64) to be com* 

pared. The German sealing of the hand is not reported rill 
the ninth century/ 

(3) Walking on Firet There is no ordeal tn India to comfr- 
spond to the Teutonic w^alking over six^ nine^ or twelve hot 
ploughshares. To lick a hot plcughsharCt to sit on or handle 

1 Tha U called dipy^ {/rnmaitam) ^ GottnurtheiL^ Thb mtsm «f Isr 
lonimUcidi U enipkivd »pcdAllr H diijHited debt and depO^tt tnd *CKiid!nf to iba 
ffifmil cade Is to Ijc appIlAti anlx ^ the absciuK cf The c<3d* also nstriett 

the me oJ fee, Kruter, andi potson to the {Vl|. iL 98}. 

^ KaEf^. Aiifr uffd GtrmtHiuAfff pv We cill 

-ipecLil aUcEitlcin to Uk: fact that the vmi CfdndiieiiCH to details of prutlof 

ftto Qot narl^f cither la ladia ar Gcm^torr • 


TI/£ Jf£L/G/OA^S Q£ 

hot iron, and to take a ^bort walk over coaL^ is /aU Itidtc. 
The Gemian practice aUo according to Schlagintwcit ^*war 
erst in spitcrcr Zeit anfgckoinmen/' ^ 

{3) Walking through Fire: This is a Teutonic ordeah and 
(like the conhict-ordeal) an Indie custom not formally^ legcili^ed. 
The accused walks directly into the fire™ So ati-p 

Waterordeals: (1) May better be reckoned to fircKinleals. 
The innocent plunges Ilia hand into boiling water and fetches 
out a Slone (Anglo-Sajson law) or a coin (Indie law) without 
injury to his hand. Sometimes (in both practices} the plunge 
alone is demanded. The depth to which the hand must be 
inserted is defined by Hindu jurists. 

(2) The Floating-ordeaL The victim b cast into water, li 
he boats he is guilty; if he drowns he is innocent. . 4 ccording 
to some Indie authorities an arrovr is shot off at the moment 
the accused is dropped into the watcr^^ and a ^swift runner’^ 
goes after and fetches it back. If at his return he find the 
body of the accused still under water^ the latter shall be 
declared to be innocent/’^ According to Kaegi this ordeal 
would appear to be Unknown in Europe before the ninth cen¬ 
tury^ In both countries Water (in India, Varuna) is invoked 
not to keep the body of a guilty man but to reject it (make it 

Food-ordeal: Some Hindu law-books prescribe that in the 
case of suspected theft the accused shall eat consecrated rice* 
If the gums be not huitp no b]cN>d appear on spitting, and the 
man do not tremblCp he will be innocent. Tlus is also a 

1 i?ir dtr indifr, 24. 

3 Tbii is tbe j' lAW't^Kiki and Elreag^li 

oT tW hft*. twi thfi' EBf^iuT of distance t& whi-di tlie- affair mint tie 

iliifiL Tir& roTincra^ w» go and ^nc In relanip unh BCT^nrtimcf aJkmd. TlMare Is 
oDErtbcT meji."’ TTie ftcotiwd \% In drink ccnisecHled 

If kn. leurleea {(ir roon tjr leu) da no caJimlty hap^o |o Ibitpv ho win b? 
iAnoesaL TIv ionW b mode in the ^ese the oatfi and of poison (bekw). 



Tetitpulc lest, but it is to be observed that the older laws in 
India do not mention it 

On the basis of these examples (not chosen in hLstorical 
sequence) Kaegi has coneludcd, while admitting that ordeals 
with a general similarity to these have arisen quite apart 
from Aryan inhuencep that there is here a bit of primith'e 
Ar^-an law; and that even the minutiae of the variDiis trials 
described above are wr-Aryan. This we do not believe. 
But before stating our objections we most mention another 

The Oath: While fire and water are the usual means of 
testing crime in india, a simple oath is also permitted, which 
may involve either the accused alone or his whole family If 
misfortune within a certain time (at once, in seven days, in a 
fortnight, or even half a year) happen to the one that has 
swornp he will be guilty. This oath-test is also employed in 
the case of witnesses at court* perjury being indicated by the 
subsequent misfortune {Mann, viiL joS).“ 

Our objections to seeing primitive .\ryan law in the minutiae 
of ordeals is based on the graduHtl evx>lution of these ordeals 
and of their minutiae in Indb itself* The earlier law of the 
Sutras barely mentions ordeals; the first ■tradltton law" of 
Manu has only firCj water, and the oath. All others, and all 
special descriptions and restrictions, are mentioned in later 
books alone. ^^o^eoveT, the^ earliest (pre^legal) notice of 
ordeals in India describes the eanying of hot iron (in the test 
of theft) as simply ** bearing a hot axe/* while still earlier 
there is only walking through fire,* 

^ In Itx! taM irltfWsiaei Mann u Um: Unlit. tVhen 

tlw nth ^ afi ofikal tlw ^ tbe guiltj Is Hippowd in ipnx 

ui ordkiaj this Ki nc>C fmiid ta tlic It k Ofic ^ tbc li^la 

(i*f. rtf.). When i-veadn^ tKe HIbcIh feoldf “arUET Wf Kfily-itRUfl- 

* AV. it l-l a artaiiL caH |liti%btiL U b at leut Emluiiaiiif: The oiryinx 

cl the nX4 \% ta in the OpanlBludi (Sdila^twcit, Dif 

4fr p* 5)p • 


r/m oj^ av/>/a. 

To the tests by oatk, firet and water of the code of Mane 
are soon added in later Jaw those of consecrated water, poison, 
and the balance^ Restrictions increase and new trials are 
described as one descends the senes of law-books (the con¬ 
secrated food, the hot'Waier test, the licking of the plough¬ 
share, and the lot). Some of these later forms have already 
been described. Th|; further later tests we will now sketch 

Poison: The earliest poison-test, in the code of Vijhavalk>'a 
(the neat after Mann), is an application of aconitc-TOOt, and as 
the poison is very deadly^ the accused is pretty sure to die* 
Other laws give other poisons and very minute restrictions, 
tending to ease the severit}' of the trial* 

The Balance-test: This is the opposite of the floating-test* 
The man * stands in one scale and is placed in equilibrium 
with a weight of stone in the other scale, ile then gets out 
and prays, and gets in again. If the balance sinks, he is 
guilty j if it rises, he is innocents 

I’he Lot-ordeal: This consists in drawing out of a vessel one 
of two lots, cqui^mlent respectively to Marmn and 
right and wrong. Although Tacitus mentions the same ordeal 
among the Germans, it is not early Indie Jaw^ not being known 
to any of the ancient legal codes. 

One may claim without proof or disproof that these are all 
"primitive Aiyan'; but to us it appears most probable that 
only the idea of the ordeal, or at most its application in the 
simplest forms of water and fire (and perhaps oaih) is primi¬ 
tive Arpn, and that all else (jncluding ordeal by conflict) is of 
seconder)' growth among the different nations* 

As nn offset to the later Indie tendency to lighten the sever¬ 
ity- of the ordeal may be mentioned the description of the 
floating-test as seen by a Chinese traveller in India in the 

t VljiUmlkyii (Uff. fH.) thil^ lest ta wiocn, diildtvcL, the old, 

blind, tame, nad dill- On/Af/d lot ^ ^ ^DMG. ul 67?- 


279 * 

seTreoth dtnttiry **The accusrcd is pul into a sack and a 

^tode is put into aaothur sack. Thn two sacks are ccnnccicd 
by a cord and Hung into deep water. If the sack with the 
man sinks and the sack with the stone hoats the accused is 
declared to be Lnnoccnt 

] ScbltfiatwftiU/«■. tit. |k 96 mLooea Tbiu^. 



One cannot read the Upanishads without feeling that he is 
already facing an intellectual revolt. Not only in the later 
tracts^ which are inspired with devotion to a supreme and uni¬ 
versal Lord, but even in the oldest of these works the atmos¬ 
phere, as compared with that of the earlier Brahmanic period, is 
essentially dilTerenU The close and stiding air of ritualism 
has been charged with an electrical current ol thought that 
must soon produce a storm. 

That storm reached a head in Buddhism^ but its premonitory 
signs appear in the Opanishads, and its first outbreak preceded 
the advent of Gautama. Were it possible to drawr a line ol 
demarcation between the Upanishads that come before and 
after Buddhism^ it would be hisioncally more correct to review 
the two great schismSy Jainism and Buddhisnip before referring 
to the sectarian Upanishads. For these latter in their present 
I form are posterior to the rise of the two great heresies. But, 
since such a division is-practically uncertain in its applicadoDp 
we have thought it better in our sketch of the Upanishads and 
legal literature to follow to the end the course of that agitated 
thought, whicb^ starting with the great identification the 

I We KUia hen Mid Ia DuddluliuiL tlw nnul tBonlB&logj. Strktl]r ipcakhig; 
.JiliiliTn b Kf JiiA (tJw icf4ioiHr^» title) u li Uaiitldhltiin la iv lihat tiaa 

l4»Dold UwldliinMi,« j4tEi:isi, BAuddhlira. Doth titles Jlu uid Biadrdiu 

fvlcEor' and ‘‘iwadmiwd to cadi kadH'l as In ^enco.! iK3x\y edier 

ftiatuaJ tltki of \vmQt ww* aisled hj tadi *«t ta Iti own hvaU, J Ina, Arfeal 
tfBilde;rii {' hcfO' Osa of lime tlt!^ wu uied, hov- 

BniT, 99 * title of honor tb^ JalnA, bqt to boivtiiBi hy lb« Duddluitv 

Ttrtiukoni, ^ ' (»o Jacdblp SBE. kx£L [ntrod, |v xx). 



individual spirit, and S/mS, the world*spirit, the All, continues 
till it loses itselE in a loultipUcation oi sectarian dogmas, where 
the All becomes the god that has been elected by one com* 
munion of devotees,* 

The external characteristics o( Upanishad thought are those 
of a religion that has replaced formal acts by formal iotros^c- 
tion. The Yogin devotee, who by mystic communion desires ' 
absorption into the world-spirit, replaces the Sannyisin and i 
Yati ascetics, who would accomplish the same end by renund- 
ation and severe self-mortification.. This is a fresh figure on 
the stage of thought, where before were mad Munis, beggary 
and miracle-mongers. On this stage stands beside the acetic 
the theoretical theosophist who has succeeded in identifying 
himself, soberly, not in frenay, with God,* What were the 
practical results of this teaching has been indicated in part 
already. The futility of the stereotyped religious offices was 
recognised. But these offices could not be discarded by the 
orthodox. With the lame and illogical excuse that they were 
useful as discipline, though unessential in reality, they were 
retained by the llrahman priest. Not so by the Jalh} still less 
so by the Buddhist. 

In the era in which arose the public revolt against the dog- | 
matic teaching of the Brahman there were more sects than one 
that have now passed away forgotten. The eastern part of 
India, to which appertain the lat^t part of the gatajatha Brah- 
mana and the schismatic heresies, was full of religious and ^ 
phUosophical controversy. The great heretics were not inno¬ 
vators in heresy. The Brahmans permitted, encouraged, and , 
shared in theoretical controversy. There was nothing in the 

I It ift pcnfliblcv howCTErp trti 0 “ tlhat both Vlsltnculc suid ^^iTnite 5«ll 

roTp Iwi ajifiiirfwd, Valshmm, Qdmr if ™ wiU Vaid 3 « for Vedk^, wm 

krtrttd tte end of the iijrth Sol long aflw ihit Itw dlvialtia 

C\n ind Vialiira rtsfidve 4»p«laJ hoiwr. 

1 Tfw Beggar (Qmmpria, BhSkafaflJt If* Kenoflcmof the Alcetie 

art BrahnUOlc tenna aA wtH aa 


tenets of JaiolsiD or of Buddhism that from a pKilosophical 
point of view need have caused a rupture with the BraJimatis. 

But the heresies^ nevertheless do not reprcsejit the piiestEy 
caste^ so much as the caste most apt to rival and to disregard 
the claim of the Brahman, viz.^ the warriorHcaste. They were 
supported by kings who gladly stood against priests. To a 
great extent both Jainism and Buddhism owed their success 
(amid other riv'al heresies niih no Jess claim to good protest- 
antism) to the politics of the day. The kings of the East 
were impatient of the W^sstem church; th^y were pleased to 
.throw it over. The leaders in ihe * reformation ' were the 
younger sons of noble blDod- The church received many of 
these younger sons as priests* Both Buddha and MaJi^vtra 
were+ in fact, revolting adherents of the Brahmanic faith, but 
they were princes and had royalty to back them. 

Nor in the BrahiDanhood of Benares was Brahman hood at 
Its strongest. The scat of the Vedic cult lay to the westward, 
where it arose, in the 'holy land,* which received the Vedic 
Ar>'ans after they had crossed out of the Punjab* With the 
eastward cdlirse of conquest the character of the people and 
the very^ orthodoxy of the priests were relaxed. The country 
that gave rise to the first heresies was one not consecrated to 
the ancient rites. Very slow ly had these rites marched thither^ 
and they were, so to speak, far from their religious base of 
supplies. The West was more conservative than the Erst, It 
was the home of the rites it favored. The East was but a 
fosterfather. New tribes, new land, new growth, socially and 
intellectually,—all these contributed in the new' sent of Brab- 
manheud to weaken the hold of the priests upon their specu* 
lative and now recalcitrant laity. So before Buddha there were 
heretics and even Buddhas, for the title was Buddha's only by 
adoption. But of most of these earlier sects one knows little. 
Three or four names of reformers hive been handed down; 
half a dozen opponents or rival$ of Buddha existed and vied 


with him. Most important of these* both on account of his 
probable priority and because oi the lasting character of his 
*ichooh was the founder or reformer of Jainism, Mahavlra JilS- 
trtpulrap* who with his eleven chief disciples may be regarded 
as the first open seceders from Brahmanism, unless one assign 
the same date to the revolt of Buddha, The two schisms have 
so much in commonp especially In outward features, that for 
long it was thought that Jainism was a sub-sect of BuddJiism. 
Ju their legends* in the localities in which they flourished, and 
m many minutiae of observances they are alike. NeverthelesSp 
their differences are as great as the resemblance between them, 
and what Jainism at first appeared to have got of Buddliism 
seems now to be rather the common loan made by each sect 
from Brahmanism. It is safest, perhaps, to rest ui the assu¬ 
rance that the two heresies were coniemporaries of the sixth 
century and leave unanswered the question which Master 
preceded the other, Uiough we Incline to the opinion Uiat the 
founder of jainism* he he Mah^vira or his own reputed master^ 
Pir^vanSiha, had founded his sect before Gautama became 
liuddha. But there is one good reason for treatingTsf Jainism 
hclDre Buddhism** and that is, that the former represents a 
theological mean between Brahmanism and Buddhism, 

Mahavlra, the reputed founder ol his sect, was, like Buddha 

1 The thdCQ fiVat Kfomten ol thki period S±t Buddtu, iiad 

TbB Siut irai first u papd and tSien % riraJ ol Bloharfra. Hw latter i l»r|4icw, 
wln> ftMMidjed a dtiUnet iKt and bwaine h» uncVi oppiwiefttj the ip«iititET« soctorLaB 
beiHleocrboingziprnfHMivDGdasn about th« snnw time fin Pipp^TT 

to fiuro bvl [|ulE£ a loUgvfng, ^d hla sect cxislcd lor % Ioei^ lline, ha now It 1 a 
uHPfly ptHshed. An amairt <jf Uds ndormrr and of Jansili will bs femnd fin Lch- 
nianr'f irriL ^ ff. and In the appendas Ui HodchlU a 


« The NlrgraTithai (J^da) ara T>mr rcfeiTHl to bjf Uw HoiidMAU aa btloE a. new 
«rt,Tior fii tfiwtr leputed fender. Xltaputta, ipoltea of ai tbeff roiuider; whcnc® 
plaiHtbJ^ ar^u» that itielr real fnwidK wba older ihan Mnhavfm. And ibal 
t!» se>ct piereded tliat of nuddfita. and Weber ttdtneiS, ofl the cntiUanr, 

Eh.ll ialnlAW Ia a revoll BRaanit lluddIdATaA Tlie Idendficallnn of Nataputta ^datri 
patra) wfilh [% dae to Bilhfer and Jscolil (Kalpasfltra, IntraL p. 

A'£ug/ojvs or /4 Vi>/a. 


inrl perhaps his othur rivals, of arisiocratio birth. His father 
h called king^ hui he wins probably hcrcditaiy chief of a district 
incorporated as a snburb of the capital city of Videhap Ti liile 
by marriage he was related to the king of Vi deha, and to 
the ruling bouse of ^fSg.idha. His family name was Jiiatri- 
pntra, or^ in his own. Prakrit (Ardham^gadh!) dialect, N^lla- 
putta ; but by his sect he was entitled the Great HerOj Afaha- 
vlra ; the Conqueror, Jttia; the Great One, Vardahmlnat etc. 
His sect was that of the Nirgranthas (Nigganlhaa), * with^ 
out bonds,^ perhaps the oldest name of the whole bridy. Later 
there are found no less than seven sub-sects, to whidi come 
as eighth the Digambaras^ in contradisti notion to all the seven 
Qvelambara sects. These two names represent the two present 
bodies of the churchy one body being the 
* white-attire ^ faction, who arc m the north and west ^ the 
other, the DigambaTTas, or ^sky-attirc," rlr., naked devotees of 
the south. The latter split off from the main body about two 
hundred years after Mahavlra^s death; as has been thought 
by somCi because the ^vetlmbaras refused to follow^ the Di- 
gambaras in insisting upon nakedness as the rule for ascetics.^ 
The earlier writings show that nakedness was recommended, 
but was not compnlsor)^* Ot her des ign at ions of the main 
sects, as of the sub-sects* are found. ITms, from the practice 
of pulling out the hairs of their body, the Jains wxre derisively 
termed Luncitake^^, or ^fiair-plackers/ The naked devotees 

1 Amu^ng iu Jijpobt, ZDIIG. 3ccxTiii. i 7 ,TtM *l4it In U* party w™ in thti way* 

about hjc. Hiimi jAtn pwpI^ iioiii;r cf Hhaj^nbabn suulh, 

and they atiictirf rules of asotidsm their fellowv In th^ ncMth. Both 

ic<bk ^ raodi^tiQnv uf the typ^ ud their diflemuxs did not tuwH in 

iKtsyian Kp^fuUau till about the tin»nl our era, at which opndi umK the dlfierenllr 
ntlnjj Ut^ of vM.% thut hud nql |avvli04uly tutn fnrffiiJ dlvi^oaa, bat lad 

diiflcd Pipart |H]^|ihlia%. 

t C43ni|Kiiei JaftcM,^ aeOMiiit id tlie iensn *«tt <if the 

tambour ht ttu feuny In tic Sevdirm rdetreO. to aixm. At lie prEHnt day 

ilise fains arc C^mrid tn the nunaber abetit e mlhUia the (l.'vctlinbsLm'), 

and wffdi (Difpmhajaa) of Indiii. The onKtial scat af the whole body In Its fitat 
fon* wMt a* “ax BcauM, whert anrtc mid dcwrblwd n uddhluit . 



ot this school are pmbably the g>mncsophLsts of the Greek 
historians, although this general lerin may have been used in 
describing other sects, as the practice of dispensing with attire 
is common even to-day with many Hindu devotees.^ 

An account of the Jain absurdities in the way of speculation 
w^ouSd indeed give some idea of their intellectual frailty# 
butj as in the case of the Buddhists^ such an account has but 
little IQ do with their religion. It will suffice to state that the 
*age5^ of the Brahmans from whom Jain and Buddhist derived 
their general conceptions of the ages^ are hero reckoned quite 
difTcrently; and that the first Jjna of the long series of pre¬ 
historic prophets lived more than eight million years and w^as 
live hundred bow-lengths in height. Monks and laymen now 
appear at lai^c in India, a division w'hich originated netthcr 
with Jain nor Huddhistp* though these orders are more clenirly 
divided among the heretics, from whom, again, was borrowed 
by the Hindu sects* the monastic institution^ in the ninth 
century {a.d.)i in sill the older heretical completeness. Ah 
Uiough atheistic the Jain w'^orshipped the Teacher, and paid 
some regard to the BrahmanicaL divinities, just as he worships 
the Hindu gods to-day, for the atheistical systems admitted 
gods as demi-gods or dummy gods, and in point of fact became 
verj' superstitious. V'et are both founder-worship and super¬ 
stition rather the growth of later generations than the original 
praciice.^ The atheism of the Jain means denial of a divine 
creative Spirit* 

1 IlEmacaadj^^ stilted by Wladlsdl, ZDUG. mkH, iS; ff, p. i 

Ttn Jotn^ hate Df wdikd did lurt pKvent hb wvr»hlppfnf u the fenufe 

WtgS* Wkt the later Hindu iKti^ The Jaku an dirked in mgvd to tbe pouJblUtr 
of woDUJi’j Tht Vng^i^btni allndce to w^wikth u " the that burn on 

ttw road that leadi to the pite of it, The tHgambaraa do aat sdifnt ^mcn 
Into ttm mrlcT, ai do the 

s Z3^f Leiicnaon, ^ DMG. xhiiL p. 65 . Sm aUo abom ta the 5(Ltra&H 

With ihc JaiM *lwre li leu of the luoDa^ dde nf icIlBfon Itun irith tW HaddhL^ 

* Jaiivi ace HfneUniea oatled AiiaXi ^ aeeoucit of Uwtr ^nenUoa iia the Adiai \ 
or ch]ef Jina (whthce Ibdx^nly ^ E-hIs. are tMr ddefi of TcadKii, whw \ 


THE EEiicrom of 

Though at Umes in conHict with the Brahmans the Jains 
never departed from India as dtd the Buddhjsts, and even 
Brahittatiic priests in some parts oi India serve to-day in Jain 

In metaphysics as in religion the Jam differs radically from 
the Buddhist. He believes in a dualism not unlike that of the 
S^nkhyas, whereas Buddhistic philosophy has no close conneo 
lion with this Brahmanic system. To the Jaio eternal matter 
stands opposed to eternal spirits^ for {opposed to pantheism) 
every material entity (even water) has its own individual spirit. 
The Jain's Nirvana, as Barth has said, is escape from the 
bodyp not escape from existence.' Like the Buddhist the 
Jain believes in reincamaiion, eight births, after one has 
started on the right road, being necessar^^ to the completion of 
perfection. Both sects, with the Brahmans, insist on the non- 
injujj' doctrine, but In this regard the Jain exceeds his Brab- 
manical teacher^s practice. Both heretical sects claim that 
their reputed founders were the last of twenty-four or twenty- 
five prophets who preceded the real founder, each successively 
having become less monstrous (more human) in form. 

The Jain literature left to us is quite large “ and enough has 
been published already to make it necessary to revise the old 
belief in regard to the relation between jainism and Buddhism. 

We have said that Jainism stands nearer to Brahmanism 
(with which, however* h frequently had quarrels) than docs 

iddSa are T^Kratiippcd Ifl th* Krapfei, Tims, Uloe the Buddhist and wtm HItmIh *«t< 
mndcrti tlR^ Uwy hive gi^n up C««d wontnp H^thef have they adopted 
IB Idnlatry 0^ manand wupdilp of v^noanlKKiid, far thiry il» nvm rhe fcinjik cnet^gy. 
P^LLvlsm has anctenE ETwdcbl 

1 Ttw Jatn Hd 3 -?iceti dkl not dUfer tmich ai&Mijs themselm tn pldlosoplikal spec- 
uJallQii, Their Hlrtyrrnrfci fa.tlief of a pracUcU VOTL. 

s3w ttw E-i4 id tl* Bertn Bfrlin .UsS.^t IL i%ij and thfl 

thlTty lhird toIucik oJ Gchumi Oriental Jounml, pp. 4JS, ^3. Kflr bd acvmint ai 
the literarutc w idM JatoW’a intir^liwtiofn td Unj SBE. vnl jud!; and Wthrt, 

SiArfJ^fv ^r/ji¥rid In vulk xvii the Int/iuAr (translated 

Smyth In the Indian Antli^uapy); 1 ^ Bthtknfraidijr 



Buddhism,^ The striking outward sign of this is the 

wuighc laid on asceticism, which Is common to BrahTnanism and 
JainLsin but is repudiated by BnddhLsai. Twelve years of asceti¬ 
cism are necessar)' to saEvatian^ as thinks the Jain, and this 
self-tnortiUcation b of the most stringent sort. But it is not In 
their different conception of a Nirvana of release rather than 
of annihilation^ nor in the Sankhya-llke’ duaJity they affect^ 
nor yet in the prominence given to self-mortification that the 
Jains differ most fram the l^uddhists. The contrast will appear 
more clearly when wc corne to deal with the latter sect. At 
present w^e take up the Jain doctrine for itself. 

The ‘three gems* which+according to the Jains^* result in 
fhe spirit's attainment of deliverance are knowledge^ faith, and 
virtue, or literally ‘right knowledge, right intuition, and right 
practices.^ Right knowledge is a true knowledge of the rcla^ 
tion of spirit and non-spirit (the world consists of two classes^ 
spirit and non-spirit)^ the latter being immortal like the former. 
Right intuition is absolute faith in the word of the Master and 
the declarations of the Agarnas, or sacred teits. Right prac¬ 
tices or virtue consists,, according to the Yoga^^stra, In the 
correct fivefold conduct of one that has knowledge and faith * 
(i) Non-Injury, (i) kindness and speaking what is true (in so 
far as the truth is pleasant to the hearer),* (3^) honorable con¬ 
duct, typified by ‘not stealing,' (4) chastity in word, thought^ 
and deed, (5) renuncLalion of earthly interests. 

The doctrine of non-injury found hut modified approvnl 
among the Brahmans. They limited its application in the case of 

I A OUB of coEUHKtfgii in between JaJn ti neadoned below. 

An/othcr Ij the Mstoty ai king P*£sip eJabot^M Ln Baddhistlc titeraton (Tripitala][ 
and in th^ seoa-Jvd Jain UpiiiEa aUU, a* baa been stwwn bjf Lciuiiajin. 

k Tb* Jain's spint, buwwft 1* ^ “ wcirW^pIrit, Um* net belkw In an 
AD-Spirit^ bat In a pliLralllj ni Vtrmai] ^rtta, fiMplrlta, wLed-splrits, plant- 
ip^iita, etVr 

4 Cgmpan Cokbrvb^'a vnL il. pp. 404, 444, and Uw died 

iboie- * This la iHt in Oie r^rlSer fotna ef the ifgw (see below}.. 



sacrifice, and for this reason were bitteriy taunted hy the Jains 
as * murderers.* '* Viler than unbelievers,'* says the Vciga^-isira« 
quoting a law of Manu to ihc effect that animals may be slain 
for sacrifice, “are those cruel ones who make the law that 
teaches killing."* For this reason the Jain « far more partic¬ 
ular in his respect for life than Is the Buddhist, Lest .'tnimate 
things, even plants and animalculae, be destToyed, he sweeps 
the ground before him as he goes, walks veiled lest he inhale 
a living organism, strains water, and rejects not only meat but 
even honey, together with various fruits that arc supposed to 
contain worms5 not because of his distaste for worms but 
because of hb regard for life. Other arguments which, logic¬ 
ally, should not be allowed to indue nee him are admitted, how¬ 
ever. in order to terrify the hearer. Thus the first argument 
against the use of honey la that it destroys life; then follows 
the argument that honey is 'spit out by bees' and therefore it 
is nasty.* 

The Jain differs from the Buddhist still more in ascetic 
practices. He b a forerunrer, in fact, of the horrible modern 
devotee whose practices we shall describe below. The older 
view of seven hells in opposition to the legal Brahmanic num¬ 
ber of thrice seven is found (as it is in the Mark.tnde\-a 
Purina), but whether this be the rule we cannot say.* It b 
interesting to see that hell is preserved with metempsychosis 
exactly as it b among the Brahmans.* Reincarnation on 

1 li. if 4J. AltbooKb tlw^ Bnliraan wetk tock the WM uat to liill, yet la lie 
tHsmiUed Do do f« r«f aamfisr, vid he auy eat ScUi id anlaula Idlled hy other aid- 
dull ^ ^l)- 

1 LaTo di, Hi. The mitug tad rlfflil mm tiu^ ta cat^ aiad tw the 

ssTTW rv^nojk The Godf la the memlngv the Seera at moh. the h'atho^ m the 
tbfl de^li ai tirilagtrt wkd iJfibl’' {i&. 5it aSsH one ml^hl tai a 

■1 ti^ng by mjitaltfc * ^ 7 * 

4 pun Mill Wlhci^after «boK 1 eat in thii life" {Lxa- 

suukV, fhim that }3m 4iid belief In 4 hell whens Ibe Ij^jnxed iveejted 

ibcnHelTH T. KYy, UL ap6^+ jtut as la nkted in tbs Bhitjsu stort 


earth and punisHmeiit in hells between reincarnaddn seems to 
be the usual bctlef, I’lie salvation which is attained by the ' 
practice of knowlcdg^e^ ^ithf and five^fold virtue^ ts not inune- 
diate, but it will come after successive reincarnations; and 
this salvation Is the freeing of the eternal spirit from the bonds 
of eternal matter ^ in other words, it is much more like the 
* release ’ of the Brahman than it is like the Bnddhisttc 
Nirvilna, though^ of course, there is no * absorption/ each spirit 
remaining single. In the order of the Ratnatraya or 'three 
gems ' ^ankaM appears to lay the greatcsi weight on faith, but 
in Heinacandr;r's schedule knowledge * holds the first place. 
This is part of that Yoga^ asceticism^ which is the most inir 
portant element in attaining salvation*® 

Another division of right practices is cited by the Yoga^Istra 
( 1 , 5j fir.): Some saints say that virtue is divided into five kinds 
of care and three kinds of control, to wi^ proper care in walk¬ 
ing, talking^ begging for food* sitting, and performing natural 
Functions of the body^—these constiinte the five kinds of care, 
and the kinds of control are those of thought, speech, and act. 
This teaching it is stated. Is for the monks- The pnxctice of the 
laity is to accord with the custom of their country. 

The chief general rules for the laic)' consist in vows of obe^ 
die nee to the true god^ to the law, and to the (present) Teacher; 
which arc somewhat like the vows of the Buddhist* God here 
is the Arhat, the ‘venerable^ founder of the sect, The laic has 
also five lesser vows; not to kill, not to lie* not to sical^ not to 
comintt adultery' or fornication, to be content with little- 

According to the ^Astra already cited the laic must rise 
early in the morning, worship the god's idol at home, go to the 
temple and drcumambulate the Jina idol three times, strewing 
flowers, and singing hymns, and then read the Pratylkhyann 
(an old POrva, gospel)/ Further rules of prayer and practice 

I Bf'EntEUticHi or Sintitidliwi- * £ar- rii.L ff. 

* LK.fii. Ill* I a I SVibon* JKtfffjfJ, I. adiscrifrUoD the limple Jain dtul. 

TUtC JtELIG/OtVa OF lA'£f/A. 


guide him through his day. And by following this rule he ei- 
pect$ to obtain spiritual ‘freedom* hereafter^ but for his life 
on earth he is “without praise or blame for this world or the 
next, for life or for death, having meditation as his one pure 
wife*' (iii. 150). lie will hccomu a god in heaven, be reborn 
again on earth, and so, after eight successive existences (the 
Buddhistic number), at last obtain salvation, release {from 
bodies) for his eternal soul (155). 

As in the Upanishads, the gods, like men, are a part of the 
system of the universe. The wise man goes to them (becomes 
a god) only to return to earth again. All systems thus unite 
hell and heaven with the kanm} doctrine. But in this Jain 
work, as in so many of the orthodox writings, the weight is 
laid more on hell as a punishment than on rebirth. Prob¬ 
ably the first Jains did not acknowledge gods at all, for it is 
an early rule with them not to say ‘ God tains,* or use any such 
expression, but to say ‘the cloud rains'; and in other ways they 
avoid to employ a terminolog)' which admits even implicitly 
the existence of divinities. Vet do they use a god not infre¬ 
quently as an agent of glorification of Mahavlra, saying in 
later writings that Indra transformed himself, to do the Teacher 
honor; and often they speak of the gods and goddesses as If 
these were regarded as spirits. Demons and inferior beings 
arc also utilized in the same way, as when It is said that at the 
Teacher’s birth the demons (spirits) showered gold upon the 

The religious orders of the gvetambara sect contained nuns 
as as moaksT although, as we have women are not 
esteemed very favorably: The world is greatly troubled by 
women. People say that w^omen are vessels of pleaiiiire. But 
this leads them to paliip to ddusioriy to death, to belly to 
birth as helbbdngs or bnite^beasts,” Such is the dedsion in 
the Aciringa SOtra, of book of usages for the Jain monk and 
dtin. From the same work w^e extract a few rules to illustrate 


the practices of the Jains. This literature is the mosi tediotjs 
in the world, and to give the gisL of the heretic law-makcfs 
mnnual will suffice. 

Asceticism should he practiced by monk and ntinp If possible. 
But done finds that he omnat resist his passions^ or is dis¬ 
abled and cannot endure austerities^ he may commit suicide; 
although this release 13 sometimes reprehended, and is not 
allowable till one has striven against yielding to such a means. 
Hut when the twelve years of asceticism are passed one has 
assurance of reaching Nirvina, and so may kill him^lf. Of 
Nirvana there is no description. It is release, salvation^ but 
it is of such sort that in regard to it * speculation has no place,^ 
and ^the mind cannot conceive of it^ (copied from the 
Upanishads). Jn other regards, in contrast to the nihilistic 
Buddhist, the Jain assumes a doubtful attitude, so that he is 
termed the ‘ miyd^e philosophert'in opposition to 
the Buddhist, the philosopher of *the void.* 

But if the Jain may kill himself, he may not kill or injure 
anything else. Not even food prepared over a fire is accept¬ 
able, lest he hurt the ^hro-beings/ for as he believes in 
water-beings, so he believes in fire-beings, wind-beings, etc. 
Every plant and seed is holy with the sacredness of life. He 
may not hurt or drive away the insects that torment his naked 
flesh. * Patience is the highest good," he declares, and the 
rules for sitting and lying conclude with the statement that 
not to move at all, not to stir, is the best rule* To lie naked, 
bitten by vermin, and not to disturb them, Is religion. Like 
a true Puritan, the Jain regards pleasure in itself as sinful. 

Is discontent^ and what is pleasure? One should live 
subject to neither. Giving up all gaiety, circumspect, restrained, 
one should lead a religious life. Man I Thou art thine own 
friend; why longest thou for a friend beyond thyself? , . . 
Firat troubles, then pleasures; first pleasures, then troubles. 

1 WTuh waj betr** 



Thtise ar* the cause of quarrels/^ And agaiti^ Let one think, 

1 am L^" tj!*t let one be dependent on bimself aJone^ When 
a Jain monk or nnn hears that there Is to be a festival (per¬ 
haps to the godst to Indra^ Skanda, Kudra^ Vishnu^^^ or the 
demon5p as in Acaranga Sutra, ii. tr s) he must not go thither ; 
he must keep himself from all frivolities and entertainments. 
During the four months of the rainy season he is to remam In 
one place,* but at other times, either naked or attired in a few 
garments, he is to wander about begging, tn going on his 
begging tour he is not to ansiwer questions^ nor to retort iE 
reviled. He is to speak politely (the formulae for polite 
address and rude address are given)^ beg modestly, and not 
render himself liable to suspicion on account of his behavior 
when in the house of one of the faithful. Whatever he the 
quality of the food he must eat it^ if it be not a wTong sort. 
Rice and beans are ii^pecially recommended to him. llie 
great Teacher Jfidtriputra (Mahivira), it is said, never went to 
shows, pantomlnes, boxing-matches, and the like ; hut, remain¬ 
ing in his parents' house till their deaths that he might not 
grieve his mother, at the age of twenty-eight renounced the 
world with the consent oE the government, and betook himself 
to asceticism; travclUng naked (after a year of clothes) into 
barbarous lands, but alw'nys converting and enduring the re- 
proach of the wicked. He was beaten and set upon by sinful 
men, yet was he never moved to anger. Thus it was that he 
became the Arhat, the Jin a, the Kevalin (perfect sage)/ It 


^ TliiA *■ kscpifiiE rfffip ^ Ia alto m. nnhiianic ai nHhlet >lu fielptod rat. 

0L4t a sold mmewbm llut nt l^t feud-a the rEw£s m impcu&itije, »tliat tbt=te 
la not 90 much n cap^ag oa a tiecudJtjr In perhaps 

ajbc! tmnJ boudii, owing to tl^ biitEdK of IUe and dar^gcf td kilUnj|^ 

■ In the of the Jlftna It U said lhal ja^tdputnE^t imrents wai^ 

■Hipped tlw '* favedte,^ PliV^r fallatr^ oC the ^Tairmsu (ucntki}. 

In Ehe same wtitk (whidi Contdii* ijJiitWftg fnrthcr for oai puifKAe) tt li *=dd ttwt 
ArHatv CabnvaitJh Bakidevu, ;ind ViiHHiicva^s pr?«Ent, pctfl, ajid futim, ue uisEo 
CTjlM, been in iwblo The heta^ and sectaries c^ttolnb dalm ai ranctL 


is sad to have to addp however, that XCahiSvira is traditionally 
said to have died in a fit of apoplectic rage. 

The equipment of a monk are his clothes (or^ better^ iione)^ 
his rtlfus^bowlj broom, and veil, l ie is * uofettufcd,*^ in being 
vithout desires and without injury to others. *Some say that 
all sorts of living beings may be sktin^ or abused, or tormentedp 
or driven away — the doctrine of the unworthy Tfie righteous 
man does not tiU nor cause others to kilL He should not 
cause the same punishment for himself.* 

The last clause is significant. What he does to another 
living being will be done to him. He will suffer as he has 
caused others to suffer. The chain from emotion to hell — 
the avoidance of the fonner is cm account of the fear of the 
latter — is thus connected : He who knows wrath knows pride ; 
he who knows pride knows deceit; he who knows deceit knov»s 
greed (and so on; thus one advances) from greed to lovejrom 
love to hate, from hate to delusion^ from delusion to concep¬ 
tion p from conception to birth, from birth to death, tfom death 
to hell, from hell to animal existence, *and he who knows ani¬ 
mal existence knows pain.^ 

The five great vows, which have been thought by some 
scholars to he copies of the Buddhistic rules* whereas they 
are teally modifications of the old Brahmanic rules for 
ascetics as explained in pre-Buddhistic literature, are in detail 
as follows:* 

'rhe First vow': I renounce all killing of living beings, whether 
subtile or gross* whether movable or immovable. Nor shall I 
myself kill living beings nor cause others to do it, nor consent 
to it. As. long as I live I confess and blame, repent and exempt 
myself of these silts in the thrice threefold way,* in mind, speech, 
and body. 

1 Adliflifljpi S.IL IJ. We gt™ Jvotfi biMlatiira, aa Iji tJ* »eiies airaiy eUef", 
thki^ wqtIl 

a Acting, ccHtimajHlaiigp cgimnUng^ put, pwaent, or (JawUI^ 


Tfi£ ^eligioaVS of mi>/A. 

Thu five ■ clauses' that explain this vow arcf (t) the 
Niggantha (Jain) is cafelnl in walking; (2) he does not allow 
hi^ mind to act in a way to suggest injury of living belnga; 
(3) be does not allow his speech to incite to in|ury; (4) he is 
caierul in laying dowai his utensils j (5) he inspects his food 
and drink lest he hurt living bcingSp 

The Second Vow; I tunounce: all vices of lying speech aris* 
log from anger, or gre^d^ or fcar^ or mirth. I confess (etc.^ ai 
in the brst vow). 

The five clauses here explain that the Niggantha speaks 
only after deliberation \ does not get angry; renounces greed; 
renounces fear; renounces mirth — lest through any of these 
he be moved to lie. 

The Third Vow: I renounce all taking of anything not 
givun^ cither In a village) or a town, or a wood, either of little 
or much, or small or great,, of living or lifeless things. I shall 
neither take myself what is not given nor cause others to take 
it, nor consent to thuir taking it. As long as I live 1 confess 
(etc., as in the first vow). 

The clauses here explain that the Xiggantha must avoid 
different possibilities of stealing, such as taking food without 
permission of his superior One clause states that he may take 
only a limited ground for a limited timep he may not settle 
down indefinitely cm a wide area, for he may not hold land 
absolutely. Another clause insists on his hav'ing his grant to 
the land renewed frequently. 

The Fourth Vow! I renounce all sexual pleasures, either 
with gods, or men, or animals. I shall not give way to sensu¬ 
ality (etc.). 

The clauses here forbid the Niggantha to discuss topics 
relating to women, to contemplate the forms of womeup to 
recall the pleasures and amusements he used to have with 
women, to eat and drink too highly seasoned viands, to lie 
near women* 


The Fifth Vow T 1 renounce all attachments, whether little 
or much, small or great, living or lifeless; neither shall I my¬ 
self form such attachments, nor cause others to do so, nor 

consent to their doing so (etc.). 

The five clauses particulariie the dangerous attachments 

formed by ears, eyes, smell, taste, touch. 

It has been shown above (following Jacobi's telling com¬ 
parison of the hereiical vows with those of the early Brahman 
ascetic) that these vows are taken not from Buddhism but from 
Brahmanism. Jacobi opines that the Jains took the fora first 
and that the reiorroer Mahavira added the fifth as an on set to 
the Brahmanical vow of liberality.* The same w-riter shows 
that certain minor rules of the Jain sect are dcnvcd from the 
same Ufahmaniical source. 

The mailt di^^rences between the two Jain sects have been 
catalo^Tued in an interesting sketch by Williams.^ who mentions 
as the chief Jain stations of the north Ltelhi (where there is an 
annual gathering), Jeypur, and .^jmir. To these Mathuri on 
the Jumna should be added.* The Cvetimbaras had forty-five 
or forty-sis Agamas, eleven or twelve Angas, twelve Uplngas, 
and other scriptures of the third or fourth century u.c., as they 
claim. They do not go naked (even their idols are clothed), 
and they admit women into the order. The Digambaras do 
not admit women, go naked, and ha\-e for sacred texts later 
works of the fifth century a.i>. The latter of course assert 
that the scriptures of the former sect are spurioiis.* 

1 SUE. nil. totroi p, Dlv. 

r lart ™laBie of ll* fWi/a. and hit flthef artldes ia 

U» WZKM. a. 17 J- '' llHan», t. th* U» 

Dlpuni™ Jain*. Colnpai. Thofiui, |KAS.fa. .55. 

4 The rMlirUan of the Jain Cia™ took placr,aet! 0 [diog to tiailltlati. In ^^ 


euUer than about m M." 0a«i4i, iBlroduttSon lo/<ir* SStrgi, pp. mril, 

-n* pnatiit Anp* {* dlTfatoiw ■> tiirt pnosW hr Pfirtai, of ’■rhldh " 

ten bora at Ittat lonrteen. Oo the uiirthB ol the StnpCui^ sm tVebB,/sf. tif. 



In distinction horn the Huddhists the Jains of to-day keep 
up caste. Some of them aje Bmhmans. They have^ of course, 
a differem praye^formula, and have hd SiDphOs dr D^gobas (to 
hold relics); ntid, besides tlie metaphysical difference spoken 
I of above, they differ from the Buddhists in assuming that 
metcrapsychosis does not stop at animal existence, but includes 
inanimate things (as these are regarded by others)* According 
to one of their own sect of to-day, dAmsH i/Aifrmm,* the 

hlgliest law of duly is not to hurt a living creature.*^ 

Thu most striking absurdity of the Jain reverenoE for life has 
frequently been commented upoon Almost every city of west¬ 
ern India^ where they are found, has its beast-hospital, where 
animals are kept and fed. An amusing account of such an 
hospital, called Fihjra Fol, at Saurarishtrn, Surat, is giv'cn in 
tlie first number of the qf M-r A^iatk S&aciyy 

Five thousand! rats were supported in such a temple-hospital 
in Kutch/ 

Of all the great religious sects of India that of Nataputta is 
perhapsthc least interesting, and has apparently the least ex¬ 
cuse for being.* The Jains offered to the world but one great 
moral truth, withal a negative truth, ^not to harm,* nor was 
this verity invented by them* Indeed, what to the Jain la 
the great truth is only a grotesque exaggeration ol wdiat 
other sects recognised in a reasonable form.^^Of all the sects 
the Jains are the most colorless, the most insipid^ They have 

1 tVlUiaiBi. inty rilf* Tbe pra^^nmub li v * Remocc to AihalXr uJat^ 
f kb^adwTir and Alt gDod natai-'' 

* * A pUm *tikh b appropriated for the mxpUwi cJ old, wona-ovt, Lviuer or das* 

iHlanalik Al that tlene (xSsj) they tKitflf of bo-ffalow wid eowi, bu| 

th^cK abo ipatf and itwep, ELod icfoii c»cki and hfCLi,^ also of 


* JRA^. zSyi, p. 961 The tovn vai t=Lxed lo peovldc ihn foe the raU, 

* BecaV* Ibe Jaini liait Tmrtrd to id^^la^F7, dcmsmoltsay, ibd Dnt 

Kt tlw otd^rt th&f appear to Knid twKt girat prtndpfci, that Uwrt b no 
d^tiTH power higher than man t the othef, th±E ^ hie i» mend. Ooe of ihw li aav 
pruUcaUr (litn up^ aad the other im- almTu taieji loo detivoily* 

no litejatiire worthy of the name. They were not origiiial 
Chough to give up many orthodox features^ so that they seem 
like a weakened rlU of Brahmanism^ cat off from the source^ 
yel devoid of all independent characier. A religion in which 
the chief points insisted upon arc that one should deny God, 
worship man, and nourish vermin, has indeed no right to exist \ 
nor has it had as a system much influence on the history of 
thought* As in the case of Buddhtsm, the refined Jain meta¬ 
physics are probably a late growth. Historically these sectaries 
serv'ed a purpose as early protestants against ritualistic and 
polytheistic Brahmanism * but their real afhnity with the latter 
faith is so great that at heart they soon became Ijrahmanic 
again. Their position geographically would make it seem 
probable that they, and not the Buddhists, had a hand in the 
making of the ethics of the later epic. 

chapter xiil 

While the paothebtic believer proceeded tc antbropdmor- 
phize iti a still greater degree the alm^f of his fathers^ and 
eventually landed in heretical sectarianism; while the orthcklcx 
Brahman simply added to his pantheon (in Manu and other 
Law-codes) the Brahman Ic iigiirc of the Creator^ Brahma; the 
truth-seeker that fallowed the lines of the earlier philosophical 
thought arrived at atheism, and In consequence became cither 
stoic or hedonist, 'fhe latter school the Carvijlka^i, the so- 
called disciples of BrihaspatL, have, Indeed, a philosophy without 
religion. They simply say that the gods do not exist, the priests 
are hypocrites; the Vedas, humbug; and the only thing worth 
living for, in view of the fact that there are no gods, no heaven, 
and no soul, is pleasure! ^ While life remains let a man live 
happily ; let him not go without butter (literally even 

though he run into debt,' ctc.^ Of sterner stulf was the man 
who invented a new religion as a solace for sorrow and a refuge 
from the nihilism in which he believed. 

Whether Jainism or Buddhism be the older heresy, and it is 
not probable that any definitive answer to this question will 
ever be given, one thing has- become clear in the light of 
recent studies, namely^ the fact already shown, that to Brah¬ 
manism arc due some of the most marked traits of both the 
heretical sects. *llic founder of Buddhism did not strike out a 
new system of morals; he was not a democrat; he did not 
originate a plot to overthrow the Brahinaaic priesthood; he 

I CoanpoA CeleJirwIc^^ft Eiiayi.rtiL U, 46$; and Hair, OST. W. ^ 


did not invent the order of monks.* There Is, perhaps, no 
person in history Ln regard to whom have arisen so many 
opinions that are either wholly false or half false.®* 

We shall not canvass in detail views that would be menuoned 
only to be rejected. Kven the brilUant study of Senart, in 
which the figure of fluddba is resolved into a solar type and 
the history of the reformer becomes a stm-myth, deserv^es only 
to be mentioned and laid aside+ Since the publication of the 
canonical books of the southern Buddhists there is no longer 
any question in regard to the human reality of the great knight 
who illumined, albeit with anything but heavenly light, the 
darkness of Brahmanical belief. Oldenberg* has taken Senart 
seriously, and seriously answered him. Bui Napoleon and 
Max Muller have each been treated as sun-myths, and Senart’5 
essay is as convincing as eitheryrw 

In Nepal, far from the site of Vedic culture, and generations 
after the period of the Vedic hymns^ wn^ born a son to the 
noble family of the C^kyas. A warrior prince, he made at bst 
exclusively his own the lofty title that was craved by many of 
his peers, Buddha, the truly wise, the ‘Awakened.” 

The Qakyas' land extended along the souihem border of 
Nepal and the northeast part of Oude (Oudh), between the 
Iravatl (Rapti) ri%'er on the w^esl and souths and the Rohinl on 
the east; the district which lies around the present Gorakhpur, 
about one hundred miles north-northeast of Benares. I he 
personal history of the later Buddha is interw^oven with legtnd 
from which it is not always easy to disentangle the threads of 
truth. In the accounts preserved in regard to the Master, one 
has first to distinguish the Pali records of the Southern 
Buddhists from the Sanskrit tales of the Northerners; and 
again, it Is necessary to discriminate between the earlier and 

1 CoPipcuM p. 

S KBfypen Ywirt Buddli4 ^ 4 rtfflnner uaU ISbef^tof. 

1 Enlb JWf ia rTii iSy5. 

t BvdiiAii p. 73 ff. 


rJ/£ ££l/G/OJV£ 0£ 

later traditions of the Southi^rtierSf who have kept in. general 
the older history as compared with the extravagant tradition 
presented in the Lalita Vistara, the Lotu^ of the Law, and the 
other works of the North. What litttc seem^ to be authentic 
history is easily told; nor are, for our present purpose, of 
much value the legends, which the life of Buddha. 

They will be found in every book thal treats of the subject^ 
and some of the more fninous are translated in the article on 
Buddha in the EncycIopa!dia Brittanica, Wc content otirselv*es 
with the simplest and oldest account, giving such facts as help 
to explain the religious significance of Buddha's life and work 
among his cotintrymen. Several of these facts, Buddha's 
place in society, and the geographical centre of Buddhistic 
aclivityp are essential to a true nnderstanding of the relations 
between Buddhism and Brahmanism^ 

Whether Buddha’s father was king or no has rightly been 
questioned. The oldest texts do not refer to him as a king's 
son, and this indicates that his father, who governed the 
^ikya-land, of which the limits haa^e just been specihed,^ was 
rather a feudal baron or head of a small clan,, than an actual 
king. The Qaky^ power was overthrown and absorbed into 
that of the king of Oude (Kosala) either in Buddha^s own life¬ 
time or immediately afterwards. It is only the newer tradition 
that extols the power and wealth which the .Master gave up on 
renouncing worldly ties, a trail characteristic of all the later 
accounts, on the principle that the greater was the sacrihcc the 
greater was the glory. Whether kings or mere chieftains, the 
^akyas were noted as a family that cared little to honor the 
Brahmanic priests. They themselves claimed descent from 
Ikshvaku, the ancient seer-king, son of ^fanu, and traditionally 
hrst king of Ayodha (Oude)* They assumed the name of 

1 The Mart of Kipabirsfra, the capElaJ vi the i» cpdt 

alUsDtosh It mwi hainc bwn near ta the asvgoed t« it wi Kkpi!rt'& naf tif 

India itartK irf Oorikiipiif). li» lowo b ittiVnm la BralimaaJc htenmn:. 


Gnutnina, one of the Vedic seers, and it was by the name of 
* the Ascetic Gautama" that Huddha w^as known to bis comem- 
poraries; but his pmrsonal name was Slddh^rtha ^be that 
succeeds in his aim/ pTophetic of his life I His inother*s 
name (illusion) has ftarnished Senart with material for 

his sun-theory of Euddha; but the same name is handed down 
as that of a city, and perhaps means in this sense * the won' 
derful/ She is said to have died when her son was still a boy. 
The boy Siddhirtha, then^ was a warrior raj^a/ by birth, and 
possibly had a very' indifferent training in Vedic literature^ 
since he is never spoken of as Veda^wise.^ The future Buddha 
was twenty-nine w'hen he resolved to renounce the world. He 
was already married and had a son (RAhula+ according to later 
tradition). The legends of later growth here begin to tbickeUp 
telling howp when the future Buddha heard of the birth of his 
son* he simply said * a new^ bond has been forged to hold me 
to the worldand how his mind was first awakened to appre¬ 
ciation of sorrow by seeing loathy examples of age^ sicknesSp 
and death presented to him as be drove abroach Despite his 
father^s tears and protests Siddhalrtha^ or as one may call him 
now by his patronymic, the man Gautamap left his home and 
family, gave up all possessions^ And devoted himself to self- 
mortification and Yoga discipline of concentration of thought. 
Following in this the inodei set by all previous ascetics. He 
says himself, according to traditioUp that it was a practical 
pessimism which drove him to take thU step. He was not 
pleased with life, and the plrasures of society had no charm for 
him. W^hen he saw'the old man. the sick man, the dead man, 
he became di^sted to think that he too would be subject to 
a^e, sickness, and death: felt disgust at old age; all 

pleasure then forsook me.'* In becoming an ascetic Gautama 

t Ttah h opinion, tlv Ros&n htn Ob tht «rtJicr buHlIt 

may be queUioMd whotlwr iMu tmidcnw t* ^Mluuive, aad wbetber k tw 

laot iFriKft prahabkr tiui A jraun^ nolnlniLUa ttould hJin bm mil educated. 



simply endeavored to discover some means by which he might 
avoid a reciiirence of lifCt of which the disagreeable side in his 
estimation outweighed the jo>% He too liad already ajiswered 
negatively the question Is life worth Itviug? 

We must pause here to point out that this oldest and 
simplest account of Gautama's resolve shows two things. It 
makes clear that Gautama at first had no plan for the uni¬ 
versal salvation of his racfi. He was alert to "save his own 
souh" nothing tiiore. We shall show presently that this is 
confirmed by subsequent events in his career. Thu next 
point is that this narration in itself is a complete refutation 
of the opinion of those scholars who believe that the doctrine 
of iarma and reincarnation arose first in Buddhismp and 
that the Upanishads that preach this doctrine arc not of the 
pro-Buddhistic period. The last part of this statement of 
opinion is, of course^ not touched by the story of Gautama's 
renunciatiou, hut the first assumption wrecks on it. Why 
should Gautama have so given himself to Yoga discipline? 
Did he expect to escape age, sickness, deaths in this life 
by that means ? No+ The assumption from the beginning 
is the belief in the doctrine of reincarnation^ It was in order 
to free himself from future returns of these ills that Gautama 
renounced his home^ But nothing whatever is said of his df-S^ 
covering or inventing the doctrine of reiticamation. Both hell 
and Jlrtirma are taken for granted throughout the whole early 
Buddhistic literature. Buddha discovered neither of thenu any 
more than he discovered a new system of morality, or a new' 
system of religious life; although more credit accrues to him 
Ln regard to the last because his order was opposed to that 
then prevalent; yet even here he had antique authority for his 

To return to Gautama*s^ life. Legetid tells how he fled 

1 SiUdlAnhAv iHo! boij'j Hi family cafttoimn, U» by hji 

wa* kutma alu as tbit ^alcya-aagCf iIk hpermit, S^mana ; Uic 

away on his hors* Kanthakap in search of aolitnde and the 
n^eans of salvation, far from his home to the abode of ascetics, 
for he thoughts Whence comes peace? When the fire of 
desire is extinguished, when the fire of hate is extinguishedp 
when the fire of tlliiaion is extinguishedp when all sins and aJi 
sorrows are extingyishedp then comes peace.” And the only 
means to this end was the renunciation of desire, the discipline 
of Yc^ conceiitrationp where the mind fixed on one point loses 
all else from its horizon^ and feels no drawing aside to worldly 

What then has Gautama done from the point of view of the 
Brahnmn ? He has given up his home to become an ascetic. 
But this was permitted by usage, for, although the strict 
w^estern code aliowed it only to the priest, yet it was ctistomary 
among the other twice-bom castes at an earlier day, and in this 
part of India it awakened no siixprise that one of the military 
caste should take np the Life of a philosopher. For the 
historian of Indie religions this fact is of great significance, 
since such practice is the entering wedge which was to split 
the castes. One step more and not only the military caste 
but the lower, nay the lowest castes, might become ascetics. 
But, again, all ascetics wore looked upon, in that religious 
society, as equal to the priests. In fact, where Gautama 
lived there was rather more respect paid to the ascetic 
than to the priest as a member of the caste. Gautama 
was most fortunate in his birth and birth-place. An aristocrat, 
he became an ascetic in a land where the priests were particu¬ 
larly disregarded. He had no public opinion to contend 
againist when later he declared that Brahman birth and Brah¬ 
man wisdom had no value. On the coatrar>% he spoke to 

TCiKfiiblc, Ariul (a EcocTut titJeef perfect^ salnti); T4lba^t^ h. afrivtd 
(Uh At peri^ctwB); aud also by imoy other nuoes anmnDB ta 

othor MCbi, Buddha, JiaAt The Biased Oi» fDlugsTnl), The Great Hero, etc. The 
thiddhlft disdplc be & tiftnui, 3 n^ook, Ap^Tfocted 

strAai * 3 lalntljr dnetar of iht iiw, : 4itC. 



glad hearcrst who heard repeated loudly now aA a religiouj 
iruih what often they had said to themselves de&pUefuUy in 

Gautama journeyed as a mum\ or silent ascetic sage» till 
after seven years he abandoned bis teachers (for he had bO’ 
come a disciple of professed masters), and discontentedly 
wandered about in Magadha (Ikhir), ‘ the cradle of Buddhism/ 
till he came to Uruvela, Bodhi Gaya/ HerCt having found 
that concentration of mind. Yoga-discipUnCt availed nothingt 
he undertook another method of asceticism, self torture. This 
he practiced for some time. But it succeeded as poorly as 
his first plan, and he had nearly stanked himself to death when 
it occurred to him that he was no wiser than before. 'J'hcre- 
upon be gave up starvation as a means of wisdom and began 
to eat^ Five other ascetics, who had been much impressed by 
his endurance and were quite ready to declare themselves his 
disciples, now deserted him, thinking that as he had relaxed 
his discipline he must be weaker than themselviis* But 
Gautama sat beneath the sacred Hg*tree®and lo [ he bcoune 
illumined. In a moment he saw the Great Trtiths. t!e was 
now the Awakened. He became Buddha. 

The later tradition here records how he w^as tempted o£ 
Satan. For \fafa (Death), nhe Evil.One' as he is called by 
the Buddhists, knowing that Buddha had found the way of 
salvation, tempted him to enter into Nirvina at once, lest by 
converting others Buddha should rob Mara of hU pow er and 
dominion. This and the legend of storms attacking him and 
his being protected by the king of snakes, Mucalinda, is lack¬ 
ing In the earlier tradition. 

Buddha remains under the Ap-tree fasting, for four times 
seven days, or seven times seven, as sap the later report. At 

I Saalls of llw pitspil Patiuk Less wnrrt: t* Um Crifi 

^ t1» UmooA i# « BwllU-trwi ficbi al UodW Gayi, s^d to be 

the moA ivcumbk aAd ceriiialjf Uh hkhI Tmenlcd tree Uk Use 



first he resolves to be a ^Bticidha for hljnself„"^ that b to save 
only himself^ not^to be ‘^the uni versa! BuddJia^* who eoaverts 
and saves tbe world- But the God Brahma comes down from 
heaven and persuades him out of pity for the world to preach 
salvadon. In this legend stands out clearly the same fact we 
have animadverted upon already. Buddha had at first no 
intention of helping his fellows. He fonnd his own road to 
salvation. That sufficed^ But eventually he wus moved ^ 
throtigh pity for his kind to give others the same knowledge 
with which be had been enlightened.^ 

Here is to be noticed with what suddenness Gautama be¬ 
comes Buddha. It is an early case of the same absence of 
study or IntellectuaL preparation for belief that is rampant in 
the idea of ictic convtfsion+ In a moment Gautama’s eyes are 
opened. In ecstacy he becomes Illuminated with the light of 
knowledge. This idea b totally foreign to BrahmanUm. It 
is not so strange at an earlier stage, for the Vedlc poet often 
' sees ' hb hymn,* that Is^ he is inspired or illumined. But no 
Brahman priest was ever 'enlightened^ with sudden wisdonip 
for his knowledge was his wisdom, and this consisted in learn¬ 
ing interminable triHes. Elut the wisdom of Buddha was thb j 
L Birth is sorrow, age U sorrow^ sickness b sorrow^ death 
Is sortowv clinging to earthly things is sorrow. 

11. Birth and re-birth^ the chain of reincarnations, result 
from the thirst for life together with passion and desire. 

lit. The only escape from this thirst b the annihilation of 

IV. The only way of escape from thb thirst Is by following 
the Eightfold Path : Right belief, right resolve, right word, 

I A Buddha (OkkAh«f|r ^ 

i "Tbni be tie doof of nlvatloa openedl 
He that hath vm heat kt h\m hear. 
i thpught piy pwpw wiJ^. afld, (Jwieferet 
Have aol revealed the IV^rd tD the wof kL'* 

t He »QiBetln^ boneTCf, quite jmsaloUf ^ nukes' ur ^ uuuofKtuRit' itr 

77 /^ J^EL/G/OiYS OF /A^£>/4- 

20 ^ 

righE actp right life, right effort, right thiakitigp tight medl- 

But Buddha is said lo have seeo more than theset the Four 
Great Truths, and the Eightfold Path, for he was enlightened 
at the same time (after several days of fasting) in regard to 
the whole chain of causality which is elaborated in the later 

The general result of this teaching may be formulated thus, 
that most people are foolishly optimistic and that the great 
awakening is to become a p^simist+ One must believe not 
only that pain is Inseparable from existence, but that the 
pleasures of life are only a part of its pain. When one has got 
so far along the path of knowledge he traverses the next stage 
and gets rid of desire, which is the root of life, — this is a 
Vedic uiterancCp — till by casting off desire^ ignorancep doubtp 
and heresy, as add some of the textSp^ one has removed far 
away all unkindness and vexation of soul, feeling good-will 
to sdl. 

Kot only in this scheme but also In other less formal decla' 
rations of Buddha does one find the key-note of that which 
makes his method of salvation different alike to that of Jain or 
Brahman^ Knowledge Is wisdom to the Brahman; asceticism 
is wisdom to the Jain 3 purity and love is the first wisdom to the 
Buddhist. We do not mean that the Erahmaa does not reach 
theoretically a plane that puts him on the same level with 
Buddhism, We have pointed out above a passage in the work 
of the old law'-giver Gautama which might almost have been 

t Daridi In lilf intfodcictlQn t& thb ^fa 

ubd eipMsf tlu u foIlowA { 5 BE.xi. p. 144}: 1,. Right fnmlfiai fripm 

^ 4«SiwJoik, a, altiHr irf U» 'iajTi«±ii 

Eik3.n. Right spcKti, lundlj, open, Iruthfat 4p Right Eoadiifh h^cticait, 

5, Right liitelihijed, bflD^Ing hiurt td no Uribg Oiiiig. 6 ^ Rigbl effnit Ln lelf^ 
training 3iT>d La sclt-cvnlmt K^ghl mindfiUfie^ tht i^Uhfy] tnlnd 

Sfe Klxhil ^^ELtefuplatidi^ tarncit od the deep of 

^ Itudfp pr 4 ^. 


utterf^d by G^^utnina Buddba: ** He that has performed all the 
forty sacramcRts and has not the eight good qealitks enters 
not into union with Brahm^ nor into the heaven of Brahma ■ 
but he that has performed only a part of the forty sacraments 
and has the eight good qualities^ enters into union with 
Brahma and into the heaven of Brahma and these eight 
good qualities are mercy* forbearance* freedom from envy, 
purity I calmness* correct behavior, freedom from greed and 
from covetousness. X&vertheless with the Brahman this is 
adventitious* with the Eluddhist it is essential. 

These Four Great Truths are given to the world first at 
Benares, whither Buddha went in order to preach to the five 
ascetics that had deserted him. His conversation with them 
shows us another side of Buddhistic ethics. The five monks* 
w^hen they saw Buddha approaching, jeered, and said : Here 
is the one that failed in his austerities.’^ Buddha telb them to 
acknowledge him as their master, and that he is the Enlightened 
One. HoWp'" they ask, **if you could not succeed in be¬ 
coming a Buddha by asceticism, can W'c suppose that you 
become one by indulgence?'^ Buddha tells them that neither 
voluptuousness nor asceticism is the road that leads to 
Nirvana; that he, Buddha, lias found the middle p^th between 
the two extremes, the note is struck that is neither too high 
nor too low. The five monks are converted when they hear 
the Four Great Truths and the Eightfold Path, and there arc 
now' six holy ones on earth, Buddha and his five disciples^ 

Significant aJso is the social status of Buddha's first conver¬ 
sion, It is " the rich youth' of Benares that dock about him,^ 
of whom sLrty soon are counted, and these arc sent out into 
all the lands to preach the gospel^ each to speak in his own 
tongue, for religion was from this time on no longer to be hid 
behind the veil of an unintelligible language, ^-^nd it is not 

1 A dedded predlktUpti fur itm B.pp«ri Ha hm lin^ef^ m belt 

Vxytn ^ ibe |iul ItL the aider BuddtilsaiiH’' Oldcaber^ ^ 


T/i£: ji:£L/a/a4Vs of 

only the arisiocracy of wealth that attaches itself to the new 
teacher and embraces his doctrines with enthusiasm. The next 
converts arc a thotisand Brahman priests^ who constituted a 
religions body under the leadership of three ascetic Brahmans. 
It is described in the old writings how these priests were still 
performing their Vedic rites when Buddha came ^ain to 
Bodhi Gaya and found them there. They were overcome 
with astonishment as they saw his power over the King of 
Snakes that lived among them. The gods—^ for Buddhism^ if 
not Buddha^ has much to do with the gods — descend from 
heaven to hear him, and other marvels take place* The l^rah- 
mans are all converted. The miracles and the numbers may 
be stripped off, but thus denuded the truth still remains as 
important as it is plain. Priests of Brahman caste were 
among the first to adopt Buddhism. The popular effect of the 
teaching must have been greats for one reads how, when 
Buddha, after this great conversion, begins bis victorious 
wanderings in Behar (Migadha), he co-n verted so many of the 
young nobles that ^ —since conversion led to the immediate 
result of renunebtion — the people muirmuredp saying that 
Gautama (Gotama) was robbing them of their youth.^ 

From this time on Buddha's life was spent in w^andeiring 
about and preaching the new creed mainly to the people of 
Behar and Oude (Ka^i-Kosala, the realm of Benares-Oude)^ 
his^ course extending from the (Irivati) Rapti river in the 
north to Rajagriha now Rajgir) south of Hehir^ while 

he spent the rwrs? or rainy season in one of the parks, many 
of which were donated to him by wealthy members of the 

^^'hereve^ he went he was accompanied with a considerable 
number of followers, and one reads of pilgrims from distant 

1 L 24. On tbe naftie tGantama) GirtaTwi, ph Welstr, /S. L iSa* 

■ Tl* pajricv qI V^UiViip^ and Jetinni affected by n-ttdilla- Com 

puQ Oldtnberg, |k 145, 


places eomiDg to see and converse with him. The number of 
his followers appears lo have been somewhat exaggerated by 
the later writera* since Buddha himself^ when prophesying of 
the next Buddha, the Buddha of love” (Maitreya) says that, 
whereas he himself has hundreds of followers^ the next Buddha 
will lead hundreds of thousands. 

Although, theoretically, all the castes give up their name» 
and* when united in the Buddhistic brotherhood, become “like 
rivers that give up their identity and dnhe in the one ocean/* 
yet were most of the early recruits, as has been said, from 
Induential and powerful families; and it is a tenet of Buddhism 
in regard to the numerous Buddhas, which have beeti born ^ 
and are still to be born on earth, that no Buddha can be bom 
in a low^ caste. 

The reason fot this lies as much as anything in the nature 
of the Buddhistic system which is expressly declared to be 
“for the wise, not for the fooUsh.” It was not a system based 
as such on love or on any democratic sentiment. It was a 
philosophical exposition of the causal nexus of birth and 
freedom from re-birth. The common man, untrained in logic, 
might adopt the teaching, hut he could not understand it. 
The Congregation of the son of the Qakyas ”— such was the 
earliest name for the Buddhistic brotherhood — were required 
only to renounce their family, put on the yellow robe, assume 
the tonsure and other outward signs, and be chaste and high- 
tninded. But the teachers were instructed in the subtleties of 
the ‘Path,* and it needed no little training to follow the 
leader's thought to its logical conclusion. 

Of Buddha's life^ besides the circumstances aJready narrated 
little is known. Of his disciples the best beloved was Ananda^ 
his own cousiUp whose brother w^as the Judas of Buddhism. 
The latter, Devadatta by name* conspired to kill Buddha in 
order that he himself might get the post of honor* But hell 

I Like thti Ja3n» tl» UtiiidWils pMtnLi.ti! t^rnt^friWir pwadHit Ihukitaj:^ 



opened and swallowed him up, He appears to have had con¬ 
victions of Jaio tendency^ for before his intrigue fie preached 
against Buddha, and formtilated reactionary propositions which 
inculcated a stricter asceticism than that taught by the 

It has been denied that the early church contained lay mem¬ 
bers as well as monks, but Oldenburg appears to have set the 
matter right (p, 1^5) in showing that the laity, from the begin- 
ning, were a recognized part of the general chnrch. The 
monk {bkikshu, hhikku) was formally enrolled as a disciple, 
wore the gown and tonsure, etc. The lay brother, ■ reverer' 
{up^aka), was one that assented to the doctrine and treated 
the monks kindly. There were, at first, only men in the con¬ 
gregation, for Buddhism took a view as unfavorable to woman 
as did Jainism. But at his foster-mother's request Buddha 
finally admitted nuns as well as monks into his fold. UTien 
Ananda asks how a monk should act in presence of a woman 
Buddha sajs ■ avoid to look at her but if it be necessary to 
look, -do not speak to her’; but If it he necessary to speak, 
* then keep wide awake, Ananda.'* 
i Buddha died in the fifth century', Rhys Davids, who puts 
the date later than most scholars, gives, as the time of the 
great NirvSna, the second decade from the end of the fourth 
centuiy. On the other hand, Buhlcr and Muller reckon the 
year as +77, while Oldenberg says 'about 4S0.'* From 
Buddha’s own words, as reported by tradition, he was eighty 

Buuin i juKral dijd|iti w u CQUpine mill thm of Uw JsUh* was modi 
laMer iimano, in the tatins of nvut. BudUba hlnwlf 4ivi of dyicnlerv bnudit 
M It poft The later BeddhEira IntennWi ntieh Riore itildly the rule of 

! and » 1 -* have rtom, B4«3dha eeUielr reoonowrf aarteritia, ehooiJrur 
tlifl kwan btlwvciv lull.]r and uc^Epua. ^ 

Or ‘tahe cue of youiaelf*, S/eia/oefoiMepte, v, aj, 

data gfrrn h, MaUw {iDtroduclJoB to 

B ^'’*'**' f Birfdha'a death lod the Fir,t 
CMLOdl Bl Raja^rllu; jjj, the Skmh] CoiuKil at VU^j ai*, Acoka'i coraiotinn 
™rd Cwedl« J'ataliputta = A*ofci'e de«h.' 



years old at the time of his death, and if one aJlDis him thirty- 
six years as his a^e when he became independent of masters, 
his active life would be one of forty-four yearSv It was proba¬ 
bly less than this, however^ for some years must be added to 
the first seven of ascetic practices before he took the field as a 

The story of Buddha^s death is told simply and clearly^ He 
crossed the GangeSp where at that time was building the town 
of Patna (Pataliputta, * Pafibothra and prophesied its future 
greatness (it was the chief city of India for centuries after); 
then, going north from Kijagriha. in Bchar, and he 

proceeded to a point east of Gonikhpur (Kasla). Tradition 
thus makes him wander over the most familiar places till he 
comes back almost to his own country^ TherCp in the region 
known to him as a youth, weighed down with years and ilb 
healthp but surrounded by his most faithful discipleSp he died. 
Not imaffecting js the final scene.* 

*Now the venerable Ananda (Buddha’s beloved disciple) 
went into the cloister-building, and stood leaning against the 
lintel of the door and weeping at the thought: ^*AlasE I 
remain still but a learner^ one who has yet to work out his own 
perfection* And the Master is about to pass away from me—he 
who Is so kind.” Then the Blessed One called the brethren 
and said: “Wliere then, brethren, is Ananda? '' ^ The vener¬ 

able Ananda (they replied) has gone into the cloUter-buildiog 
and Stands leaning against the lintel of the door, w eeptng.” . . . 
And the Blessed One called a certain brother, and said Go 

tbup bat thef plvt tbe time TBarly encMt^b to serra u a gii 3 de. Fr^ini tJw BuddlU^ti 
(CcvWn it la ^omi iKal Uw Council 3X uw tiunUred >un 

□ft*r Uudidhab death (on* himdicU and tl^hteea >%Lni before tlM c$iivEuitk!Ei .of 
A^oki, wherae grandfatlifi-rp Candt^pU, ™ coa^mptrf^), Tl» 

twval- between XifvAiu and Ai^oki, two haodred and b Ctsr- 

lain date apcordfnj; (4 KtJ^Iell.^ p. soS, lad d^pitC’ modi aigunwni since! Jm wrote, tli* 
rtnurk ttill holda^ 

1 E lllsbcd hj Rhyi Dartd% (SBE. )d, 95 ff,). 


T/i£ ££LIG/0JVS 

nDWp bmtJieTt and call An^ndA in my name and say, * Brothel 
Anatida, thy Master calls for Even s<>+ Lord/' said 

that brother^ and he went up to where Ananda was, and said to 
the venerable Ananda: Brother Ananda, thy Master calls for 
thee/' “ It IS welh brother/" said the venerable Aranda, and 
he went to the place where Buddha was. And when he was 
00me thither he bowed down before the Blessed One, and took 
his seat oti one side. Then the Blessed One said to the vener¬ 
able Ananda, as he sat there by his sidci Enough, Ananda^ 
let not thyself be troubled ^ weep not. Have I not told thee 
already that we must dividle ourselves from all that is nearest 
and dearest ? How can k be possible that a being bom to die 
should not die f For a long time, Ananda, hast thou been very 
near to me by acts of love that is kind and good and never 
varies, and is beyond all measure^ (This Buddha repeats three 
times.) Thou hast done well. Be earnest in effort. Thou, too+ 
shak soon be free/"^»* * When he had thus spoken, the vener¬ 
able Ananda said to the Blessed One: Let not the Blessed 
One die in this little wattle and daub town, a town In the midst 
of the jungle, in this branch township. For, Lord^ there are 
other great cities such as Benares (anti others). Let the 
Blessed One die in one of them."*" 

This request is refused by Buddha. Ananda then goes to 
the town and tells the citizens that Buddha is dying, *Xow, 
when they had heard this saying, they, with their young men 
and maidens and wives were grieved, and sad, and afflicted at 
heart. And some of them wept, dishevelling their hair, and 
stretched forth their arms, and wept, fell prostrate on the 
ground and rolled to and fro, in anguish at the thought ^*Too 
soon will the Blessed One die! Too soon wilt the Happy One 
pass away! Full soon will the Light of the world Spanish 
aw^ayl'*^ , , * When Euddha Is atone again with his disci¬ 
ples, "then the Blessed One addressed the brethren and said 
It tnay be^ brethren, that there may be doubt or misgiving In 



the mind of some brother as to the Buddha, the truth, the path 
or the way. Inquire, brethren, freely. I>o not have to re¬ 
proach yourselves afterwards with this thought; ' Our Teacher 
was face to face with us, and we could not bring ourselves to 
inquire of the Blessed One when we were face to face with 
him.* ” And when he had thus spoken they sat silent. Then 
(after repeating these words and receiving no reply) the 
Blessed One addressed the brethren and said, “ It may be that 
you put no questions out of reverence for the Feacher. Let 
one friend communicate with another." And when he had 
thus spoken the brethren sat silent. And the venerable 
Ananda said; “ How wonderful a thing. Lord, and how mar¬ 
vellous. Verily, in this whole assembly, there is not one 
brother who has doubt or misgiving as to Buddha, the truth, 
the path or the way,*' Then Buddha said: "It is out of the 
fullness of thy faith that thou hast spoken, Ananda. But 1 
know it for certain," , . . Then the Blessed One addressed 
the brethren saying: " Behold, brethren. I exhort you saj-ing, 
transitory are all component things; toll without ceasing," 
And these were the last words of Buddha,* 

It is necessary here to make pause for a moment and survey 
the temporal and geographical circumstances of Buddha’s life. 
His lifetime covered the period of greatest intellectual growth 
in Athens, If, as some think, the great book of doubt' was 
written by the Hebrew in 450, there would be in three lands, 
at least, about the same time the same earnestly scornful 
skepticism in regard to the worn-out teachings of the fathers. 
But at a time when, in Greece, the greatest minds were still 
veiling infidelity as best they could, in India atheism was 
already formulaled. 

h has betrn question ed, and the question has been unsiA^ercd 
both affirmatively and negatively, whether the cliraatie con- 
ditions of Buddha's home were in part responsible for the 



pes$imistic tone o( his phi].ojoph]r'< If one compare the goo* 
graphical relation of lluddhUm to Brahmnniiim and to Vedisin 
rtispectively with a more familiar geography nearer home, he 
wilt be better able to judge In how far these conditions may 
have itiflueaced the menu! and religions tone. Taking Kabul 
and Kashmeer as the northern limit of the period of the Rig 
Veda, there are three get^raphical centres. The latitude of 
the Vedtc poets corresponds to about the southern boundary ol 
Tennessee and North Carolina, The entire tract covered by 
the southern migration to the time of Buddhism, eitcnding 
from Kabul to a point that conrespotids to Benares (35* is a 
little north of Kabul and 25' is a little south of Behlr), would 
be represented loosely in the United States by the difference 
between the northern line ot Mississippi and Key West. The 
extent of Georgia about represents in latitude the Vedic prov¬ 
ince (35° to 30*), while Florida (jo* to 25'’) roughly shows the 
southern progress from the seat of old Brahmanism to the cradle 
of young Buddhism. These are the extreme limits of Vedism, 
Brahmanism and proto-Buddhi&m. South of this the country 
was known to Brahmanism only to be called savage, and not 
I before the late Sutras {c. 300 ts one brought as far south 
as Bombay in the W'esi, The Aitarcya Br^mana, which 
represents the old centre of Brahmanism around Delhi, 
knows of the Andhras, south of the Godavari river in the 
southeast (about ihu latitude of Bombay and Hayti), only as 
outer ' Barbarians.' It is quite conceivable that a race of h.irdy 
j mountaineers, in shifting their home through generations from 
the hills of Georgia and Tennessee to the sub-tropical region 
of Key West (to Cuba), in the course of many centuries might 
become morally affected. But it seems to us, although the 
miasmatic plains of Bengal may perhaps present even a sharper 
contrast to the Vedic region than do Key \1'e5t and Cuba to 
Gco^ia, that the climate in effecting a moral degratlatlon (if 
pessimism he immoral) must have produced also the effect of 


mentiil debility* Now to our mind there is not the slightest 
proof for the asseveration, which has been repeated so often 
that it is accepted by many nowadays as a truisinp that 
Buddhism or even post^Buddhistic literature shows any trace 
of mental decay,* There certainly is mental weakness in the 
Brahmanas, but these cannot ali be accredited to the miasms 
of Bengal. They are the bones of a religion already dead, 
kept for Instruction in a cabinet; dry^ dusty, lifeless, but awful 
to the beholder and useful to the owner. Again, does Bud^ 
dhism lose in the cornparison from an intellectual point of 
view when set beside the mazy gropings of the U panishads ? 
V\'e have shown that dogma was the base of primal pantheistn j 
of real logic there b not a whit, VVe admire the spirit of the 
teachers in the Upanishads^ but we have very Utile respect for 
the logical ability of any early Hindu teachers; that is to say^ 
there b very little of it to admire* The doctors of the ITpaiii- 
shad philosophy were poets, not dblectidans. Poetry indeed 
waned In the e?ctreme south, and no spirited or powerful litera^ 
tnre ever was produced there, unless it was due to foreign 
Inliuence;, such as the religious* poetry of Ramabm and the 
Tamil But in secondary^ subtlety and in the marking of 

distinctions, in cla.ssitying and analyzing on dogmatic premises, 
as well as in the acceptance of hearsay truths as ultimate 
verities—^w^e do not see any fundamental disparity in the^ 
regards between the mind of tlic Northwest and that of the 
Southeast; and what superficial difference exists goes to the 
credit of Buddhism. For if one must have dogma it is something 
to have system, and while precedent theosophy w'as based on 
the former it knew nothing of the latter. ^loreover, in Buck 
dhism there is a greater intclJectual vigor thnin in any phase of 

* rt» MniHioB vlffw li ihiu bf Oldenberj: “ In dcra schwliJiffl, 

Tfcni dc*r Katnr nut RctdithuDfleffl lipptjf getegnetm Tnsfptnhkn^ <^43 Gaiag» M dai 
\ otk ^ \n tnKtwf |u£GiH 3 knft stditi als ci imm NwdeQ hat dnUfirfit, boU auf^ 
tt 5 ft Jung uu^ ^rfc pg idn. IlfcnsclKii bo 4 Y^tkcr rdfsn Jn Jet™ Londfi . * 
idmcl] bat^ kim >chndE an tunb und m vneh LiFTui»(iiv* p> 11}, 



Embm^nisin (as distinct from Vediam)* To cast off not only 
gods but soub and more, to deny the moral efficacy of asceti¬ 
cism* this was a leap into the void^ to appreciate the daring of 
which one has but to read himself into the priestly literature of 
Buddha^s rivals, both heterodox and orthodox. We see then 
in Buddhism oeither a debauched moral type* nor a weakened 
intcncctaality. The pessimism of Buddhism, so far as it con¬ 
cerns earth* is not only the same pessimism that uinderlLcs the 
religious motive of Brahmanic pantheism^ hut it is the same 
pessimism that pervades Christianity and even Hebrabm* 
This world is a sorry'^ place, Uviitg is suffering; do thou escape 
from it, 'rhe pleasuTes of life are A’anity; do thqu renoiince 
them. die is gain*” say^ the apostle; and the Preacher t 

**1 have seen all the works that are done under the sun and 
behold alMs vanity and vexation of spirit He that increaseth 
knowledge increased h sorrow. For w^hat hath man of all his 
labor and of the s^exation of his heart, wherein he kath laboured 
under the sun I For all his days are sorrows and his travail 
grief. That which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts ; 
even one thing befalleth them: as the one dieth so dicth 
the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that a man 
hath no preeminence above a beast r for ad is vanity. All go 
unto one place; all are of the dust* and all turn to dust again. 
UTio knoweth the spirit of man whether It goeth upward? I 
praised the dead which are already dead more than the living 
which are yet alive. The dead know not anything, their love 
and their hatred and their envy is now perished ; neither have 
they any more a portion for ever in any thing that is done under 
the sum The wandering of the desire, this also is VTinity/' 

The Freacher is a fairly good Buddhist. 

Jl pessimism be the conviction that life on earth h not worth 
living, this riew h shared alike by the greatest of earth's 
religions. If pessimism be the view that all beauty ends with 
life and that beyond it there is nothing for w^hich it is w^orth 



while to live, theh India hiis no paialiel to this Homefic belief. 
If, however, pei^tmism tnean that to h,i%'e done witii cjcistcnce 
on earth is tlie best that can happen to a man, but that there 
« bliss beyond, then this is the opinion of Brahmanism, 
Jainism, and Christianity. Buddhism alone teaches that to 
live on earth is weariness, that there is no bliss beyond, and 
that one should yet be calm, pure, loving, and wise, 

How could such a religion inspire enthusiasm? How could 
it send forth jubilant disciples to preach the gospel of Joy? 
Yet did Buddhism do even this. Not less happy and blissful 
than were they that received the first comfort of pantheism 
were the apostles of Buddha. His progress was a triumph of 
gladness. They that believed in him rejoiced and hastened 
to their fellows with the good tidings. Was it then a new 
morality, a new ethical code, that thus inspired them? Let 
one but look at the vows and commandments respectively 
rnhen by and given to the BuddfaLst monk, and he will see 
that if! BucJdhijim there is no new niot+ility. 

The Tuti Vows are as follows: 

I takei [hfl vow DOt to km j not to bIoiiIi to abstain fmm impurity; not 
to to abstam fmni intoak^ing diinti itbich binder profile and 

viitue; not to tat at forbid Jim times ; to aUiain from daddng^ AWlganjj, 
musk aod Btngt plays ; jiot to lue eariaeck, scents, unguent*, or omamenta ; 
not to tiH a h%h or broad bed j not to receive gold or sitver. 

The Eight Commandments are as fellows : 

Do not MU ; do not steal } do not tie» do noi drink intoxicating drinkji ; 
do not cominit fornication or adnltoy ; do not eat imseasonable food ai 
night; do not Wear gartanda Or use peffutuex; on a mat spread on 

die gioimiL 

The first five of these commands are given to every Buddhish 
monkf or Ja^mian; the last three arc binding only on the monk,^ 
These laws and rules were+ however^ as we have indicated in 

^ Hliyx p|L 

T//£ J^£L/G/OJ<^JS 


the chapter on JaiDisitii Uie common property, with some unim- 
poitant variations and exceptions, of the Brahman ascetic* the 
Jain, and the Biiddhisu There was surely nothing here to 
rouse especial interest. Xq. But there was one side of Bud¬ 
dhism that was new, not absolutely new, for it formed part of 
the moral possession of that early band which we may call the 
congregation of the Spirit. The Brahman theoretically had 
done away with penance and with prayer^ w^ith the Vedic gods 
and with the Vedic rites. Yet was it impossible for him prac¬ 
tically to absolve the folk of these. The priest might admit 
that he knew a better way to salvation, but he still led the 
people over the hard old road, and he himself went that w^ay 
also, because It was the way of the fathers, because it was the 
only way for them that were unwise, and perhaps, too, because 
it wus the only way in which the priest could keep his place as 
guide and leader of the people. 

Jainism smote down some of the obstacles that the Brahman 
had built and kept, Mahivira made the way to salvation 
shorter, but he did not make it easier for the masses. Asceti¬ 
cism, self-morillrcation, starvation, torture, ■ — this w^as his 
means of gaining happiness hereafter. 

But Buddha cut down all obstacles. He made the lowest 
equal with the highest. It is true that he was no demacrat. 

It is true that his success depended* in great part, on political 
influence^ on the conversion of kings and nobles, men of his^« 
own class. It is true also that Buddha at hist* like eveiy other 
Hindu iheosophist* sought no salvation for the world around 
him, but only for himself. Hut be was moved with pity for th^ 
multitude. And why^ The sages among them knew no path 
to happiness save through llfe'long torture; the common peo^ 
pie knew only a religion of rites In which they took no interest, 
the very words of which were unintelligible' and its priests in 
their eyes, if not contemptible, at least were unsymipathetic. 

And at the same time the old caste^system oppressed and in- 



suited them. It Ss evident that the times were ripe for a more 
humane religion and 3 new distribution of social privileges. 

Then Buddha arose and said; » He that is pure in heart is 
the true priest, not he that knows the Veda. Like unto one 
that standeth where a king hath stood and spoken, and stand¬ 
ing and speaking there deems himself for this a king, seems 
to me the man that repeateth the hymns, which the wise men 
of old have spoken, and standing in their place and speaking, 
deems himself for this a sage. The Vedas ate nothing, the 
priests are of no account, save as they be morally of repute. 
Again, what use to mortify the flesh ? Asceticism is of no 

value. Be pure, be good ^ this is the foundation of wisdom_ 

to restrain desire, to be satisfied with little. He is a holy man 
who doeth this. Knowledge follows this." 

Here is the essence of Buddhism, here is its power; and 
when one reflects that Buddha added: '*Go into all lands and 
preach this gospel; tell them that the poor and lowly, the rich 
and high, are alt one, and that all castes unite in this religion, 
as unite the rivers in the sea ’’ — he will understand what key 
was used to open the hearts of Buddh.a*s kinsmen and people. 

But, it will be-said, there is nothing in this of that extreme 
pessimism, of which muntiGn has just been made. True. And 
this, again, is an important point to bear in mind, that wheredb 
the logic of his own system led Buddha into a formal and com* 
plete pessimism, which denies an after-life to the man tlmf 
finds no happiness in this, he yet never insists upon this. He 
not only does not insist, but in his talks with his questioners and 
disciples he uses all means to evade direct inquir)’ in regard to 
the fate of man after death. He believ'ed that Nirvana (extinc¬ 
tion of lust) led to cessation of being; he did not believe in 
an immortal soul. But he urged no such negative doctrine 
as this. What he urged repeatedly was that every one accept¬ 
ing the undisputed doctrine of karma or re-birth in Its full ex¬ 
tent (nr., that for every sin here, punishment followed in the 



next existeiice)^ should eudeiivof to if possible, frooi 

such, an endless course of pamful re-births^ and Lhnt to accom¬ 
plish this it was necessary first to be sober and good^ then to 
be learnedt but not to be an ascetic. On the other hand the 
docErinefc in lU logical fullness, was a teaching only for the wisc^ 
not for foolsL, He imparled it only to the wist. What is one 
to undcTStand from this? Clearly^ that Buddha regarded the 
mass of his disciples as standing in need merely of ilie Four 
Great Truths^ the confession of which was the sign of be^ 
coming ^ disciple; while to the strong and wise he resented 
the logical pessimism^ which resulted from his first denials and 
the premises of causality on which was erected his complb 
cated system. Only thus can one comprehend the Lmportaiice 
of Buddhism to his own time and people, only in this light 
reconcile the discrepancy between the accounts of a religion 
which roused multitudes to enthusiasm and joyt while on the ^ 
other hand it stood on the cold basis of complete nihilism. 
Formally there was not an esoteric ^ and exotcnc Buddhism^ 
hut practically what the apostles taught^ what Buddha himself 
tai^ht to the mass oE his hearers w^as a release from the bond¬ 
age of the law and the freedom of a high moral code as the 
one thing needfuL But he nerer taught that sacrifice was a 
bad thing j he never either took the pricst^s place himself or 
cast scoru upon the Brahman caste: ** Better even than a 
harmless* sacrifice Is liberality he says+ better than liberal 
ity IS faith and kindness (non-injury) and truth, better than 
faith, kindness, and truth is renunciation of the world and the 
search for peace; best of all, the highest sacrifice and greatest 
good, IS when one enters, saying ** I shall not return 
again to earth.This is to be an Arhat (Perfect Sage). 

l Bkkid}E& Utighl, of count, noi:Hlr| nshted to the ttuuumturfjr uf liut folTy irtikh 
itnU to4ay' E-Kitcric Uoddhliiik.^ 

9 Tha.t El ft aurlbcc -mhm ua c^lUt ajo ilaJs, aad ao iujuiy U 4400 ta living 


These are Buddha's own words as he spoke with a Brahman 
priest/ w^ho was converted thereby and replied at once with 
the Buddhist's confession of faith ^ take refuge in Buddha, 
in the doctrine^ in the church.*^ 

A stgtiificatit Conversation I In many ways these words 
should be corrective of much that is hazarded today in regard 
to Huddhisiu, There is here no elaborate system of meta¬ 
physics. Wisdom consists in the truth as it is in Buddha; 
and before truth stand, as antecedently essentia^ faith and 
kindness; lor so may one render the passive non-injur^^ of the 
Brahman as taught by the Buddhist. To have faith and good 
works, to renounce the pomps and vanities of life, to sliow 
kindness to every living thing, to seek for salvadon, to under¬ 
stand, and so finally to leave no second self behind to stilfer 
again, this is Buddha's doctrine* 

We have avoided thus far to define Ntrv'Sna. It has three 
distinct meanings, eternal blissful repose (such was the Nir¬ 
vana of the Jains and in part qf Buddhism), extinction and 
absolute annihilation (such was the Xirvina of some Bud¬ 
dhists)^ and the Nirvilna qf Buddti.i himselh Nirvana meant 
to Buddha the extinction of lust, anger, and ignorance. He 
adopted the term^ he did not invent it. He w^as often ques¬ 
tioned, but persistently refused to say whether he believed 
that N in'ilna ini plied exti nett on of be ing or not. We believe that 
in this refusal to speak on so vital a point lies the evidence 
that he himself regarded the * extinction" or " blowing out" (this 
Ls what the word means literally) as resulting in annihilation. 
Had he believed otherwise we think he w^ould not have hesi¬ 
tated to say so, for it would have strengthened his influence 
among them to whom annihilation w^as not a pleasing thought. 

But one has no right to "go behind the returns * as these are 
given by Buddha* The later church says distinctly that Buddha 
himself did not teach w^hether he himself, his ego, was to live 


T//£ J^£A/0/0A^ 0£ 

after death or not; or whether a permanent ego exists. It b 
useless^ therefore, to inquire whether Buddha's Nirvana b* a 
completion^ as Muller defines it, or annihilation. To one 
Buddhistic party it was the one; to the other, the other; to 
Buddha himselE it was what tnny be inferred from his refusal 
to make any declaration in regard to it. 

I'hc second point of interest is not more easily disposed of* 
What to the Buddhist is the spirit, the soul of man? It cer¬ 
tainly is not an eternal sphitt such as was the spirit of Brah¬ 
man ic philosophy, or that of the Jain. But, on the other hand, 
it b cLeaj that something survived after death till one was 
reborn for the last time, and then entered Nirv'Ana, The 
part that animates the material complex is to the Buddhist an 
Individuality which depends on the nature of its former com¬ 
plex, home, and is destined to project itself upon futurity till 
the house which it has built ceases to exists a home rebuilt no 
more to be its tabemacki When a man dies the compqnent 
parts of his material personality fall apart, and a new complex 
is formed, of which the individuality is the effect of the Aarma 
of the preceding complex. ^ The new person is one's karmic 
self, but St is not one's identical ego. There appears, therefore, 
even in the doctrine of Nin^ana, to lie something of that altruism 
so conspicuous in the insistence on kindness and conversion of 
others. It is to save from sorrow this son of one's acts that 
one should seek to hnd the end. But there Is no soul to 

We cannot insist too often on the fact that the religion of 
Buddha was not less practical than human. Me practiced, as 
he taught, that the more one worked for others, was devoted to 
others, the less he cared for himself, the less was he the victim 
of desire* Hence he says that a true Nirvana may come even 
in one's own lifetime—the utter surrender of one^s self is 
Kirvtna,^ while the act of dying only draws the curtain after 

1 SoEwlimeft /arw^irr^wi^ as aJasoluK SBi^ShLktfQii, 


the tragedy has ended. “ Except,” Buddha sa^-s, **forbinh^ 
age, and death, there would be no need of Buddha.*' 

A review of Buddha's system of metaphysics is, thcreforep 
doubly unnecessar)' for our present purpose,* In the first 
place we believe that most of the categories and metaphorical 
niceties of Euddhism, as handed down, are of secondary origin ; 
and, were this not so, it ig gtill evident that they were but the 
unimportant, intellectual appendage of a religion that was based 
on anything but metaphysical subtleties. Buddha, like every 
other teacher of his time, had to have a * system/ though 
w'hether the S)^tcm handed down as his reverts to him it is 
impossible to say. But Buddha's recondite doctrihe wag only 
for the wise. “ It is hard to learn for an ordinary persont^' says 
Buddha himself. But it w^as the oi^dinary person that Buddhism 
took to its bosom^ The reason can be only the one we have 
given. For the last stage before Arhat-ship Buddha had 
ready a complicate sptem. But he did not inflict it on the 
ordinary personIt was not an essential but the completing 
of bis teaching; in his own eyes truth as represented by the 
Four Great Truths wag the real doctrine. 

The religion of Buddha, for the mass of people, lies 
in the Four Great Truths and their practical application to 
others, which implies kindness and love of humanit}^ For 
Buddha, whatever may have been the reluctaoce with which he 

I fclwtvf th^nk tKat the doctilw of Biiddlu KKubl^ cbxlf thal oT the 
ptilkMO|ihj Barth, p, ji6), M ^qlkr, Oldcnberg, amd 
be right Ib dfm^Rg thlA. The Sajakhjan * spirit * has, tor liwfcuwiB, DotbiiiE rafrei|Kindr 
inE ta U la Owlillia'i 

a The twelve N hLlaoi itrriflEiTOtk, and withal Hot to? logical ■ Fpoih tgiwfanoi 
ariH forms, fro in forms ariss coiudfru^tw^ fitun cotKiousHesi aiist naww* l^|. 
ti^; from namo and bodinns arisa tba sla amses- (ladiidinE URdemtandisE ^ 
sixth) and Utdr tncuQ tliKso arfsos oontact; from Uds, fccHnE; fn»m ttils^ 

; fFOED this, dingtDEl, finm cUhglng arisn bK^mloE ; Tram mws 

birth; from birth ads« agG usd sorrow.^ Oat mturt EradHally bimsalf ffMn 
^ frltcn that hjod lia and so do ewvj with ibe fint of tlxso twolw ^idaaai, 

32 + 


began to preachy show^ in all his teachings and dealings with 
men an endunng patience under their rebuffs, a brotherly syro* 
pa thy with their \^'eakness, and a divine pity for their sorrows. 
Something, too, of divine anger with the pettiness and mean¬ 
ness of the unworthy ones among his followers, as when, after 
preaching with parable and eiehortation to the wTtingUng 
brothers of the monastery^ of Kosambi^ he left them, saying, 
'Truly these fools are infatuate ; it is no easy task to admin¬ 
ister Instruction to them/ and,'' it is added simply, he rose 
from his seat and went away/* * 

The significance of the church organization in the develop¬ 
ment of Buddhism should not be under-estimated. Contrasted 
w^ith the lack of an organized ecclesiastical corporation among 
the Brahmans the Kuddhistic synod, or congregation, Sangha, 
everted a great influence. In different places there would be 
a park set apart for the Buddhist monks. Here they had their 
monastery buildings, here they lived during the rainy season, 
from this place ouE as a centre the monks radiated through the 
country^, not as lone mendicants, hut as members of a powder- 
ful fraternity. To this monastery came gifts^ receipts of all 
kinds that never would have been bestowed upon individuals. 
Undoubtedly organization did much for the spread of Buddhism. 
Vet we think its influence has been emphasized almo&t too 
much by some scholars, or rather the efTecE has been repre¬ 
sented as too radical. For the monasteries, as represented by 
tradition, with their immense wealth and political importance 
as allies of the heretical kings of the East^ are plainly of sec¬ 
ondary growth. If one limit their national and political impor¬ 
tance to a period one or two hundred years after the Master^s 
time, he will not err in attributing to this cause, as does Barth, 
the reason for the rapid rise and supremacy of HuddhLsm over 
India. But the first beginnings of the institution were small, 
and what is to be sought in the beginning of Buddhism Is rather 
1 AfaMvii£gii^ K. j (S UE, ifH ja5). 


the reason whjf the monasteries becaine popular^ and what was 
the hold which Buddha had upon the masses, and which 
induced the formation of this gtetat engine of religious war. 
And when this first queslbn is raised the answer must still be 
that the banding together of the monks was not the cause but 
the effect of the popularity of Buddhism, The hrst monas- 
teries, as Ifctrth well saysi were only assemblies of pious men 
who formed a spiritual band of religions thinkers, of men who 
united themselves into one body to the end that they might 
study righteousness, learning logctl>cr how to iinitatc the 
Master in holiness of living. But the members converted soon 
became so many that formal assembles became a necessity to 
settle the practical disputes and theoretical questions w'hich 
W'ere raised by the new" multitude of believers, some of whom 
were more factious than devout. Brahmanism had no need of 
thiSr The Brahman priest had his law' in tradition ; his life and 
conduct were regulated by immemorial law. The corporations 
of these priests were but temporary organizations for specific 
purposes. They made no attempt to proselytize. Their mem¬ 
bers never exceeded the bounds of the caste. The cause, 
then, of the rapid spread of Buddhism at the beginning of its 
career lies only in the conditions of its teaching and the influ¬ 
ential backing of its founder. It the individual Buddha 
that captivated men; it w^jis the teaching that emanated from 
him that fired enthusiasin; it was his position as an aristocrat 
that made him acceptable to the aristocracy, his magnetism 
that made him the idol of the people. From every page 
stands ont the strongs attractive personality of this teacher and 
winner of hearts. No man ever lived so godless yet so godlike^ 
Arrogating to himself no divinity, despairing of future bliss^ but 
without fear as without hope, leader of thought but despising 
lovingly the folly of the world, exalted but adored^ the universal 
brother, he wandered among men, simply* serenely; with gentle 
irony subduing them that opposed hinq to congregation aftci 


m£ mi/G/Q.Ys 

congregation speaking with majestic sweetnes^^ the niasrcT to 
each, the friend of all* His voice was singularly vibrant and elo¬ 
quent;^ his very tones convinced the hearer^ his looks inspired 
awe. From the tradition it appears that he rausl have been 
one of those whose personality alone suflicea to make a man 
not only a leader but a god to the hearts of his fellows. When 
such an one speaks he obtains hearers. It matters little what 
he sap, for he inHuences the emotions^ and beods whoever 
listens to his will. But if added to this personality, if encom¬ 
passing it, there be the feeling in the minds of others that what 
this man teaches is not only a verityj but the very hope of 
their salvation; if for the first time they recognize in hU words 
the truth that makes of slaves free men, of classes a brother¬ 
hood, then it is not difficiLEi to see wherein lies the lightning- 
like speed with which the electric current passes from heart to 
heart* Such a man was Buddha, such was the essential of his 
teaching; and such was the inevitable rapidity of Buddhistic 
expansion, and the profound indue nee of the shock that was 
produced by the new faith upon the moraJ consciousness of 
Buddha^s people. 

The literature of early Buddhism consists of a number of 
historical works embodying the life and teaching of tfie master, 
some of more didactic and epigrammatic intent, and, in the 
writings of the Northern Buddhists, some that have giv^en up 
the verbose simplicity of the first tracts in favor of tasteless 
and extravagant recitals more stagey than impressive* The 
final collection of the sacred books (earlier is the Suttanta 
division into Nikiyas) Is called Tripitaka, 'the three baskets,^ 
one containing the tracts on discipline ; one, the talks of 
Buddha ; and one, partly metaphysical; called respectively 
Vinaya, Sutta, and Abhidhamma. The Southern * Pali 

1 CdDifiatc fnsn, llie Lattt, UL jt, and ^ (i 131)^ 

^diKp anil Ifffilr irabtt o( iSaddhL" (SBE, iiL 4^, and x. iic.) 

1 ai SnstiU^ UoddhliU art rtckwKd tltoae ^ Cerloo, stwn, elc. 



redaction — for the writings of the Nerlhem^ Buddhists 
are in Sanskrit — was cominented upon in the fifth cuti' 
tury of this era by Buddha-gosha (' Buddha's glory'), and sp* 
pears to be older than the Sanskrit version of Kepdl. Some 
of the writings go back as far as the Second Council, and their 
content, so far as it concerns Buddha's own words, in many 
cases is doubtless a tradition that one should accept as author¬ 
itative* The works on discipline, instead of being as dull as ^ 
one might reasonably expect of books that deal with the petty | 
details of a monastery, are of exceeding interest (although 
whole chapters conform to the reasonable expectation), for ^ 
they contain fragments of the work and words of Buddha 
which give a clearer idea of his personality and teaching than 
do his more extended and perhaps less original discourses* 
They throw a strong light also on the early church, its recalci¬ 
trant as well as its obedient members, the quarrels and schisms 
that appear to have arisen even before Buddha's death. Thus 
in the Mahavagga (ch. x) there is found an account of the 
schism caused by the expulsion of sorne unworthy members* 
The brethren are not only schismatic, some taking the side of 
those expelled, but they are even insolent to Buddha ; and 
when be entreats them for the sake of the effect on the outer 
world to heal their differences,* they tell him to his face that 
they will take the responsibility, and that he need not concern 
himself with the matter. It is on this occasion that Buddha 
says, “Truly, these fools are infatuate," leaves them, and goes 
into solitude, rejoicing to be free from souls so quarrelsome 
and contentious. Again these tracts give a picture of how they 
should live that are truly Buddha's disciples. Buddha finds 
three disciples living in perfect harmony, and asks them how 

S Ai Noitbert B«Sdh3»U are thoflift *f Tihetf Ckilaa, Cora, 

Seunatfw, AJSJiam, aUtd Cimbodia- 

ywMTligjitsoahlnnbef*Mthe wcrrl^rthat jrtka,rmbnndpeDgimii 
BJe to m weTkaygjHt i^ dctctriiM aftd dladpliiseh naj be vxn lo be fortro 

tug ud mild." (&BE. Dai'id'* md OldflolRrE^i unwaiattoiLS 


they live ttigcther so peaceably and lovingly. In quaint and 
yet dignified language they reply, and tell him that they sen-e 
each other. He that rises first prepares the meal, he that 
returns last at night puts the room in order, etc. {it, 4). Occa¬ 
sionally in the account of unruly brothers it is evident that 
tradition must be naticip,it[ng, or that many joined the Bud¬ 
dhist fraternity as an excuse from restraint, The Cuffaita^ga 
opens tridi the story of two notorious renegades, 'makers of 
strife, quaTTelsonie, makers of dispute, given to idle talk, and 
raisers of legal questions in the congregation.’ Such were the 
infamous followers of Panduka and Lohitaka, Of a different 
sort. Epicurean or rather frivolous, were the adherents of 
Assaji and Pun abbas u, who, according to another chapter of 
the Qt/Zavagga (i. 1 j), ‘cut Howers, planted cuttings of flowers, 
used ointment and scents, danced, wore garlands, and revelled 
wickedly.’ A list of the amusements in which indulged these 
flighty monks includes ‘games played wath six and ten pieces, 
tossing up, hopping over diagrams, dice. Jackstraws,* ball! 
sketching, racing, marbles, wrestling,' etc.; to which a like list 
(Trrrjyu, ii) adds chess or checkers (■ playing with a board of 
sixty-four squares or one hundred squares ’), ghost stories, and 
unseemly wrangling in regard to belief (“f am orthodox, you 
are heterodox "), earning a living by prognostication, by taking 
omens 'from a mirror' or otherwise, by quack medicines, and 
by pretending to understand the language of beasts.’ Jt is 
gratifying lo learn that tlm scented offenders described in the 
first-mentioned work were banished from the order. According 
to the regular procedure, they were first warned, then reminded, 
then charged ; then the matter was laid before the congrega¬ 
tion, and they were obliged to leave the order. Even the 
detail of Subhadda’s insolence is not wanting in these records 
(Cu//, xi. 1. and elsewhere). No sooner was Buddha dead than 

be ^ wiihiinl nwvjiii Uw rameiiKlef ■ m _ 


the traitor Subhadda critjs out: ‘^We are well rid of him j he 
gave us loo many rules. Now wc may do as we On 

which I he assembly proceeded to declare in force all the rules 
that Buddha had given, although lie hati left it to them to dis¬ 
card them when they would. The Confessional (Patiinokkha), 
out of which have been evolved in narrative form the Vina)^ 
tcjEts that contain it, concerns graded offences, matters of 
expiation, rules regarding decency, directions conceruing robes* 
rugs, bowls, and other mther uninteresting topics^ all discussed 
in the form of a confession.' 'Hie church-itsider goes over the 
rules in the presence of the congregation, and asks at the end 
of each section wEictlier anyone is guilty of having broken this 
rule. If at the third repetition no one responds, he says, ■ They 
are declared innocent by their silence.' This was the first 
public confessional, although, as we have shown above, the 
idea of a partial remission of sin by means of confession to 
ihc priest is found in Brahmanic literature.^ The confession 
extends to very small matters, but one secs from other texts 
that the early congregation laid a great deal of weight on 
details^ such ae dress* as the sign of a sober ijfe« Thus in 
V. 2 ff., certain Buddhists dress in a worldly wmv. 
At one time one is informed of the color of their hercticnl slip- 
l>ers, at another of the make of their w'icked gowns. All this 
is monastic* even in the discipline which ^sets back* a badly 
behaved monk, gives him probation, forces him to be subordi¬ 
nate. in Cu//drag^a^ i, 9* there b an account of stupid Sey- 
yasaka, who was dull and indiscreet* and wns always getting 
*set back' by tbe brethren. Finally they grow weary of pro¬ 
bating him and carry out the nii^aya against him, obliging him 

I Fm- tukA fctr rSiUtif^ddnldaE t^qaiir), ajid for balhiog. Tbe DiUiMMit 

nuEik, except Id suoimer, ^Ehed one# a fcirtnE^ht -aEily. 

^ CM U Hf licb dcs net hmt him* accQfdiDg lladdhEstLc bclkt. 

Tlw tlnLtitii;i.Ti, ch the CCntraTr, bailiff tc becoiw » haiy that he ccbJd cowuttlt 
any »Jn It dM cot xHitet hU ^istOc, »hkh J*c itcrvd op In 1 h&p hj nmitiliiiTe 




to remain under the superintendence of others. For, according 
to Buddha’s rule, a wise novice was kept under surveillance, 
or rather under the authority of others, for five years ; a stupid 
uninformed monk, forever, Buddha's relations W'lth society 
are plainly set forth. One reads how his devoted friend. King 
Scniya Bimbisira, four years younger than Buddha, and his 
protector (for he was King of Magadha), gives hitn a park, 
perhaps the first donation of this sort, the origin of all the 
monastic foundations: “The King of Magadha, Bimbisara, 
thought ‘here is this bamboo forest Veluvana, my pleasure- 
prden, which is neither too near to the town nor tM far from 
it. . . , What if I were to give it to the fraternity?' , , 
And he took a golden vessel (of water) and dedicated the gar¬ 
den to Buddha, saying, ‘I give up the park to the fraternity 
with Buddha at its head.’ And the Blessed One accepted the 
park" i. Another such park Buddha ac¬ 

cepts from the courteran, Ambaplli, whose conversation with 
Buddha and dinner-party to him forms a favorite story with 
the monks (.l/udJj-. v. jo; tV//, ii). The protection offered 
by BimbisJxa made the order a fine netreai for rogues. In 
Maha^'. I. 4t fit. one reads that King Seniya Bimbisara made 
a decree: “No one is to do any harm to those ordained 
among the gakya-son’s monks.* Well taught is their doctrine. 
Let them lead a holy life for the sake of complete extinction of 
suffering. But robbers and runaway staves immediately took 
advantage of this decree, and by joiti^ the order put the 
police at defiance. Even debtors escaped, became monks, 
and mocked their creditors. Buddha, therefore, made it a 
rule that no robber, runaway !ri4,ve, or other person liable to 
arrest should be admitted in to the order, H e orda i ned further 

„ ..? ??, W^lon of ahrjy, iMflupujri *|u, ^ 

^dhtilk Brd.n«„e drdc. V\'h«»w, thli «t vr i l«,t 

ITE hm lurt^n able tu diKow. Perhap. it iHae dnipb 
belji, ottend trimheent to a ewM (wtU, (mlt), Ruatfri«d 

P* ^ S^inanu^ Lt^ £4h4dhi5th. 


that no son might join the ord&r witlioiiC his parents^ consent 
S4)+ another motive of false disciples had to be com¬ 

bated. The parents of Updli thought to themselves: **What 
shall we teach Upili that he may earn his living? If we teach 
him writing his fingers will be sore ; If we teach him arithmetic 
his mind will be sore ; if we teach him money-changing his 
eyes will be sore. There are those Buddhist monks ; they live 
an easy life; they have enough to eat and shelter from the 
rain ; we will make him a monk.*^ Buddha, hearing of this, 
ordained that no one should be admitted into the order under 
tw'enty (with some exceptions). 

The monks^ lives were simple. They went out by day to 
beg, were locked in their cells at night L 53), were 

probated for light offences, and expelled for very^ severe oncsj 
The people are represented as tnumiuring against the practices 
of the monks at first, till the latter W'ere brought to mote 
modest behavior. It is perhaps only Buddhist animosity that 
mikes the narrator say : '*They did not behave modestly at 
table. . ^ , Then the people murmured and said, * These 
Buddhist monks make a riot at their meals, 

i. 15 ; cf. i. 70+) 

We turn from the Discipline to the Sermons. Here one finds 
everything, from moral exhortations to a book of Revelations.* 
Buddha sometimes is represented as entering upon a dramatic 
dialogue with those whom he wishes to reform, and the talk is 
narrated* With what soft irony he questions, with what 
apparent simplicity he argues I In the T^^ijja * the scene opens 
with a young Brahman. He is a pious and religious youth, 

1 In the case of a moflk Quai with a nan the pmahj was 

Initaat (I#. 60). 7156 nims witre subject t& monki and Impt ptriah in 

bud, obliged aiwai-s gnxi thn moaks lust, ten go Us lessens once a fortDi|hi, and 
K« f^rtb, 

“ Mahaiadjusana, th# rteiE KIdjc of Qlsuy whH« dty Sa dns^bed ifith its foar 
gatcf, one of one <if eiiiTr, one of pde and one of cryalad, dt The narher 
Bodiitia had as *klRj{^ of ilory' and other comloirts qalto as lenutkabb 

V TfanslaM hf Ckavtds, ^HddAdit Sitllm and //iA^rt 



li" 1, * f ®*''***^^ although he yearns for ‘union with 
Urahnia, he docs dot tnow which of the different mths 
proposed by Br.ihman priests lead to Brahma. J3o they all 
lead to union with Bmhtnd? Buddha answers: ‘Xet us see- 
-IS any one of these Brahmans ever seen Brahma?* ‘No 
indeed, Gautama.’ ‘Or did any one of iheir ancestors 
ever see Hrahina?* ‘No, Gautama.' MVcIl, did the most 
ancient seers ever say that they knew where » Br.ibma?* 
*Xot Gautama.' ■ Thun if neither the present Brahmans know, 
tier the oid Brahmans knew where b Brahma, the present 
Brahmans say m point of fact, “We can show the way to union 
with what wt know not and have never seen; this is the 
straight path, this is the direct way which leads to Brahma”^ 
and is this foolish talk?’ * it is foolish talk.’ ‘Then, as to 
yc^ing for union with Brahmfi, suppose a man should say, 
*‘How I long for. how 1 love the most beautiful woman in this 
land, and the people should ask. “ Do you know whether that 
Iwauttful woman is a noble lady, ora Brahman woman, or of 
the trader class, or a slaveand he should say, “No"- and 
the i^plc should say, ‘St^bat b her name, is she tall or short, 
in what place docs she live?" and he should say “I know 
not.-* and the people should say, -‘Whom yon know not, neither 
have seen, her you love and long for?" and he should say, 
*^es, —would not that be foolish?* Then, aftcrl thU is 
assented to, Buddha suggests another parallel. 'A mati builds 
a staircase, and the people ask, “Do you know where is the 
man.sion to which this staircase leads?’* do not know." 

Are you m aking a staircase to lead to someth ing, taking it for 
a mansion, which you know not and have never seen?*' “ Yes ’* 
Would not thU be foolish talk? , . . Now what think you. b 
Brahma m possession of wives and wealth?’ -He b not’ 


d,, -hlta B^hmi I. ,h» ,1^ Sr 

wfth VW»s 1, „ .W „ 


Us his mind full of anger or free from anger? Is his toind full 
of malice or free from malice?’ "Freefrom anger and matice/ 
Us his mind depraved or pure?’ 'Pure.' "Has he self* 
mastery?* 'Yes/ * Now what think jou^ are the Brahmans in 
possession of wives and wealth, do they have anger in their 
hearts, do they bear malice, are they impure in heart, are they 
without self-masteiy'?^ U^es.^ "Can there then be likeness 
between the Brahmans and Brahma?* 'No/ 'Will they then 
after death become united to BrHihma who is not at all/like 
them?’ Then Buddha points out the path of purity and love. 
Here is no negative 'non-injur)'/ but something vtty dilBferent 
to anything that had been preached before in India^ When 
the novice puls away hate^ passion, wrong-doing, sinfulness of 
ever)' kind, then ; *He lets his mind perv'ade the whole wide 
world, above^ below^ around and everj^where, with a heart of 
love, far-reaching, grown great, and beyond measure. And he 
lets his mind pervade the whole world with a heart of pity, 
sympathy^ and eguanirnity, far-reaching, grown great, and 
beyond measure/ Buddha concludes (adopting for effect the 
Brahma of his convert): "That the monk who b free from 
anger^ free from malice, pure in mind, and master of himself 
should after deaths when the body is dissolved, become united 
to Brahma who is the same — such a condition cl things is 
quite possible.* Here is no metaphysicSf ooly a new religion 
based on morality and intense humanity^ yet is the young man 
moved to say, speaking for himself and the friend with him i 
‘Lord, excellent are the wwds of thy mouth. As if one were 
to bring a lamp into the darkness. Just so. Lord, has the truth 
been made known to us in many a figure by the Blessed One, 
And we come to Buddha as our refuge, to the doctrine and to 
the church. May the Blessed One accept ns as disciples, as 
true believers, from this day forth^ as long as life endures/ 

The god Brahma of this dialogue is for the time being play¬ 
fully accepted by Buddha as the All-god. To the Buddhist 

r//J^ R£L/G/0,VS 


himself Bnthma rtnd all ih^ Vcdic gods aro not e3cactly non- 
existent, but they are dim figures that are more like demi-gods, 
fairies, or as some English scholars call them, ^angels/ 
Whether Buddha himself really believed in them, cannot be 
asserted or denied. This belief is attributed to him, and his 
church is very superstitious. Pnsbably Budtiha did not think 
It worth while to discuss the question. He neither knew nor 
cared whether cloud-beings existed, ft was enough to deny 
a Creator, or to leave no place for him. 'rhauitiaiurgical 
powers are Indeed credited to the earliest belieC but there cer- 
tainly is nothing in harmony with Huddha^s usual attitude in 
the extraordinary discourse called wherein Buddha 

Is represented as ascribing to monks miraculous powers^ only 
hinted at in a vague * shaking of the earth' in more sober 
speech.' From the following let the * Esoteric Buddhists' of 
to-day take comfort, for it shows at least that they share an 
ancient folly, although Buddha can scarcely be held responsible 
for it ^ a monk should desire to become multiform, to 
become visible or invisible, to go through a vrull, a fencet or a 
mountain as if through air ; to penetrate up or down through 
solid ground as i| through water * . * to traverse the sky, to 
touch ihe moon . . + let him fulfil all righteousness, let him 
be devoted to that quietude of heart which springs fron^ within 
. . . let him look through things, let him be much alone,” 
That is to say, let him aim for the very tricks of the Yogis^ 
which Buddha had discarded. Is there not here perhaps a 
III lie irony? Buddha does not say that the monk will be able 
to do this — he sap if the monk wishes to do this, let him be 
quiet and meditate and learn righteousness, then perhaps — 
but he will at least have learned righteousness I 

The little tract called Cr/oMt/a contains a sermon which has 
not lost entirely its usefulness or application, and it is charac¬ 
teristic of the way in which Buddha treated eschatological 

I UL, t* »ldda Khji Dflria* uEfco, ia a fair pmlfcl 



conundniiDs t Mf a brother has adopted the religious life in 
the hope of belonging to some one of the angel (dii-ine) hosts, 
thinking to himself, '*by this morality or by this observance or 
by this austerity or by this religious life I shall become an 
angel,” his mind does not Ineltne to seal, exertion, jjersever- 
ance and struggle, and he has not succeeded in his religious 
life (has not broken through the bonds^, _ And, continuing, 
Buddha says that just as a hen might sit carefully brooding 
over her well-watched eggs, and might torment herself with tlie 
wish, ‘ O that this egg would let out the chick,' but all the time 
there is no need of this torment, for the chicks will hatch if 
she keeps watch and ward over them, so a man, if he does not 
think what is to he, but keeps watch and ward of his words, 
thoughts, and acta, will ‘come forth into the light,'" 

The questions in regard to Buddha's view of soul, immortal^ 
ity, and religion are answered to our mind as clearly in the 
following passages as Buddha desired they should be. ' Un¬ 
wisely does one consider: “ Have t existed in ages past . . . 
shall I exist in ages yet to be, do I exist at all, am f , how am I ? 
This is a being, whence is it come, whither will it go ? ” Con¬ 
sideration such as this is w'alking in the Jungle of delusion. 
These are the things one should consider : “This is suffering, 
this is the origin of suffering, this is the cussatiou of suffering, 
this is the way th-tt leads to the cessation of suffering.'* From 
him that considers thus his fetters fall away * In 

the Vam^sA-sutta Buddha is asked directly: « Has this good 
man’s life been vain to him, has he been extinguished, or is he 
still left with some elements of existence ; and how was be 
liberated f " and he replies : “ He has cut off desire for name 
and form in this world. He has crossed completely the stream' 
of birth and death." In the SallastfUa it is said r ■* Without 
cause and unknown is the life of mortals in this world, 

» The InUstiae ef Uw wlsinaJ pU; on wards ts Rhjn I>a«H4i*, who hu liaiulatcd 
Chew Satt^ in SBE. vciL xi Far the (oltowiac ww Faiubeil, ib. vol x. 


33 £ 

troubled^ brief* combined with pain^ , ^ ^ As earthen vessels 
made by the potter end in being broken, $o U the life of mor* 
talSr” One should compare the still stronger image* which 
gives the very name of ntr-rsna {* blowing out') in the 
»t 3 ntf 7 'a/ur(‘Aa " As a dame blown about by wind goes out 
and cannot be reckoned as existing, so a sage ddivered from 
name and body disappears, and cannot be reckoned as exist¬ 
ing/" To this Upasiva replies: " But has he only disappeared, 
or does he not exist, or is he only free from sickness ? To 
which Buddha : “ For him there is no form,, and that by which 
they say he is exists for him no longer/* One would thmk 
that this were plain enough. 

Yet must one always remember that this is the Arhat's death, 
the death of him that has perfected himself.^ Buddha, like 
the Brahmans, taught hell for the bad, and.^-birth for them 
that were not perfected. So iu the a list of 

hells is given, and an estimate is made of the duration of the 
sinner's suffering in them. Here, as if in a Brahman code, 13 
it taught that * he who lies goes to hell/ etc. Even the names 
of the Brahmantc hells are taken over into the Buddhist system, 
and several of those in hlanij*s list of hells are found here. 

On the other hand, Jiuddha teaches, If one may trust tradi¬ 
tion, that a good man may go to heaven. ■* Qn the dissolution 
of the body after death the well-^oer Is re-bom in some happy 
slate in heaven " U ?4)/ This, like hell* is a 

temporary state^ of course, before re-birth begins again on earthy 
In fact, Buddhist and Brahmanic pantheists agree in their atti¬ 
tude toward the ruspcctiv'e questions of hell, heaven, and Jtarmir. 
It is only the emancipated Arbal that goes to Nirvtna/ 

I Aftftf me «Qh:ni dn the; MEtain of hollEseM th^ ^ nure poaUrig 

UflW w H-Mihi, with ODfi Eb hea¥tfl j ho bmenra 
uid ciarcH NinrUu- 

i Cdoipuv the rajiin aad iplriu In v, to; and lia L id tht pAiJ 

*■ We afne with Mhy% t>a%i4e, pp, u 1 , that Boddb^ hJmwlf was 

ba athcht; !*rt tu Um siaieiDitfii thit NinrSiia extiiietldFi of ttat 


^Micn it is that Buddha preaclies to a new cod vert "in 
due course/ it means always that he gave him first a lecture 
on momlity and rdigion^ and then possibljp bat not necessarily^ 
on the * system/ And Buddha has no narrow-nirnded aversion 
to Erahmans; he accepts ■ Brahman * as he accepts * Brahma,' 
only he wants it to be understood what is a real Brahman ; 
M certain Brahman once asked Buddha how one becomes a 
Brahman, — what are the characteristics that make a man a 
Brahman. And the Blessed One said; “ The Brahman who 
has removed all sinfulness, who is free from haughtiness, free 
from impurityp self-resttainedp who is an accomplished master 
of knowledge, who has fulfilled the duties of holiness, — such 
a Brahman justly calls himself a Brahman.”' * 1'he 
from w'bich this is taken, is full of such sentimentis. As here, 
in K 2, so in 1+7; “The Blessed One preached to Yasa, the 
noble youth, *in due course/ ” that is to say, he talked about 
the merit obtained by alms-giving, the duties of morality, about 
heaven, about the evils of vanity and sinfulness of desire,'* 
and when the Blessed One saw that the mind of Vasa, the 
noble y'outh, was prepared, “ then he preached the principal 
doctrine of the Buddhists, namely^ suffering, the cause of suf¬ 
fering, the cessation of suffering, the Path/' and “just as a 
clean cloth takes the dye, thus Yasa, the noble youth, even 
while sitting there^ obtained the knowledge that whatsoever 
is subject to birth is al^ subject to death. 

Thu “spirit and not the letter of the law” is expressed In 
the formula 23): ^+Of all conditions that proceed 

omdjttoii of miiid and li*art wHth^onJd olJienriie he ihc aiue oif rtfiewwl 
LHEtLTiduaJ tidaJ^aoet* itmild in nnr t^pinicin he 4Ud«d "and tbenwilh tha MlLnrtinn 
indiTidniQly.'’ C^ps|i« kbfa Darfaii' pi 

I the defiaiUern of M ^ in the : ** tie tb^ gets Mjjtj 

ud fee^ hatr^, n wicked maiL, ^ hjrppariEr, he that vkwi Ajad b 

dKcitfnk an Ode ti an ootcut, uul be that bu no auEnpBasiaB (Vt htfng 

a Compare ik 5. ^ r ■ In diae »btie bn spoke^ q( cfodtr, mciRilitr, hcara, pleai^ 
life, and ad’fantapi of renuncintleFL'* 


rtm nEucJo^vs of india. 

from a cam«, Qiiddha has explained the cause, and, he has 
explained their cessation." This is the Buddhist's credn. 

In several of the sermons the whole gist L$ comprised in the 
admonition not to meddle with philosophy, nor to have sny 
* view's,* for philosophy purifies no one; peace alone purifies." * 
Buddha does not ignore the fact that fools will not desire 
salvation as explained by him: *■ What fools call pleasure the 
noble say is pain; this is a thing dilficuit to understand; the 
cessation of the existing body is regarded as pleasure by 
the noble, but those wise in this world hold the opposite 
opinion ” (^Ih'ajatanufi. xw/rj, 3 3 ).^ But to him the truly wise 
U the truly pure: “ Not by birth Is one a Brahman, hot by birth 
ia one an outcast; by deeds is one a Brahman, by deeds U 
one an outcast" (fi/jii/u-rurt'ij); and not alone in virtue of 
kar/Hii of old, for; '*The man who knows In this world the de¬ 
struction of pain, who lays aside the burden and is liberated, 
him I call a Brahman; whosoever in this world has Dvcrcome 
good and evil, both ties, who is free from grief and defilement, 
and is pure, — him [ call a Brahman; the ignorant say that 
one is a Brahman by birth, but one is a Brahman by penance, 
by religious life, by self-restraint, and by temperance ” ( VSsAth^ 

The penance here alluded to is not the vagne penance of 
austerities, but submission to the discipline of the monastery 
when exercised for a specific fault. 

Later Buddhism made of Buddha a god. Even less exalta¬ 
tion than this is met by Buddha thus: Bariputta says to him, 
“ Such faith have I, Lord, that methinks there never was and 
never will be either monk or Brahman who is greater and waser 
than thou,” and Buddha responds: “Grand and hold are the 
words of thy mouth; behold, thou hast burst forth into ecstatic 

I S* eaiiectiilb tbe N^aitdamtw, fiaramdHkaka, MagaMdifOt “d &td<UuitHak3 
by pjuiboll, SDtL Tot t. 

^ la vgL ^ 5uttmJp.Ua. 



^ng. Come, hast thoy, then, known ail the Buddhas lliai 
were?*' “No, Lord/’ “Hast thou known all the Buddhas 
that w‘ill be? “No, Lord/' “But, at least, thou knowest 
me, jny conduct, my mind, my wisdom, my life, my salvation 
(f.e., thou k no west me as well as I know myselQ?'* “No, 
Lord/' “Thou seest that thou knowest not the venerable 
Buddhas of the past and of the future; why, then, are thy 
words so grand and bold ?" {ATahS^rmibbSmt:^ 

Metaphysically the human ego to the Buddhist 13 only a col¬ 
lection of five fkamihas (form, sensations, ideas, faculties of 
mind, and reason) that vanishes when the collection is dis¬ 
persed, hut the factors of the collection re-form again, and the 
new ego is the result of their re-formation. The Northern 
Buddhists, who turn Buddha into a god, make of this an im¬ 
mortal soul, but this is Buddhism in one phase, not Buddha's 
own belief. The strength of Northern Buddhism lies not, as 
some say, in its greater religious zeal, but in its gros-ser animism, 
the delight of the vulgar. 

It will not be necessary, interesting as would he the com¬ 
parison, to study the Buddhism of the North after this review 
of the older and simpler chronicles. In Hardy’s Mcsattal 0/ 
BttJdhhm (p. ijSfT.) and Rockhtirs L^e of Bu,M/ta will be 
found the weird and silly legends of Nonhe-rn Buddhism, tch 
gether with a full sketch of Buddhistic ethics and ontology 
(Hardy, pp. 460, 3S7), The most famous of the Northern 
books, the Lotus of the Law and the Lalita Vistara, give a 
good idea of the extratTigance and supematuralism that already 
have begun to disfigure the purer faith. According to Kem, 
who has translated the former work again (after Bumouf), the 
whole intent of the Lotus is to represent Buddha as the su¬ 
preme, eternal God. The works, treating of piety, philosophy, 
and philanthropy, contain ancient elements, but in general are 
of later form. To this age belongs also the w'hole collection 
of Jatakas, or ‘birth-stories,' of the Buddhas that were before 


r//£ A^£l/G/O^S OF /hTO/^- 

sonKi: of the tales of whicli are bistoncalLy iiKiportant, 
as they have given rise to Western fabks.' These birthnstoiies 
feprescijt Buddha (often as Indra) as some god or mortal, and 
tell what he did in such or such a form. It is in a future form 
that, like Vishnu, who' is to come in the tn-aiar of Xalki, the 
next Buddha will appear as Maitreya, or the 'Buddhaof lov'e/* 
Some of the stories are very silly; some, again, are beautiful 
at heart, but ugly in their birirre appearance. They are all, 
perhaps, later than our era.* 

The history' of Buddhism after the Master's death has a 
urtain analogy with that of Mohammedanism. That is to say 
it was hugely a political growth. Further than this, of course, 
the comparison fails. The religion was affected by heretical 
kings, and by mintatix riches, for it admitted them all into its 
community on equal terms— no slight privilege to the haughty 
nabob or proud king who. If a believer and follower of Brah¬ 
man orthodoxy, would have been obliged to bend the head, 
yield the path, and fear the slightest frovra of any b(^r priest 
that came in his ira)% 

The Miurya monarch A^oka adopted Buddhism as a state 
religion in the third cen tury b,c., and taught it unto all his people, 
so that, according to his own account, he changed the creed of 
the country from Brahm.mism to Buddhism.' He wtis king 
over aU northern India, from Kabul to the eastern ocean, from * 
the northern limit of Brahmanic civilization to its southern 
boundary. Buddhist missionaries were now spread over India 

» Tli» dl^tUOT th. SorOwm ud Scathem doctrine lilMkitH b. 

* M MUmkaoraka Buddlia came «Me to earth ‘to ledHia the ■» >. nf m m - 

* Ot 1^,^ ietereat b the rapport hetew, B^hmaric, Jain, and Baddhlrt talew 
A C«e Ihl. »rt tae been ca«iully *™hed p« by [.eaWnn, 

OttoMuJSamMSi/t, WZKSf, v, iir; vL i. gt tit wt, 

< "The soda who were wonhIpped u true dliiniElH In ladta hate l-m 
talw . . . hy ny ie»I"; iit3Cil|iljui dted hf Bailh. p, ijt Bat Acota 
toknot prince, tbtfh'a eotlan el Doddhinie hard?le 



and beyond it. And here again, even in this later age, one 
sees how little had the people to do with Buddha's metaphysi- 
cal system. Like the simple confession ■! take refuge iti 
Buddha, in the doctrine, and in the church * was the only 
credo demanded, that cited above; «Buddha has explained 
the cause of whatever conditions proceed from a rause, and he 
has declared their cessation.” In this credo, which is cn- 
graved all over India, everything is left in conlidence to 
Buddha. However he explained the reason, that creed is to be 
accepted without inquiry. The convert took the patent facts 
of life, believing that Buddha had explained all, and based his 
own belief not on understanding but on faith. 

With the council of Patna. 741 b.c., begins at the hands of 
the missionaiies the geographical separation of the church, 
which results in Southern and Northern Buddhism.* 

It is at this period that the monastic bodies become influen'- 
tial. The original Sangha, congregation, is deBned as consist¬ 
ing of three or more brethren. The later monastery' is a business 
corporation as well as a religious body. The great emperors 
that now ruled India (not the petty clao-kings of the centuries 
before) were no longer of pure birth, and some heresy was 
the only religion that w'ould receive them with due honor. They 
affected Buddhism, endowed the monasteries, in every w.iy en¬ 
riched the church, built for it great temples, and in turn were 
upheld by their thankful co-religionists. Among the six* rival 
heresies that of Buddha was predominant, and chiefly because 
of royal influence. The Buddhist head of the Ceylon church 
was Anoka's own son. Still more important for Buddhism was 
its adoption by the migratory Turanians in the centuries fol¬ 
lowing. Tibet and China were opened up to it through the 
influence of these foreign kings, who at least pretended to 

1 KGppen, iHf Jfflixffftt |jl 

1 Not to he wnfosed utth t]w jcrcoteen hensle* and liatMhne diScnnl nUb- 
iD|ihifal ayirtcWi In tbn church \twtU. ' 


TJI£ J!£L/G/OiyS IXlt/A. 

adopt the faith of BuddhaJ But as jr was adopted by them, 
and as Jt extended beyond the limtta of India, Just so much 
weaker It becatne at home, where its stroneest antagonists 

were the sectarian pantheistk parties not so heterodox as 

Buddhism lingered in India till the twelfth or thirteenth 
centuiy, although in the sei.'enlh it was already decadent, as 
appears from the account of Hiouen-Thsang, the Chinese ’pih 
gnm. It IS found to^ay in Tibet, Ceylon, China, Japan, 
and other outlying regions, but it is quite vanished from its old 
home. The tause of its extinction is obvious. The Buddhist 
victonous was not the modest and devout mendicant of the early 
^urch. The fire of hate, lighted if at all by Buddhism,* smouh 
dered till Brahmanism, in the form of Hinduism, had begotten 
a religion as popular as Buddhism, or rather far more popular 
and for two reasons. Buddhism had no such picturesque tale^ 
^ those that enveloped with poetry the history of the managed 
Krishna. Again, Buddhism in its monastic development had 
separated itself more and more from the people. N^ot mendi- 
C^t monks, urging to a pure life, but opulent churches with 
at pnests; not simple discourses calculated to awaken the 
mor^ and religious consciousness, but subtle arguments on 
discipline and metaphysics were now what Buddhism repre- 
seated. This religion was become, indeed, as mueb a skeleton 

m Of the sixth century. As the Brah- 

manic belief had decomposed into spiritless rites, so Buddhism, 


from Keplt |n«khlil, p. 1,0), aunlnj 

* i&irth Justly dlscTAJits Ihirtal^^ Buddhiiin 1_ 

H thu J«d, of 1,^ JlBiWhUs. „ ™ ^ mil cf 

of n* emsa of BuiUhlilic dedli*, ejuKUllr *tila admlralile lununur 

phot ID the tarpidiw vf th* laC I thr fint 

Jiroat infldilae. Its iplritu^l cnthiutusm til ft wu Ikqihi a 

DThteutifDl „« ^ ’’"h? nrthlns porfi,] 

was flSi*, (n fMC CHily a stinnljij 1,^1 tfa* lud Iwl 11* Inahiaas; for Buddha 



changed into dialectic atsd idolatr>' (for in lieu of a god the later 
Church worshipped BuddhaL had lost now all hold upon the 
people. The love of man, W spirit of Buddhism, dead, 
and Buddhism crumbled into the dusL Vital and energetic 
was the sectarian ■ love of God' alone (Hinduism), and this 
now became triumphant. Where Buddhism Jtas succeeded is 
not where the marngods, objects of love and fear, have entered; 
but where, without rivalry from more sympathetic beliefs, it 
has itself evolved a system of idolatry and superstition; where 
all that was scorned by the Master is regarded as holiest, and 
all that he insisted upon as vital is disregarded.' One speaks 
of the millions of Buddhists in the world as one speaks of the 
millions of Christians; but while there are some Christians that 
have renounced the bigotry and idolatry of the church, and 
hold to the truth as it is in the words of Christ, there are still 
fewer Buddhists who know that their Buddhism would have 
been rebuked scornfully by its founder 

The geographical growth of formal Buddhism is easily 
sketched. After the first entrance into Kashmeer and Ceylon, 
in the third century tc., the progress of the cult, as it now 
may be called, was steadily away from India proper. In the 
fifth centuiy a.ii., it adopted in Burmah,* and in the 
seventh in Siam. The Northern school kepi in general to the 
‘void' doctrine of Xagarjuna, whose chief texts are the Lotus 
and the Lalita Vistarn, standard wMjrks of the Great Vehicle.* 
In Tibet Lamaism is the last result of this hieraicJijcal state- 
church.* We ha%'e thought it much more important to give a 

» Hciean)deT«lDped fourth) helb,wil «1T «>p«nnahiia] pan. 

phemaiiat togcUier with thdsnv Idobtiy^und tha ^tdupktKl jautwatU: ayiitciaa; mjark, 
iktnord QlcailaJtU>M la ei^rd to notlklfkg^ aad spEHtial enipljTWfli 
‘At tin ieuh tln» the Cerloo cuen mai funf hr the oomincnti™ ot Bui. 

■ Ijler it ^otkrw? the ichDaL BtHh schook ha-re been Verted by fCrib- 

trujiiML Tbe Great by rKOffaized at a fwirtb 

iWitfiril In Kanhmeer abchvf the time of |b« Chrtsdahi ™ Corninns KKppen, n. 

Oii the Lamakrlc hJerxrehy vsd of aee Miywir JHAS. 


TtiE sEtfG/oxs o/* mmA. 

fuller account of early Buddhism, that of Buddh.!, than a. full 
account of a later growth in regions that, for the most part, arc 
not Indie, in the belief that the Bali books of Ccybn giw a 
truer picture of the early church than do those of Kashmeer 
and Nepal, with their ^ivaite and Brahmanic adtniKture. For 
m truth the Buddhism of China and Tibet has no place in 
the histor>' of fndic religions. It may have been introduced 
by Hindu missionaries, but it has been re-made to suit a 
foreign people. This does not apply, of course:, to the caaon- 
ical books, the Great Vehicle, of the North, which is cssentially 
native, if not Buddhistic. Vet of the simple narrative and the 
adulterated mystery-play, if one has to choi^ the former must 
take precedence. From the point of view of history. Northern 
Buddhism, however old its elements, can be regarded only as 
an admiature of Buddhistic and Br.ihmanic ideas. For this 
reason we take a little more space, not to cite from the Lotus 
or the grotesque Lalita Vistara.’ but to illustrate Buddhism at 
Its best. Fausboll, who has translated the dialogue that 
follows, thinks that in the Suttas of the Sutta-nipita there is a 
reminiscence of a stage of Buddhism before the institution of 
monasteries, while as >*et the disciples lived w hermits. The 
collection is at least very primitive,‘although we doubt whether 
the Buddhist disciples ever lived formally as individual her- 
mils. .\ll the Samanas are in groups, little ‘congregations,’ 
which afterwards grew into monasteries. 

This IS a poetical (amoebic) contest between the herdsman 
Dhaniya and Buddha, with which Fausboll* compares St. Luke, 
xii. 16, but which, on the other hand reminds one of a spirit¬ 
ualized Theocritus, with whom its author was, perhaps, con- 

t Fv r flw »>!» Toma «« do not eater upon tte enter fom of B uHithUm „ a, 
^ In demnnotegy, (JltaS. ^ ,^boll,« (», QS, idEL 

»SaBE, iPol K, p. ^ 


r ha.vt boiled ihe dee, I bave mUked the kine —m the henlAman 

Dhuiij'a — 1 am Uvmg wHh my COtrinidea near the baJiks of the (gre^t) MM 
dver ^ the houK is roofed, the hre Ei Ut—^ then rain if thau wdt^ O tky I! 

[ am free from anger, ftec fiotn AtabbomoesA^so uid the Blwed Oeui 

— I mn ahidine for one ni^ht neir the banki of the fgruit) AtahT river; my 
hpuK hM na cover, the hn: {of paewa} ta cjitingtilished — then tain if thoa 
idlt> O ik y I 

Here are no j|ad-dIeSi'«fo wd the herdsman Dhaniya—ihe tows are 
roaming in meadows full of attd Ehcy can endLire the rain ^ then rain 
If ihou wdiv O xky 1 

I have made a weU-binJt raft — 90 naid the lilcwd One ^ I have crotsed 
over, [ have reached the further hank, [ have overcome the torrent (of 
(MsslDns) I I need the raft no tnore^then rain if thon wilt, O aky I 

My wife is Dbedicni, ahe is not wanloni —to said the herdsman Dhantya 
^ the hat lived with me lang and Is winning; no wickedneis ha\^ I heard 
of her^—then rain if thon wiJh O alty t 

My mind Is obedient, delivered (from evil} — so uid the Blessed One — 
it has been cultivated long and is well-subdued | there la no longer anything 
wicked in me^—then rain if thou wilt, O sky 1 

1 jup^rt myKlf by my own earnings-—so said the herdsman T^haciya 

— and my children are apound me and healthy | 1 hear no wickedness of 
them— then rain |f thou wilt, O sky t 

I am the eervanl of nono —so said the BEessed One with what I hava 
galised I wander aboLLi in all the world; I have do need to serve —then rain 
If thou wilt, JO sky I 

r have cows, 1 have calvessaid the herdsman Dhanlya — cows In 
calf and heifers also ; and t imve a buTI as lord over the Mws — then min 
if ihou wilt, O sky I 

I have no covs^ 1 have no calves — so said the Blessed One —no cows 
In calf, and no heifers; and I have no hull as a lord over the cow» — then 
tain if thou wilt, O sky E 

The stakes are driven in and canoot be shaken--^so sud the heidsman 
nhanl)'a the ropes axe made of holy-grass^ new and weU>^nade; the cows 
will not be able to break them — then run if ihou wilt, O sky I 

Like a bull I have retii ihe bonds^—so said the Blessed One^like an 
elephant I have broken through the ropes, 1 shall not be botn again ^then 
rain if thou wilt, O sky? 

Then the rain poured down and filled both sea andknd. And hearing the 
sky earning. Dhanlya said t Not small to us the gain m that we have seen 
the Blessed Lord; hi thee we take refuge, thou endowed with (wisdom^t) 
eye : be thou otu master, O great sagfc I My wife and myself are obedkat 

Tim REuc/oms or tndu. 

to If ^ iMd B ptire life *e shall ov-orpmt birth ihd deid., and nut 
an eEi>q lo pojQ. ^ 

lie (hat ha* sciiis lut, delight Ebaoni^w »aJd the En1 One—he that 
has ha* deUglit in Coin, for aubatance it the delight of man, hut he 
th^t has no stibatanM feaa no ckUght, 

He Oiat hat nmt* has cn«tvith hi* son. said Blea«tl One—he 
Att ha* »W» ha* Hke*i« caxe «ilh hi* SOW*. Iqi auhstance i* (,hr «uae 
Of^ cart, but no tnat bas n& Biibjtatico has qq owe. 

iroiii Jjuddha's sermons choice extracts were gathered at an 
early date, which, as well as the few longer discourses, that 
have been preserved in their entirely, do more to tell tis what 
the original Buddha, before he was enwrapped in the 
scholastic mysticism of a Jater age, than pages of general 
critique, ^ 

Thus in the MahSparimhimna casual allusion is made to 
^semblies of men and of angels (divine beings), of the great 
thirty-three gods. Death the Evil One and Brnhnta {lii. jiV 
iStiddha, as we have said, does not deny the existence of 
spiritual beings ; he denies only [heir power to affect the per¬ 
fect man and their controlling part in the universe. In the 
same sermon the refuge of the disciple is declared to be truth 
and himself (ii. 3j) : “ Be ye lamps unto yourselves. Betake 
yourselves to no external refuge. Hold fast to the truth as to 
a lamp.” 

And from the famous' Path of Duty ’ or ‘ Collection of truths> 

Alt that we are U the lesuli of what «ie hare thought: it u founded on 
^thousht*; It « made up ,rf our thouRht*. If a man .peak, or act* 

^ the 

If * man cr «i* with a pure 

ihouKht happine** follow* him like a «had«w that never leave* him 

Rimestnete u (he path ihai lead* to escape from death, thouKhileMSie** 
H the path that lead* ,o death. Tho*e who are i. earee*. do 

1 ^aaueapada (FVant, ::dMG. alvi. 5an*kril «« ha 

That 1*. they die ne more; the, tjia, fton. tie chain} they «ht« Nhvlna. 



ttoM who a» thaugliileu ve u if deid alnadf. Long la the mght to 
him who ia 4wjilce; long is a mile to him who ii tired; long ia life to ihn 

Them la no miffering fo; him who h» finUhed hia joomc/ and alsm. 
d^hiid grid, who hu fretsd hlmitdf on nil aides aait ihrawn off tbe leittirs. 

^me iKople VC hom »£«in ; evU^oesa go to hdl; nghieoua pcoblo CO 
to hcav^^ii 5 those who are fftis from sill worldly desires attiiin Xirvina. 

He whft Beetling hia owti hnppltiess. pimtthes or Jcilla beinga that also 
long for happineta, will not hod happiness alter 

Looking for the maker of this tabernacle I shall have to run thiougfa a 
contse of many births, m long a* f do not find; and painful is birth again 
jnti again. Hut now, maker of the labemade, thou hast been seen ; thou 
shall not make up this tabernacle again. All thy nftem a« breken, thy 
ndge-pole Is sundered; thy mind, approacliiug Ntnina. has attained to 
eiffnctioQ ol‘ all 

Better than going to heaven, better than lordship over a|) wotltls. is the 
reward of entering the stream uf haliness. 

Xot to commii any sin, to do good,'‘and to purify one's mind, that is the 

tci^chlng of the Huddlttii^ 

t,el us live happily, not hating them that hate ns. Let at iive happilv, 
though we call nothing our own. Wo ahail be like bright gods, feeding on 

Frtira Iii4t oomea griefv from liut come? fear; be th^t a free freni lust 
bnobfa iwatlier grief Dor fear. 

The best of ways is the dgbtlotd (path}; iKi, U the way, them is no 
Other that lead« to the purifying jittelli^c«v Go on ibis way I Every- 
thing else ts Ifie deceit of Death. You yourself must make the effort. 
Buddhns BM only preachers. The thoughtful who enter the way are freed 
from tkc: boodagE of 

^ Buddha'9^ wiwds on becflaiilng Dwldh^ 

■ Jt Ij l» hfl DhHfifed that tnnjitfiJET^Iofi inhs unTmaJ fonns li 
^ lluddhav l!e ik^tauei. enty niiai 9ii|Kriiw bdogs iw Hibj0cta erf AVrwif. 
Compare Rhys Uividi^ 105, loy. To ffw lamt scholar 1 a da& Ihe rtaic- 

*wi?t thal h« itw first Ifl rttognire the t™ meLfdng of NirEli¥i,<B3rtlj5rt (not 
will of lifwt, wiBpr, and For diiislaiu of BnddMAt IttEoture other 

thiui the TriplUlcq (he Same aiithof^i my bt nuasulbHl (xm alsc 

ililOef^ SBiEe lotmdiictUjiiij^ |4 



While the great heresies that we ha^e been dtssmTjJng were 
agitating the eastern part of India,* the old home of Brahman¬ 
ism in the West remained inijp in name if not m fact, to the 
ancletit faith. But in reality changes almost as great as those 
of the formal heresies were taking place at the core of Brah* 
manisFu itself, which, no loTtger able to be the religton of a 
few clans, was now engaged in the gigantic tnash of remodelling 
and assimilating the indigenous beliefs and religious practices 
of its new environment This was not a conscious act on the 
part of Brahmanism. At first it was undertaken almost un- 
wittingly, and it was accomplished later mt without repug¬ 
nance, But to perform this task was the condition of continued 
e^tence, Brahmanism had to expand, or shrink^ wither, and 

For a thousand years almost the only source of informatiDU 
in regard to this new growth is contained in the epic'poetry 
of the lime, with the help of a few additional facts from the 
law, and some side light from inscriptions. It Is here that 
\^shnuism and IJivaism are found as fully developed sectarian 
beliefs, accepted by Brahmanism with more or less distrust, 
and in more or less fulness of faith. It is to the epic that one 

1 Tlw rifral hcniiiei ism aba U to the EasL Tbtm thu^ smn than 

hair a doKa hef^cal nf impDituee a^tattpi£ the Rska al^iil D«Dam al 
tlw KMW time. the Jain*, wJwj u wn ha¥« itsoDra, mm kn 

ftiscrt BtTiifeinanil*ro^ drlftwl wutwaH, vrMk the Soddhlfit Ptmaitpcti in the 

E^l of Cimrae, be[HK reptci^ed In tho Santh a* welU, euhI whorea« Bad* 
tihiam ennEiially tetTratcd to Kqol aad Tlbrt, the JaltM m fwind Ln the 
CeDtm df old and new {la^tariaii) Brahmaobifi, Ddlli, ^lathura, Jeyprtr, AjuiJr. 

A>f A‘Z y //Z.VZ>6'/F.V. 

must turn to study the budding and gradual flow^«riDg of the 
modern religions, which have cast strict orthodoxy into the 

^ Oi the two epics, one, the Rilinayana,^ has become the Old 
testament of the Kamaite Vishnuites of tlie present day. The 
Rliarala,* on the other hand, ts scriptural for all sects, because 
it is more universal. The former epic, in iu present form, is 
what the Hindus call an ‘art-poem,* and in its finish, its eidu* 
sively romantic style, and its total Jack of nervous dramatic 
power, it is probably, as the Hindus claim, the work of one 
man, Valmiki, who took the ancient legends of Eastern India 
and moulded them into a stupid sectarian poem. On the 
other hand, the Uharata is of no one hand, cither in origin 
or m final redaction; nor is it of one sect5 nor has 
it apparently been thoroughJy affected, its has the Rami- 
yana, by Tliiddhlstic influences. Moreover, in the huge con¬ 
glomeration of stirring adventure, legend, myth, history-, and 
superstition which goes to make up the great epic there is 
contained a far truer picture of the vulgar custom, belief, and 
religion of the time than the too polished composition of Vab 
miki is able to afford, despite the fact that the latter also has 
many popular elements welded into it. There are, in fact, 
only two national works in India, only two works which, withal, 
not in their entireQi-, but in their nucleus, after one has stripped 
each of its priestly toggery, refljct dimly the heart of the people, 
not the clevemps^f one man, or the pedantry'of schools. 
For a few VedicliyfTiihs and a few Bhdrata scenes make ail tlie 
literature, with perhaps the exception of some fables, that is 
not markedly dogmatic, pedantic, or 'artificial/* So true is 
this th.-it even in the case of the Rdmayana one never feels 

I Tiw waikdArizLg of •mhQ li Icdariait npnseoUtjTC of Vlahna. 

BhiSnia caltad or <!nat Bhoiatvi. Tl» 

UiKnidt* adTociltel ii Ih^i ^ S«t thw H ^ mud, 

pifahm In tli« pemm u thar fi Vlihiiuisiii. 

* Praoutic aad lyik ^xtry 1» ci»cii ia 


^EL/a/O.VS OF 

that ha is getting from k the genuine belief of the people, 
but Diiljr that fomi of popular belief which Valmiki has choset! 
to let stand in his version of the old tale, 'Fhe great epic is 
heroic, Vllmiki's poem b romantic; the former is real, the 
latter b artilicial ■ and the religious gleaming from each cor¬ 
responds to thb distinction.^ 

The Uharata^ like other Hindu works^ is of uncertain date, 
but it was completed as a ‘Great Bharatal by the end of the 
sixth cemury a,d*, and the characters of the story are men¬ 
tioned as well known^ by Panini^ whose work probably belongs 
to the fourth centuf}'' Fijrthefinore+ Dio Chiysostomos^ 
probably citing from Megasthenes, refers to it; and the latter 
authority describes the worship of the chid gods of th e epic i 
while the work is named in one of the domestic Sutras, and 
a verse b cited from it in the legal Satra of Baudh^yana.’ On 
the other hand, in its latest growth it is on a par with ihe 
earlier Purdmas, but it is not <|uite so advanced in sectarianism 
as even the oldest of these writings. It may, then, be reckr- 
oned as tolerably certain that the beginnings of the epic dale 
from the fourth or fifth century before the Christian era* and 
that it was quite a respectable work by the time that era 
began ; after w^hich it continued to grow for five centuries more.* 
Its reUgious importance can scarcely be overesrimated* In 
600 far away from its native home, in Cambodia, it was 
encircled W'ith a temple^ and an endowment was made by the 


1 SdnKwdiir, p, tbc muhinl rablLah ^ Uw Mahaltoata amd HlmJp 

TMatQ thil <rf Uk; MlbEJongHilltd uhI the Fanival of WV^tfrun von EKbrnhoch, 
JflftiW, Sn hb" h%» Kit)el]r a fiaialderalife AntlqaSlf tor tht 

tiod q( iJw bu| he dom lurt the LUe cantpktcd form. 

^ L ifl; ue niihlcT^s IntfodoetUm, 

* Jwas4^ Meki to pat the oonapleEiHl ntixleq^ at tlw time oT tho Chriaihifl cnirinit 
It muAt bwH quilE Urge nod™ le vW oS the alladJona to iE in preeeclcsrt 

UbentuPt Kdlti;4^nn pals the cr^napletliMa at ahcmit tm aji, : lml ta joo a_d. E| 
was niifipkte, and mo^t achobri wlU niiti Buhtf Ikal the preaeot Maha OhAnti 
was compleled tbe of K!^nth vntvvj. In 53J iuj. it c«nUilEie4 iocukh 
diflidu. that Is. ft was idsirat the ^ U is mw. 


king providing for the daily fecitatioii of the poem. Its legal 
verses are authoritative; its religion is tenday that of India as 
a whole. The latest large additions to it were, as we think, 
the Book of Laws^ the Book of Peace, and the genealogy' of 
Vishnu, which together form a sort of pseiidoepic. Bat por¬ 
tions of other books, notably the first, fourth, and seventh, 
are probably almost as recent as are the more palpable inter¬ 

The Bi^rata (or the epic ttar gives us our first view 

of Hinduism In its sectarian dcvelopmentSp But no less does 
it show us a chauging Brahmanism. The most typical change 
in the Brahmanism of this pErriod, whkh covers all that time 
called by Miillcr the era of the Renaissanee, and ends iiith 
the pedantically piquant literature of the drnina,^ is the ab* 
normal growth of the ascetic religious exercise. Older Brah¬ 
manism, like the sects, admitted Yogis and ascetics of various . 
kinds, but their aim was tq^attain oneness with Gc^; and 
+ union ^ (with God) is the (Latin ju^um has the same 
th ey sought. But it was not long before iJse 
starved ascetic, with his W'ild appearance and great repntation 
for sanctity, in spited an awe which, in the unscrupulous, was 
easily turned to advantage+ The Vogi became more or less 
of a charlatan, more or less of a juggler^ ^for w'as- this alL 
Yoga practices bcgM to take precedence before other religious 
practices. In the Er^hrnanas it is the sacrifice that is god- 
compelling j but in the epic, although sacrifice has its place, 
yet when miraculous powder is exerted, it is due chiefly to Yoga 
concentitition, or to the equally general use of formulae ’ not ^ 

1 By Uw linw tbe 4nima besan the ^ hecostm a itorehoujc, and 

tlw actual qsEt nory ifetiMwitcd aat fifili of ti» wtafe 3t» 

iimple bngm^, Jt irnst hatit rwt™!, aa a T3t^«wT pKriii*£ll<ia, way td 

the mJnidA that delL|{hn:d In tl» aftUUial U3iiapattnd» and rexttmntk epbndtaof tips 
dranuL Tyrie. But londay It b rtdted it ttsteMd with 

j^pt itteBtloo, lu the du|feUKl«a with naof^^ mt druttatic pom ttdte in 



formulae as part of a sacrifice, but as in themselves poted! ? 
and m}^terious mantras, used by priest and warrior alike, serve 
ever)' end of magic. ^ Apart from acquisition of power, tbb 
Yoga-trainiiig is^, moreover^ all that is needful from the point 
of view of righteousness. PhysicaJ prowess here is the one 
thing admirahle. To stand for years on one leg, to be eaten 
by ants, to be in every way an ascetic of the most stoical sort, 
is the truest reLigioriH Such an ascetic has no ordinary^ rules 
of morahtyp In fact, his practices are most peculiar, for 
to seduce young w'Omen is one of his commonest occupations; 
and in his anger to cause an injuTy to his foes is one of the 
ends for which he toils. The gods are nothing to him. They 
am puppets whom he makes shake and tremble at will. As 
portrayed in the eplc^ in terms of common sense, the Muni (silent 
saint) is a morose" and veiy' vulgar-minded old man, who seeks 
to intimidate others by a show of miraculous power. In the 
matter of penances those of the law are extended beyond all 
bounds. The caste-restrictions arc of the closest, and the 
most heinous crime is to commit an odence against caste- 
order. On the other hand, the greatest merit Is to give gifts 
to priests^ This had already proceeded far enough, as was 
indicated by a passage cited above from Manu. But in the 
epic the greed and rapacity of the priest exceeds all imaginable 
limits. He takes whatever he can get and asks for more. He 
has, by his own showing, scarcely one estlmiible trait Avarice, 
cupidity, sensuaUiy, gluttony, love of finery'^ effeminacy, mean¬ 
ness, and pride — cveiy'thing charged against him by the 
Buddhist — are his most marked characterisricSi He appears, 

1 Thai lat£r law-book^ aa.f ^pnaaibf wtnmtt uhI ibm a T^j(bt la 
mjirt/rjr^ Dwt tbo bt«r k^l Ssuitb aQ more Ihzin disgiiiud 

■Bctariaiii FttfOou 

S CottifArt Ok Hiit ijf Uw M the priiac* its UL S, Hv la 

^cKtitmch irrfut^le’; calla for fcHsd to re|ftrt It: al Ok service, 

mtt. Emythloe inuit hr dqtK for him ira me food, 

hlanriyipl «p»kdiig,«tc. odjeelife b om ap|]1i«l lo tliK All- 

fud^ fitritMiUJttTfdAiMiil. 



however, to be worse thuu he always was. For rtothii]^ is 
plainer, from this very epic, than that the priests, although 
united as a caste, were sharply distinguished in their lives. 
The ascetic described above represents the fourth period of 
the priestly life. lielow these stood (apart from students)^ 
hermits and householders. The householders, or such of them 
as the epic unfortunately U busied with, the royal priests, seem 
to be those that are in reality priests only in name. In the 
king's palace, his constant advisors, his most unscrupulous 
upholders in wickedness, they gave themselves up to quest of 
wealth and powers But one would err if he thus dismissed 
them all. There were others that had no preferment, who lived 
in quiet content In their own houses, and deserved none of the 
opprobrium rightly bestowed upon their h^^pocritical brothers. 
The hermits, too, appear to have been a mild and inoffensive 
race, not presuming too much on their caste-privileges* 

I'o offset rapaciousness there are tomes of morality of the 
purest sort* Even in the later additions to the epic one reads: 
*‘Away with gifts; receiving gifts is sinful* The silkworm 
dies of its wealth " (ilL j jo, 29), One should compare, again, 
the exalted verse (Buddhistic in tone) of 321, 47 j “ The 
red garment^ the vow of silence, the three-fold staff, the water- 
pot—these only lead astray; they do not make for salvation,"' 
There were doubtless good and bad priests, but the peculiarity of 
the epic priest* rapacious and lustful, is that he glories in his 

The chief objects of worship (except for the mduence of-the 
sectarian religions) were priests, Manes, and, for form's sake, 
the Vedic gods, 'rhese gods, with the addition of the Hindu 
Plutus (Knbera, the god of riches), are now called the eight 
^world-guardians," viz*, Indra, Yama, Vanina, Knbera, Agni, 

t Eada iplritiul tnstnicled hlfb-easte dusa tif four or fiTE ai 

most. In kIL jjS. 41 the fMur a pnsst vn a itfikt becauK tl« LUlof 

Want! io tike aiMFthcr pupil beakk& thetwlvn asd his qwu vsn. 

T&£ J\^£L/G/OA*S /A£>/A. 

Surya, \iyu, Soniii, a.iid are tisunlJ^r simple and s-hndowy siibor^ 
dinates of the greater tiew ^od^. 

In the shifting of religious opinion and in the dev^elopment 
of theological conceptions what dtfFercnce can be traced be¬ 
tween the same gods as worshipped in the Veda and as wor¬ 
shipped in the epic ? Although the %^edk divinities have been 
twice superseded^ once by the Father-god and again by the 
Lordf they still remain adorable and adored, active in 
many ways^ though passive before the great All-god. It is, 
indeed^ extremely difficult, owing to the superstruction of sec¬ 
tarian belief, to get dov.m to the foutidadDn-refigion of the 
epic. The best one can do is to see in what way the old gods 
differ, as represented in the poem, from their older selves of 
the Rig Veda. From this point of view alone* and entirely 
irrespective of the sects^ manifold changes will be seen to have 
taken place. Great Soma is no nmre. Sotna is there, the 
moon, but the glory of the Vedk Soma has departed. His 
Innar representative is of little importance. Agni, too, is 
changed. As Fire in the Rig Veda is not only the altar-hrc, 
but also common, every-day fire, so, toop in the epic this god 
is the material flame, and as such eA^en performs his greatest 
deeds for his worshippers. He takes on every form, even 
becoming a priest, and a dove. He remains the priest of the 
gods, but his day of action in war is over. He no longer 
wins battles. But he burns down a forest to aid his party. 
For the Yedic gods are now but weak partLzans of the com¬ 
batants. In the sectarian parts of the epic Agni is only a 
puppet. His new representative, Skanda, Is the chief battle- 
god, a name almost unknown before. He himself is either 
the son of Vishnu or a form of Qiva, He is the All-god* the 
It is he who bums the world when the time shall have 
come for the general def^tniction. 

The high and mighty Varuna of the Rig Veda is no longer 
great. He is no longer serene. He descends and fights on 


esrth* Indra^ tooj battled witb Vritta as of old, but he is qeiEe 
anthropcmcirpliic^ and of no marked value in the contest of 
heroes. Not only this^ but nil the gods together are repre¬ 
sented ns weaker than a good hero+ not to speak of a priestly 
ascetic. In a word, the gcMls are believed in, but with what a 
belief I They no longer, as natufnJ powers, inspire special 
respect. Their nature-cirigin is for the most part lost. They 
are thoroughly anthropomorphic. Even SOrya, the sun, in 
action if not in laudation, is often more man than god. I'hls 
gives a strange effect to the epic battle-scenes as compared 
with those of Homer. Unless Vishnu is active on the held 
the action is essentially human. No great god or goddess 
stands ready to save the fainting w^arrior. He fights and fails 
alone. Save for the caresses and plaudits of the half-gods, the 
most that the Yedic gods can do is to wipe away the sweat 
from the hero's brow.* The AlE^od does not take the place 
of the band of watchful and helpful gods pictured by Homer. 
\ishnu fights on the field; he saves onSy his protegi;s, and 
much as a mortal warrior would do it. But the Vedic gpds 
hang like a mist upon the edge of battle* and are all but wile 
spectators of the scene. Abstractions, as well as the All-god. 
have routed them, and Dharma or Duty is a greater god than 
Indra. But there is an older side to this, as we shall presen tEy 
show. On the moral side the heroes of the epic profess great 
belief in the power and awfulness of this god Duty. And so 
far as go rules of chivalry, they are theoretically moral. Prac¬ 
tically they ar. savage* and their religion does not interfere 
with their brutal barbarity. The tendency to cite divine 
instances of sin as escuse for committing it is, howeverp 
rebuked : ** One should neither practice nor blame the (wrong) 
acts of gods and seers/' itii. ^92, 17-tS. 

I Tlw fainu In ihm ^ Uk rombaluiti (1ri4.1SS.4T; ij. s^S ihm 

gcKts TOar approvtil ^ prawns " wteli m^n like 1 LdHiV^ (*iiL 15.73). 

And the Aporw cool oi^ the irlth htawnly fam m 9a. if). For tl» 

Liit iUvinklin, nx iJottzmiiULV ZDMG. 290; SjL 


T//£ XEUG^OA'S OF mi>lA. 

From an eschatoiogiral point of view it is most difficult to 
g(!t back of the statements made by the priestly composers,* 
who, in their various rceditiitgsof the epic, uniformly have given 
the pantheistic goal as that in which the chameters believe. 
But it IS evident that the warriors were not much aBected by 
this doctrine. To tficm there was one law of righteousness 
exceeding all others —to die on the field of battle. And for 
such as did so, over and over again is the assurance given that 
'Jutppiness in Indra's heaven' is their reward. And probably 
a true note is stniclc In this reiterated promise. To the mass of 
the vulgar, union with brnAtfta would have been no attractive end. 
It is interesting to see the remains of the older belief still 
flourishing in midst of epic pantheism. Although Indra has no 
such hymn as has SDrya, yet is he still lauded, and he is a very 
real person to the knight who seeks his heaven." In fact, so 
long as natural phenomena were regarded as divine, so long as 
thunder was godly, it was but a secondary question w-htch name 
the god bore ; whether he was the ‘chief and king of gods,' or 
Vishnu manifesting himself in a special form. This form, at 
any rate, was to endure as such till the end of the cycle. There 
are other Indras. Each cycle has its own (i, 197. -9), Rut 
sufficient unto the age is the god thereof. If, relinquishing the 
higher bliss of absorption, the knight sought only Indra's heaven, 

I Tti^nrigliul irf U» Mihshbanta b rvpvtrd to i»iif low cuti!, but tlie 
iwnten ef tJie Iwl u it toHiay were iectafiaii prfcat^ Jt wii wrllE^A dflWrp Lt \a 
iald;t% ]otA h3( Qv^L f, 79.and HDibHMIvdc UutEilla tq the 

Uk. ThE pt\s ^9 of gtra iftri* ih® bit tt> t^UmKh the pe^m, u w Oiink 

■ b ^ly aJkcted the doettine that tht fin: (irhioh 

the WDcld at ll» iytfeVtRd) Es a f<™ cf Vbluiq, [n Sl^fflbafiutis » hvimi 
It b iiid.1 ** Thou, O Apii, art thE all, k th«s Elw unlvarait . , ^ Sam ktunr tlw 
as inanWchL Al the «pEmlna of tiir* ll»oo bunwal up the thtix morUi 

aiCBr having crtatitd them Th®« art tlu i»%titatw aikl mpport ^ all bdh»" 
^ raufe V«llc cpltli^iv are glireit, inch a*^ mmOh id the rodi' 

(lir ji. ttuH^h h«t * ihe Vcdai are pfwliii^ for AltiTH aaltc.^ Id tM* metk 

^ - ttnalF ApiE ™ wlnA, m tmlh; earthp ^rt tm 

rtren^hT aeid vniEfr, gfi« htallb' (45). oa weU » CivpL b the father cf 

KMDiifi kVtl|«yap Skanda ^4), 

3 S 7 

and believed he wa^ to find it* then h\s belief practically does 
not differ much from that of his ancestorj who accepts Indra as 
an ultimate* natural power* The question arises whether, after 
all, the fndra-worship of the epic is not rather popular than 
merely old and preserved. Certainly the reality of the belief 
seems quite as strong as that of the ever-newiy converted sec¬ 
tary-. h may be doubted whether the distribution of theologi¬ 
cal belief is very different in the epic and Vedic ages, Philo¬ 
sophical pantheism U very old in India, The priest believes 
one thing; the vulgafi another. The priest of the Vedic age, 
like the philosopher of the neat age* and like thebter sectariaui 
has a belief which runs ahead of the popular religion. But the 
popular religion in its salient features still remains about the 
same. Arjuna* the epic hero, the pet of Krishna, visits Indra'a 
heaven and stays there five years. It is the old Vedic gods to 
whom he turns for weapons, till the ^ivaite makes Indra send 
the knight further, to (^'iva himself- The old name, king of the 
Vasus* is still retained for Indra; and though the ‘divine weap¬ 
ons/ which are winged with sacred fonnulae, are said to be 
more than a match for the gods ; though in many a passage the 
knight and the saint make Indra tremble* y^i still appear* 
through the mists of ascetic and sectarian novelties, Indra^s 
heaven and his grandeur* shining with something of their old 
g!or)% Vishnu still shows his solar origin^ Of him and of the 
sun is it said in identical words: “ The sun protects and 
devours all/’ and Vishnu protects and devours" (of Vishnu^ 
passim; of the sun, iii. 33. 71). A good deal of old stuff is 
left in the Forest Book amongst the absurd tales of holy water¬ 
ing places. One finds repeated several times the Vedic account 
of Indra^s fight with Vritm, the former's thunderhoitt however, 
being now made of a saint'^s bones (iii. ch. 100-105), ^gni 
is lauded (/h ch* 113), To the Alvins* th'erc is one old hymn 

I Ikil tlic A^nft m Id the “eaate-lMMd df {ihe l?ctnE 

AngirsKUt Adilyu, M u-niA iitui A^D4 |i, xiL aoS. sj-a:;amJ |n 4 n ia not 
nfitMH to adSDdaee with Ihem* alll, 157.17 ^^Sted bf HokmiaBO, ZUMD.MBdL^ai). 


THE kEllG/om Of iiVDM. 

which contaios Vedic forms {i, 3). Vamna is still lord of the 
West, and goes accompanied with the rivers, ‘ male and female,' 
with snakes, and demons, and half-gods {Jaitjas, iaJAjas, 
Later, but earlier than the pseudo-epic, there stands 
with these godi Kubera, the god of wealth, the ‘ jcwel-giver,' 
who is the guardian of traveJlers. the king of those demons 
I called \akshas, which the later sect makes servants of ^iva. 
He is variousljr named; > he is a dwarf; he dwells in the North’ 
in jMl Kailasa, and has a demoniac gate-kecpcr, Macakmka. 
Another newer god is the one already ref erred to, Dharma 
VlivBsvata, of Justice (Virtue, Right), the son of the sun. a 
title of Yama older than the Vedas. He is also the father of 
the new love-god, Kama, It is necessary to indicate the names 
of the gods and their functions, lost one imagine tlmt with pan^ 
theism the Vedic religion expired. Even that old, impious 
Brahmanic fable crops out again ; “The devils were the older 
brothers of the gods, and were conquered by the gods only with 
trickery’* (iii. 33. 60), an interesting reminiscence of the fact 
that the later name for evil spirit was originally the one applied 
to the great and good spirit (Asura the same with Ahnra).* 
According to a rather late chapter in the second book each of 
the great Vedic gods has a special paradise of hU own, the 
most remarkable feature of the account being that Indra's 
heaven is filled with saints, having only one king in it^a 
view quite foreign to the teaching that is curretil elsewhere in 
the epic. Where the sectarian doctrine would oppose the old 
belief it set above Indra’s heaven another, of iSmhmd. and 
above that a third, of Vishnu (L 89, t 6 ff.). According to one 
passage Mr. Mandara* is a sort of Indian Olympus. Another 
account speaks of the Himalaj-as, Himavat, as ‘the divine 

(Vll^^M*'^*’ Vukuih; he h the HUB with Kuben,il*. 

din, r*' M eiKfent Uk vK theepic. Mm- 

dart it Uie t*S,hngetiet II 1, titealed Ib Behir, iwir iMuffJpa,. 

£AA'£y IfhVDLVSM. 

mountamp beloved of the gods/ though the knight goes thence 
to Gandhnmidana^ and thence to Jndraklla^ to hod the ^ods^ 
habitat (iii, 37+ 41)* PeTSonified powers lie nil around the 
religious Hindu. And thU is especially true of the epic char¬ 
acter, He prays to Mt. Mandara, and to riverg, above all to 
the Ganges. Mt* Koldhala is divine^ and begets divine otf^ 
spring on a river (i^ 63)* The Vindhya range of mountains 
rivals the fabled ^[enl (aTound which course the sun and all 
the heavenly bodies), and this, too^ is the object of devotion 
and pmyer.^ In one passage it is said that in Beh5r (Migadba) 
there was a peak which was continuously ‘ worshipped with 
offeriOj^^ of How'crs and perfumes,^ exactly as if it were a god* 
The reason why flowers are given and worn is that they bring 
good luck, U is said iti the same chapter (ii. 31. 2 o» 51), 

What \Sj perhaps, the most striking feature of Hindu religious 
thought, as a whole, is the steadfastness with wiiich survive^ 
even in the epic and in Buddhism, the forms and formulae of 
the older faith. At a time when pantheism or nihilism is the 
avow'ed creed the ancient gods stili eiist, weak, indeed, yet 
infused with a true immortality. This is noticeable even more 
in un noticeable -ways, in the turns of speech, in little compart' 
Sons, in the hymns, in short, in the by-play of the epic 
'Withcfed are the garlands of the gods, and their glory is 
departed,'* hut they still receive homage in time of need. 
And in that homage is to be seen, and from the same cause, 
the revived or sundving worship of the Veda* Each god in 
turn is mighty, though Agni is the mightiest of the old divini¬ 
ties. In an epic hymn to him it is said : Thou art the mouth 

* r4rHbfrrttlteCass:» aad Jsunnaare EE]¥oko<l t(>setbi!!f vrtth the Vedic 

godL S« Id UL 104 tVlDcthja);r aod DvruranU Ip > 1 1. Mcru 

dnCTibed In iii 16J- t * ?. ; S-)* la 1* i S. i ff.. Is rebt^ tli« d^umin^ ot 

ttw mmj whett ladi* la) jJacej Mt. ItluDdara on VEiluiu, the tnitni-ic. 

i lilbh- L 3^ j?, rt^. Hw Ma belief wai that Ibe- 

goda* jpirlaiMb now ; tor tti^ ihmf tPWftaK use da shaU 

‘tJ/£ Ji£UGIOA^S Oh' 


of the worlds ; the poets dechre thee to be one and three-fold j 
as carrier of the sacrifice they arrange thee eight-fold. By thee 
was all created, say the highest seers. Priests that hav« m-id e 
reverence to thee attain the eternal course their acts have won, 
ti^ether with their wires and sons. They call thee the water- 
giver in the air, together with lightning. On thee first depends 
water, Tho« art the creator and Brihaspati, thou art the iw'o 
Horsemen, the two Yamas, Mitm, Soma, Wind*' (L 229. 23 
And yet this ts in a pantheistic environment ! The Rig Veda 
is directly invoked, though, of course, not directly cited, in the 
old hymn to the Horsemen, who are, however, elsewhere put 
With low animals and Guhyakns, demons (i, 66),» ’t hey ate 
the “ physicians of the gods,” the “first-born,” the golden birds 
which weave the white and black of time, create the wheel of 
time with all its seasons, and make the sun and sky (L 3- 55 (L, 

“ vagMir rghhis *'). I nd m himsci f is extol led i n Kadrfl's hymn; 
he is the stayer of Namuci, the lord of ^acl; he is the great 
cloud, cloud and its thunder, creator and destroyer; he is 
Vishnu, ‘JSoraa, greatly praised,' as well as fire, air, time in all 
Its divisions^ earth and ocean; when lauded he drinks the 
soma, and he is sung In the Vedangas {i, 25. 7If,), pmised 
With this hymn in time of need of rain, India “commanded the 
clouds, saying, 'rain down the ambrosia' ” (afi, j); where there 
is still the rain as synonymous with ambrosia, and Indm not 
very dilfcrently conceived from his Vedic self. Thus in com¬ 
parisons : “ As Indra standing in heaven brings bliss to the 
world of the Uving, so Vidura ever brought bliss to the Pandus ” 
(i-fii. 15). But at the same time what changes! 'Phe gods 
assemble and sing a hymn to Garuda, the epic form of Garut- 
man, the heavenly bird, who here steals the siinra vainly guarded 

1 Cemim the fom b|-tEL 7 ^hfti fan Afnl Ia L 331. 7 ff, 

t after ,l™,< II te 

I «» 


by the gods. Ganida, too, is Prajtpaii, Indra, and so forth.^ 
Tiiic gods arc no longer divinitLos distinct from the dead 
Fathers, for they are ‘* ideridcal in being.'" So Agni says when 
the laitEr is cursed by Bhrigu g “The divinities and the Manes 
are satisited by the oblati on in lire. The h osts of gods are winters, 
too, are the Manes, The feasts of the newr and full moon 
belong to the gods with the Planes; hence the Manes arc 
divinities and the divinities are Manes. They are of one 
being I (Fire) am the month of boEh^ for both eat 

the oblation poured upon mu. The Manes a t the new moon, the 
gods at the full, are fed by my mouth"' (i. 7. Such gods 

the epic hero fears not (i. 337. 3B ff.). Hymns to them are par¬ 
alleled by h)iiins to snakes, as in i. 3. i34fF., against whom is 
'made the (snake sacrifice) of the Furanas” 

(i, 51. 6)p Divinity is universal, Knights are as divine as the 
divinest god, the All-god. Arjuna, the god-bom man, to whom 
Krishna reveals the Divine Song, is himself god* In this case 
whether god becomes human^ or f /rja, no one knows. 

Under the all-embracing cloak of pantheism the heart of the 
epic conceals many .in ancient rite and superstition. Here is 
the covenant of blood, the covenant of death (represented by 
the modem * silting " and the covenant of watcr^ which sym¬ 
bolizes both friendship and the solemnity' of the curse. The 
former are illustrated by Bhima"s drinking blood as a sign that 
he will fulfil his vow/ and by Rama lying by Ocean to die 
unless Ocean grants his wish. Of the water^rite that of oAFcn 

i t S3, IJ ffn Hit lafwitaUv k 3^. 

^ II i3 at t^ fimenl feasla to Ihi ^Idldjh tlial the U to be icdled 

P- 61. 3 ?>. 

^ Arfiim h SIQ old bane o( ladra, Abd k thb rpic Arjana Ki Izkdn'i vhIh 

* The JAatMa $r at a lto«r^ viH^ch itlll obtaliu In India, 

■o u ve knov, cot a vcff aiHdent pradtjjD& But ItA apphcatlwa in thir of 
ImaldA (whs ’b^ame rspoaulbk') is vpi 

^ Thli Ej tbe env^ant (wflh fricivdh) of rr?cnge; the EoveoaRt bf tnutbAi irroteo 
Hon In tiM iaaifkic is indlcaEcd bf the *■ pOtevtlbn Cviitiuj]t * ui I±k f odi (m the 
chapter del DrabnonliEn above, p>. 1^3), 


T//£ /i^EL/G/0,VS OF 

mg water in hospitality and as a form in i-ecepttdti of gifts is 
general; that of cnrsitig by "touching water' {vary i^us/frfya)^ 
occurs in nu to. j2. For this purpose holy-grass and oth^r sym¬ 
bols are known also,* and formulae yield only in potency to 
love-philters and magk drugs. Another covenant besides 
those just noticed seems to lie concealed in the avoidance of 
the door when injury b intended. If one goes tn by the door 
he is a guest who has anticipated hospitality^ and then he dares 
1 not refuse the respect and offering of water, etc, which makes 
the formal pact of fnendshtp. If^ on the contrary^ he does not 
go in by the door he is not obliged to receive the offering, and 
may remain as a foe in ttic house (or in the city) of his enemy, 
with intent to kill, but without moral wrong. This m.iy be im^ 
plied in the end of the epic, where A^vstthiiman, intent on 
Mcret murder of hLs foe, is prevented by god C^’iva from enter¬ 
ing in at the gate, but going in by stealth, and ‘ not by the 
door* of the camp, gets to his foe, who lies asleep, and kills 
him (i. s. lo). This might be thought, indeed, to be merely 
strategic, but k is in accordance with the strict law of aJJ the 
law-baoks that one, in ordinary circumstances, shall avoid to 
enter a town or a house in any other way than through the 
door (xManu. iv. yj; Gaut. 9. 3*, etc.), and'we think it has a 
moral signiheance, for this o-ntjrw (non-door) rule occurs 
again in the epic in just the circumstances we have described. 
The heroes in this case are not afraid of their foe, who is in 
his town. They insult every one as they approach, but they 
find some other way of getting in than by passing through the 
gate, for the express purpose of being morally able to make the 
king fight with them after they have entered his city. And 
they cite the rule ‘according to law,' which is that one may 
enter his foe’s house hya,/i-ara. 'not by door,' but his friend's 
house only * by door.' As they have not entered ‘ by door ’ they 
say they may refuse the hospitality which the king urges them 

1 Sw an gn Iht RiUing in Iht Id JAOS. liiL ff. 

EAA'ir ///.YDir/SM. 

3 ^ 

to accept, and 30 thcy^ kill him (ii* at. 14, 53). Stepping in 
through the door seems^ ihtrrcfoie^ to be a tadt agreement that 
one will not injure the resident/ 

tn the epic, again^ fetishism is found. The student of the 
‘science of war,* fn order to obtain his teacher's knowledge 
w'hen the latter is awaj\ makes a clay image of the preceptor 
and worships this day idol, practicing anus before it (i 
33). Here too is embalmed the belief that man's life may be 
bound up with that of some inanimate thing, and the man 
perishes with the destruction of his psychic prototype (iii. 135), 
The old ordeals of fine and water are recognized, Fire does 
not burn the house of good men,'' If (as this man asserts) 
he Is Varuna^s son, then let him enter water and let ns see if 
he will drown" (iii. 134. 37 ff.). A human sacrifice is per¬ 
formed (iii+ ^37); although the priest who performs it is cast 
into hell (fA. laS).* The teaching in regard to hells is about 
the same with that already explained in connection with the 
law-books, but the mere definite physical interpretation of hell 
as a hole in the ground just as in the Rig Veda) is 

retained. Agastya sees his ancestors * in a hole/ which they 
call * a hell ^ (^m/jw). This is evidently the hell known to the 
law-punsters and epic (i. 74- 59} as * the /w/ hell' from 

which the son delivers (/rj). For these ancestors are in 

the ‘hole * because Agastya, their descendants has not done his 
duty and begotten sons (i. 45. 13; iii. 96. 15); one son being 
“no son * according to law^ and epic (i- 100. 68), and ail the 
mertt of sacrifice being equal to only cnc^sixteenth of that 
obtained by having a son. The teaching, again, in regard to 

1 JtrGrrrnU Dcctor If. C. TniinbuU hu kLudljr calk4 ewr attenUon Iq 

p, tt W aJU ttut Ir IndU iht tlimfadd Ei 

sjifnd. In t& cptoiwH in the law, T>t, Tnrnibalts t>wn 

I'orthrajiklni; Iwok as Cere^EURta nujr be 

^ Uut thc!K- ajR bf iH mcjini ihc bil ciLaanp3« ai hutnAn sacHfvcK 5 €i«r 1 of 
tltc ffkodcm HhidR fam auistd to pi$443rtwd such Cftn Sn tku cbr 




the Fathers themselves (the Manes), while not differing materi¬ 
ally from the older view, offers novelties which show how little 
the absorption-theoty had taken hold of the religious con, 
sciotisness, Ihe very fact that the son is still considered to 
be as necessary' as ever (that he may offer'food to his ances- 
tors) shows that the believer, whatever his professed faith, ex¬ 
pects to depend for bliss hereafter upon his moHm meaisi, 
much as did his fathers upon theirs. In the matter of the 
T burial of the dead, one finds, what is antique, that althoi^h 
according to the formal law only infants are buried, and adults 
are burned, yet was burial known, as in the Vedic age. .\nd tho 
still older exposure of the body, after the Iranian fashion, is 
not only hinted at as occurring here and them even before tJie 
epic, but in the epic these forms are alt recognized ns equally 
approved: “When a man dies he is burned or buried or ex¬ 
posed {nikr^'ate')^ it is said in i, 90, ly; and the narrator 
goes on to explain that the “hell on earth," of which the 
auditor “has never heard " (vs. d) is rt^birth in low bodies, 
speaking of it as a new doctrine.jt" As if in .a dream remain¬ 
ing conscious the spirit enters another formthe bad be¬ 
coming insects and worms; the good going to heaven by 
means of the “seven gates," viz., penance, liberality, quietism, 
self-eontrol, modesty, rectitude, and mercy, This is a union 
of two views, and it is evidently the popular view, that, namely, 
the good go to heaven while the bad go to new existence in a 
low form, as opposed to the more logical conception that both 
alike enter new forms, one good, the other bad. Then the 
established stadia, the pupil, the old teaching {upanishaii') of 
the householders, and the wood-dwellers are described, with 
the remark that there Is no uniformity of opinion in regard to 
them; but the ancient view crops out again in the st.'itement 

■uUoq pf the eittjne <ihrowD ayldc' in ataviUna wHih the mriio^ text, AV. iviJL 1 
34 {/art/fi,), where lh« Ae«l ere ‘buifed, thtown uide. bunred, qt ret tmt* 



that one who dies as a forest-hermit establishes in bliss"' ten 
ancestors and ten descenckuts. In this part of the epic the Pun¬ 
jab is still near the theatre of eventSp the * centre region * being 
between the Ganges and Jumna (L Sj, 5); although the later 
additions to the poems show acquainLance with all countries^ 
known and unknown, and with peoples from all the world. 
Signiheant in xlL 61* i, 2 b the name of the third order 
MatAsAj^artir/tim ^beggarhood^ (before the forest-hermit and 
after, the householder). 

It was said above that the departed Fathers could assume a 
mortal form. In the formal classification of these demigods 
seven kinds of Manes are enumerated, the title of one subdivi¬ 
sion being ‘those emlmdied.' Hrahml is identified with the 
Father-god in connection with the Manes: *'AII the Manes 
worship Frajapatl Brahma^" in the paradise of Prajapatu 
whercT by the way^ are ^iva and Vishnu (iL it, 45, 50, 52j 8* 
30). According to this description 'kings and sinnerSp^ to¬ 
gether with the Manesp are found in Yama's home, as well as 
-Hhose that die at the solstice” S. 31). Constantty 

the reader is impressed with the fact that the characters of the 
epic ore acting and thinking in a way not conformable to the 
idea one might form of the Hindu from the lawp We have 
animadverted upon this point elsewhere in connccdon with 
another matter. It is this factor that makes the study of the 
epic so invaluable as an offset to the verisimilitude of belief,even 
as belief is taught (not practiced) in the law. >There is a verys^^ 
old rulet for instance, against slaughtering animals and eating ' 
meat; while to eat beef is a monstrous crime. Yet is it plain 
from the epic that meat-eating i*'as customaiyp and Vedic texts 
are cited (1// frufis) to prove that this is permissible; while 
king is extolled for slaughteritig cattle (iii. 20S. 6-11)^ It is ^ 
said out and out in ill. 315. S6 that 'beef is foedp"^^"^ 

Deer are constantly eaten. ^There is an amusing protest 
against this practiccp which w^as felt to be irrccoticilable with 


T/yj: Oe Evn/A. 

the (noD-injury) doctrine^ in iiL 258+ where the rem- 

tianl cif deer left in the forest come in a vision and beg to be 
spared. A dispute between gods and seers over vegetable 
sacrifices is recorded, xiL 35S. Again, asceticism U not the 
duty of a warrior* but tlie epic hero practices asceticlsrn 
exactly as if he were a priest, or a Jain, although the warning 
is given that a warrior " obtains a better lot' (M^i) by dying ir 
battle than by asceticism^ The asceticism is, t>f course, exag¬ 
gerated, but an instance or two of what the Itindu expects in 
this regard may not be without interestHldThe warrior who be¬ 
comes an ascetic eats leaves, and is clothed in grass. For one 
month he eaia fniits every third day (night)^ lor anoiher 
month every sixth day; for another month every fortnight; 
and lor the fourth month he lives on nir, standing on tiptoe 
with arms stretched up^yL Another account says that the knight 
eats fruit for one month; water for one month; and for the 
third month, nothing (uL 33, 73; 3S. 22-26; 167)* One may 
compare with these ascetic practices* which are not so ex¬ 
aggerated, in fact, as might be sup|>osed/ the ^one*leg" prac¬ 
tice of virtue, consisting in stnndiiig on one leg, for 

six months or longer, as one is able (i. *70. 46; iii. la. Jj-ib)* 
Since learning the Vedas Is a tiresome task, and ascetic prac¬ 
tice makes it possible to acquire anything, one is not surprised 
to find that a devotee undertakes penance with this in view, 
and is only surprised when India, who, to be sure has a personal 
interest in the Vedas, breaks in on the scene and rebukes the 
ascetic with the words : Aacedcism cannot teach the Vedas; 
go and be tutored by a teacher (ill. 135. 32). 

One finds in the epic the old belief that the stars are 
the souls of the departed,* and this occurs so often that it is 

1 lilt Id k'i 3 . 364. 2 that and air'* aiv f<»od ivr a great 

flaiBt. C«mi|Nire beVw the adtLU aieetLckia ef modifrti deVetm. 

^ 1 ^. iA - . Jiri ri/raMSmfL Compare iA. j6i -1J, the apoca- 

bpse vfi. 19a. yT fLr wlwre I>fOP4% aOul ^M c ti d * to ib<!a.vcaj a biimliL| fire EUre a 



another sign of the comparattve newness of the pantheistic 
doctrine* When the heron Arjunap goes to heaven he aph 
proaches the stars* "tvhtch seen from earth look small on 
account of their distance,"’ and finds them to be self-luminous 
refulgent saints, roynl seers, and heroes slain in battle, some of 
them also being nymphs and celestial singers. All of this is 
in contradiction both to the older and to the newer systems of 
eschatology t but it is an ancient belief, and therefore it is pre- 
seir\’ird. Indra"s heaven,^ Amar^^ati, lies above these stars.* 
Ko less than five distinct beliefs are ihns enunciated in regard 
to the fate of good men after death. If they believe in the 
All-god theyamite with him at once. Or they have a higher 
course, becoming gradually more elevated, as gods* etc., and 
ultimately ‘ enter' the All-god. Again they go to the world of 
Brahma. Again they go to Indra^s heaven. Again they be^ 
come stars. The two last beliefs are the old^t, the i^roAma- 
fokit l>cl3ef is the next in order of time, and the fitst-mendoned 
are the latest to be adopted. I'be hero of the epic just walks 
up to heaven, but his case is exceptional. 

While angels and spirits swarm about the world in every 
shape from mischievous or helpful fairies to Rahu, whose head 
still swallows the sun, causing eclipses (i. 19. 9), there are a 
lew' that are especially conspicuous. Chief of the good spirits, 
attendants of Indra, are the ^iddhas,* ^saints/ who occasion¬ 
ally appear to bless a hero in eon junction with " beings invis- 

nn i in aJuLFp ooQtrari to ihc older * Ihmubkiit ^ »hkh Vuu fwlw and rar- 

4^ In ibe Uie of Compare ahe AruniDtiU Ul L »j. 

J De*^l*d, aa< abov^ as a plow of and danczi^ m iho V«Lk god^ 

Bjad btil im sJjttien Qf cowards (liL ^4 ff,), 

* Kreni anotbm- polot 4^ viow tltn stars of Infnoit. -Ther are or 

uuTitvnnkblb^ wntionU klod, m traftuHitial in mu's Compirc liL »a S4, 

wheiw ihfl sun Es inclaM; with {pLuwts) whldi laJItwi™ mcit, ud O’, 

309, ffi, 

* Other of li^dra"* spirib an the GudlMrrAa and Apur^$AS - aImp the 

hnocdieaded K Enoar^ and Carenas, "ho, too^ are sEnj^fere; while lator the Vidyir 

brlcKn[f hoih to lodre and la In irwdcna tlcoes ibe Sontti Indian Sit- 

lore, ■ saints,' Ulfv thcEi iuedc from tba Siddhas. 


T//£ ^£L/aJOJ^ OP 

iblc^ (iiL 37, 3 i)* Thtir mrnc tiieans literally * blessed * or 
* Siiccsrssful/ and probably, like the seers^ Ri^hi&, they arc the 
departed fathers in spiritual form. These latter form various 
classes. There are not only the * great seers,' and the still 
greater * and the Vgod-seers/ but there are even 

‘ deviUseers^^ and * king-seers/ these being spirits of priests of 
royal lineages/ The evil spints^ like the godSj are sometimes 
grouped in threes. In a blessing one cries out: Farewell 
(st^li ^a^^AaAj' an 3 mii^mm) ; I entreat the Vasus, Rudras, Adi- 
tyas, Marut-hosts and the All-gods to protect thee, together 
with the Sadhyas ; safety be to thee from all the evil beings 
that live in ain earth, and heaven, and from all mhers that dog 
thy path."^ In jcti. 166. 61 ff. the devils fall to earth, mouth 
tains, water, and other places. According to i. 19. ag. it is 
not long since the Asuras w'ere driven to take refuge in earth 
and salt water.* 

These creatures have eifciy kind of miraculous powder, 
whether they be good or bad. Hanuman, famed in both 
epics, the divine monkey, with whom is associated the divine 
^king of bears^ Jambavan (lit. 2S0. 23), can grow greater than 
mortal eye can see (iib 150. 9)* He is still wwshipped as a 
great god in South India, As an illustration of epic spiritism 
the case of llvala may be taken. I'hts devil, had a 

trick of cooking his embodied younger brother, and giving 
him to saints to eat. One saint, supposing the flesh to be 
mutton (here is saintly meat-eating I), devours the dainty viand : 
upon which the devil ‘calls' hLs brother, who is obliged to 
come, whether eaten or not, and in coming bursts the saint 

t lo tliav I4 thm taint! K/n of carapmiAdI ia In iftrarfi 

anU ijf uHcUted with iMdJhu in LM, 169. aj. Ubt 

*d£in&ni ud auy 

a iiL .% 

* \Vi!fccr Id the Asui^" artiiafi, Aum a iVaiEEiis^xfHe of PEufemaios- 

He U In L 39, and IL 1, a^d li tbe ^tnertil kodcr of the 

denuMH, periu|a od^iullr Si fdllc-ttAmc id CHiniB. 



that has eat€ti him (iii. 96). This is folk-Lone ^ hul what reli¬ 
gion does not folk-lore contain I So, personified Fate holds 
its own as an inscrutable power, mightier than others/ There 
is another touch of primitive religious feeling which reminds 
one of the usage in Iceland, where, ii a stranger knacks at the 
door and the one within asks*who is there?' the guest an¬ 
swers, ^God.^ So in the epic it Is said that * ever)^ guest b god 
Indra' {ParJafS}'a ^nna/iasam^araftr iii. 200. i2j. In the epic 
Parjanyaf the rain-god, and Indra are the same)^ Of popular 
old tales of religious bearing may be mentioned the retention i 
and elaboration of the Hrahmanic deluge-story, with Manu as I 
Noah (iii. 1&7) i the Alvins' feats in rejuvenating (ill. 123); 
the combats of the gods with the demons (Namuci, ^ambaraj 
Vala, Vritra, Prahlida, Naraka), etc. {iii* 16S)* 

Turning now to some of the newer traits 10 the epic, one 
notices first that, while the old sacrifices still obtain, especially 
the horse-3acrifice+ the rfljait^rn and the less uieritoiious 

together with the monthly and seasonal sacrihees, there 
U in practice □ leaning rather to new sacrifices, and a new 
cult* The simta is scarcet and the plant is accepted as 

its substitute (iiL 35. 33) in a matter-of-course way, as Lf this 
substitution, permitted of old by law^ were now common. l‘he I 
sacrihee of the widow is recogniaed, in the case of the wives ! 
of kings, ns a means of obtaining bliss for a woman/ for the 
religion of the epic is not entirely careless of woman. Some- ‘ 
what new* however, is the self-immolation of a man upon the 
pyre of his son. Such a case is recorded in iii. 137, [9, 
where a father bums his spnb body, aod then himself enters 

I See beJ&v. Tbc foniul diidMan iVn, fate dfpcndi 

va gDdi,F3ET, and tiis smti isl?; alUrotigih Fate, la Impliisii tbv 

ditine But tlwt tit for cujnplf, In HI. 1B3. Sfi. 

^ CompM uhI kU. ^ To/f (ftutlH). In regard to the honHKriHfx, 

COmpoA Yuna'a law as expoanded tn OaataniA: ^ Tht uti % «hkh vtm b1l» 

hereafecT an uutcrtU«i, padtjf, trtilh, WHSibip id afld Uw 

■iL rl9L 9,1Q^ 


r//£ ££l/G/OyS AV£f/A. 

the fire. New Also, of cour^e^ are the sectarian fe&tivals 
and sacrifices; and pronouaced is the gain in the godhead of 
priests, Jang*^ parents, elder brother, and husband, I'he priest 
has long been regarded as a god, hut in the epic he is god of 
gods, although one can trace e%'en here a growth in adulation.* 
The king, too, has been Identified before this period witli the 
gods. But in the epic he is to his people an absolute divinity,’ 
and so are the parents to the soti;^ while, since the elder 
brother is the same with a father, when the father is dead the 
younger brother worships the elder. So also the wife’s god is 
her husband \ for higher even than that of the priest is the 
husband's divinity (ilL 2o6), The wife^s religious service is 
not Concerned with feasts to the Maties^ with sicriftce to the 
gods, nor with stud)nng the Veda* In ail these she has no 
part* Her religion Is to ser^e her husband (Hi. Z05. 23), and 
to die, if worthy of the honor, on his funeral pyre. Other¬ 
wise the epic woman has religious practices only in visiting the 
holy watering-places, which now abound, and in reading the 
epic itselb For it is said of botb^practicesi Whether man or 

!! woman read this book (or * visit this holy pool *> he or she is 
freed from sin^' (so In iii* 82* 33: ** Every sin coimnitted since 
birth by man or woman is absolved by bathing tn holy Fush- 
kara "). It may be remarked that as a general thing the dci- 
j ties invoked by women are, by predilection, female divinities, 
A some of them being mere abstractions, while * the Creator ' 15 

^ Compare liL mo. S84, tvep piiosts ore dliriiifr smd Uariyc (cbh^ no#? In 

LUtf Tujfar^ Is appeal va retina pdesta. 

^ llL iSj* 3&^3i, 

■ " Wr fattier ind nwihw are wij hlj^hai I do fiir thsm irfmt t do for Idoli 
A* Uw Ihree and ijodj, with lodni foreimt, are nv^od of all world^» 

are my |n±EE;|3 teverod by ew"^ (lii. an. ia% tlw ipoalae iunher ealh theffii. 
/nrnm.-im absolute iodbead, *ik3 mpbJns. hLi fiM nrouik by haying tbit ha 

trite* frnltA and flowm to Id* panivti dj tf tStj wm MdIl Ip iv. 6S. ^7 a man 
laJutw liii falWa f«t od rptofinf IbIo hk prBttfKX. Faf the 

of parent* comima zli 1 9.10; jSy. jj, *iii, 75, ^ ^hetpa In ^d»dlen« 

to the hjptiwr,'’ 

£A/?LV ///jVDLV^-M- 


jften the only god in the woman^s Iht, 03 ieept+ of courscj ihe 
Revere lice to priests, and lo iho Creator * . , May 
Hri, i^rl (Modesty and Beauty), Fame, Gloryp Prosperity, 
Umd (^tva's wLfe)p Lak^hmi tYishnu’^ wife), and aliso Sams^ 
(may all these female divinities) guard thy path, because 
thou reverest thy elder brother," is a woman's prayer (iii- 37^ 

Of the sectarian cults just mentioaed the L 

164. 20, elsewhere referred to, is the ali-caste’ feast in honor 
of Brahma (or of the Brahmans); as/#. 143.3 one ^rid^^stimtija 
in honor of ^iva; and distinctly in honor of the same god of 
horror is the sacrifice, immolation, of one hundred kings, 1 
who are collected “iri the temple of ^Iva^" to he slaughtered 
like cattle iu Magadha (iL 1 5. 23) ; an act which the heroes of ^ 
the epic prevent, and look upon with scom** As a substitute J 
for the w^hich may be connected with the human sac¬ 
rifice (fmf, i, 6i)j but Is the best sacrifice because it 

has the best largesse (iil. 235. 12)+ the Vaishnava is suggested 
to Duryodhana. It is a great stiUr-am or long sacrifice to 
Vishnu (i#p 15 and 17); longer than a Vishnuprabodha^aGOct,). 
There is a Smriti rite desenhed in iii^. T98- 13 
a ceremony to obtain a heavenly chariot which brings prosperity, 
the priests being invoked for blessings (jtmtiX Qaite mod- ' 
em, comparatively speaking, is the cult of holy pools; but it is I 
to be observed that the blessings expected are rarely more 
than the acquirement of worlds, so that the institution 

seems to be at least older than the sectarian religions^ although 
naturally among the holy pools is intruded a Vishnu-pcol. 
This religious rite cannot be passed over in silence. The 
custom is late Brahmanic (as above)^ and still sunives. It 

1 The RiaHfHl Hfaliftia CTcatopwonlup li a btl of CemimHia cmtMmlLfM 

(i<e bclq^). 

3 hiw Uiawn that mtn of ksw cube a subcrilinaftr part in the 

r^ai^ya aacriSpe, 

* ta IL iS. thm h a hmd iMiyt appointed ita Ikuhkt of a fond, rlt 

r//£ X£L/G/0A^S 


ba5 been an aspect of Hindu religiQn for centuries^ not only in 
the view taken of the pools, but even occasionally in the place 
itself. Thus the Ganges, Gay4, Prayaga+ and Kum-rbin arc 
to-day most holy+ and they are locntionecl as among the 
I holiest in the epic catalogue.^ Soma is now revamped by a 
jbath in a holy pool (ix. 35, 75)^ As in cveiy antithesis of act 
and thought there are not lacking passages in the epic which 
decry the pools in comparison with holy life as a means of salva- 
|don. Thus in liL 3 i. 9 If,, the pwi says; *‘The fruit of pil¬ 
grimage (to holy pools) — he whose handst feet* and mind are 
controlled;* he w^ho has knowiedge^ asceticism, and fame, he 
gets all the fruit that holy pools can give. H one is averse 
from receiving gifts, content^ freed from egoism^ if one*injures 
f not, and acts disinterestedly, if one is not gluttonous, or camal- 
1 minded, he is freed from sin. Let one (not bathe in pools but) 
be without wrath, truthful, firm in his vows, seeing his self in 
I all beings/' This is, however, a protest little heeded.* Pil- 
Igrlmage is made to pool and plain, to mountain, tree, and 
river. Even then, as now, of all pilgrimages that to Gauges 
I was most esteemed ; “ Originally all were holy | in the second 
age Pushkara* was holy; in the third age the Plain of the 
Kurus was holy; and in this age Ganges is holy ” (ili, S5, ^o).* 
Besides Ganges, the Plain of the Kurus and Prayaga, the junc- 
( tion of Ganges and Jumna, get the highest laudation. Other 
; rivers, such as the Gomal and Sarasvatl, arc also extolled, and 

1 liC Xf. fij (87,11), Hc ih^ fir^i Sdaa In |he Injanctkin of Indn ta' w^Jidef 
u LdU in tlie uJ^ c 4 Doffstdl b Brihitiaoii i^sw nbem). 

^ Tbc fofiBulA (a 3 *rj AftAtnn) b + pufc lti Uiwxtil, ^popch, uul a£l.* Ttw 

KNnpaitsoD oIUh: ftU to kutitstraiitai^ ^Id bena u (Hi nt, 34). 

i Thetfe 1*, fuTtbR', ui bSaniiiiJtjr in rcj^inl ta iIk ^mpara^tfre tiJiu H0I7 
pUen, In liL 151. j,, SmiiraW H hol 3 «: thao rtc. 

* At PtiifalcsTa is ( 7 ) uoniAt U biii ha'H 

histofini The ilurCnc xt AJmJf to \m etxitiL 

* O-AOEn, ftccQfding to wai w. noi^ced bcncH for nwn 

whMlVeirth^jii puebH and tm pefblicd. Then Gonjf?* 4W M Immatt^h 
took pity on TiMsn, aad flinjsioK h™if f^™ 

the atiHtn AItIdc. Her 

namt JUBODS th« |pi],b ALd^^nudj. the ‘ Btnwd Dumm;!.’ 

S 7 S 

the Hst IS very long of places which to see or to bathe in releases 
from sin, He who bathes in Ganges purihes seven descend¬ 
ants.^ As long as the bones of a man touch Ganges'water so 
long that man is magnifiud in heaven,*' Again t ** No place of 
pilgrimage is better than Ganges; no god is better than Vishnu; 
nothing is better tlian ^raAfna — so said the sire of the gods*' 
(iii. 85- 94-5^6)* The very dust of K uni'Plain nraakes one 
holy, the sight of it purifies; he that lives sooth of the Saras- 
vati, north of the Diishadvati in Kuiru-Plain)^ he lives in 
the third heaven {iii, S3. i-3 = ?03-i05 This sort of expia* 
tion for sin is implied in a more genera! way by the remark that 
there are three kinds of purity^ one of speecht one of act, and 
one of'water (iii. 200. 82). But in the ,epic there is still 
another means of expiating sin, one that is indicated in the 
Brahmanic rule that if a woman is an aduitness she destroys 
half her sin by confessing it {as above)^ where, howeverj 
repentance is rather implied than commanded. But in the epic 
Purana it is distinctly staled as a f rulk or trite saying, that 
if one repents he is freed from his sin ; fjii /tif fiaftnr is 

the formula he must use, * I will not do so again/ and then he 
is released from even the sin that he is going to commit a sec¬ 
ond time, as if by a ceremony—so is the C^ili in the laws, 
^//^armi 7 s (iii. 207. 51, ^1)* Confession to the family priest is 
enjoined, in xii. a6S. 14, to escape punishment. 

1 tn itL S7.10. tea jAAilbdrE.'’ Tbc Epie^ L ifo. 1% iv^HJrtjL 

Lhe Suuif^ and Jumna u |i^irtj of llk& iorntfoLl which enoenda (rooi 

iho b^TCfu u theso three, and aba oi Ihe Vita^ithil | K alliuthair SonyE, GaiqaU, 
:^iid i hetnj tfcielf * VjUtar^jil ainof^g ihc So idi. 33J. ja. 

3 Aecwdln^ |& |]te commefltaUjr the *-(oarth^u altar ti FaUieT'^) Koni' 
kihctra-^oinantapaiVcalum, iKiween TariTiEukx, ArantukaH R£m;iluvla, 

Itmlcar Tncntiojxd In ^^L aotf, li» lo tlenare^; hut thb must be a taie add^iian, 
u KurLLk^lictr4% poiijtipfl b wrHho«t dotlbL Campaf« L a I f.; tx. 5 3|. 1,35-25. 

■ In 4 maM mTi/lMdDrtf 4 /UjM/, ttHio La ao IntEn^iag ranuniscencE of 

Rig Veda, tLl ^ a. The rut» of virtue an contaioed In Vedjs abd la*i^»ok5i, and, 
the id rocflp fA Sj <tlit * thnefnJd Bign of fl^tjeob:isw % A 

dted from dAarmat ti tidt uacoouiMa, but tJ^ latter word a sot ^jKtly 
Id w wide i kdk iSoa DoCe belaw^ p. 57S. 




^ Two other rfiligious practices in the epic nre noteBiorthv. 
n The first is the extension of idolatTy in pictures. The amiable 
^ ' goddess of the house ’ is represented, to be sure, as a kskshasi. 
f[ or demoniac power, whose name is Jari. But she was created 
I by the Self-existent, and is rcaiEy very friendly, under certain 
conditions: “Whoever delineates me with faith in his house, 
. he increases in children; otherwise he wouid be destroyed." 
I She is worshipped, I'.r., her painted image is worshipped, with 
' perfum^ do wars, incense, food, and other enjoyable things 
v(ii. i8|^^Another practice that is very eommon is the worship 
of holy trees, One may compare the banyan at Hodhi Gaya 
with the ‘worshipful ’ viliage-tree of ii. 34. 23. Seldom and late 
is the use of a rosary mentioned (^j,, iii. iia. 5, aksAamSia, 

I elsewhere although the word is employed to make an 

■f epithet of ^iva, Akshamalin.Jp^ 

As has been said already, ,an extraordinary power is ascribed 
to the mere repetition of a holy text, mantra. These are 
applied on all occasions without the slightest reference to the 
subject. iJy means of maHlra one exorcises j recovers weap¬ 
ons; calls gods and demons, etc.^ When misfortune or disease 
arrives it is invariably ascribed to the malignant action of a 
devil, although the karma teaching should suggest that it was 
the result of a former misdeed on the victim’s part. But the 

very iteration, the insistence on new esplanations of this doctrine, 

show that the popular mind still clung to the old idea of demo¬ 
niac interference. Occasionally the naivetd with which the 

I Srniie «hobn we in the use of the , e Vedle pktsriai of gnii; but In all 

initanm where this ocnin it uay Ic unb the mEmt-^eture the eod ^ adarned' 

wilih vartoiu 

V In vU. *>(. *9, nan an In *33. ji jj, the Clrrtka wean an 

fw he tidl&£ul#d ^ B hhik4kH^ 

* It ifiu^ rememtK«d tlut tlw penoB haId^ the ppql^blj did ivDt 

iLftdttia^md what nte mKuit. TU e|ric aijr*. In fact, that the Vfda* are 

bnlnlellLglble^ liL 339, 6 l Bwt aji older fftArfutioB 

OwqRht the 5MML la Mfnlct,, L 15, KlisNa in died » Hylbg that the 



elTcct of a mantra is narrated is somewhat amusing, as* for 
instance, when the heroine Krishnd faints, and the by-stauders 
■‘slowly" revive her “by the use of demoiniispelling maairaSt 
rubbing, water, and fanning" (iii. 144, j^). AIJ the weapons 
of tbe heroes are inspired with and impelled by mmtrai. 

Sulheient insight into the formal rules of morality has 
been giv'en m the extracts above, nor does the epic in this 
regard differ much from the law-books. Every man’s first duty 
is to act, inactivity is sinful. The man that fails to win a good 
reputation by his acts, a wanior, for example, that is devoid of 
fame, a ‘ man of no account,’ is a iASmft artfAti/ta, 
a cumberer of earth (iii. 35, 7). A proverb says that man 
should seek vortue, gain, and pitasure^ “virtue in the morn¬ 
ing I gain at noon ; pleasure at night,” or, according to another 
version, “pleasure when young, gain in middic-age, and virtue 
in the end of life’' (iii. 33.40,41), ■*Virtue is better than 

immortality and life. K-ingdom, sons, glory, wealth, all this 
does not equal one-sixteenth part of the value of truth" 
(rlJ, 34 - 22).* One very strong summing up of a discourse on 
virtuous behavior ends Urns? “Truth, self-control, asceticism, 
generosity, noiiritijury, constancy in virtue — these are the 
means of success, not caste nor family ” (/j/f, An fa, iii. iSi. 42), 

A doctrine practiced, if not preached, is that of blood- 
revenge. “The unavenged shed tears, which are wiped avmy 
by the avenger” (iii. 11. 66); and in accordance with this feel¬ 
ing is the statementt “I shall satiate my brother with his 
murderer’s blood, and thus, becoming free of debt in respect of 
my brother, I shall win the highest place io heaven " (iA. 34,33). 

.^s of old, despite the new faith, as a matter of priestly, for¬ 
mal belief, all depends 00 the sacrifice; “Law comes from 
usage; tn law' are the Vedas established; by means of the 
Vedas arise sacrifices; by sacrifice are the gods established; 

1 Conpan xll. 17^. 4&: * Tie hqr of esrth tint heann fibbOiwd by 
at Jvtire li cMrt -wwth of th« bliu of 


2CcoTding to the mk of Vt<las, and usage, sacrifices being per¬ 
formed support the divinities, just ns the niJes of Urihaspati 
and L'i’anas support men” (iii. ijo. *8,19). The pitrnidoius 
doctrine of atonement for sin foilows as a matter of course r 
. “ Whatyer sin a king commits in conquering the earth is atoned 

I for by saentices, if they are accom^mnied with large gifts to 

i priests, such as cows and viilages,” Even gifts to a sacred 
bull have the same effect (iij. 33. 78, 79; ti. 35, 34; JiL a, 57), 
the occasion in hand being a hing's violation of his oath.*^Of I 
these sacrifices a great snaki^acrifice forms the occasion for' 
narrating the whole epic, the plot of which turns on the national 
vice of gambling.* For divine snakes are now even grouped 
with other celestial powers, disputing the victory of earthly 
combatants as do Indra and Serya; “The great snakes were 
on Arjuna’s side; the little snakes were for Kama*' (viii, S7. 
44. +5)-‘ They were (perhaps) the local gods of the N9gas 
(Snakes), a tribe Jiving between the Canges and Jumna. 

The religion of the epic is mukiform. Hut it stands, in a 
certain sense, as one religion, and from two points of v'iew it is 
worthy of special regard. One m.ty look upon it either as the 
summing up of Brahmanism in die new Hinduism, as the final 
expression of a reH^on which forgets nothing and absorbs 
fiveryihing; or one may study it as a belief composed of historical 
strata, endeavoring to divide it into its different layers, as they 

i Bj jetinKMUy lh« Hindit pott akaeis -t,, jttjota.' m UL »», where llil» b 
elibonUed, ibbcn penou wb mralimiMl {»», 4 ) to whuu to gt^ b ntrt iuccttorioui, 

» Utile Is kDown in tegaid to the pby. The din ue thin,rp qb b baanl, ♦mW 
^ e*™- deterniiiie the cwticrt hi» (Hi j*. 5), njiy,, and At timei B»ced 

nrcc (iVcPCf^ p. buE aot, apparentl^^ iin ajueb^tut traJi, 

* EhImic iQ. Vaniai vsd Ms u dfehoibed in It Is oel die 

licad of die that Viihqji jfium, Hi 13. 'Hw 

^ to b. rhual lit the Atham Veda. Enn En the Hig 

iJw ddf^stion of the cL«it3->«ke. In blef eq thS 

l-jEog ttiteiiTj of (Biihitf K In i. t<L C«ha 

Aflinta wpporti «Jth, aiid it Ej tmkt why be daes hl ^ ^ 


be«n sup^r-impo^d one upoo another in the course of 
ages. From the latter point ol view the Vedic dlviniiles claiin 
the attention first. There are sdll . traces of the original power 
of Agni and SQjya, as we have showrit and Wind still makes 
with these two a notable triad,^ whereas Indra^ impotent as he 
is, hymn less as he is^—save in the oldest portions of the work, ^^— 
still leads the gods, now godkins, of the andent pantheon, and 
stilly in theory, at least, offers a paradise to the knight that dies 
nobly on the field,* But one sees at once that the preserva¬ 
tion of the dignity of these deities is due to different causes. 
India cannot eiren save a snake that grasps his hand for safety ; 
he wages war against the demons' ‘ triple towDj^ and signally 
fails of his purpose, for the demons arc as strong as the gods, 
and there are Danavendras as well as Danavarshis.* But 
Indra is the figure-head of the whole ancient pantheon, and 
for this reason he plays so constant, if so weak, a role, in the 
epic. The only important thing in connection with him is hi* 
henivcn. As an individual deity Indra lives^on the whole^ only 
in the tales of old, for example, In that of his cheating Namuci 
(ix. 4j, 52 ff*). Nothing new and clever is told of him which 
w'ould indicate power, only a new trick or two, as when he 
steals from Kama. It U quite otherwise with Agni and 
Sftrya. They are not so vaguely Jdentifiecl with the one god 
as is *■ Indra and the other %^nsus.' It is merely because 
these gods are prominently forms of Vishnu that they are 
honored with hymns in the epic. This is seen from the 
nature of the hymns, and also from the fact that it is either as 
fire or as snn that Vishnu destroys at the end of the aeons. 
For it is, perhaps, somewhat daring to say, and yet it seems to 
be the fact, that the solar origin of Vishnu is not lost sight of. 

1 TIwh lJire« are the w1tiH»ca tor tli« fdol P^t jLidtfiwnrH xu. 55. Vtyo, 
Wind, k to be udigStWf thim Jadra, Vanu, Jndrwxiid Vahuh,. i^. 155. ^10. 

^ Bui (in u btfif ajDCMLiat) iiot 3^ ho diet ; for if mm Ii a mn qI 

kiv lEvtv he; gon btU. kli. 39S, 7, 

■ DtraaBLu Ladfu (ijl, dbcoiOD-ltuden) adS seen, xlL S&r 


the EELlCiOHS OF IA^O/a. 

The pantheistic Vishnu is the 3 /ma, and Vishnu, after all, is 
but a form of fire. Therefore is it that the epic Vishnu is per¬ 
petually lapsing into fire ^ while fire and sun are doubly hon* 
ored as special forms of the highest. It is, then, not so much 
on account of a survival of ancient dignity» that sun anti fire 
stand so high, but rather because they are the nearest approach 
W th^efTolgence of tlie Supreme. Thus while in one place one 
IS told that after seven suns have appeared the supreme gods 
^ecomc the fire of destruction and complete the ruin, in another 
he reads that it is the sun aJone which, becoming twelvefold, 
does ail the work of the Supreme^® 

fndra has h)Tnns and sacrifices, but altliough he has no so 
exalted hymn as come.s to his • friend Agni/ yet (in an isolated 
passage) he has a new feast and celebration, the account of 
which apparently belongs to the first period of the epic, when 
the worship of fndra still had significance. In i. 63, an Mra- 
or ‘glorification of Indra,» is described a festivity extend¬ 
ing over two days, and marked by the erection of a pole in 
honor of the god — a ceremony which ‘isvcn to-day,' it is sai d, 
IS practiced.* 'fhe old tales of the fire-cult are retold, and new 
ntes are known.^ Thus in iu. 25,. soff.. Prince Dmy-odhana 
r resolves to starve to death (oblivious of the rule that * a suicide 
I gws to hell ’),and since this is a religious ceremony, he clothes 
himsctf in old clothes and holy-grass, * touches water,* and 

to to ■* *- 3 ^ b tir Ih* 

^ ^ ^tofcndldg Samt from th« toawnly WwL 
Ganidat ^ wasilf di« of frigJiL ' * 

® ^ 1-7, the puitr^ ^ i, 1^33^ 

^ fw^ctory and Envstod tor rain (KL 117, n ■ L *j.7fjtohzmiJ. 

♦ ilL tes» r<tluai« thu th»« to AjflJ aod Sttryii. 

«IJL «t As to CnrtU they proto^oo Bmns 

y //AV/J^cr/SAf. 


dtivoles himself with intense applicniion to hentven. Then the 
devils of Rudnt culled Daiteyas and Dinavas, who Ih-e under* 
ground ever since they were conquered by the gods, aided by 
priests, make a fire-rite, and with ^anfras **declared by Brihas- 
pati and U^anas^ and proclaimed in the Athan-a-Veda/* raise 
a ghost or spirit^ who h ordered to fetch Duryodhana to hellp 
which she immediately does/ I'hc frequent connection of 
Brlhaspati with the Athan-a-Veda is of interest (above, p. 159)* 
He IS quite a %*eiierable, if not wholly orthodoi, author in the 
epic, and his * rules' are often cited/ 

That Vedic deity wbo^ alone of pre-Vedic powers, still holds 
bis proud place, Yama, the king of departed spirits, varies in 
the epic according to the period represented. In old tales he 
IS srill quite Vedic in character; he takes the dead man's soul 
off to his own realm. But, of course, as pantheism prevails, 
and eschatolog>' becomes confused, Vama passes into a shadow, 
and at most is a bugbear for the wicked. Even his companions 
are stolen from another realm, and one hears now of ** King 
Yama with his Rudras ' (iii, 1^7, n)/ while it is only the 
bad' that go to Yama (iii, 200. 24), in popular belief, although 
this view, itself old, relapses occasionally into one still older, 
in accordance with which 49) all the wwld is hounded on 
by Yama's messengers, and comes to his abode. His home* 
in the south is. now located as being at a distance of &6,ooo 

1 TtMf derih uv oa the PfiacePt iid®, whI wlih to l»rp him from AsdK ITie 
b fmind 1^.351. Aj e 4 A 4 > ^iL Th« hply-gm-w u h 

much the SAsm way when tk» dopm by Occ^n, imulnid ha dk or pcisiud.^ 

CHx^m to aid him. Thd rlt«i (1^ 3^) ^ ^ in thn UpanLih^il^ 

■r Actc^bj; to dL tlie ^ ttt^x nrihup^iU ^ c™» frum 

throQj^h Brahiua and toUnir 

* In lludUMAm Yuiu'» in^ueB att Vakkhu. Sef^nnam gfer. £if, pL 5 

+ Campos El. 7 J. 3 *: ^ go to Vanu'ft ik^tTurtioo' ^ wherVas 

sii 3 i giODii man it H ' 1 ^ril! m 4 a jEo*ait' (tii 37. fi>, 

* iOiiafid. IIL Ho now hai hetli, ajtd he It b whu ^iU dmitFay 

Ik; wiwld, Ho is calkd ^the bnutilul^ (EEL ^t. g>, w itial H must, If tiot tjike ifela 

ctHtoet *ith the dtalion ahan, bt ImoEy (popokrEy) UkntE^ nUh 
as god af dtath. Sco tiw iwrto bckiw. 



leagues over a terrible road, on which passes a procession of 
wretched or happy mortals, even as they have behaved during 
life; for ejcampte, if one has generously given an umbrella dur¬ 
ing life he wsll have an umbrella on this journey, etc* The 
river in Yarua's abode is called Pushpodaka, and what each 
drinks out of it is according to w'hat he deserv'es to drink, cool 
water or filth 46, 5S).* In the various descriptions it is 
net strange to find discordant views even in portions belonging 
approximately to the same period. Thus in contradistinction 
to the prevailing view one reads of Tridra himself that he is 
) JVamfiafi-a < Yama's leader, Namnei's 

slayer" (liL if. 10), /hT., those that die in battle go to Yania, 

On the other hand^ in the later speculative portionst Varna 
is not death, ** Yama is not death, as some think; he is one 
that gives bliss to tbegood^ and woe to the bad.”^ Death and 
life are foolishness and lack of folly, respectively (literally^ * non¬ 
folly b non-mortality *), while folly and mortality are counter 
opposites. In pantheistic teaching there is, of cqurset no real 
death, only change. But death is a female power, personified, 
and sharply distinguished from Yama. Death as a means of 
change thus remainSr while Yama is relegated to the guardian¬ 
ship of helL The difference- In regard to the latter subject, 
between earlier and later views, has been noted above. One 
comparatively early passage attempts to arrange the Incongni- 
aus beliefs in regard to j^rmsarit (re-birth) and hell on a sort of 

^ TIh M ftiW^ ¥ a timrtal'f vfiil 1 <q Vuna Uy Icam abmot (( 

vL S, I; Kalha Upu, of X^ketu) ii In sdlL 7t+ 

\wi\lMJm (CDinpacv xH tSj. onlf iooh 
tli^ the mu lidea^ % Dtvanru {Jawicip) Hcnsft ^ |ib^ ht 
MftndAvyx to Dlmrm'K Unti^ (cempufi Yanu'^ just u cpne 

Ld Vamx'fl, ud iDtervlews him on tlie jL^tin of kii judgEpmH, Ai imuh of l\m 
kterrh-v 1}» gpd li nbom «n wwlii m a msft of Iciw iBjd tlit k 

that 1 chibd lx aot nenlljr rapomLble fot hit octx till the twelfth jpear of 
hit age fU 1 oS, fi ffO, Wlm ta half hh Ufc Iq grd^ to the TvHcKm- 

Uoii ^ PrajTudTa.ra.hlj wjfc,th«i|f ^ Dtri to VamA bat to Dlurina to jh If the 
«dwq^ te£if he fliiJe, ud he ape«* {h ^ 11 S aaaealine SlviUi 1), 

EAfilY fI/iVi:}U/SAf> 


sliding scale, thus ; “One ihat docs good gets in the neat life a 
good birth; one that docs [|J gets an U] birth more particy- 
larly: -‘By good acts one attains to the state of godsi by 
‘ mixed * arts, to the state of man j by acts dtie to confusion of 
mind, to the state of animals and plants by sinful 

acts one goes to hell" iii. virtue 

roust have been, as the epio often declares it to be, a ‘subtile 
matter, for often a tale is told to illustrate the fact that one 
goes to hell for doing what he thinks (mistakenly) to be righL 
Thus Kiu^ika is sent to hell for speaking the truth, whereas 
he ought to have lied to save life (viii. 65. 53), for he was 
“ Ignorant of rtrtue's subtiJty,'-" A passage (i. 74, *7 ff.) that 
IS reflected in hlsnu (vilj, 83-86) says that Yama Vfiivasvata 
takes away the sin of him with whom is satisfied " the one that 
witnessL^ the act, that stands in the heart, that knows the 
ground but Yama tortures him with whom this one (personi¬ 
fied conscience) is dissatisfied. For “truth is equal to a 
thousand horso-s.-icrificesj truth is highest tot 


Following downward the course of religious development, as 
reflected in the epic, one next finds traces of Brahmanic theol¬ 
ogy not only in the few passages where (Brahma) Prajapati 
remains untouched by seetarianism, but also in the harking 
back to old formulae. Thus the insistence on the Brahmanical 
^crednesa of the number seventeen is preserved (xii, 365, jfi, 
“'■.***■ Upanishadic is the "food is Prajapati" 

of iii, coo. 38 ’"i 40). 'Phere is an interesting rehabili¬ 

tation of the primitive idea of the Alvins in the new ascription 
of formal divinity to the (personified) Twilights (Sandhya) in 
m. loo. 83, although this whole passage is more Puranic than 

* The rjJ, t, that - „ I. riwn flirtnah.- xO. „p4tS«| 

bjf • saw ia and tUngir of Kfe ’■ fastirn't, ^ 


T//E /^£l/C^IOiVS OF 

epic* From the same source is the doctrine that the fruit of 
action espires at the end of one hundred thousand h^i/>as 
vs. III), One of the oddest religious freaks in tht epk is 
the sudden exaltation of the Ribhust the Vedic (season-gods) 
artisans, to the position of highest gods. In that heaven of 
Bmhm^ which is above the Vedic gods^ heaven^ there are the 
holy seers and the Ribhns^ ' the divinities of the gods ^; who 
do not change with the change of (as do other Vedic 

gods), iii. 261. 19-23. Otic might almost imagine that theif 
threefoldness causative of a tTinitarian identificatipn with 
a supreme triad; but no, for still higher is the 'heaven of 
Vishnu" (vs. 37). The'conlrasl is marked between this and 
Aiy. ill 30, where the Rihhiis with some dilficulty obtain 
the light to drink 

There is an aspect of the epic religion upon which it is nec¬ 
essary to touch before treating of the sectarian development. 
In the early philosophical period wise priests meet together to 
discuss theological and philosophical questions, often aided, 
and often brought to grief* by the wit of women disputants, 
who are freely admitted to hear and share in the discussionH 
VVhen, howeverp pantheism, nay, even Vishnuism, or still more* 
Krishnaism* was an accepted fact upon what* then* was the 
wisdom of the priest expended ? Apart from the epic, the best 
intellects of the day were occupied in researches* codifying 
laws, and solvingi in rather dogmatic fashion, philosophical 
(theological) problems* The epic presents pictures of scenes 
which seem to be a reflection from an earlier day* But one 
sees of leu that the wisdom is commonplace^ or even silly* In 
dialectics a sophistical subtlety is shown ; in codifying moral 
rules* a tedious triteness \ in amoebic passes of wit there are 
astounding exhibitions, in which the good scholiast sees treas¬ 
ures of wisdom, where a modem is obliged to take them in 
their literal didness. Thus in iii* 132* iS* a boy of twelve or 
ten (133^ t 6 )> who is divinely precocious, defeats the wise men 


in di-sputation at a sacrifice^ and in the following section 
(134. 7 ff .) silences a disputant who is regarded as one of the 
cleverest priests. The conversation is recorded in fnIL In 
what does it consist? The opponent mentions a number of 
things which are one; the boy replies with a verse that gives 
pairs of things^ the other mentEons triads; the child cites 
groups of fours, etc., until the opponent^ having cited only one 
half-verse of thirteetis^ can remember no more and stops, on 
which the child completes the verse, and is declared winner. 
The cciiundmins which precede must have been considered 
very witty, for they are repeated elsewhere : What is that wheel 
which has twelve parts and three hundred and sixty spolces, 
etc. ? Year. What does not close its eye when asleep, what 
docs not move when it is bom, what has no heart, what 
increases by moving? These questions form one-half verse. 
The next hatf-verse gives the answers in order : fish, egg, stone, 
river. This wisdom in the form of puizies and answers, 
is very old, and goes back to the Vedic period. 
Another good case in the epic is the demon Yaksha and the 
captured king, who is not freed till he answers certain questions 
correctly.^ But although a certain amount of theologic lore 
may be gleaned from these questions, yet is it of greater inter¬ 
est to see how the priests discussed when left quietly to their 
own devices. And a ver^' natural description of such a scene 
is extant. The priests **having some leisure""^ or vacation 
from their labors in the king's house, sit down to argue, and 
the poet calls their discussion tricky sophistical 

argumentation, the description bearing out the justness of the 
phrase : cried, * that is so/ and the other, ' it is not so 

one cried, * and that is so/ and the other, ' it must be so and 

1 The occur in IMidhutIc writlftg^, V^has aal( ™iLDdfqmi. 

For cxunple, Ea th« /frar^rritmtuffa the VaicUu aila 1* hit U Uie 

bsl po^khJod, what tiring bais, md what h to w[ikh Uie Mawer ti; iai^ 

law, trAiK, rcapKUndy. 

5 * JUrurmant^r^m tir4m4sialam 

77 /^ J^£L/C/04VS 0^ mD/J. 

some by argnmeifits made weak arguments strong, and strong 
weak ; while some wise ones were alwaj-s swooping down on 
their oppoDonfs arguments, like hawks on meal/^ ^ J n ilL a. 15, 
the type of clever priest is ^skilled in Yoga and Sdhkhyat^ who 
inculcates reminci ation^ This sage teaches th at me ntal diseases 
are cured by Yoga; bodily^ by medicine ; and that desire is the 
root of ill. 

But by far the most interesting theological discussEon in the 
epic, if one except the DiHne Song+ is iho conversation ot the 
hero and heroine in regard to the cause of earthly happiness. 
This discussion is an old passage of the epic. The very fact 
that a woman is the disputant gives an archaie effect to the 
narration, and reminds one of the scenes in the Upanishads^ 
where learned women cope successfully with men in displays 
of theological acumen^ Furthermore, the theological position 
taken^ the absence of %^i5bnuism, the appeal to the * Creator" 
as the highest Power, take one back to a former age. The 
doctrine of special grace, which crops out In (he Upanishads,* 
here receives its exposure by a sudden claim that the converse 
of the theory must also be true, viar., that to those not saved by 
grace and election Cod is as cruel as He is kind to the elect. 
The situation is as follows: The king and queen have been 
basely robbed of their kingdom^ and are in exile. The queen 
urges the king to break the vow' of exile that has been forced 
from him, and to take vengeance on their oppressors. The 
king^ in reply, sings a song of forgiveness: "'Forgiveness is 
virtue, sacrifice, Veda^ forgiveness is holiness and truth ; in the 
world of HrabmJl are the mamnons of them that forgive," This 
song (ill, 29. 56 ff.) only irritates the queen, who at once 
launches into the following interesting tirade (30. i ff,): Rev- 

JIL 3 if. Hw phruodbgj^ ol 5 It eatactljr tlbai of rir tptlrru 

taut tht pELAdlt-:^ " btisod DR ttw hwJ 

^ abort!. In a brtcr period ih^ ciurtUoii idKt la icgard lo tHo 

part phftd bjr €fntor xnA. Ijidlvldtul Ic the vofUngji of ■rlalming Out 

Run wa ; lume, Out lie hod to sUriv^ fur 

erence to the Creator and Disposer* who have confused thy 
mind I Hast thou not worshipped with salntatioji and honored 
the priests, gods, and manes? Hast ihou not made horses 
sacrifices^ the /'^iiitf^^sacrificet sacrifices of cvcf)^ sort 
rf/ra,* j^osapti) ? Yet art thou in this miserable plight I Verily 
is U an old sloiy that ^the worlds stand under the 

Lord's will." Following the seed God gives good or ill in the 
case of all beings. Men ane all mo%ed by the divinity. Like a 
wooden dotl, moving hs limbs In the hands of a man, so do all 
creatures move in the Creator^s hands^ hlan b Like a bird on 
a string, like a bead on a cord. As a bull b led by the noser 
man follows the will of the Creator; he never is a creature of 
free will (JfmSMim)* Every nun goes to heaven or to hell, as 
he is sent by the Lord^s wilL God himself, occupied with noble 
Of with wicked acts, moves about among all created things, an 
unknown power (not known as * this one ^}. The blessed God, 
who is self-createdj the great forefather (prajyf/dmaAa)^ plays 
with his creatures just as a boy plays with toys^ putdng them 
together and destroying them as he chooses. Not like a father 
is God to His creatures; He acts in anger. When [ see the 
good distressech the ignoble happy, I blame the Creator who 
permits this inequality^ What reward does God get that he 
sends happiness to this sinful man (thy oppressor) ? If it l>c 
true that only the individual that dmss the act is pursued by the 
fruit of that act (Zvimrf doctrine) then the Lord who has done 
this act is defiled by this base act of His. If, on the other 
hand, the act that one has done does not pursue and overtake 
the one that has done it, then the only agency on earth is brute 
force (this is the only power to be respected) -— aatd 1 grieve 
for them that are without it E 

1 ErcFOml ]n v: 17^ J;|, a woirun Dries imt r" Ff« IIk Cmlnr for thai 

bad lock," nnaerraUw in ImIM, oml «tft5^pcib£t3 

^ til. jB. 17. The ifPJerd Ei- a ' cow-ajcrflnx.' Tlie explaieied 

Upttlmfrf '). 


Ta this plea, which in its acknowledgment of the Creator as 
the highest god, no less than in its doubtful admission of the 
^arwii doctrine, is of peculiar interest^ the king replies w^ith a 
refutation no less worthy of regard: ‘‘Thy argument is goock 
clear and smooth, but it is heterodox 1 have sac¬ 

rificed and practiced virtue tiot for the sake of reward^ but 
because it was right* I give what I ought to give, and sacrifice 
as I should. That is my only idea in connection with religious 
obsen^anccs. 'fhere is no virtue in trying to milk virtue. Do 
not doubt. Do not be suspicious of virtue. He that doubts 
God or duty goes to hell (confusion), but be that does his duty 
and Ls free from doubt goes to heaven (becomes tmmortal). 
Doubt not scriptural authority. Duty is the saving shipn No 
other gets to heaven, Ulame not the I^rd Creator^ who is the 
highest god Through His grace the faithful gets immartality'. 
If religious observances were without fruit the universe would 
go to des^ction. People would not have been good for so 
many ages if there had been no reward for it 'Fhis is a 
mj-stery of the gods. The gods are full of mystery and 

The queen, for all the world like that wise woman in the 
Upanishads, whose argument, as we showed in a preceding 
chapter, is cut short not by counter argument^ but by the threat 
that if she ask too much her head will fall off^ recants her 
errors at this rebuke, and in the following section^ which evi¬ 
dently is a later addition^ takes back what she has said. Her 
new‘ expression of belief she cites as the opinion of Brihaspati 
(ji. 6i, 6a); but this is applicable rather to her first creed of 
doubt. Perhaps in the original version this authority was 
cited at the end of the first speech, and with the interpolation 
the reference is made to apply to this seer. Something 
like the queen's remarks is the doubtful saying of the king 
himself, as quoted elsewhere (iii* 173. 6): “Time and fate, 
and what will be, this is the only Lord. How else could 


this distre:^ have (xnne upon my wife? Fcjr die has been 
vircuous alwajis/' 

We turn now to the great sectarian gods^ who eventually unite 
with Brahma to form a pantheistic trinity^ a esanoeption which, 
as wc shall show, is pot older than the Mth or sixth centirry 
after Christ 


HTHDOISK («nrTWirE&). —viSHHt; ABD 9ITA- 

r.v tJie epic the later union of the sKtarbn godj still a 
novelty. The two characters remain distinct enough, Vishnu 
and ^iva are dLEerent gods. But each iu turn represents the 
Alhgod, and consequently each represents the other. 'J’lie 
Vishnu-woiship which grew about Krishna, originally a friend 
of one of the epic characters, was probably at first an attempt to 
foist u{wn Vedic believers a sectarian god, by identifjing the 
latter with a Vedic divinity. But, whatever the origin, Krishna 
as Vishnu is revered as the All-god in the epic. And. on the 
other hand^tva of many names has kept th e marks of RudnO 
Sometimes one, sometimes another, is taken as the .411 god. 
At times they art compared, and then each sect reduces the 
god of the other to an inferior position. Again they arc united 
and regarded ns one. The Vishnu side has left the best liters 
aiy representation of this religion, which has permeated the 
epic. It IS pantheism, but not an impersonal pantheism. The 
Blessed Lord is the All. This is the simple base and crown of 
Its speculation. It is like the personal development of Vedan- 
tic philosophy. oa\y it Is here degraded by the personality of 
the man-god, who Is made the incarnate All-god. The Krishna 
of the epic as a man is a sly, unscrupulous fellow, continually 
su^csting and executing acts that are at variance with the 
knightly code of honor. He is king of Dvaraka and ally of 
the epic heroes. But again, he is dit-ine, the highest divinity 
the of the All-god Vishnu. The sectaries that sec in 

Qiva rather than in Vishnu the one and only god, have no such 
representative to which to refer, feor g-iva. as the historical 
descendant of the Vedic Rudra.^Slthough even in his case 


///iVI>l//SAf.—P7S/AVU f/yj. 3 ®? 

thert is 341 intrusion of local worship upon an older Vedic be- 
!ief, — reprejicms a tcmr-god, dlher the lightning, the fairest of 
the gods, or, when he appears on earth, a divine horror, or, 
again, “a ver)- handsome joung man.These tvro religions, 
of Vishnu ns Krishna and of giva alone, are not so much 
united in the epic as they irre super-imposed upon the older 
Worship of llrahmA, and, indeed, in such a way that ^’iva-wor- 
ship, in a pantheistic sense, appears to be the latest oJ the 
three beliefs that have influenced the story.* 

The personal pantheism of the older Vishnuism has in its 
form and teachings so close a resemblance to the L'hristiait 
religion that it has always had a great attraction for oocidenial 
readers while the real power of its “ Divine Song ” gives the 
latter a charm possessed by few of the scriptures of India. 
This Divine Song (or Song of the Hlessed One) is at present a 
Krishnaite version of an older Vishnuite poem, and this in 
turn was at first an unsectarian work, perhaps a late Upanishad. 
It is accepted by Vishnuites as a kind of New Testament; and 
with the New Testament it h,Ts in truth much in common. It 
must be pointed out at the outset that there is here the closest 
connection with the later Upanishads. The verse, like that of 
the Katha Upanishad (quoted above), which stands almost at 
the beginning of the Song, is typical of the relarion of the Song 
to the UpiinishacL It will be noticed how the impersonal 
‘That,’ r>., absolute being, firaAma, changes almost at once to 
the personal He (a/mtl as Lord). As shows the whole Song, 
brahma throughout is understood to be personal,* 

■ He in diJ^cicDt while V^fiu ippeiw In 

|«jt^ M a + ctHcent/ ap^xxr, #V, Vld^aa li Lnarnalc-, ippaan wEwkt 

^ The storj pediapi nuteckCfs Ibe BraJunank But, for ilU uik 

knnwi, when the pwm was first wdMeti Bralmu was abeadj dKadent lu ditcf 
1 <mL In iHat iwa rtnita flf leUe^otu bsSlel huifw bwn formllir BupM-impcwdr 
VlliinulMIEL and Oi nimi t- 

* While with Tebnc that the nripial GItA U an nld emoot 

Hih5c4t^ Ifl Ml oreuincnt (SJUt, p, 15 ) ihal the priority 4 the ^aniiuii cr^er thfl 
Ria Veda Ji iri aiitji)ijityi fUll ku to Uh*^ iISafilecll^ jx from th^ cuteit 



J o understand the religion which reaches its cnlminatioD in 
the epic no better course could be pursued than to study the 
whole of the Oirinc Song. It is, however, too long a production 
to be introduced here in its entirety; but the foitowingextracts 
give the chief features of the work, than which nothing in 
Hindu literature is more characteristic, in its sublimity as in its 
puerilities, in its logic as in its want of it. It has shared the 
fate of most Hindu works in being Interpolated injudiciously, 
80 that many of the puzzling anomalies, which astound no less 
the reader than the hero to whom it was revealed, are probably 
later additions. It Is a medley of beliefs as to the relation of 
spirit and matter, and other secondary matters; it is uncertain 
in its tone in regard to the comparative cffic.icy of action and 
inaction, and in regard to the practical man’s means of sal%'ation; 
hut it is at one with itself in its fundamental thesis, that all 
Ihinp arc each a part of One Lord, that men and gods are but 
manifestations of the One Divine Spirit, which, or rather whom, 
the Vishnuite re-wTiter identifies with Krishna, as Vishnu's 
present form. 

The Divine Song, as it is revealed in the epic by Vishnu 
{-Krishna) to his favorite knight, Arjuna, begins tlius ; “Know 
that the ‘That’ in which is comprised the ‘This' is indestruc¬ 
tible. These bodies of the indestructible Eternal One have an 
end: but whoso knows Him as sbycr, and whoso thinks Him 
to be slain, these two have not true wisdom. He slap not and 
is not slain. He is not born, he does not die at any time; nor 
will He, having been bom, cease to be. Unborn, everlasting, 
eternal. He, the Ancient One, is not sl.iin when the body is 
slain. As one puts away an old gaiment and puis on another 
that IS new, so He. the embodied {Spirit), puts awav the old 
body and assumes one that is new. Everl.isting, omnipresent. 

^ Hrf Sla™ ij floi trt.a*jaf k, ths pnrtlo™ 


firm, unchanging b He, the Eternal j indlscemtble is He 
called, inconceivable, unchangeable.’' ■* 

The Song now turns into a pica that the warrior who is hear- 
ing it should, as one bom to he a soldier, be brave and fight, 
lest his sonow for the slain be taken lor fear ; since nothing is 
better for a warrior than a just fight," and '^vloss of fame is worse 
than deaths” Then follow's (with the usual inconsequential 
■heaven') "If thou art slain thou wilt obtain heaven^ and if 
thou art victorious thou shalt enjoy earth ; therefore, careless 
of pleasure and pain, get ready for the fight, and so thou wilt 
not incur sin. This is the knowledge declared in the S^nkhya^ 
hear now that of the Yoga,” and the Divine Lord proceeds s 
'■Someare pleased with Vedic words and think that there b 
nothing else i their souls are full of desires; and they think that 
going to heaven b the chief thing* Yet have the Vedas refer-* 
ence only to the three qualities (of which all things partake). 
Be free from the three qualities (do not care for rewards)* In ■ 
action, not in fruity is the chief thing. Do thy work, abiding 
by serene devorion (Yoga), rejecting every tie; be indlEerunt 
to success and failure. Serene devotion Is called indif!erudce 
(to such things)^ Action is lower than devotion of mind. 
Devotion b happiness* Do thou, wUe in devotion, uhandon 
the fruit that is sprung from action, a nek freed from the bonds 
of birth, attain a perfect state/' 

Sitnkhya here means the philosophy of religion;; Yoga b the 
philosophical state of mind, serene indjEerence, rel^ious 

the practical result of a belief in the Sankhya doctrine 
of the indestructihilLty of the spirit. In the following there b 
Vedantic teaching, as well as Sankhyafi in the stricter sense* 

On the warrior's asking for an eatplanatlon of this state of 
equipoise, the Deity gives illustrations of the balanced liiind 
ihat b free from all aEtachments, Serene, emancipated from de^ 

1 Coraparv Sifanu, L 7 e ^ Hs Uk indiEccTTiibk, clerul, Chw, 

wb« mikfi aU 



Sires, s«lf-<X)rtfol]t'd, and perfectly tranquil. As the knight is 
astonished and confused at the contradiction, action and inac¬ 
tivity both being urged upon him, the iJeity replies that there 
is a twofold law, that of jJinkhj-as consisting in knowledge- 
devotion, and that of Vt^is in action-devotion. Idleness is 
□ot freedom from action. Freedom from attachment most be 
united with the accomplishment of such acts as should be per¬ 
formed, The deluded think that they themselves perform acts, 
but acts are not done by the spirit (self); they are done only 
by nature’s qualities (this is Sinkhy.i doctrine). “One should 
know the relation between Uic and Supreme Spirit, 
and with tianquit mind perform good acts. Let the deluded 
ones be, who arc erroneously attached to action. The wise man 
should not cause those of imperfect knowledge to be unsettled 
in ihulr faith, but he should himself not he attached to action. 
Each man should perform his own (caste) duties. One's own 
duty ill done is better than doing well another man’s work.” 

The knight now asks what causes one to sin, The r>eity 
answers: “Love and hate j for from love is born hate: and 
from anger, ignorance in regard to right and wrong; whence 
comes lack of reasoo, and consequently destruction. The 
knowledge of a man is enwrapped with desire as is fire with 
smoke. Great are the senses; greater, the mind; greater still, 
the understanding; greatest of all is ‘That’” {praRm.t; asabovJ 
ID the Chamiogya), The Deity begins again i * “This system 
of devotion I declared to Vivasvant (the sun) ; Vivasvant de¬ 
clared it to Manu, and hfanu to kingly seers.” (The same 
origHn U claimed for itself la Manu’s lawbook.) The knight 
objects, not yet knowing that Krishna is the .\li-god: “How 
did’st thou declare it first f thy birth is later than the sun's." 
To whom the Deity: “Many are my births, and I know them 
all; many too are thine, but thou knowest them not; unborn 
and Lord of all creatures I assume phenomena, and am 

1 Pfmdhly fhw flrigfni] opcitiuj ^ aiHrfbw pottMt, 


J/ZA^Oy^tif.—r/SI/A t/ ^AI> ^/FA. 

born by the illusion of the spirit* W^henever there is lack of 
righteousness, and wrong anses, then 1 emit (create) myself.^ 
1 am born age after age for the protectioii of the goo^ for the 
clesinjction of the wickedp and for thtr sake of establishing 
righteousness* \Vhos^> really believes in this tny divine birth 
and work, he, when he has abandoned his bodyp enters no sec¬ 
ond bifthp but enters Many there are who, froin Me aris¬ 

ing^ on Me relyingp purified by the penance of knowledge, w ith 
all affections, fear, and anger gone, enter into my being. .As 
they appro.ich iSTe so 1 serve them** Men in all w-ays follow 
after my path* Some desire the success that is of action, and 
worship gods; for success that is bom of action is speedy in 
the world of men. Know- Me as the maker of the four castesp 
know Me as the unending one and not the maker. Action 
Stains ^fe not, for in the fruit of action [ have no desire. He 
that thus knows Me is not bound by acts* So he that has no 
attachment is not bound by acts. His acts become naught. 
Brxi^tttii is the oblation^ and with is It offered ; bt^Awta 

is in the fire, and by btaAma is the oblation m3<le. Sacrifices 
are of many kinds^ but he that sacrifices with knawledge offers 
the best sacrifice He that has faith has knowledge; he that 
has knowledge obtains pcaci;. He that has no knowledge and 
nofaithp whose soul is one of doubt, is destroyed. Action does 
not destroy him that has renounced action by means of Indif¬ 
ference. Of the twop renunciation of action and indi^erence, 
tJiough both give bliss, indifference in action Is belter tliati 
renunciation of action. Children, not PundiiSp proclaim Sankhya 
and Yoga to be distinct. He that is devoted to either alone 

I The of Vlihuu ^ 7\m vvtf tnifht whom h& i|< 3 Jra is later 

leg^jded {iu. tndfB) as Izkomate god, aiad today b wnnhipped u ^ ffrofar 

vf VishniL n» of ihe * btrtIvstoriR * of the Ifaddlakts U thoD^t by some 
ichoLkfi tg hm been eannefLed hb^un^ifally tl* otwtm of Vidian, 

3 This h atm pf the notes stradc ia Ibe hior ibc doetUtic ^ *i{»dal 

grace.' ofig^nallDC perbapA ^11 ^rarbw En the VAc hymn a1»^}. 

■ That bpcneiJiata^ has nodesiru icgLy (wfcfcWt destriog the fniit of aetloig 

T//£ J{£l.fC/ONS Of lA-O/A, 

finds the reward of both. Renunciation without Voga is a 
t log hard to get; united with V'oga the seer enters ^raAmtt. 
. . . lie is the renouncer and the devote* who docs the acts 
t at ought to be done without relying on the reward qf action, 
^t he that jjorforms no acts and builds no sacrificial fires, 
^ro^h his self (spirit) let one raise one's self. Conquer self 
hy self (spirit). He is the best man who is iodiJIerent to exter¬ 
nal things, who with equal mind sees (his spirit) self in every¬ 
thing and cvery'thii^ in self {God as the Spirit). Such an one 
obtains the highest bliss, hmAma. Whoso secs Me in all and 

all in Me I am not destroyed for him, and he is not destroyed 
for Me.” 

The knight now asks how it fares with a good who is 
not equal to the discipline of Yoga, and cannot free himself 
entirely from attachment. Docs he go to destruction like a 
cloud that is rent, failing on the path that leads to / 

The Deity replies: “Xeitlier in this world nor in the beyond 
IS he destroyed. He that acts virtnouely does not enter an evil 
state. He obtains the heaven that belongs to the doers of 
good, and after living there countless summers is reborn on 
earth m the family of pure and renowned men, or of pious 
devotees. There he receives the knowledge he had in a 
former ^y, and then strives further for perfection. After 
many biiihs he reaches perfection and the highest course 
(union with hrahma). There are but few that strive for per¬ 
fection, .and of them only one here .md there truly knows .Me. 
Emh. water, fire, air, space, mind, iioderstaoding, and egoism 
(selfKionsciousneas) — so is my nature divided into eight 
parts.' But learn now my higher nature, for this is my lovrer one 
My higher nature is alive, nnd by it this world is supported' 

I am creator and destroyer of all the world, tfigher 
than 1 IS nothing. On Me the universe is woven like pearls 
upon a t read. Taste am I, light am \ of moon and sun, the 

1 ™» ti H Sukhy;i fflvUnn. 


mystic syllable Om («fi?w)p sound in space,. ni[mtm>e5s In men; 
I am smell and radiiuice; I am life and heat. Know Me as the 
eternal seed of all beings. I am the understanding of them 
that have understanding, the radiance of the radiant ones. Of 
the strong I am the forces devoid of love and passion; and I 
am love, not opposed to virtue. Know alt beings to be from 
Me alone, whether they have the quality of goodness^ of pas¬ 
sion, or of darkness (the three 'qualities^ or conditions of all 
things). [ am not in them; but they are in Me+ the inex¬ 
haust ible^ beyond them, the world knows not^ for It Is confused 
■ by these three qualities (cond[lions); and hard to overcome is 
the divine illusion which envelops Me, while it arises from 
the qualities. Only they pass through this illusion who come 
to Me alone, Wicked men, whose knowledge Is taken away 
by illusion^ relying on a devilish (demoniac) condition, do 
not come to Me. They that have not the highest knowledge 
worship various divinities^ but whatever be the form that any 
one worships with faith I^ake his faith steady. He obtains 
his desires in worshipping that divinity, although they are 
really bestowed upon him by Me** But the fruit of these men, 
in that they have UtUe wisdom, has its end. He that sacrifices 
to (lesser) gods goes to Uiose gods; but they that w'orship Me 
come to Me. 1 know' the things that were^, that are^ and are to 
be; but Me no one knoweth^ for I am enveloped in illusion* 
1 am the supreme beings the supreme godhead, the supreme 
sacrifice, the Supreme Spirit, 

The knight asks What Is the Supreine Spirit, the 

Supreme being, the supreme sacrifice?” The Deity: “The 
supreme, the indestructible, is called lini^ffrar [ts persoual ex¬ 
istence Is Supreme Spirit (self). Destructible existence is 

L Tlij3 d^rcrlf caatriml or pf^ofciuDd unlm^lkty VlahnnlsiD b >aiw the 
rTHS^ionaTT cfTort. The win ottept Chri^ but u % 

form i3f Vlslmit, ha C^^pan: bebwi ** Ewa lliey that uerifko to 

other soda reaJlj laertfift to 



Supreme being (all except atmS), The Person is ihe supreme 
godhead. I myself am the supreme sacniice iti tJiis body.” 

Then follow statements like those in the LTpantshads and in 
Manu, describing a day of tifahMn as a thousand .tges; worlds 
are renewedf they that go to the gods find an end of their 
happiness with the end of their world; but tKey that go to the 
indestructible brahma, the Deity, the entity that is not de¬ 
stroyed when nil else is dcstro^’ed, never again teium. 'rherc 
are two roods (as in the L'panishads above), one, the northern 
road leading to brahma; one, the southern road to the moon, 
leading back to earth. At the end of a period of time all 
beings reenter the divine nature (I'rahn'ti'), and at the begin¬ 
ning of the next period the Deity emits them again and again 
(they being without volition) by the volition of JiU nature. 
“ Through Me, w'ho am the superintendent, nature gives birth to 
ail things, and for that cause the world turns aljout. ’ITiev of 
demoniac nature recognise me not; they of god-like nature, 
knowing Me as the inexhaustible source, worship .\le. I 
am the universal Father, the Vedas, the goal, the upholder, 
the Lord, the superintendent, the home, the asylum, the 
friend. I am the inexhaustible seed. I am immortality 
and death. J am being and not-being. I am the sacri¬ 
fice and he that offers it. Even they that, with faith, sacri¬ 
fice to other gods, even they (really) sacrihee to Me, To 
them that ever are devout and worship hfe with love (faith), 
f pve the attainment of the knowledge by which they come to 
hie (again the doctrine of special grace), “ I am the begin¬ 
ning. the middle, and the end of all created things. I am 
Vishnu among sun-gods; the moon among the stars; Jndra 
among the (Vedic) gods; the Saman among the Vedas; among 

IWcriti l/rabftit, lutiue; Uw uan telonji tn ibe SSnkhj^ phnqwphT 
which u .tlwiivct fmin iplrtt, a dualii,, to 

mn-duitity sf th« Vedltila syUrm. whee Ihe 5lsU<7i ‘ latnnt’ b -| _n Trri bv 

wJ^.*tllBalnn.' tHherwUe ibc woid h’akrit btht'aalunl.’wTf iwrojrf 

to Sjiukrkl. tbe nUata. ‘ puMoerthrr' 


the senses, mind; amor^ created beings, consciousnesii; among 
the Rndras I am ^iva (^'ankara); among armj'-Ieadcrs I am 
Skanda; amons the great sages 1 am Bhtjgtj {who reveals 

Manu’s code)t among the Siddbas * I am KapLIa the Muni_ 

I am the love that b^ets^ I am the chief {Vasuki and Ananta) 
among the serpents; and among them that live in water I am 
Varima; among the Manes I am Arjaraan; and I am Yama 
among cotiirollersi * among demons [ am Pmhiada , , 1 am 

Rama; I am the Ganges, I am among all sciences the highest 
science (that in regard to the Supreme Spirit); I am the word 
of the speakers; I am the letter A among the letters, and tile * 

compound of union among the compounds.^ I am indestructi¬ 
ble time and 1 am the Creator, I am the death that seizes all 
and 1 am die origin of things to be. [ am gloT>', fortune, 
speech, memory, wisdom, constancy, and mercy. ... lam the 
punishment of the punisher and the polity of them that would 
win victory. 1 am silence. I am knowledge. There is no 
end of my divine manifesi^tions.” 

Thu knight trow asks to see the real form of the deity, which 
was revealed to him. **If in hea%'en the glory of a thousand 
suns should appear at once, such would be his glory.” 

After this comes the real animus of the Divine Song in its 
present shape. The believer that has faith in this Vishnu is 
even better than die devotee who finds ^rtiAma by knowledge. 

The philosophy of knowledge (which here is anything but 
Vedantic) is now communicated to the knight, in the course of 
which the distinction between nature and spirit is explained; 
“ Nature, Prakriti, and spirit, Purusha (person), are both without 
beginning, All changes and qualities spring from nature. Na¬ 
ture is said to be the cause of die body's and the senses’ activ¬ 
ity. Spirit is the cause of enjoyment (appreciation) of pleasure 

1 Ejaatij ^ tanlljr * tbff 

■ AnjdJft|f to the ktef deriTatian ^ Vana fttitu 
^ The- A,"' 3j in th^ Uponiihaida above, pi 


T//£ A'££ia/OAS £)> JA’DiA. 

and pain; for the Spirit, standing in nature, appreciates the 
nature-bom qualities. The cause of the Spirit's re-birth is its 
connection with the quaiities. (This is SUnkhya doctrine, and 
the same with that propounded above in regard to activity,) 
The Supreme Spirit is the Support and great Lord of all, 
the Stma, while brahma (—/mnfnfW) is the womb in which I 
place My seed, and from that is the origin of all things. 
The great brahma is the womb, and I am the seed-giving 
father of all the forms w'hich come into being. The three 
'qualities* (conditions, attributes), goodness, passion, and 
darkness, arc bom of nature and bind the inexhaustible 
incorporate (Spirit) in the body. The quality (or attribute) 
of goociness binds the soul with pleasure and knowledge; 
that of passion (activity), with desire and action; that of dark¬ 
ness (dulness), with ignorance. One that has the attribute of 
goodness chiefly goes after death to the highest heaven; one 
that has chichy passion is born again among men of action; 
One that has chiefly darkness is born among the ignorant. 
One that secs that these attributes are the only agents, one 
that knows what is higher than the attributes, enters into my 
being. The incorporate spirit that has passed above the three 
attributes (the origin of bodies), being released from biitb, 
death, age, and pain, obtains immortality. To pass above 
these attributes one must become indifferent to all change, be 
undisturbed by .anything, and worship Me with devotion. , ,. 

I am to be learned from all the Vedas; I made the Vedanta; 

I alone know the Vedas. There are two persons in the world, 
one destructible and one indestructible; the destructible one is 
all created things; the indestructible one is called the Un¬ 
changing one. Hut there is still a third highest person, called 
the Supreme Spirit, who, pert'oding the three worlds, supports 
them, the inexhaustible Lord. Inasmuch as 1 surpass the destruc¬ 
tible and am higher than the indestructible, therefore am 1 
known in the world and in the Veda as the Highest i'ersoit-'* 


The references to the Sdnkhyas, or Sinkhya-Yogtts, are not 
yet exhausted. There Is another in a foUovrin^ chapter (vi. 
t8. I j) which some scholiasts say refers to the Vedlnta-system, 
diough this is in direct contradiction to the text. But the ex¬ 
tracts already gi(fen suthce to sliow how vague and uncertain 
are, on the whole, the philosophical ^iews on which depends 
the Divine Song. Until the end of these citations one hears 
only of nature and spirit, the two that have no beginning, hut 
here one finds the Supreme Spirit, which is as distinct front 
the indestructible one as from tlic destructible. Moreover, ‘na^ 
ture * IS in one place represented as from the beginning distinct 
from spirit and entirely apart from it, and in another it is only 
a transient phase.^ The delusion (illusion) which in one pas¬ 
sage is all that exists apart from the Supreme Spirit is itself 
given up in favor of the Sinkhya Prakriti, nith which one 
must imagine it to be identifieti, although from the text itself 
It cannot be identical. In a word, exactly as in Manu, there 
are different philosophical conceptions, united without any 
logical basis for their union. The ■ sptem ' is in genetal that 
of the Sankhya-Yogas, but there is much which is purely 
Vedinta. The Sankhya system is taught elsewhere as a means 
of salvation, perhaps always as thu deistic Yoga (i. 75. j-, « He 
taught them the Sdnkhya-knowledge as salvation"). It is fur¬ 
ther noticeable that although Krishna (Vishnu) is the ostensible 
speaker, there is scarcely anything to indicate that the poem 
was originally composed even for Vishnu. The Divine Song w^s 
probably, as we have said, a late Upanishad, which afterwards 
was expanded and put into Vishnu’s mouth. The Sllnkhya por¬ 
tions have been redressed as far as possible and to the illusion 
doctrine is given the chief place. But the Song remains, like the 
Upanishads themselves, and like Manu, an ill-assorted cabinet 
of primitive philosophical opinions. On the religious side it is 
a matter of comparative indifference whether that which is not 
the spirit is a delusive output of the spirit or mdcstructtble 



mattcf. fn citliBr case (he Spirit is the goal of the spirit In 
this personal pantheism absorption is taught but not death. 
Immortality is still the reward that is ofrered to the believer 
that is wise, to the wise that beiieves. Knowledge and faith 
are the means of obtaining this immortality; but, whereas in 
the older Upanishads only wisdom is necessary (wisdom that 
implies morality), here as much Stress, if not more, is laid upon 
faith, the natural mark of all sectarian pantheism. 

Despite its occasional power and mystic ex.a]tatiDn, the 
Divine Song in its present state as a poetical production is 
unsatisfactory. The same thing Ls said oi'er and over again, 
and the contradictions in phraseology and in meaning are as 
numerous as the repetitions, so that one is not surprised to dnd 
It described as the wonderful song, which causes the hair to 
stand on end.” The different meanings given to the same words 
are indicative of its patchwork origin, which again would help 
to explain its philosophical inconsistencies. It was pmbahly 
composed, as it stands, before there was any formal Vetlanta 
system; and in its original shape without doubt it precedes the 
formal S^nkhya; though both philosophies existed long before 
they were s^'stematized or reduced to Sfitra form. One has 
not to imagine them as systems originally distinct and opposed. 
They rather grew out of a gradual intensification of the oppost- 
tion involved in the conception of Prabriti (nature) and MSyd 
(illusion), some regarding these as identical, othets insisting 
that the latter was not sufficient to explain nature. The first 
philosophy (and philosophical religion) concerned itself less 
W'ith the relation of matter to mind (in modern parlance) than 
with the relation of the individual self (spirit) to the Supreme 
Spirit. Different explanations of the relation of matter to this 
Supreme Spirit were long held tentatively by philosophers, who 
would probably have said that either the Sankhya or Veddnta 
might be true, but that this was not the chief question. Later 
Came the dififerentiation of the schools, based mainly on a 

qye^tion that was at first one of secondary importance. In 
another part of the epic Krishna himself is represented as the 
victim of ^Illusion ' (Hi. aj. jo) on the field of battle. 

rhe doctrine of the Bhagavad Git^ the I>ivine Song, is by 
no means isolated. It is found in many other passages of the 
epicp besides being imitated in the Anuglt^ of Uje pseudo-epic. 
To one of these passages it is worth while to turn, bccanse of 
the form in which this w^isdom is enunciated. The passage im¬ 
mediately following this teaching ts aJso of great interest. Of 
the few Wdic deities that receive hymnal homage chief is the 
sun, oFt in his other fonoi Agni. The special form of Agni has 
been spoken of above. He is identified with the All in some 
late passages, and gives aid to his followers, although not in bat¬ 
tle^ It will have been noticed in the Divine Song that Vishnu 
asserts that the Song was proclaimed to the sun, who in turn 
delivers it through Alanu to the king-seets, the sun being 
especially the kingly god.^ In the third book there is an hymn 
to the sun, in which this god is addressed almost in the terms 
of the I>1 vine Song, .and immediately preceding h the doctnne 
just alluded to. After the c^tpl a nation is given that re-birth 
affects creatures and causes them to be born in earth, air, or 
watcr^ the changes of metempsychosis here including ihe vege¬ 
table wxwfld as well as the animal and divine worlds,^ the vtiy- 
essence of ihc Divine Song h given as “Vcdic word/"^ vijs,, 
hjru Atirma Or, “ Perform and quit acts/" /,f,, do what 

you ought to do, but without regard to the reward of action 
(ill. 2. 72, 74), There is nin eightfold path of duty, as in Bud¬ 
dhism, but here it consists in sacrifice, study, liberality, and 
penance; truth, mercy, self-controk and lack of greed M the 

1 4 pmllel list < 3 l diad^Kluai la ^1. 

'* Diw of lb# Jaini. the #pfc^ ir^i^fp4 AAmie^ /fliTTtfrtcrff', 

In fU^ocUoti tnwn tba Biitd£lhlj!.tlc moteinpsychosJi^ whtcti iitopa abort eC pbnta. 
But perhdpa It h other bonowied froita like llrabnan by Ibe Jala, for ittei la z fortnal 
admnvkdsTifieiLt that ^ stiUoDaiy thlop,* put lo ci^iEipay{jMial% 

Mviq, kil,47,^hhou£h Ln tike diitrUmtloa that folUm thb ti obiKHl Igooml (ti^ jS>. 


result of praoiicing th^ first four^ one goes on the course that 
kad& to th<2 as the result of practicing the last four, 

one goes on the course that leads to the gods. But in pnictic- 
ing any virtueij one should practice them without expectation 
of reward (uMimiiffitj atri^re pensek), 11 ie Yogi, the devotee, 
who renounces the fmit of everything, is the grCnitest man ; his 
powers are miraculous^ 

There follows (with the same light inconsistency to he found 
in the Divine Song) the appeal for action and the exhortation 
to pray to the sun for success in what is desired. For it is 
explained that the sun is the father of all creation. The sun 
drawls up clouds with his heat,i and his energy^ being tmns- 
muted into water, with the help of the moon, is distilled into 
plants as rain, and in this way the food that man cats is full 
of solar energy, and man and all that live by food' must regard 
the sun as their father. Prcliminaty to the hymn to the sun 
is given a list of bis hundred and eight names,^ among w^hich 
are to be noticed : Arj^aman, Soma, Indra, Varna, Brahmil, 
Vishnu, ^iva. Death, Timc^ Creator, the Endless One, Kapila, 
the Unborn One, the Person (Purusha; with which are to be 
compared the names of Vishnu in the Divine Song), the Alh 
mater, Varuna, the Grandfather, the Door of Heaven, etc. 
And then the Hymn to the Sun (iii. 3. 36 IT.) Thoti, O Sun, 
of creatures art the eye; the spirit of all that have embodied 
form ; thou art the source of all created things; thou art the 
custom of them that make sacrifice; thou art the goaf of the 
Silnhhyas and the hope of the Vogts; the course of all that 
seek deliverance ^ , Thou art worshipped by all; the three 

and thirty gods(l) worship thee, etc. . * * 1 think that in all 

the seven worlds^ and all the worlds there is nothing 

1 It 1 a mhef diflkuJi tb £D£]dpf«$s Uh iift into thli nuftlicrn 5 onu of l!b« rm.m» 
Hfo perhapf btcT 

1 Ib ccblnaa oifet niijr iiiTfis the boait tial 1 lUn|^ ^ fcan bjztC tWEo ttw fodi/ 

L 19^ r. 

■ Lalw uit tsfcfltiTHapfl' workia anak^uif t& the t«onty-OH Wlk. 

mA^i^ir/sAK—r/sz/AX' A,yi> 


which is superior to the sun* Other beings tfiere are, both 
powerful ^intl great, but they have no such glor)^ as the tiun's. 
Father of Sights all beings rest in tJiee; O Lord of lightj all 
things, all elements are in thee. The disc of Vishnu was 
fashioned by tile All-maker (one of the sun's names 3 ) with thy 
glor)^- Over M the earth, with its thirteen islands, thou shinest 
with thy kitie (rays), ^ Thou ait the beginning and the 

end of a day of Brahma. . . . They call thee Indra ; thou art 
Rudm, Vishnu, the Fatlier-god^ Fire, the subtile mind ; thou art 
the Lord, and thou, eternal brnAmay 

Hi ere Is here also a very significant admixture of Vedic and 
Upanishidic religion. 

in Krishna^ who in the Upanishads is known already by his 
owTi and his mother's aamct pantheism is made personal accord* 
ing to the teaching of one sect. But while the whole epic is in 
esudunce for the spuriousness of the claim of Krishna to be 
regarded as incarnate Vishnu (God)+ there is scarcely a trace 
in the original epic of the older view in regard to Vishnu him¬ 
self* Thus in one passage he is called **the younger brother 
of Indra'' (iiip la. 2 $). But, since Indra Is at no time the 
chief god of the epic^ and the chapter in w^hith occurs this 
expression is devoted lo extolling Krishna-Vishnu as the All¬ 
god, the w'ords appear to be intended rather to identify Krishna 
with Vishnu, who in the Rig Veda is inferior to Indra, than 
to detract from Vishnu's glory. 'Fhe passage is cited below* 

What now is the relation of Vishnu-Krishna to the other 
divinities? Vishnuite and Qivaite* each cries out that his god 
includes the other, but there is no current identity of Brahma, 
Vishnu, ^Iva as three coequal representations of one God. 
For examplct in iiL 1S9. 5, one reads ^ "M am Vishnu, 1 am 
BrahmH, and I am ^iva,” but one cannot read into this any 
trinitarian doctrine whatever, for in context the passage reads 
as a whole: '* t am Xilriyana, 1 am Creator and Destroyerj 

t tlw tstliBr lund, tin m Imit ea levui, Uk eajrlled' vkw. 



I am Visbiiii^ I am Brahirta, I am Indra, the niaster-^godp T ana 
king K libera^ Vaina, ^iva, Soma^ Ka^^apa, and also the Father- 
god/’ Again, Vishnu sap that the Faiher-goch or grandparent 
of the gods, is ‘^one^half of my body/' and does not tnetuion 
giva (iii. 1 89. 39). Thus, also* the hymn to ^iva in iii. 39. 76 ff. 
is addressed '^to ^iva having die form of Vishniip to Vbhnu 
having the form of ^iva, to the thrce-cyed god^ to ^’arva, the 
tiident-liolderj the suiip Gane^a;" but with no mention of lirahma. 
The three gods, Brahmil, Vishnu, ^iva, howeverp are sometimes 
grouped together (but not as a trinity) in late passages* in 
contrast to Indra, ii. 53. a 6. There are many hymns to 
Vishnu and where each is without beginning, the 

the uncreated Creator. It Is only when the later period^ look¬ 
ing back on the respective claims of tlie sects, identifies each 
god wldi the other, and both with their predecessor* that one 
gels even the notion ot a trinity* Even for this later view of 
the pscudcnepic only one passage will be found (cited below). 

The part of Brahma in the epic is most distinctly in process 
of subordination to the sectarian gods. He is holy and eteniah 
but not omniscient, though wise. As was showm above, he 
works at the will of Vishnu, He is one with Vishnu only in 
the sense that all is one with the Atl-god* WTien Vishnu 
^raises the earth* sts a boar, Brahma tells the gods td go to 
himJ He councils the gods. His heaven is above Indra's, 
but be Ls really only an intermediary divinity, a passive aclixity* 
if the parados maybe allowed. Not like Indra (to whom he 
b superior) does he fight with All-gods, or do any great act of 
his own will* He is a shadowy, fatherly, beneficent advisor 
to the gods* his children; but all his activit)- is due 10 Vishnu, 
This, of course* is from the point of view of the VUhnuite, 

> 111. The Viihiiu Is a aa b the dwaff4ErairpalinB4 

Camparc ViioaHJu VAntanalui, ViilisupoMia* in tbt <rf Iwljr K^fetiiifrfslacea (Ul 5jj> 

of VSsfi-Pn-'s 5irii 3Mre ^ntp3y traiiAien^ from TlraJhttrafl, to wlwiin llwy TuJuflpHj 
la ^kbr Cnninn pi, iif. 

— C/FA- 


But there b uo Brahmiite to modiry the iiupressjoin* There 
existed no strong Brahma sect as there were Vishnu and 
sects. Brahma Is In his place merely because to the preceding 
age he was the highest god; fur the epic regards Creator, 
PrajApati^ Pitamaha, Brahmd as synonymous,^ The abiitract 
ifrithma, which in the Upanishads is the same with the Supreme 
Spirit was called personally Brahma, and this Brahma is now 
the Brahmnnic Father-god, The sc^cts could never get rid of a 
god whose being was rooted alike in the preceding philosophy 
and m the popular conception oi a Father-god, Estch age of 
thought takes’the most advanced views of the preceding age 
as its axioms. The Veda taught gods ; the Br^hmanas taught 
a Falber^god above the gods ; the V panishads taught a Supreme 
Godhead of which this Father-god was the active manifesta¬ 
tion, The sects taught that their heroes were incarnations of 
this Supreme, but they earried with them the older pantheon 
□s wellp andp with the pantheon, its earlier and later heads, 
Indra and iJrah ma, Conseqnen tly each sect admits that Bfahm+l 
is greater th,'in the older Vedic gods,, but, while naturally it 
identifies its special incarnation first with Its most powerful 
opponent, and thusp so to speak, absorbs it-J nvah it identities 
this incarnation with Brahma only as being chief of lesser 
divinifies, not sis being a rival. One may represent the atti¬ 
tude gf a Krishna-worshipper in the epic somewhat in this way* 
** Krishna is a modem incamalion of Vishnu, the form which 
Is taken in this age by the Supreme Lord. You who worship 
^iva should know that your ^iva is really my Krishna, and 

1 In L PraJlpatS, Use Fathftr^, b U^ tJghwt pidp to wTw*n w tiattal, 

Tum fiw Twlp, 4ipj»i=a« as a hlgbpr mkI Jndr 4 ivm A where he 

SMA ftwi iormcr Indm; and finals Vbhne ama ofl lo tli^ stage u Uie hisjbat of 
aJJ| tl* inlifilUTp UMWoreiTible, eiemal, the AU in cEnUeaa fomas," Brahmi Ei inTolocd 
iHiirand IhcB in a pertcwctflry way* twt nn uae hJni to do 

Ho haa done hSi wgrlt, ftiinl* the the aaEri&cx-, and (iwcasioiu%> etervlhltijt 

And he will do a|^B when the new uon tlut im thb Mtem hie woik ii 



THE EEiJamm oe ijvi>/a. 

the chief point is to recognke ttiy Krishna as the Supreme 
Lord^ The man Krishna is the Supreme Lord in humin form. 
Of course, as siichp being^ the One God in whom are all things 
and beingii, he ts also alt the gods known by names which 
designate his special functions. Thus he is the head of the 
gods, the Fathcr-god, as our ancestors called him, Brahma; and 
he is all the gods known by still older names, who are the 
children of the secondary creator, Brahma, viz., Agni, Indra, 
SOrya, etc. All gods are active manifestations of the Supreme 
God called Vishnu, who is bom on earth to-day as Krishna."^ 
And the ^i™tc says: Is the manifestation of the All¬ 

god/* and repeats what the Vishnu ite says, suhstituting ^iva 
for Vishnu,^ but with the difference already explained, namely, 
that the Qiva-sect has no incarnation to which to pennt, ns has 
the Vishnuitc. Qiva is modified Rudra, and both are old god- 
names. Lniter, however, the Qivaite has also his Incarnate god. 
As an example of later ^iva-worship may be taken Vishnu's 
own hymn to this god in vii. &o. 54 (f.t Reverent^ to Bhava^ 
^arva, Rudra (^iva), the bestower of gifo^ the lord of cattle^ 
the teniblct great, fearful, god of three wives to him who is 
peace, the Lord, the slayer of sacrifices (ffniMagAnay , , ^ to 
the blue^neckcd god; to the inventor (orauthor) , ^ , to truth; 
to the red gcxl, to the snake, to the unconquerable one/to the 
blue-haired one, to the trident-holder; - . - to the inconceivable 
one ... to him whose sign is the hull; ... to the creator of 
alh wLo pervades all^ who is worshipped by all, Lord of all, 
^arva, Qank.ara^ ^iva, . 1 . who has a thousand heads a 

i Tli«i Sft Jill- ^85.165 1 “ N^dther nor b capabk ol and€»taiuJinf 

tlw ^I'^dUEuas {4 

* Or ^ three 

* Hi. 31;^ 771 Diksla-i nucHjfice” CaFnpiire the hjha 

qiltliet in ibe to 1- 7. 3, after *Wdi ihe wSw acftt 

SiKh (fcdK Ifi ttH* fQlkving;. f™t m the dead upon the fkW of thaagh, when 

kft to th^mi^lTea, *mi 4 nL|Eht ti iht hour when thw driuonA awjjnk/ liL 11,4 aod 33, 
tn 1. jS iod z6i iwt Ei In iiill 


thousand arms, and deaLhp a thousand eyes and legs^ whosfl 
acts are innuinerable,” In vii, loi, 71, ^iva is ihe unborn 
Lordn inconoeivable^ the soul of action, the unmoved one; and 
he that knows ^iva as the self 0! seift as the unknowable one* 
goes to i>raA»ta-b\\%s, This also Is late Rivalsm in pantheistic 
form. In other words, everything said of Vishnu must be 
repeated for 

As an example of the position of the lowest member of the 
later trinity and his very subordinate place, may be cited a pas¬ 
sage from the preceding book of the epic* According to the 
story in vL 65* 4a ff., the seers were all engaged In worshipping 
Brahmil, as the highest divinity they knew* when he suddenly 
began to worship ** the Person (Spi rit)^ the highest Lord ”; and 
Prahma then lauds Vishnu as such : ^^I'hou art the god of the 
universe* the Alhgod. Vasudeva (Krishna)* Therefore I wor¬ 
ship thee as the divinity; thou* whose soul b devotion. Victory 
to thee* great god of all; thou takest satisfaction in that which 
benefits the world. . - * Lord of lords of all, thou out of w^hose 
navel springs the lotus* and whose eyes are large; Lord of the 
things that wxre^ that are, that are to be; O dear oue^ self-bom 
of the self-bom . . . O great snake,. O boar^* O thou the first 
one, thou who dwellest in all* endless one, known as 
everlasting origin of all beings * . * destroyer of the worlds I 
Thy feet are the earth ^ . . heaven is thy head * * * 1 * Brahma* 
am thy form * » * Sun and moon are thy eyes * * * Gods and 
all beings were by me created on earth, but they owe their origin 
to thy goodn^s.” Then the creation of Vishnu through Prn- 

r sdke Uk trU&rntawlder, tha LofU <j!anlan, tlw 

Grtui Cod* eie^. appeare at lib »bcre tiie^pSc li at ita worat, the 

polalloiu beln^ i3uk< Sasranl than ta ibe tif V^lfhmdt? euli^cL Tbu ttiort 
devfitil waf!iihEpper of Vidiny b u aii adhcRiit of su involUnij him 

for hfip iincr AghtLng vdltv IdtEL He u ^ iDvindble before Uw thjte Hf- la 

tlw Hin; bb blood U AH tin &cxb, 'rlih UrahtnA laX tlwlr bead* rerife him. 

I \«t luA tkfiT? thfw facHf ^ arnu (fornpeuv Elit ^ 74 S 9 l-1^5} t 

oUber j|ire hint nvore. 

^ Qira haa aa sign the buU I V bbao, the baaj+ 


T//£ ££L/b/OAS OF 

dyitmna as a form of the deity is d4,>scribedp Vishnu 

(Aniruddlia) credtud me^ Brahmi, the upholder of the worlds ; 
so am I made of Vishnu; I am caused only by thee/' 

While Brahm£ is rcprescnied here as identical with Vishnu 
he is at the same dme a distinctly inferior personalicy, created 
by Vishnu for the purpose of creadng worlds^ a factor of inferior 
godliness to that of the \¥orld-Spirit+ Krishna-Vishnu. 

It had been stated by liolt^mann^ that lirahma sometimes 
appears in the epic as a god supenor to Vishnu^ and on the 
strength of this L von Schreeder has pul the date of the early 
epic between the seventh and fourth cen lurks because at 
that time Brahnii was the chief god/ von Schroeder ralher 
exaggerates Holtzmann's results, and asserts that *‘in the 
original form of the poem Brahmd appears as the 

highest and most revered god, while the worship of VUhnu and 
Qiva as great gods is apparently a later intrusion'* (4^, 

I’his assev'eration will have to be tahen Had 

von Schroeder said ^pantheistic gods' he would hav^e been 
correct in this regard, but we think that both Vishnu and ^iva 
w'ere great gods* equal, if not superior to Brahma, when the epic 
proper began. And, moreover, when one speaks of the origfna! 
form of the poem he cannot mean the psvudo-epic or the 
ancjcnl legends which have been woven into the epic, them¬ 
selves of earlier date. No one means by the * early epic ' the 
tales of Agastya, of the creation of Death, of the making 
ambrosia, but the story' of the war in its earliest shape; for the 
epic poem must have hegmi with its own siibject-mattur. Now 
it is not true that Brahma Is regarded Hhroughout' the early 
poem as a chief god at alt. If one investigate the cases where 
Vishnu or giva appears * below* fJrahmi he will see, in almost 
every ^se that Holtimann has registered* that this condition 
of affairs is recorded not in ihccpic proper but in the Brah manic 
portions of the pseudo-epic, or in ancient legends alone. "J’hus 

I ^tl>lG. luuiitt. pp. *97. a 

///A nu/sM^s /s/ixir a An? 


in the story of the winning of aitibrosiop of . 4 gaatya drinkin" 
nml of RAina, Brahma appears to be above Vishny^ and 
also in ^imt: extracts from the pseudo-epic. For the real epic 
we know of but two cases that can be put into this catcgoiyp 
and neither Is sufficient to support the hypothesis built upon it. 

For Krishna^ when he ingeniously plots to have Bhlma slay 
JajiLsandhii, is said to have renounced killing Jar^sandha him¬ 
self, “putting Brahmi's injunction before him" (IL aj. 36), ijf.p 
recalling Brahni.^'s admonition that only Bhjma was fated to 
slay the foe- And when Krishna and Satyaki salute Knshna'^s 
elder brother they do so (for being an elder brother Baladeva 
is Krishna's Guru) respectfully, *just as India and Upendra 
salute Brahma the lord o^ (ix, 34. iS). Upendra is 

Indra^s younger brother, />„ %Nshtlu (above). But these pas^* 
sages arc scanty proof for the statement that Brahma appears 
throughout the early epic as the highest god;’ nor is there 
even so much evidence as this in the case of ^iva. Hcre^ too, 
U is in the tale of the churning of ocean, of Sun da and 
Upasunda, of the creation of the death-power, and in late di^ 
dactlc (Brahman ic) passages, where Brahma makes ^iva to do* 
stroy earth and (Jiva is bom of Brahm^k and only in such tales, 
or extracts from the Book of Peace, etc., that Brahma appears 
as superior. In all other cases, in the real action of the epic, 
he IS subordiniite to Vishnu and Qiva whenever he is compared 
with them. When he is not compared he appears, of course, 
as the grenl old Fsther-god who creates and foresees, but even 
here he is not untouched by passion, he is not albknowing* and 
his role as Creator is one that, with the allotment of duties 
among the gods, does not make him the highest god. All the 
old gods are great till greater appear on the scene. There is 
scarcely a supreme BrahmJ in the epk itself, but there is a 

i liDhzmuvn na* iVtrMwwf^K p. 19$} that iht wbole «pbod« 

i^tK h Xit ^ildSUgii t<» the Otifiiui llohiiQami''d mMO- 

.311 Enhuia li in ZD M O. aixxirilL 167+ 


T//£ ^ £ l/G/OA^S OF 

and a grater (older) tiui, the sectarian gods in 
Ihe old Bnihmanic legends, while the old Brahmanhood reasserts 
Itself sporadicallj in the ^anti, etc., and tells how the sectarian 
gods became supreme, how they miarrelled and laid the strife 
Since the adjustment of the relations between the persons of 
t^e bter trinity is one of the most important ((tiestions in the 
theology of the completed epic, it will be necessat)- to go a lit- 
tie further afield and see what the latest books, which hitherto 
we have refrained as much as possible from citing, Jmve to say 
on the subject. As it seems to be true that it was felt neces-' 
Mr>-bythe fivaite to offset the laud of Vishnu by antithetic 
laud of ^iva,’ m after the completion of the Book of Peace, 
itself a late addition to the epic, and one that is markedly A''ish' 
•nuitic, there was, before the Genealogy of Vishnu, an antithetic 
Book of Law, which is as markedly givaitic. In these books 
one finds the climas of sectarianism, in so far as it is repre¬ 
sented by the epic; although in earlier books isolated passages 
of late addition are sporadically to be found which have much 
the same nature. Everywhere in these last additions Brahma 
w on a plane which is as much lower than that of the Supreme 
God as It IS higher than that of Indra. Thus in viiL 33. 45 
Indra takes refuge with Brahma, but Brahma turns for help to 
giva (Bhava, Sthanu, Jlshnu, etc.) with a hymn sung bv the 
g^s and seers. Then comes a description of gankira's* 
(gjva s) war-car, with its metaphorical arms, where Vishnu is 
the ^int of Civa’s arrow (which consists of Vishnu, Soma, 
Agni), and of this war-car Brahma himself is the charioteer 
7b), With customary inconsistency, however, when 
giva wishes his son to be exalted he prostrates himself before 
Jirahmii. who then gives this youth called Kdrtikeya, 

*1-* ^ ^ ** *'"* ‘he Tbipn of VlOfflu. 

thu J^her whnin Arjuca Md V l-ihiiii vlitt (vil. ft,) ^ 

‘W™d]r7. -glw, ^ 

nmDVJSM.^VlSHl^’U AXO gtVA. ^11 

ihc • generalship ’ over all beings {sSinSpat^'am, ix. 44. 43-49), 
There is even a ‘celebration of JirahroJ/ a sort of Jiarvust festi¬ 
val, shared, as the text letls, by all the castes; and it mast 
have been something like the religious games of the Greeks, 
for it was celebrated by athletic contests.' lira lima, as the old 
independent creator, sometimes keeps fiis place, transmitting 
posterity through his ‘seven mtnd-bom sons,' the great seers 
pi J 33; xii, 166. 11 IT,). JJut Hrahma himself is bom either 
in the golden egg, as a secondary growth (as in xli. 312. i-^), 
or, ns IS usually the case, he is born in the lotus which springs 
from the navxl of musing» Vishnu (iii, 103, 14). in this pas^ 
sage BrahmH has four faces (Vedas) and four for ma^ iaii^t-muriU 
(15), and this epithet in other sections is transferred to Vishnu, 
Thus in vii. 29. a6, Vishu says miurmurtir “ J hav^ fouri 

forms," but he never says irim&rtir ^kam I have three forms’). 
There is one passage, however, that makes for a belief in a 
trinity. It stands in contrast to the various VisJinuite hymns, 
one of which may well be reviewed ns an example of the regu¬ 
lar Vishnuite laudation aJfetted by the Krishna sect (iii. 12, 
ii ff,): “ Krishna is Vishnu, Bralitni, Soma, the Sun, Right, the 
Creator (‘founder'), Yama, Fire, \\ 1 nd, ^iva, Time, Space, 
Etrth, and the cardinal points. Thou, Krishna, art the Crea¬ 
tor (‘emitter'); thou, chief of gods, didst worship the highest| 
thou, Vishnu called, bccamcst Indra’s younger brother, entering 
into sonship with Aditi; as a child with three steps thou didst 
fill the sky, space, and earth, and pass in glorj. ... At the end 
of the age thou retumest all things into thyself. At the begin¬ 
ning of the age Brahma was bora from thy lotus-navel as the 
venerable preceptor of all things (the same epithet fs in vs. as 
applied to Vishnu himself); and ^iva sprang from thy angry 

I SraiMama, ,»maiafnnm IcoDpw, Iht conuBCnbUor). Tlw uwtgja of liiahcril 
IMiJrbeorptiliiHUT that ot (;(** mcnthiDcU In the unit pLuv and deKrihtd 
wfaeFi? (It. tyu R.; i. ao), 

a Not ATihuo, dmpLEs doa noi Bliual^rr he oftlj ibhk*. 


forehead when the demouf would kill him (Brahmii); both are 
born of thee, in whom is the universe,” ’I'he following verses 
(45If.) are like those of the Divine Song: ‘‘Thou, Knight 
Arjunn, art the soul of Krishna; thou art mine atone and ihine 
alone am I; they that are mine arc thine; he that hates thee 
hates Me, and he that is for thee is for ,Me; thou an Nam 
(‘man') and I am XtlrJ^'ana (‘whose home is on the waters,’ 
god};’ we are the same, there is no difference between us.” 
Again, like the Divine Song in the following verses (51'•54) is 
tl«e expression * the sacrihee and he that sacrifices,’ etc., it^ether 
with the statement that Vishnu plays ‘ like a boy with playthings,’ 
with the crowds of gods, Brahml, Qiva, Indr.i, etc. The pas¬ 
sage opposed to this, and to other identifications of Vishnu 
with many gods, is one of the most flagrant interpolations in 
the epic. If there be anything that the Supreme God in 
he or Vishnuite form does not do it is to cjttol at length, with¬ 
out obvious reason, his rivals* acts and ineamationa, ¥tt in this 
clumsy passage just siichan extended laudation of Vbhnuis put 
into the mouth of ^iva. In fact, iu. 273, from 30 to 76, is an 
interpretation of the most nasve sort, and k Is here that we find 
the approach to the later frtmarfi (itiuity): '*1 Living the form 
of Brahma he creates j having a human body (as Krishna) he 
protects, in the Hsiture of Q'lira he would destroy ^— these arc 
the three appearances or conditions of the Father- 

god'* (Prajapat!),* This comes after ati account of the four¬ 
faced iotus-bom BrahmiL, who, seeing the world a void, emitted 
his sons, the seccSp tnind-bom, like to himself (now nine in num- 
bcr)j who in turn begot all beings, including men (vss. 44-47), 
Jfp on the other hand, one take the later sectarian account of 

I Maa {dlirinc) an 4 hiunui, bm h x dtw furwof VUlid^e, uhI Lb« 

wv Ffickonicd u twa «cn tdiviiiiUe4). 

« TMj h iie iiqJr rpitijf triiutuiuL in U* epic. Id L i, 57; kUL iS, 15^ 

l]» telSef mxy b* lodltvled, M not ortalialy^ fi* it n in Hfuin 10^2. S« isn tMi 
pnam Boltrcnann, ZDMG. mvILL p, 704. liT, J4 fora U ViihELU, BraHmjL 


\'ishnti (for ihc above is more in honor of Krisima the man-god 
than of Vishnu, thu form of the Supreme God), he will see that 
even in the pseudeMipic the summit of the theological eoncep* 
tions U thu emphasis not of iriniiyor of rouliifariousness but of 
unity. According to the test the J'aficaiOiajftas are the same 
with the Vishnuite sect called Pahearatras, and these are most 
emphatically eMn/i'fiaf, i.f„ Unitarians (xii. ;j36; 337. 4.6; 333. 
66-67).' ill this same passage 34.. ,06. Vishnu k again 
mBrtmrt, ' the bearer of four fottus,' an cmkely dlnerunt con^ 
ceptioii of him (below). So that even in tins most advanced 
sectarian iiterature there is tio teal threcfoldness of the Su¬ 
preme as one in three. In Lite following chapter (xii. 335, i ff.) 
there is a ivtssage like the great Ka hj-mn of the Rig Veda, 
‘whom as god shall one worship? ’ ITie sages say to Vishnu - 
“All men worsJiip thee ; to whom dost thou offer worship f ” 
and he saj-s. ‘to the Ejcmal Spirit.' The conception of the 
functions of Brahma and C'va in rciation to Vishnu is plainly 
shown in liL 34s. 19; - Brahma and giva create and destroy at 
the will of Vishnu; they arc bom of his grace and his anger.” 

In regard to gim himself, his nature and place in Vishnuism 
have been sufficiently explained. 'J'he worship of this god is 
referred to 'Vedlc texts'(the {aia-rmfriyam, vij. 30a. lao)-' 
Vtshnu is made to adore the terrible god (r». soi. 69) wiio 
appears as a mad ascetic, a wild rover, a monster, a satire on 
man and ^s, though he piously carries a rosan-, and has other 
late trails in his personal appearance.* The strength of giva- 
ism lay in the eumenidean (giva is 'prospering,' 'kindly’) 

1 Cwnpm 13» II^. “thffli ill The Ef™ the 

plKd In IVftaldK he S17» flit Bigjit, mDnth. nHuis. aM jear 1/*. M). 

117 [lihtth di4i]l«. Is I'uufltrilrif), UnluQS -.|ojflwi Unt t'blinq. b lupenor” 

* VSj. S. ivL t-M ; Tint S. iv. i, i-j 1. 

• 1,^ ™ eolinaiT ; he U {« ehowr) Id 3 ^ ^ 

lice, of \ edJ* but flfl ?fl^pflt!, - Lord uf 1 *. dflite the IW, 

laukik? ■oi tht (int ? 

r///: o/^ 


euphemism and fear alike, n^hich shrank in speech and mind 
^ from the object of fear. But this religion in the epic had a 
firmer hold than that of fear* It was essentially phallic in its 
outward form (viL aou 93-96)* and as such was deeply rooted 
in the religious Conscience of a people to whom one may ven¬ 
ture perhaps to ascribe such a form of worship even in the 
time of the Rig Veda^ although the signs thereof in great part 
have been suppressed. This may be doubtedj indeed, for the 
earlier agej but there is no question that epic ^^ivaism^ like 
^ivaism tcMlay,. is dependent wholly on phallic worship (xliL 
14. C30 fT.). It Is the parallel of Bacchic rites and orgies^ as 
well as of the worship of the demons in distinction from that of 
good powers, ^iva represents the ascetic, dark, awful, bloody 
side of religion: Vishnu, the gracious, calm, hopeful, loving 
side; the former is fearful, mysterious, demoniac; the latter is 
joyful, erotic, divine. In their biter developments it is not sur¬ 
prising to see that Vishnuism, in the form of Krishnaism, be¬ 
comes more and more erotic^ while Q'h'sisin becomes more and 
^ more ghastly and ghoulisL 

Wild and varied as ate the beliefs of the epic, there b space 
but to show a few more characteristic sides of its theolog}^ — 
a phase that may seem questionable, yet, since the devout 
Hindu believes the teachings of the epic, they must all to him 
constitute one theology, although it was gradually amalgamated 
out of different creedsn 

In connection with ^iva stands, closely united, his son, 
Gane^'a, leader of troops,^' sdli worshipped as one of the 
popular gods, and the battle-god, Skanda, the son first of Agni 
then of ^iva^ the conqueror of Um demons, i/f/iinwf, and later 
representative of Indra, with whom the epic Identifies him. 
For U Is Skandnt that is the real battle-god of the later epic; 

I Thfi ttitaal It ttafc phftllk wonhLp wii z ti^it (rf aoulh^rti tritw 

DpoB northcfn trlvalsnL Fhlksij^Idj^iaLf li Unt and pan^ 

h Ui Mtnlnallj puitbdAtEc: hal tvallr it ts duulbUc 

'm.vouiSM.—vmiNV aa'd ^/rA. +15 

though in its original form Indra was still the warrior's refuge, 
as attests the stereotyped phiaseotogy. In iii. 225-3^3 honor 
and praise are ascribed to Skartda in much the same language 
with that used to portray his father, fiva, “The god of a 
thousand aimsj the I<ord of all, the creator of gods and 
demons” are phrases used in his eulogj'. He too has a list 
of names; his nurse is the “maiden of the red (bloody) sea,” 
called Lohitayanl, His terrible appearance and fearful acts 
make him the equal of ^iva,' His sign is a knikufat cock; 
ik. 229. 33, 

Associated, again, with Skanda are the spirits or ‘mothers,’ 
which afflict people. The belief in mother-gods is old, but its 
epic form is new, The exactness and detail in regard to these 
beautiful monsters show at least a real belief, which, as one on 
a lower plane besides the higher religion, cannot be passed 
over without notice. As in other lands, people are ‘possessed' 
by evil spirits, called possessors or seizers {grakas}. These 
are Skanda’s demons,* and are both male and female. Until 
one reaches the age of siitecn he is liable to be possessed by 
one group of ‘seizers,' who must be Worshipped in proper form 
that their wrath may be averted. Othets menace mortals from 
titc age of sixteen to seventy. After that only the fever-demon 
is to be feared. Imps of this sort are of three hinds. One 
kind indulge only in tniachievous sport: another kind lead 
one to gluttony; the third kind are devoted to lust. They are 
known as Pi^acas, Yakshas, etc., and when they seize a person 
he goes mad. They are to be kept at bay by self-restraint 
and moderation {iii, 230. 45'56>. In ii. 46 and iii. 236 the 
‘mothers' are described. 'J'hey are witches, and live in cross- 

* ThKTi! are iadUatUjR* lfi IhLi M some aectaraa feelltig, md ftar U 

parti^ti Warfare ; la t^^rd to whSdi add Muir and Hgltnaiuia |Jw 
puu^ mL J 4 J. jsj^ ^hcra b a peac±fq| \tm of ^ belnite^ \lltlatI^lfE^ 


i Gnhu are alw plaaeLi, birt ia thh «l 11 tbey an nnK aitrokiHglcaJ, aj thdr 


rnt jcj^Lic/om 

roads, cetneicrics^ and mountains. They may bo of Dravidbin 
origin^ and in their epic form^ at any rate, are a late Intrusion,’ 

Jy:$t before the Dhine Song begins^ the knight who Is about 
lobccoate illuminated or ' disillusioiicd' offers a prayer to the 
terrible goddess Dnrgi, also one of the new, popular, and hor¬ 
rible forms of divine manifestation. In this hmn, vi. sj, 
l>urga (Uma, Plrvath KJlh etc.) is addressed as ^"leader of the 
armies of the blessed, the dweller in Mandara, the vouthftU 
woman, Kalh wife of ^iva, she w'ho is red, blacky varitgated; 
the savior, the giver of gifts, Katyaj-anl, the great benefactress, 
the terrible one, the victorious one, nHclory itself . , , Umi, 
the slayer of demon and the usual identificration and theft 
of epithets then follows: thou who art the Vedas, who art 

Revelation, who art virtue, JatavedasI, * , i thou art /fnrAma 
^ among the scieticesv thou art the slfcep of incorporate beings, 
the mother of Skanda, the blessed one, Durga , , , thou art 
the mother of the V'edas and Vedanta , , thou art sleeps 
illusion, modcslyt happiness , , , thon art satisfaction, growth* 
contentment, light, the increaser of moon and sun." 

Turning from these later pamsites,* which live on their parent 
gods and yet tend to reduce them, we now^ revert to that happi¬ 
ness hereafter |o which looks forward the epic knight that has 
not been tempted to * renourtcc ^ desire. In pantheistic passages 
he is whai the later remodellor makes hlm+ lint enough of old 
belief remains to showr that the w^arrior really cared a great 

1 TUeV poM^blj cld, u Weber thlelia^ but Ihej uem ta Kitfe n^hlng k com- 
lEnan with Uia hmCk diirlpUw, 

^ Comi|]aiv aiautbe-f hji'mii l£> Durgl la Ir, ^ F. ^25 ui 

iukpcDdeftt tuoil n^wquenlliy ntgarded as ytn's Slw a 

?dJe, suidar Tiri™ oAbMu^ in tlic ^ * Ifmuture, u d& the 

la Iwlihi hjrmiu ihe Ea ‘ Visbnu'i Hster,' anel ia fv+ £■ a ^para 

* Owf ramporoUveLljr la^ gi^ a paralng TnenUoo, I>huu2^i Kinu, 

tht (Oafdoiil) Vfveigad,. '^ihe ^tbi- lltalfle^ n^na* wtuHe Brnspri lEka 

ttiijic ^ Coptd tL 6&, 3a; i;i, 34 ' fil. 46^ j)-, lie id ia advnitjtioiis udditikia to the 
^c, IEt& bit^ qaTTie of oecort In ^9. 91, In I, 71. 41 ^ i^t, 40 he Ij 

Hftflmalbi Tbc AthofYan god ibo bai daita, ILL a;, n pmuk cf this latat Veda. 



de:il more for h^^av^n than he did for absorption. As to the 
cause of events, as was said aho-ve^ it Is h’ate. Repeatedly b 
heard the lament, ** Fate (im|:K:rsonal} is the highest thingp he 
on vain bumcin effort,"' The knight outires^s \Ath his lipa to 
a belief in the new doctrine of absorption, but at heart he b 
a fatalisL And his aim is to die on the (veld of battlcp that he 
may go thence directly to the heaven that awaits the good 
and the bravoJ Out of a long description of thb heaven a 
few extracl !5 here selected will show what the good knight 
anticipates i 

“ Upward fjises ilifc path that lG^d5 tn gods; it » Inhabited by ihcm ihat 
have ia<rift?<eiJ iUid have done ^pensmm. Unbeliwlng peni^ns and unlryth- 
lel petT^nna do sot enter there t only they that have eulcouB wouX^ that 
have canquerfid selh and heroes that fjear the Slirks of batlte. 'rbert sit 
the Hcert and gods, thfiite are ^Iriing^ self-iJIumined worlds made of light, 
resplnndcnE. And in this heavee iherc is acithcj hnngeri ROr ihiratp nqr 
weariness, nor told nor heal, nor fear; nothing that U tetribln is thf^e^ 
nothing unelcan; but ptuajd ng fights^ and sounds, and smdK There Is 
no cart tben^ not age, nor work, nor sorrow. Sach is the hcai^j^ that Is 
the TeWSTtl of good act^ Above ibis is Bralmil^s world, where ut th* 
Kvrs and Ihe three and thirty gods,^* elo 

Over against this array of advantages stands Use one great 
*• fault of heaven,"" which is stated almost in the words of 
“nessun maggior dolore,"' ‘nhe thought (when one Uve^ again 
on the lower plane) of former happiness in the higher life is 
terrible grief"" (vs. 30), this heaven will pass aw.ay at the 
end of the world-period^ when the Eternal draws all in to him¬ 
self again (iii. 261); and the thought that one has been in 
heaven^ while now he is (re-boni) on earth, Ls a sorrow' greater 
Uian the joy given by heaven.* 

1 Coiniun iL 1^2. jS ^ “Ortut bgliuesis, great slfiry, p^nta, deatli 1 b batElct 
m eadi respcctlnly jwodBctlvB of liqsiVTn; tlw Ua alW U a wre cause," 

1 w* deiCriplirsn and ihe sentLcnent.-i art quLtv bw. Tb^ same s<srt irf beaven 
^vftbouE the pMUMupliEcnl bictefness. with whjcb cAmp^fv abore, p, Is, 
fntuul la other pasu^ Mo^hat afel|£ii^nlod with uymph* and facllt godd»K:i. 

r//£ j££l/g/ 04 Vs o£ 


One is reitiinded by the epic description of heaven of that 
poet of the Upiniahads who describes his heavenly bliss as 
consisting in the fact that in that world ** there is neither 
snow Ror sorrow/' The Jater version is only an AmpUhcatlon. 
Even with the assurance that the fault of heaven " is the dis^ 
appointment of being dropped to earth again in a new birth^ 
the ordinary mortal is more averse from the bliss of absorptioii 
than from the pleasiite of heaven. And in truths except to one 
veiy weary of his lot in life, it must be confessed that the 
religion here shown in all Its bearings is one eminently pleasant 
to believe. Its gist, in a word^ b this ^ “ If you feel able to 
endure it^ the best thing to do Is to study the plan of the uni¬ 
verse, and then conform to it, By severe menu! discipline 
you can attain to this knowledge, and for reward you will bo 
immortally united with God/’ To this the sectarian adds: 
“Or believe in my god and the result will be the same/" But 
both philosopher and sectarian continue: If^ however, you 
do not want to be united with the Supreme Spirit so soon as 
this, then be virtuous and devout, or simply be brave If you 
are a warrior j do whatever the rules of morality and caste-custom 
bid you do, and you will go to heaven for thousands of ages \ 
at the end of which lime you will be re-bom in a fine family 
on earth, and may again decide w'hccher to repeat tbe process 
of gaining heaven or to join God and become absorbed into 
the World-Spirit at once/' There were probably many that 
chose ratlier to repeal their agreeable earthly experience, with 
an interlude of heaven after each death, than to make the 
renunciation of earth and heaven, and be absorbed once for all 
into the Aibgod. 

The doctrine of the ages^ is so nccessaiy to a true under¬ 
standing of the relative immortality offered as a substitute foi 

^ THli 49a;riRfl li uippoHd wne mUMbu ta be dut ta iMUii-dt hut 

tJit doubt la QoE 5 ub 4 itdifi.ila,ttfl, and ctob i) n the iiJg Vtdi om appears to 

rrier to it t 3 a«'bl:lleM, howmar, the later expanded liew, with its retb 

mij lure been hrj tuisicii Influeai:^ 

ir/A^I?l//SAf,—^/S//.YLr JA-I> 


the higher bliss of absorptiDii (that is, geimine immortalUy);^ 
th:il an account of the teaching in this regard will not be out 
of place. The somewhat pu/^ling distinction between the 
happy Ufe of thenft that fail to desire absorption, and yet are 
religious men, and the blissful life of those people that do 
attain absorption, is at once explained by :i clear understand¬ 
ing of the duration of the time of the gods' own life and of 
the divine heaven. Whereas the Greek notion of four ages 
includes with in the four all timOt all the four ages of the flindu 
are only a fraction of time. Starting at any gne point of eter¬ 
nity, there is, according to the Hindu belief, a prelimitiary 
* dawn ' of a new cycle of ages. This dawm lasts four hundred 
years, and is then followed by the real age (the first of four), 
which lasts four thousand years, and has again a twilight end¬ 
ing of four hundred years in addition. This first is the Krita 
age, corresponding to the classical Golden Age, Its charac¬ 
teristics are, that in it everything is perfect; right eternal now 
exists in full power. In this age there are neither gods nor 
demons (Dinavas, Gandharvcis, ^'akshas, Rakshas, Serpents), 
neither buying nor selling, By a /ijjrns the dciivation of 

the name iCtita is krfirm rra mi Jitiiriazyum, with a pun, it 
ts called the sige^ because there are no samyf^t^s in that 

age* No Sdma Veda, Rig V^edi, or Yajur Veda exist as distinct 
Vedas.* There b no mortal work^ Fruit comes by meditation j 
the only duty is renunciation. Disease^ lack of mental power, 
moral defects (such as pride and hate) do not exist; the high¬ 
est course of the ascetic Yogis b universally 

Iti this age come into existence the Brahman, Ksha- 
triya, Qudra, rV,, the distinct castes of priest, warrior, 

husbandman, and slave; all with their special marks, and all 

1 Ya 4fJiff* Jd St. J43. S tbfl ejf4*r 1 a Etl^Va^iOi-Atlurfaiir 

SlBuiL TlieluitifE pf gt mk At tli«hfr 34 erf tll« Vedas 

kept In Khm late litany t* (^lia, who Ja " lie SXman unoiiji tine VednaT twantB& ol 
coune, the firal and beai. In the lanie pTao^^ C^Sfa h the “ ^plc (jdlL I4.3*3 J 

uk! /S,91}, forUwepic ootwef^faeall Ihn Ytdasin ita-irlrrtntWni 


T//£ /a^LfG/OA S or 

delighted with their proper occupations. Vet have nil the 
castes like c^eeupations^ like refuge^ pr-ictice* -ind knowledgifi. 
They arc Joined td the one god (thi have but one 

in their religious rites. Their duties are distinct^ but 
they follow only one Veda and one nilCi^ The four orders (of 
the time of life) are duly obsen'ed; tnen do not desire the 
fruit of dieir action, and sq they obtain the highest course, 
salvation by absorption into tn til is age the 'three 

attributes^ (or qualities) are unknown. After this age fnltows 
the dawn of the second age, called Treta^. lasting three hundred 
years, then the real age of 'rrcta, three thous,'ind years, followed 
by the twilight of three hundred y^ears. The characteristics of 
this age arc, that men are devout; that great sacrifices liegin 
(^Strftrum that Virtue decreases by one quarter; 

that all the various rites are produced, together with the attain- 
inent of sah’ntion through working for that end, hy means of 
sacritice and generosity; that every one does his duty and 
perforins asccticfstn. The next age, Dv^para, is introduced 
by a dawn of two hundred years, being itseU two thousand 
years in duration, and it closes with a twilight of two hundred 
years. Half of Virtue falls to appear in this age, that Is, the 
general rirtue of the world is diminished by a half (* the Bull 
of Justice stands on two legs '). The Veda is now subdivided 
into four. Instead of every one having one Veda, four Veda* 
exist, but some people know only three, or two^ or one^ or are 
even Veda-iess (nfitriTsX Ceremonies becotne man Bold, be¬ 
cause the treatises on duty are subdivided (E). The attribute 
of passion inffuences people, and it h with this that they per¬ 
form asceticism and are generous (not with dtsintercstedness)* 
Few (iraffti) are settled in truth ; Ignorance of the one Veda 
causes a multiplicitiou of Vedas as Veda means ^knowl¬ 
edge/ the Vedas result from ignorance of the essential knowl¬ 
edge). Disease and sin make penance ntetssary* People 
sacrifice only to gain heaven. After this age and its twilight 


m,v/}tf/s,v,—r/s//A'ir AiV£> ^/rA. -t2i 

are pa^t begins ibe fQiLi, t:Lst of the four ageSj. with :l c|a.wn o£ 
one hundred^ si course of one thousund^ und u subsequent 
twilight of one hundred ycarSw This is ihe present sinful age;, 
when there is no real religion, when the VedoA arc ignored, 
and the castes arc confused, when Itix (diiitreasts of every 
form) are rife; when Virtue has only one leg left to stand 
upon. 'I’he believer in Krishna as Vishnu, besides this nni- 
i^rsal description, says that the Supreme Lord in the Krita 
age Is ^white" (pure); in the Treta age, *ted^; in the Dvapam 
age, * yellow*; m the Kali age, *bkcV Vishnu is Krishna^ 
which means * black/^ I'his cycle of ages always repeats 
itself anew^ Now, since the twelve thousand years of these 
ages, with their dawns and tw’ilightST are but one of countless 
cj'clesp when the Kali age and its twilight have brought alE 
things into a miserable statet the universe is roabsorbed into 
the Supreme SpiKt. There is then a universal (apparenl) de¬ 
struction, of evci^ihing^ first by fire and then by a 

general flood, ^even suns appear in heaven, and what they fail 
to bum is consumed by the great fire called Samvartaka (really 
a in.inifestation of Vishnu), which sweeps the world and leaves 
only ashes ; then follows a flood which completes the annihila¬ 
tion. Thereafter follows a period equal to one thousand cycles 
(of tweh'c thousand years each)^ which is called * Brahma's 
night,' for during these twelve million years Brahma sleeps' and 
the new Krita age begins again ^'when ErahmS. wiikes up ®^ (Lii* 
i8S. z^, 69; 189. 4z).^ All the gods are destroyed in the uni¬ 
versal destruction, that is, rcsibsoibed into the All-god, for 
there is no such thing as anniluktion, cither of spirit or of mat¬ 
ter (which is illusion)i Consequently the gods^ heaven and the 

1 m. J49,1 4 ; I SSL 311 iSgk ^ i with n eif thit ihIqh d* Am 

^■ti***^ white, list, riElkiWp bhicL Aeconling; 1q jeIL jjj. jj, ttfaere Ia ita ucrIfK In 
t1M^ Krita age, but, banning with the TretA iHcm b a ginvmi diHfusloik ot hctI>- 

1 b the Hbrlpatia \n iiBQth^ (333991^ tlw bwh It h luiil that nuuriitEe 

hwA iiasm In the a 

3 Tlw tiuduiijgf vajiEf soouwlut ia l\m alkitEuefit erf ijpvan. Stt Slaau, L 67. 


r//£: OF /jmu. 

spirits of good men in thathen^^en are alto re-absorbed into that 
Supreme^ to be re-bom in the new age* This is wfiat is meant 
by the constant haTping on quasi-immortality. Righteousness^ 
sacrifice, bravery, bring man to heaven, but, though he 
joins the gods, with them he is destroyed. They and he. after 
milUons of years, will be risborn in the new heaven and the 
new earth. To e^ca[>e this eventual re-birth one must desire 
absorption into the Supreme, not annihilation, but unit>' with 
Cod. so that one remains untouched by the new order at the 
end of Erahmt's *day.' There are, of course, not lacking 
>iews of them that^ taking the precept grossly, give a less dig¬ 
nified appearance to the teaching, an(h in fact, upset its real 
intent. Thu5, in the very same Puranic passage from which 
Is taken the description above (iii. it is said that a seer, 
who miraculously outlived the universal destruction of one 
cycle, was kindly swallowed by Vishnu, and that* on entering 
his stomach (the absorption idea in Ihiiiinic coarseness)^ he saw 
everything which had been destroyed, mountains, rivers* clttcSy 
the four castes engaged in their duties, etc In other words, 
only transference of locality has taken place. But this account 
reads almost like a satire. 

One of the most striking features of the Hindu religions^ 
as they have been traced thus far* is the identUication of right 
with light, and wrong with darkness, W^e have referred to it 
several times already. In the Vedic age the deities are lumb 
noust while the demons and the abode of the wicked generally 
arc of darkness. This view, usually considered Iranian and 
Zoroastrian, is as radically, if not so emphatically-. Indie. It 
might be said, ludeeck that it is more deeply irnplanted in the 
w'orship of the Hindus than in that of the Iranians^ inasmuch 
as the latter religion enunciates and promulgntes the docirine. 
W'hilc the former assumes it. AH deeds of sin. arc deeds of 
darkness, famas^ The devils live underground in darkness; 
the hells arc below earth ajnd are gloom lighted only by torture- 


flames. The development of deviUworship (the side-iocties in 
the theatre of ^ivaism) introduces devils of another sort, but the 
general clTect remains^ The fire-priest iJhrigu says: “^Uulrulh 
-is a form of darknessp and by darkness one is brought to hell 
(downwards) | veiled in darkness one sees not the light. Light 
is heaveup they say, ai5d darkness !5 helh"' 190. 2-3* This 
antithesis of evil as darkness, good as %llt, is too native to 
India to admit of the suggestion that it might have been bor¬ 
rowed. hm an isolated and curious Putanic chapter of the epic 
appears to have direct reference to the l^ersian Teligion+ All 
Hindu gods have sacrihees^ even ^iva the * destroyer of sacri¬ 
fice.' Now in iii. 220. after a preliminar)^ account of the /Jfl- 
fajanya fire (vs. 5 ff.) there is given a listof^gods that destroy 
sacrificcp^ fifteen in number, who ^stand 

here* on earth and *steaF the sacrifice. They extend over the 
five peoples in three divisions of five each. The first and 
third group contain names compounded with Bhlma and SDra 
respectively; while the third group is that of Sumitra, ilitm- 
van, NIilTajfta+ Mitravaidhana, Mitradharman. There arc oth¬ 
ers wiihout the mitrn (vs, 10), The appellation seems to 
take them out of connection with Qiva's demoniac troops, and 
the persistency of mitrti w-ould look as if these * gods’ were of 
Iranian origim There may have been (as are possibly the 
modem Saums) believers in the I'ersian religion already long 
established among the Hindus. 

'fhe question wtU naturally present itself whether in the 
religious ^fia known as the hfababhtrata there arc dis¬ 

tinct allusions to Buddhism, andp if so, in how far the doctrines 
of this sect may have infiucticed the orthodox Teligian+ Bud¬ 
dhism does not appear to have attacked or to have attracted 
the - holy landp* whencCp indeed^ according to law, heretics are 
‘banished.’ lint its influence of course must have embraced 
this country, and it is onh' a question of in how far epic Erah- 
manism has accepted iU At a later period Hinduism, as has 


/7/E OF 

bctn obs4rr\ed, calmly accepts Buddha as an unTfur of Vtsbttu 
HollJCinann, who is inclined lo auribule a good deal to Biid- 
dhisjn, sees signs of it even in the personal characteristEcs ot 
the epic heroes^ and believes iho whole poem to havti been 
more or less aiTteted by antld^uddhistk feeting, Jf this were 
so one would liavc to give over to Byddkism much also of the 
hu maulLarianisin to be found in the morn I precepts that are so 
thickly strewn through the various books. In our opinion 
these signs-tnanual of Buddhism are not suRicienlly evident to 
support Holtjrmann's opinicn for the whole poem, and it is to 
be noted that the most taking evidence Is drawn from the 
latest parts of the work. It is just here that we think it nec¬ 
essary to draw the line* for while much of late date bos been 
added in earlier books, yet in the books which one may caJl 
wholly late additions appear the strongest indications of Bud' 
dhistic influence,^ A great deal of the Book of Peace is 
Puranic, the book as a whole is a Vishnuite addition further 
enlarged by ^ivaitu interpolation. The following book is^ 
again, an olFseL to the Book of Peace^ and is as distinctly 
^ivaite in its conception as is the Book of Peace Vishnuite.* 
11 is herL% in these latest additions, which scarcely desei^^e to 
be ranked with the real epic+ tlaat are found the most palpable 
touches of Buddhism. They stand to the epic proper as stands 
to them the Genealogy of Vishnu, a further addition whiclj has 
almost os much claim to be called "part of the epic* as have 
the books just mentioned, only that it is more evidently the 
product of a later agc+ and represents the Krishna-Vishnu sect 
in its glory^ after the epic was completed. Nevertheless, even 
in these books much that is suspected of being Buddhistic may 
be Erahmanlc; and Jo any concrete case a decision, one way 

1 tVebfif tMtjka, cm ihc oihef itand. that tha TvpEucDt 

VJitmii wonhip, /jtiT, Sf. L 3q6. 

■ THh book abtf li ciaaalv in touch with tiu httf P4aftEiu. For in^t[iiK]i!^ CLtrm^ 
jfufifci, Kcrrtaf^'. la kiuiwo onfj In the booto of tho paeodonap^ |li« Viihnm 

Purtita, the P^dnu^ Piwtrw, etc. 

///,V£fir/SM.^F/A//AW AAI> 


ar tint othefT is sarci^ly to be m:idt on objective grounds. Still 
more is this the case in earlier books. Thus^ for instance^ 
HolUmnjin is sure that a conversation -of a slave and a priest 
in the third book is !luildhUtlc because djc nian of low caste 
would not venture to instruct a ErnhmaiiJ ISut it is a com¬ 
mand emphasized thFaughout the later Erahmanism that one 
must take refuge in the ship that saves; and in passages not 
suspected of Buddhistic tendency Ilhlslima takes up this point, 
and lays down the rule that, no matter to which caste a man be¬ 
longs, his teaching if salutaiy' is to be accepted. It is even 
said in one passage of the Book of Peace that one ought to 
learn of a slave+ and iu another that all the four castes ought to 
hear the Veda read:* Let him get iustructi-on even from a 
^Qdra if he can thereby attain to salvation and again : ** Put¬ 
ting the Erahman first, let the four castes hear (the Veda) ^ for 
this (giving first place to the priest) is {the rule in) reading the 
Vedtn''" .-\nd In many places are found instructions given by 
low-caste men. It may be claimed that every case w'hich ro¬ 
se mbles Buddhistic tcacliing is drawn from Buddhism, but this 
would be to claim more than could he cstablishciL Moreover, 
just as the non-injury' doctrine is prior to Buddhism and yet 
is A mark of Buddhistic teaching, so between the two religions 
there are many points of similarity which may he admitted 
without cpmprpmbiing the genuineness of the Brahmanic teacfi- 
ing* For Buddhism in Us morality^ U anything but originaL* 

1 p, S&, 

» 11m *|hlc dfie* aut cirt mucK for Jn one mj-h k k 

that mccnbcti of all bewpw pncAia mfmxL Uh?y so a£.nH 4 tlw Gonal, Ui. &{. 4 S. 

1 K* /Sjitixim . . . fl/i) - Jdt- jaS. eOiim 

T 3 w *ptc itKU ai nlore tma e^eLvaleHl la the Fw 

Vedas, i 1.177. 

* Sasm iiK^dbq the samjjira dcjcCflnfl lo infitictifc — a tbcsl* lapiiwlcd 

Ilf tHe fact that thli in late ISnifciTiRiilc a-ad UpaAi^ads. But 

the assumption that Vpanlitiadls do msl |mcr 4 c lliidilha U icajoely tiiiialJe. Tl* 
Kattia, AcccKfdtbg tn Weber Btr/. Ak. Is bte (ChHsdan 1> t MOwd 

iflg to OldenbcTf and H^itiwr, early {BiiAAAa, p, jfi; B*v£, AOB llay^ 

+ 2 ^ 

77/A A'££/G/OA‘S 

Another bit of it^stnicdon from the Book of Peace illustrates 
the attitude of the slave just referred to. Jn sharp contrast to 
what one would expect from a Buddhistp this sbve, wlio is a 
hunter, claims that he is justihed in keeping on with his mur- 
dcrous occupation because it is his casteHX^cupution ; whereas^ 
as a Buddhist he ought to have renounced it if he thought it sin¬ 
ful, without regard to the caste-rule. The Book of Peace lays it 
down as a rule that the giving up of caste^occupation is meri¬ 
torious if the occupation in itself is iniquitous^ but it hedges on 
the question to tlic extent of saying that^ no matter whether the 
occupation be sinful or not, if k is an Inherited occupation a 
man does not do wTong to adhere to IL This is liberal Brah¬ 
manism^ The rule reads as follows: Actors, liquor-dealers, 
butchers, and other such sinners are not justified in following 
such occupations, if /Aty ikfrfi fa fA^! (/.r, if 

they arc born to it they are justihed in following their inher¬ 
ited occupation). Yet if one has Inherited such a profession 
it is a noble thing to renounce iL*'^ 

The marks of Buddhistic inHuenoe on which wc would lay 
greater stress are found not in the fact that Mudgnla refuses 
heaven (liL 261. 43)^ or other incidents that maybe due as 
well to Brahmanism as tq Buddhism^ but in such passages of 
the pseudo-epical Book of Peace as for example the fiAiirmjas 
of xiL 3^2. ro-13; the conversation of the female 
beggar, AAiAsAtiAf^ wkh the king in 321. 7, r6Si the iutAiAA 
of 289. 45 ; the Buddhistic phraseology of 167. 46; the remark 
of the harlot Pjcigali in 174.601 /rcifi^u.A/Ad ^jmi jijfrmi 
(I am ^ awakened ^ to a sense of sin and knowledge of holiness)^ 
and the like phrase in 177. 22 : fnifiAuifi/Aa Of especial 

importance is the shibboleth Nirvana which is often used in 
the epic. There seems, indeed, to be a subtile connection 

1 xlL ^- 6 . 

* NoDcwortby h e3» ImA tM parti of the thiTtcenth boulk mm t* bt 

fluddlils^k (dL 1^; 4S+ (fit), suiii ifiraiurtliditiL la a,); tlwu|h the WltlEe 

liJudcfi ate iiia^o VLUic^kW in Uie twdftk Coinpoi? Hollumiqn, ad. /ac. 

///XI>CyS.Vr—F/S//A'Cr 4A'/> f/O. 


between and Euddhism. Buddhism, rejects pantheism^ 

Civ'ajsm is essentia I Ey monotheism. Both were really religions 
of the lower classes^ Jt is true that the latter was adected 
and practiced by those of high rank, but ks strength lay with 
the masses. Thus while Vishnuism appealed to the cootempla^ 
tive and philosopbioLl (R^maism)^ as well as to the easy-going 
middle classes (ICrishnaisin)^ dirty asceticism, 

its orgies and Bacchanalian revels, its devils and horrors 
generally, although combined with a more ancient philosophy, 
appealed chiefly to the magic-monger and the vulgar. So it is 
that one finds, as one of his titles in the thirteenth book, that 
Civa is ^ ihc giver of Nirvana/ (jriii. i&. ig)* But if one 
examines the use of this word in other parts of the epic he will 
see that it has not the true Buddhistic sense except in Us 
literal physical application as when the nin^Jna (extinguish¬ 
ing) of a lamp, iv. 22. 22, is spoken of; or the wirrJ™ of 
duties (in the Pancaratra "Upanishad,' xil. 340. 6f). On the 
other hand, in sections where the context shows that this must 
be the case, Nirvana is the equivalent of * highest bliss or 
* highest AraAma/ the same with the felicity thus named in 
older works. This, for instance, is the case in xii. ai. 17; 26, 
id, where Nirvana cannot mean extinction but absorption, />., 
the * blowing out * of the Individual dame (spirit) of life, only 
that it may become one with the universal spirit. In another 
passage it is directly equated with in the same 

w^ay (/A. 17), If now one turn to the employment of thb 

word in the third book he will find the case to be the same. 
When the king reproaches his queen for her atheistic opinions 
in uL 31. 26 he says that if there were no reward for good 
deeds hereafter people would not seek Nirvaoa," just as he 
speaks of heaven (* immortaltty") and hell, rk ao and 19, not 
meaning thereby extinction hnt absorption. So after a de¬ 
scription of that third heaven wherein is Vishnu, when one 
reads that Mudgala attained that highest eternal bliss the 




77/£ RHLIGiONS OR* l^YD/A. 

sign of^whlc^i IS \in'ana (iii, j6i, 4^^, he can only suppose 
that the word means here absotplion into tirnAma or unton 
with Vishnu* In fact N'tn'ina is already a word of which ibe 
sense has been subjected to attritUin enough to make it synon- 
j-mous with -bliss; 'J'hus “the gods attained NirT,ana by 
means of Vishnu's greatness” (ii!. 201*3*); and a ihirtiiy man 
“after drinking water attained Nirvana," i\f., the drink made 
hint happy (a#, 12b. ifi). One may best compare the Jain 
Nirvana of happiness* 

Whiie, therefore, Ttuddhism seems to have left many mani¬ 
fest traces^ in the later epic the weight of its influence on the 
early epic may well be questioned. The mom! harangues of 
the earlier books show nothing more than is consistent with 
that Brahmanism which has made its way unaided through the 
greater human itarianism of the earlier Upanishads. .\t the 
same lime it is right to say that since the poem is composed 
after Buddha's time there is no historical ceitainty in regard to 
the inner connection of belief and morality (as expounded in 
the epic) with Buddhism. Buddhism, though at a distance, 
environed epic Hrahmanism. and may well have influenced it. 
The objective proofs for or against this are not, however, decisiv'e. 

^\'bethe^ Christianity has affected the epic Ls another ques¬ 
tion that can bo answered (and then doubtfully) only by draw¬ 
ing a line between epic and pseudo-epic. And in this r^ard 
the Harivan^a legetsds of Krishna are to be groupotl with the 
pseudo-epic, of which they are the legitimate if late continua¬ 
tion. ^Vgain one must separate teaching from legend. To the 
Divine Song belong sentiments and phrases that have been 
ascribed to Christian influence. Deftnitive assurance fn this 
regard is an Impossibility. When \Tshnu saj-s (as is said also 
in the Upanishads) - J am the letter A," one may, and proba¬ 
bly will, decide that this is or is not an imitation of “I am 

I KLnana. bojclj uicd; tmmW iKhnlel; |»Hiblr the vvl!» at llu fourth in: th« 

Stilton ci (Uiuldhut^ teunjilFf, etc, * 


alpha,” strictly in accordance with his preconceived opiniona. 
There are absolutely no histoiical. data to go upon. One may 
say with tolerable certainty that the Divine Song as a whole is 
antii^ue, prior to Christianity. Hut it is as unmistakably in¬ 
terpolated and alterecL The doctrine of faithful love as 

a means of salvation^ cannot be much older than the Song^ for it 
is found only in the latest Upatiishads (as shown by comparing 
them with those undoubtedly old)* But on the other hand the 
/rasai/a doctrine (of special grace) belongs to a much earlier 
literature^ and there is no reason why the whole theory with 
its startling resemblance to the doctrine of grace, and its insist^ 
ence on personal aJfection for the Lord should not have been 
self-evolved. The old omnipotence of inherited knowledge 
stops with the Opanishads. To their authors the Vedas arc 
but a means. They desired wisdom^ not knowledge. They 
postulated the desire for the Supreme Spirit as the true 
w'Lsdom. From this it is but a step to yearning and love for 
the Supreme. That step is made in the Divine Song. It is 
recognized by early Buddhism as a Brahnumic trait. Is it 
necessarily imported from Chriscianity 7 The proof is cer¬ 
tainly lacking. Nor, to one accustomed to the middle litera¬ 
ture of Hindu religion, is the phraseology so strikingly unique 
as would appear to be the case* Taken all in alls the teaching 
ot Christianity certainly may he suspected, but it cannot be 
shown to exist in the Divine Song. 

Quite different b the case with the miraculous matter that 
grew up about the infaut Krishna. But here one is out of the 
epic and dealing with the btest literature in regard to the man- 
god* This distinction cannot be too much insisted upon, for 
to point first to the teaching of the Divine Song and then to 
the Krishna legends as equally reflecting Christianity' is to 
mix up two periods as distinct as periods can be established 
in Hindu literature* .^nd the result of the whole investigation 
shows that the proofs of barrowing are as different as these 

T/i£ A£L/a/ms' OJr /iVI>/A. 


periods. The inner Christianity thought to be copied by the 
re-writer of the Divine Song is doubtiul in the last degree. 
The outer Clirbtianity reflected in the 1 'uranic legends of 
Krishna is as palpable as it is shocking. Shacking, for here 
not only are miracles treated grotesquely, but everything that is 
meant spiritually in the Occident is interpreted physically and 
carnally. The love of the Bridegroom is sensual; the brides 
of God are drunken dancing giris. 

The * coincidences,^ as some scholars marvellously regard 
them, between the legends of Christ and Krishna are too ex¬ 
traordinary to be accepted as such. They are direct importa¬ 
tions^ not accidental coincidences. Whatever is mast marv'cb 
Ions in the accounts of Christianity hndij itself here reproduced 
in Krishnaism. It is not in the doctrine of tnn/tirs^ which ro- 
sembles the doctrine of the Incamation,^ it is in the totality of 
legends connected with Krishna that one is forced to see 
Christian influence. The scenes of the nativity, the adoration 
of the magi, the miracles during the Savtaufs childhood the 
transfiguration, and other stories of Christ are reproduced with 
astonishing similarity. One may add to this tlie Christmas 
festival^ where Krishna Is born in a stable, and the use of cer¬ 
tain church-utensils in the temple-service, Weber has proved 
by collecting and explaining these 'coincidences,"* that there 
must be identity of origin ^ It remains only to ask from which 
side is the borrow'ing? Considering how late are these 
Krishna legends In India* there can be no doubt that the 

I Oa tiU* poht pdlter with NVeter, whg regonift ttw ariffm u ui imita¬ 

tion of the IiioLFaatU»a (/wT. Si.R.p, aof with 5-diroedcr, who ^JUr^tur itxd 
p, wgu.til nJerivt the tvgtioil from iJw cil Dtaldha. In ou' 

opinloD the d^df^Mheory li olekr tlun -elttHcr faknd u lyfEim onlly ut u&Iinilaition of ouC- 
IjlBg tot^m-eod) to tho Brahiaan'i m 1ft tJw ot ibe Aood-!.tocy tlie iwe& 

s&ry belief that tine ^ ^ muit ktve btxn. tbft god of tiv ^mrm of imx/arg 

an Ikahraank. prcfuiniblf pff^ngil41iiftic. 

« Sinofi ibey do not appoir till aftef Uift real epk we ebte Uwm Wntitimb u 
aftHT £o^ AJlf Mnt gf tlKmi izv In still htcf Fmanai- 

Hindu borrowed the tales^ but not the name ; for the last as¬ 
sumption is quite improbable because Krishna {=^ Christ ?) is 
native enoughp and Jishnu is as old as the Rig Veda. That 
these talcs are of secondary' importancep as they are of late 
originj is a matter of course. They are excrescences upon 
real Vishnuism (Krishnaism) and the result of anthropomor¬ 
phizing in its fullest extent the image of ihc man-god, who 
is represented In the epic as the IncamadoD of the Supreme 
Spirit. The doctrine of the Incarnation is thoroughly Indie. 
It Is Buddhistic as well as BrahmaniCp and precedes Vishnujsni 
as It does Christianity, The trends are another matter. 
Here one has to assume direct contact with the Occident^ 
But while agreeing with Weber and dLsagreeing with Barth in 
the determination of the relation of this secondary matter, we 
are unable to agree with Weber in his conclusions in regard to 
the one passage in the pseudo-epic that is supposed by him^ to 
refer to a visit to a Christian church in Alexandria, This is the 
famous episode of the White Island, which, to be sure, occurs 
in so late a portion of the Book of Peace (xii. jjj, 20 ff,) that 
it might well be what Weber describes it as being. But to us 
it appears to contain no allusion at all to Christianity. The 
account in brief is as follows ; Three priests with the insigiiif- 
icant names “ First, Second, Third,"* go to the far North {tfif 
nU&ra) where, in the “Sea of Milk,” they find an Albion called 
” White Island,” perhaps regarded as one of the seven or 
thirteen rislands,* of which earth cousLsIs; and there Vishnu 

l IncLdtDlaJ vtth tlw GrtciCt h» pafntfid onl ia atfuF |}>e 

jirniPfjfEf, a raliui, at lb« bte tale In t j j^ {/md. Sf. ii. p. foA beui 
equated %tth Skaoda with elc. It b Hjt that each dF 

these Is ooly a ^ueas lu nut <iTwk ia ia l±w Gi«ek 

■oldiMa and names af (Greek) Idnfa that m faaad in tbe epic. 

» /md, Sf. i iL 169. Weber beUima that Uttk h t& India ^kh nt- 

«Tiib|c* ChHitlawly m the way df tbeokigy; kre of God, sfsedal paCc, awHotfwUro, 
ail to hi tn art Ttakit, Wn rtgrqt that ^ must dlugne with lilra bi ItnUaM 

» Ekatan Detta, Trtta- A liidta appean ateariy u the RLe Veda. Pota la aa 
oiuiogcHH fonnaiioik aad Is old al5<h 


THE EEim/OHS OE /jV£}/A. 

is worshipped as the one god by white men of ejittaordinary 
physical characteristics. 

The fad that the * one god ' is already a hackneyed phrase of 
philosophy i that there ts IK) resemblance to a trinitarian god; 
that the hymn sung to this one god contains no trace qf Chm- 
rian inllueitce, but is on the other hand thoroughly' native in 
tone and phmseologyp being as follows: Victory to thee, thou 
god with lotns-cyes ; Reverence to thcet thqu creator of all 
things; Reverence be to thec^ O Vishnu ; * ihou Great l*er- 
son; dist-bom one"; all these facts indicate that if the V^'hite- 
Lslanders are indeed to be regarded as foreigners worshipping 
a strange god^ that god ts strictly mouoEhetstk and not trinita¬ 
rian. Weber lays stress on the expression ‘first bom/which 
he thinks refers to Christ j but the epithet is old (Vedic)* and 
is common, and means no more than ‘primal deity/ 

I'hcre is much that appears to be foreign in the epic. This 
passage seems rather to be a recotledion of some shrine where 
□lonotheisiD without Christianity was acknowledged. On the 
other handp even in the pscudi>epic, there is much apparently 
borrowed which yet U altogether native to Brahmanio land and 
sect- It is not in any passage which is proved to be of foreign 
origin that one reads of the boy of twelve years who entered 
among the wise men and confuted their reason ing {above, p. 
38^)* It is not of course due to Christian influence that the 
great 'saint of the stake' is taken by the ‘king's men/ is cruci¬ 
fied (or litemlly impaled) among thieves, and lives so long that 
the guard go and tell the king of the miracle nor Ls U neces¬ 
sary to assume that everything elevated is boTTowed, '‘When I 
revilCt 1 revile not again/' sounds indeed like an echo of Chris¬ 
tian teaching, but how thoroughly Hindu is the reason, “ For I 
know that self-control is the door of immortality/* And in the 

I b>1apd ei aamjiiaD epitbet of Vi^Du (Kriihu). 

^ i I e. The ipirib ot the dmd cook to him aod gonsl^ri him in Uw 

of blnli^ajioldtfaJtjUMtapan UOadh^Dh. U-S. Bw.wL jfi.i 

AND giV4^ 4JJ 

same; breath, with a connecticjii of meaning patent only when 
one regards the whole not as borrowed but as nativ'e^ follow the 
words that we have ventured to put npqn the title-page of this 
volume, as the highest and at the same ume the truest expres¬ 
sion of a religion that in bringing the gexb to men raised man 
to equality with God —“This is a holy mystery which 1 de¬ 
clare unto you: Them is nothing nobler than humanityi" * 

ixil. jo&K 



ARCHAEOLOCriAt ^^Dcieiit lorCt' J 3 the meaning of Furatia 
{fiur^fia, * old The religious period represented by the extant 
writings of this class is that which Immediately follows the 
completion of the epic.* These works, althoogh they contain 
no real history, j^et reject history very plainly, and since the 
adv^ent and initial progress of Puranic Hinduism^ with its 
various cults, is contemporary with impKjrtani poUticaL changes, 
it will be ncccssar)' briefly to consider the circumstances tn 
which arose these new' creeds, for they were destined to become 
Ln the future the controlling force in the development of tELndu 

In speaking of the eitension of Ruddhism w^e showed that 
its growth was inftuenced in no small degree by the fact that 
this caste-less and, therefore, democratic religion was adopted by 
post^.Alexandrine rulers in the Graeco-Bactrian period. At this 
lime the Aryans were suiroanded with foreigners and pagans. 
To North and South spread savage or half Hindui^ed native 
tribes, while soldiers of Greece and TSactria encamped in the 
valley of the Ganges. Barbarians had long been active in the 

1 |p^i 3 f the epic uvca.1,1«d u ather parti m caU^ U panlih a it^ 'IIwh 

M Um foinranncm d tb* tstajil I’oilrw. The fianie, U cten oWef ibiB 

the epk, ID Uh kE« Vwitc are potipcd Purtnaa and 

lllbteu, ^AndflRt HtitUrr' wd - Storia^i to ntuch are ;ld4s4 Wd»r 

hac Wtie iliHB ehU imi wben the 'dmlt of vttt atin^ at a 

aBTCnwfiT tl^ woRt td be ID «n1>coideTpd at to doliKd ^ rKtiae ^ bj th^ 
nifidiH tb^msolns. India hai nfiiUw 11liiTTii.ry Jslrtflify fsive whit cui be pkatted 
ti liwth), iM^ eiflF loBcdptlonB^ Ttio' 

of Ibe Pttrani3 wu ^MbAy alwari wtuE it ii in the extaot Apedmetks, l^eadaFy 
tnatetial isf m dif«t Mj|jorit4 

rm /^i;A*dA As. 


Northp and som« scholuni have even claimed that Buddha's 
own famiKy was of "ruraaian origin. The Brahmans then as 
now rentined their prestige only as being repositories of ancient 
wisdom ; and outside of their own ^holy land ’ their inlfuence 
was reduced to a minimum by the social and political tenden¬ 
cies that accompanied the growth of Buddhism, After the 
fourth century the heart of India, the * middle district^- be- 
twien" the Himata^'a and VindJiya mountains from Delhi to 
Benareswas trampled upon by one Gmeco-Bactriati horde 
after another. The principal effect of this rude dominion was 
eventually to give political equality^ to the two great rival 
religions. The Buddhist and the Brahman lived at last if not 
harmoniously, at least pacifically, side by side. Members of 
the same reigning family would profess Buddhism or Brahman¬ 
ism indifferently. One king would sometimes patronize both 
religions. And this continued to be the case ci!l Buddhism 
faded out, replaced by that Itinduism which ow'ed its origin 
partly to native un-Aryao inHuenec_ (pa^nism)^ partly to this 
cenlurydong fusion of the tw^o state religions. 

To reriew these events : In the first decades of the fourth 
century (320 or 315-291 n.c.) Candmgupta, Sandrocottos, had 
built up a monarchy in Hehir^ on the ruin^ left by the Creek 
invasion, sharing his power with Seleucus in the Northwest, 
and had thus prepared the way for his grandson, A^ka, the 
great patron of Buddhism (364 or 359). This native power 
fell before the hosts of Northern barbarians, w'hich, after irrup¬ 
tions into India in the second centuryK got a permanent foot¬ 
hold there in the first century^ icc. These Northern barbarians 
(their nationality^ is uncertsin)* whose greatest king was Ka- 
nishka^ 7S ruled for centuries the land they had seized ; 
but they were vanquished at last in the siith century, probably 

1 StticUy speaking to tlw pment AltaJaatfld, where is the PrayOyca,« 
of V^HLuni aibi fjufpiei Gaitgn). 

S ^T^dha r oikd Ifnm Lti majay EoonuWnn, to tirab ■ 

f- - *■'• •-.- 

L.^,-^ il_- . . ^ • ' . f ^ 

436 T//£ £££/G/OJ^S OF /f/DIA, 

by Vikiumiditynp* and werfi driven out. The breathing-space 
betvs'een Northern barbarian and Mohammedan was nominally 
not a Long one, but since the first Moskcn conquests bad no 
debntt ive result the now inA'aders did not quite overthrow Hindu 
mtc till tho end of the tenth ccntinyv During this period the 
native un-Aryan tribes+ with their Hindtilzing effect, were more 
dusEructivL! ns regards the maintenance of the old Brahmanic 
cult than w'cre ouLsiders.^ 

When Tamerlane Invaded India his was the fourth invasion 
after the conquest of the Punjab by tbe XCoskm in 664-* In 

I So, ^bidlblyt Millkr^ Jim*, iii. IkId v. 

\ * Tbe tritiw beciMw Itindiu-Hit tMr ehkf* btcifae RaJjsnU; thdr rell^otti doabt- 

i 3 i« tittul ud ^aaed of the diiUxed u Tnuch ^ th« neUglcEi cc|! 
eolond tiMsLr ewiL ^icne of Ihew a^Ary^ pcofilta 'w=f< lurehaiblx part oativcp part 
barbaric Than S» tmKH doabt [a refud ta tbe datei that drpcpid on acnplcd «nuk 
It \i Acit certain^ for Ecutoace, that, as Mutler ebUxOf, KaoLkb^^i- iflaMgvi^ailaa oaEdeLilei 
irith tbe (yaka era, 7B AJir A pi?»l BuddMst ^otoJidl wa^ held iiacfer hSra- Some 
disUagiLlshetf Kbolan stlU think with PilhSer tfe»t Vifcraiiiaditya's EiLuiguracloa was 
^ ^ PX^ (Uk dite tlut ti^ tc ba asUgeed ta ldrai>* Froai out pmeat point of view 
It Is erf Httle canie^uiDee when this king hiauelf iLved. Ife ii iHiowned u patraii of 
utj and as a conqueror of Ebe- barbarians. If be Ln the first ^liiry luc, bl* 
oonquea arwuati^ fco nothing jusniiapaitr Ik^'bat is EnpumiUt howCTtr^ Is tJuit alt 
VUtraiinSiiltjra rUu^ds far In leit^iul must baiit been in Ibe sixth century A.O. Fcwtbo 
drami, af which he is said to hare been patroop riifimcnts a rdigiOn tatef 

than that oF tlie body of ibe c|^e (complttedl In the sLatJi or sewnEh oenturyt Bilhler+ 
/lu^wn Shtdkf, SHk TW dituifeatlc and astroaoir^cal era was bat Introdartory 
ta KuaOdU's feussertlan of Druhniauiifn In the ic^tentb ccnturypWh^D tbe >korihera 
tnrbartan was goncp and tlw ^lohamipcdan was not yet t^JupmL In the rest of 
NH?rtbara Tndja there w^ft: native dynasties La different quarter^ with dlffn^ 

enl eras; one In Surlshtra |Gu]arlt>, one again in tbe' middln ar' ND4th 

Western Provinca,’ oiw in KuEeb; ijrvertbrgwii tw ^Jortlierti Irtrbarians (In tha iiFUi 
fientury> atui by tl^ S^obauin^ani (In aernnth and dghth centurfn), mpcc- 
Uvely. Of th«H tbe Gupfiu of tlw' aflddle district^" and the V'abbhii df Kut^i, bad 
neither of tlu ocaa Just rneqUaped^ The forntor dajted frgm jao-jai (ifierhapf '3i9>p 
ibe latter frcmi X90 (A.ri^|. Tho word lamra/y * year^' Indicates that the time is-dated 
bom either tbe (Jaha er ViLrawAdltya era. ^ lA. irdl. 36a j rerguawbr JRAS« 
xfL *59; MlUkr^ If'Aflrf Cffw /f TViwA Us f p. aSa; KMhnni^ 1 A. aia. ; 

|/ 3£idl lit. The Northern baibartans ateciUcd ^ir^tldw»p or Hsms, or TumniaTiR^ 
! HBacdlng to fanqr- So on^ rodly krum whal ibey wert 

* The fitst hcrtt wms expelled Try the Hindus In After a period ol rest Mah¬ 
mud wai crowned la 997^ who nveffao India mote than a doEen tloiot^ In the f&V 




1525 the ifth conqueroTt B5iber^ fifth too m descent from Tam- 
erlane,, founded the ^£pguL empire that lasted till the f^l of 
this dynasty (nominally till 1^57)- But it must be remem¬ 
bered that each new conqueror from 997 till 1523 merely con¬ 
quered old Mohamme-dan dynasties with new invasions. Jt 
was aJl one to the Hindu, fie had the Mohammedan with 
him all thb time ; only each new rival's success made his lot 
the harder^ But Baberb grandson* the Great Mogul* Akbar 
(who reigned from 1556 to 1605), gave the land not only peace 
blit kindness; and under him Jew, Christian^ Hlndut and 
Mohammedan at last forgot to fear or fight. After this there 
is only the overthrow of the Mohammedan power to record j 
and the rise of the Mahralta native kingdoms. A new faith 
resulted from the amalgamation of Hinduism with Moharth 
medism (after 1300), as will be shown hereafter. 

In the pauses before the first Mohammedan Invasion, and 
between the first defeat of the ^fohammedans and their sue* 
cessful second conquest* the barbarians being now expelled and 
Buddhism being decadent, Brahmanism rallied. In the sixth 
centun^ there was toleration for aU faiths. In the seventh cen¬ 
tury Kumdrila renewed the strength of Brahmanism on the ritu- 
alistic side with attacks on Buddhism* and in the ninth century 
^ankara placed the philosophy of unsectarian pantheism on a 
firm basis by his commentary on the Vedinta Sutra> These 
two men are the re'makers of ancient Brahmanism* which from 
this time on continued in its stereotyped form, adopting Hindu 

lovla| tlic^ luid waft conqiwred nivd tlw pc^pk by the wCQ4d 

Mahuniaedaii* Ghuri* i4ii» died lb I hLf kEn^duccii tA & ruul* Kut^ the 

* ilait saltM * of 0clhL I U la^. IhU iliw djiufttj IutItie bHn recratly supplanted, 
the tww sikuccewr tA Uk itirdne was stun by hh Qwn pcpbcWi Albh-uddlo* who is 
reckoned as Iho tlurd wtHiAwor tsf liadLL His stumwir 

the D^khui all Its lUndu (lEinpki) wealth; but his empire bnally brake down 
QndfT tCft ilie; pt^paria^ the way for Tliflur (TiLToarbraih who entered lodli in 


1 Qaqkata lilouelf w3m not a pure BnliiELaiL. DMh VlsbAtiilAft and hj 

tA biTH- 


T//£ ££lfG/ 0 ^'£ 0 £ 

gods very coy1)% ^nd only as spirits of smaLL importsPC^i while 
ri^lpag on the lawis ^ well as the gods ol oidp on holy SfJrti or 
^ Custom^' and the now systematized exposition of its old 
(Upanishad) philosophy/ Its creative force was already spent. 
BuddhistCf on the other hand, was dpag a naiaral death. The 
time was ripe for Hindaism, w^hich had been gathering strength 
for centuries. rVfierthc sixth centuryp and perhaps even as late 
as 1500, or later, wore written the modem PurinaSp which 
embody the new helkf/ 'rhey cannot, on account of the dis¬ 
tinct advance in their cultT have appeared before the end of the 
epic age. The breathing spell (between barbarian and com¬ 
plete Mohammedan conquest) which gave opportunity to 
Kumarila to take a high hand with Buddhisn>p was an opponiH 
nity also for thecodihcatioixof the new creedsn It iSp therefore, 
to this era that one has probably to refer the first of the mod- 

1 Cot aa w the Bfalintui m the idoptLoo cf Oit BewgDds '■ise nwugti to 

them sow plMrlD hh lUjfEhiKHv « h* wvuU ha^ offtndnl hti Jaily. 'rhifi tw 
re«i|gfibv9 KilF aa ■ell as \n fart beprettn to rocofnizo the dlTlnitfc* H>f 

^ SHtSpfor ibtf offer lea riralfT. 

3 them was a ffiml of Mien ajiEcdaliDfi the Bnhnuiile ItKOloRlEal 

iBTlval The drama, whLcIi iirflects equaHy Kindaisiii ajad BrahJuaTilKma Is i*crw lh« 
(mrilt U^bl Uteralan^ oC the itiHitred. Jd the liaib cintujy the f^rrt AsOooMpiUal 
wwM aiw writte^i ^1, ar^hamlliin, who wrote the BrAfd and the t4 

wriE=ri ic^lkd th€ K3fte G«n» (rKkuned t4 TlManiUjtTa'# egnrt) aro to be niferrfd to 
this tiiML The best known aowtig them Ei- KalUl^, mthof of the An 

aocuMnt dT this K^tunce, as ho ea1I« wiM be fmmd ifl 3.||j3Mf‘a Cfrm 

ii Tfaik U$f Tlw Ifiuncd aathof lo w, Itttlefnosweefi^Tif In hUconditikiBi, 

It K for lEutaace, lofenhty cettiln that ttia Dli^U was conL^rMed by the tlfne the 
* Renabianaj' bejaa; sotlwl Ibm Ei no %mh complete timlf m Ik prlof to 

Vlkramidltya. tlot tfw RtncniS liate oT affilfs k ettrfi ai is deleted ii^ the jHgenaecis 
Mtlck tefemd to. The tisCi and semth antadee wwt em that Intrcduf^ mod- 
tre liEerattLre ander liberal native princes^ who wem sonKtlttivs not lUjriHits at pH, 
aou(hJy speaking,oae muj twJmhi Fftiie 500 ii,c, fa the ChristbLCi era aa a pwiod of 
EaddhlstEc caotrnh CxaecoBUctjlpn Eniasion, piid Brahnank decfljie. The finit 
antuiMi after Iho Ckri^ian sw the two roliBfone k h stale af cquililwiimi, under 
SkrthUn contral, jjad the MabA^ niiJraU, tbe n^panded Bhlrata, Ls wHrten. Fran joo 
to UMo Is an era of rolert, hruhnianJc fevival in Its puro fonn, nnd IIE^a 

powth, with htsle ixcmhle from tbe Mofaaoiinedani. Theo for fins centuries tbe Imh^ 
lOFsef Moslem conqucft. 



em sectarian Purinas, though the ritualistic Tantras and 
Ananias of the loner ^’Lvaite sects doubtlesui belong rather to 
the end than to the beginning of the period. VS'e are strength¬ 
ened in this belief by the fact that the oldest of these works do 
not pretend to antedate Kumirila's century, though the sects 
mentioned in the epic are known in the first centuries of the 
Christian era. The time from the first to the seventh centuries 
one may accordingly suppose to have been the era during which 
was developing the Brahmanized form of the early Hindu sects, 
the Literature of these and subsequent sects being composed in 
the centuries succeeding the latter term. These sects again 
divide into many subdivisions^ of which we shall speak below. 
At present we take up the character of the Puranas and their 
most important points of diSercnce as compared with the sec¬ 
tarian parts of the earlier pseudo-epiCp examining especially the 
trinitarian doctrine,^ which they inculcate, and its history. 

Save in details^ even the special ^faith-scriptures ^ called 
Tan Iras go no further tliau go the Furanas in advocating the 
cult of their particular divinities. And to this advoracy of 
special gods all else in t his class of writi ngs is snhord in ated. The 
ideal Pumna is divided into five parts, cosmogony, new' creations^ 
genealogies of gods and heroes, tfttiftr'mfifrirt (descriptiDns of 
periodic ^ages/ past and future),, and dynasties of kings. But 
no extant Purtna is divided thus. In the epic the doctrine of 
trinitarianism is barely formuLrtecl. Even in the Harivan^a, or 
Genealogy, rti/ifa, of Vishnu, there is no more than an inverted 
triunity, 'one form, three gods^" where, in. reality, alt that is 
insisted upon is the identity of Vbhnu and Qivo, Brahma beings 
as it were, perfunctorily added.^ In the Pur^Snas, on the other 
hand, while the trinity is acknowledged^ religion is losolved 
again into a sort of sectarian monoEheism, where the devotee 
seems to be in the midst of a squabbling horde of temple-priests^ 
each fighting for his owm idol. In the calmer aspects of religion, 

1 Ku. Ccimpan tl^ biadiilan t*i? gixb' in the 


T//£ ££L/0/0A^ OF /jVI>/A, 

apart fTom s^tarian schism^ these writings offer, indeed, ranch 
that is q! second-rate interest^ but iittle that is of reaL value. 
Tlie idle speculations in regard to former divinities are here 
made cobweb thin. Thu philosophy is not new^ nor is the 
spirit of religion raised, even in the most inspired passages, to 
the level which it has reached in the Divine Song, Same of 
these Puranas, of which eighteen chief are dted, but with an 
unknown number of subordinate works^' may claim a respect¬ 
able age; many of them are the most wretched stuff imaginable^ 
bearing abouL the same literary and historical rolatloo to earlier 
models as do the later legal Smritis, In fact, save for their 
religious (sectariaD) purport^ the Furinas for sections together 
do not differ much In content from lugni Smritis^ out of which 
some may have been evolved^ Ehotigh, probably^ they were Irom 
their incepdon Legendiiry rather than didactic^ It Is more 
probable, therefore, that they appropriated Smriti material 
just as they did epic material; and though it is now received 
opinion that legal Smri tis are evolved out of SOtras, this yet can 
be the case only with the oldest, even if the statement then can 
be accepted tn an unqualified form^ In our own opinion it is 
highly probable that Puranas and later legal Smritis are diver¬ 
gent developments from the same source."* One gives an account 
of Creation, and proceeds to tell .nbout the social side; the other 
Sticks to the accounts of creation, goes on to theology, takes up 
tales of heroes, introduces speculation, is finally wrenched over 
to and amplified by sectarian writersi and so presents a com¬ 
posite that resembles epic and taw, and yet is generally religious 
and speculative. 

1 A* the Jains hm and ami as tha pwui&^tt dasUtipitiltiH 

fflshadiafid Unu^tstajd^ m Um nrahnuin hu PuflUiaA ar^ UpapurlEias (KiLrin;} 
Tsifliia, L pr j). Swim irf the jMcta atLi5[j*Mgc wiJy iix Purtm* ai wthodoi. 

a Aj an « 3 [a^piln a Fajank SBiUtt (kgalj w>c niaycttii the trash |iqM|^hvd u tbi 
V^lurJIiritar^aitililtlL Heit there h poJcjiiJc agaiasl dbc Jitiiil 

tfm-y OAc jsrait he branded with Ihc Vidami dire (r^4t). 
Ertn wointD awi ila-ws are to uh mamtrait 


A striking instance of this may be seen m the law43O0k of 
»Vjshny/ Here there is an old base of legal lorc^ Sutra^ inter- 
lardcd wUh Purank material, and bnilt up with sectamnisni. 
The ^writer !s a Yishnuite, and while recognLzIng the trinity, does 
not hesitate lo make his law command offerings to Krishna 
Vasudeva^ and his family (Pradyumna^ AniRiddha), along with 
the regular Brahmanic oblations to older spirits.* HrahmanLsm 
recognized Hindu deities as subordinate powers at an early dat*, 
at least as early as the end of the Sutra period ; while hlanu 
not only recognizes Vishnu and Qiva (Hara)^ but rceontmends 
an oblation to and KlJi (Bhadmkllk here, as elsewhere, is 

In their original form the Furanas were probably Hesiodic in 
a great extent, and doubtless contained much that was after- 
w^ards specially developed in more prolix form in the epic itselL 
Hut the works that are come down as Puranas are in general 
of later sectarian character, and the epic language, phraseology, 
and descriptions of battles arc more likely taken straight from 
the epic than preserved from ante-epic times. Properly speak¬ 
ing one ought to give first place to the Puranas that are incor¬ 
porated into the epic* The epic M^rkajideya Parana, for 
instance, is probably a good type of one of the cariicr works 
that went by this name. That the present Purtnas are imita¬ 
tions of the epic* in so far as they treat of epic topics, may be 
presumed from the fact that although they often have the 
formulae intact of the battlefield,* yet do they not remain by 
epic descriptions but add weapons, etc., of mom modem date 
than are employed in the original.^ 

1 The kltiwss di ii irddent ftum. 3ts b^tocbcj of lU 

prefcivnn Inc fettuk 'b^kiF)i, etc. 

i DL B9; xif. UU 

i Aj, tor ia KOnna PuriliH, *4* fv iSS, wbrra £1 foQnd a tt^mnwiv ftptt 

ifcne dcacni^laii ol baUlt 

* A gijod iajUutt d thli Is IwjukI ia Brilun Xkradfya at„ the 

Mifd {24} apppar in m lailtatlTO soww of Ihk a«t; obc of thcM b^ias bier 

tho dher KuUEf, Ihan ik? 0 ^ voobolarr. 


/^£l/GfOiVS 0^ /A’£>/A. 

The sectanan manotheism of the Furdnas ne%'cr restiUed in 
dispensing with the pintheop. The Hindu monotheist Is a pan¬ 
theist, and whether sectarinTi or philosophical^ he kept and added 
to his pantheon,* Indra is still for warriors^ Maruts for hus- 
bandmenn although old views shift somewhat. So for enample^ in 
the KQrma PurAna the Gandharvas are added for the ^udras.® 
The fourfoldnessp which we have showii in the epic to be char¬ 
acteristic of VLshno. IS now represented by the military epithet 
(agmen quadratum)^ in that the god represents 
peace^ wisdonrip support, and reaunciatiDn; though, as a matter 
of fact, he is /.e,, without any of these.* Starting with 

the physical ' god of the four quarters," one gets even in th e 
epic the * controller of four/ or perfect person, conceived like 
, rcrpdywTOv.^Tennyson‘four-square to all the winds that 
blow ' Is a gKXxi connecting link in the thought. The Purlnas 
are a mine of legend, although most of the stories seem to be 
but epic tales, more or less distorted. Nala ^ the great-^great- 
giMfldsrjn pf Ratna ^ is described after the history of K^ma him¬ 
self ; the installation of Puni, when his father had passed over 
his eldest son, and such reminiscences of the epic are the stock 
in trade of the legendary writers.* 

The origin of the four castes ; * the desorptions of hell, some- 


I P^tlupa tlie mo$% tbrildng distlnctloa betwMn V'edlc ud PuiiuikF Ofi am tnmf 
njf todU Aryan und Hindu b the amplui^ hud ttwfDrfixf upon Etighl j 

in ih^ upon idohy Hie VcdLc imhis. upiHi Ov bw ut righK Carder), 

thnt b, th« ; It invtfti Abo upon rfg^t ai rtctitLide, tmth, holiiKU> 

Hiiidiilit» kti^a^ uinii Hf Iddb; QpJy tnd i t i ffiN% 4oe^ it TCcomrwnd nsrtitudje, truth, 
■iMtrafE hoilneu^ 

* KflfJiiAi xiL p. loi. ContfAJt /A ulEL ^ary^d'j 

/rxyiffr (dacvlwfo Fbiloiophicsklly, in the dijictjliie of tbo epic 

P^cntliru held by kmek lecUHn), Vbt*nu li to he fwtrtd u Krbiu^ 

Dahrlnu, Piudyuinm, AnLrudjdKi (KrliKon'i hmtlKr, and p^ivdaon), ix-pRunt- 
hg, T¥*[»rtli^lj, 4im^rJhVj fflprenK ind indiridoal ipltit, ]xTO?plbo, ai^ ™- 
jdouibesi, Coftipatf Mbhi sdL ^ 40 , S, ^ 

* KF. X3c1. p. aj 6 ; iraiL ajS, aIc. 

/A i, p. aj. 

7WE I^Lr^A.YAS. 


what embellishedp^ where the * sinful are cooked in fire';^ 
the exaltation of Vbhnti as Krishna or Rama in one* and that 
of ^iva in another— these and similar aspects arc reflections of 
epic matter* spirit, tone, and language* only the faith is still 
fiercer in religious matters^ and the stories arc fainter in histori¬ 
cal references. According to the Fnrl:na last cited: ''There is 
no expiation for one that bows to a phallic cmblem,^^ i^lvaiie, 
and '^all the Ikluddhas are hereticsand according to the 
Kfirina Purina: “Vishnu is the divinity of the godsj Qiva, of 
the deiaUj” although the preceding verses teachp in the spirit of 
the Divine Song, that each man's divinity is that w^hLch he ecu- 
cei%^es to be the divinity. Such is the concitiding remark made 
by Vasistha in adjudicating the strife between the Vishnuite 
and Qivaite sectaries of the epic heroes.* The relation that 
the Puranic literature bears to religion in the minds of its autliors 
is illustrated by the rcniark of the Nlradiya to the eflect that 
the god is to be honored “by song^ by music*by dance* and by 
recounting the Purlnas'* (xviL 9). 

Some of the epic religious ceremonies which there are barely 
alluded to are here described with almost the detail of a tech¬ 
nical handboolL S-o the Nlradlya (xix.) gives an elaborate ac¬ 
count of the raising of a Mi'a/a or standard as a religious 
ceremony.* The legal rules afectlng morality and espedally 
caste-intercourse* show a laxity^ in regard to the rules as for- 

I Coaipon flrnwi Nlfaltfa Ptirlfta- iIt. 10, 

Exodiinci) b hdt Tb^ oJd Uite of NldkcUu b ^ in ihe Varlln 

J’lErSiiii. TkiE oldfirt Pitrliu* thrr MS^ 3 !alvdtJ 1 ^ 1 lJ 3 J btit as™ httk, a ooDccp^Jcn] older 
thifl Slajiti'a twenty-OM on MP. So tt.* Sfiicrnan* /jw. f#. p. J3>, or tlw 

htw am oi thounndt. Ttio F^docu FafAfUL, whkh wkbrn-tci tUema* Hha ^i:rn=n 
lieUA* ixn^ Ld- lu |]a±t old, f cif It eilHcull; FEdbluLn. ^BnUmiA's Ioh -sIuIik) ; 

iMt it Tvcomcnendj tho Of tirandlaff with hot iroiL 

i >2ir, fclf.j. » inT. $4.9011 70, 

1 KP. xiiL pp. 13.9^141. 

^ Aft will bo ftbown betow* it tft fumlbk that this maj bo ft cctccmiij Ant talicii 
fiwi ibe wLId trlbei. Soc the ' pok ^ rUe dicficiibcd ftberwr tn the 

4 Corfupan for iaitaiico nertii. 61 ^ 09 tko fttmogt cvtmctloo ot a wik of 

ft Gitrtft 


merly preached. Even the old Pninnie form of the epic h 
repri^ucedp as when Milrkandcya converses again with Yudhis- 
tris, exactly as he does In the epic.* The duration of the ages; 
the fruit of sacrifices^ among which ^ire still mentioned the 
r^jasl/jaf ap.uim/ifAa^ and other ancient rites;* the virtue of 
holy-places;* the admixiure of pure pintheusm with the idea 
of A personal creation * — these traits are again just those 
which have been seen already in the epic, nor is the addition 
of sections on temple-aerviccj or other more minute details 
of the cult, of particular importance in a history of religious 

The Purinas for our present purpose may all be grouped 
with the remark that what is ancient in them is a more or less 
fugitive resemblance to the epic style and matter ; * what is new 
is the more pronounced sectarianism with its adventitious 
growth of subordinate spiritualities and exaggerated miracles. 
Thus for instance in the Vardha Purina there are clcveni, in 
the Bhagavat Purina twenty (instead of the older ten) rijWjrjr 
of Vishnu. So too the god of love — although Kima and his 
dart arc recognized in the late Atharvan — as a petty spirit re¬ 
ceives homage only in the latest Siltira (as Cupid, Apastamba, 
it. 2. 4. i)t ^nd in late additions to the epic he Is a little god; 
whereas in the drama he Is prominent, and in the Purinas his 
cult is described at length (though today he has no temple). 
The 'mother-fiend Putani, who suckles babes to slay them, 

I K l\ k li! of COMM ilFipOMiblo I* my lifl* IBtaCb cnitirtll I* Ci^Cnq 

fnacn tlw li-h^^ry #pBV nnd h4w aiudk is dnwa from popular jKREry, lor tlw vuljfaf 
had llielr i^iIdJc whkh majr hsm Rcufcd ihe iKuno tofdvi. THm Eitn 
tk wild trll* (GtiDdi^ b orcditicd with ao 'tpit* Bui Muth ntuiT wa* pmlwlllr ft* 
worthksi ms uv the popolur irf te-daj^ 

» KP. MIL |I. J JUtXYlL [k * /^. jn 

* Corapare Ntlradl^'a, id. 3 j, 3?, Jt *tlic mw wSwia do o£ie ktuiw%^ ^ he tlwit rewti 

hi ^ ^ tluk Htna to be (ar vff lMmi» ^ do nol kDov," * tw wlm^ form b 

hgflcd lif VistiaiLj^ itiiL soi. 

* Vishnu m A part dT a fWrt ^rf Ihe Supnenw Spk^t In VP, b ladJcatgii bfl 
Vlihitii'* adoratiofi of dlfjwd in Uko npao (wo nher^). 



IS Sdanoe^y kii^wn to the eJtrly epic^ but she is a very real per- 
stiiialuy in the Jate epic and i'urluas. 

The addition to the trinity ol the peculiar Inferior gcNJhead 
that U advocated in any one Purina, virtually making four di- 
vinidesv is characteristic of the period. 

In proportion as sectarian ardor Is heightened religious tone 
is lowered. The Puranic votaty' clinging to his one idea of 
god corses all them that believe in other aspects of the divip^ 
ity* Blind bigotry fills the worshipper's soul Religion be- 
Comes mere fanaticism. But there U also tokrance. Some¬ 
times in one and the same Purana rival forms are honorccL 
'rhe modem Hindu sects ate in part the direct developineni of 
Puranic doctrine^ But most of the sects of today are of very 
recent date* though their principles arc often of respectable 
antiquity, as are too their sectarian signs, as well as the ant* 
mals of their gods, some of which appear to be totems of the 
Wild tribes, while others are merely objects of reverence among 
certain tribes. Thus tbe ram and the elephant are respectively - 
the ancient beasts of .Agni and Indra. the hull; his [ 

spouse, the tiger. Earth and Skanda have appropriated the ! 
peacock* Skanda having the cock also. Yama has the buffalo 
(compare the Rhond, wild-tribc^ substitution of a bulfalo for a 
man in sacrifice). Love has the paiTOt, etc.; while the boar 1 
and all Vishnu's animals in arti/ars are holyi being his chosen ^ 


A classification of older sects (the unorthodcu^) than those of 
the present remains to us from the w'orks of ^ankara's reputed 
disciple, Ananda Giri, and of Madhava Acirya, tbe fomacr a 
writer of the ninth, the latter of the fourteenth centmy'i Ac¬ 
cording to the statements made by these writers there were a 
great number of sects, regarded as partly heterodox or wholly 

’ 1 Campm WUIUtau' mJ ffixAMiim. 


r//£ ££U€/OjVS of /A'D/ji. 

SO, and it is iatcresting in examining the list of these to see 
that some of the epic sects (their names at least) are still in 
full forte, while on the other hand the most important factions 
of to-day are not known at all; and that many sects then existed 
which must have been at that time of great antiquity^ although 
now they have wholly passed away.^ These last are indeed to 
the author of the critique of the sects not wholly heterodox. 
They are only too emphatic, in worshipping their peculiar divin- 
it)\ to suit the more modern conceptions of the Hindu reviewer. 
But such sects are of the highest importance^ for they show 
that despite all the biiarre bigotry of the Fuianas the old 
Vedic gods (as in the epic) still continue to hold their own, 
and had their own idols and temples apart from other new'er 
gods. The Vedic divinltieSk the later additions in the shape of 
the god of love, the god of wealth, Kiibera/ the heavenly bird, 
Gary da, the world-snake, ^eslia, together with countless genii, 
spirits, ghosts, the Manes, the heavenly bodies, stars,, etc^, ad 
these were revered^ though of less importance than the gods of 
Vishnuite and ^ivaite sects. Among these latter the ^'ivaite 
sects are decidedly of less interest than the correspd&ding Vish¬ 
nu! le heresies^ while the votaries of Brahma (exclusively) are 
indeed mentioned, but they cannot be compared with those of 
the other two great gods.^ To-day there is scarcely any homage 
paid to Brahma^ and it is not probable that there ever was the 
same devotion or like popularity in his case as in the case of 
his rivals^ Other interesting seels of this period are the Sun- 
worshippets, who still exist but in no such numbers as when 

1 uihenma ira dildlf -i^ivsitv, but ht Mt«lf wm aat a Hctaiy. 

that At tW piwlil iUy few worship exdiu[Tely, but he baa raofx 
paitkl adh^ntj ihsji lua Vbhnu. U/f, pp. $g<, 

^ ’n» twci Jast *rt jviri in Wgal wdtlta. 

* Su Wilaoti't ikfitdi HlnAii. Mcta. TIu aatfiw that ibere 'went ia bti day 
rwfl thrinvf to Urabml, om in Ajmlr i(niropiaiv f^ushkara \n the flpScJi, abdl Wte wi tlw 
Gufu at U lui^rwo alu a& EXiin Thla ti thv 

Ibiit in the Hat; In Ita pfeaeat atate It U Vlahiuiite. 



Ahiinda Giri counted sU fomifil divisions of them. The vota* 
ties of these sub-sects woTshtppcd some, the rising sun, some^ 
tile setting SOD, while some again Horshipped the noondair 
snn, and othcis^ all three as a (ri-mard. Another divisLon 
shipped the snn In anthropomorpbk shape^ while the last 
awakens the wrath of the orthodox narrator by branding them- 
sekes w^ith hot irons/ 

Gane^a,® the lord of ^'iva's hosts^ had also sbe classes of 
worshippers; but he has not now as he then had a special and 
peculiar cult, though he has many temples in Benares and 
elsew'herc. Of the declared ^ivaite sects of that dayp sia are 
ruetilioned, but of these only one sundves, the * wandering* 
Jangaraas of South India, the ^ivaite Rludras, Ugras^ Bhaktas^ 
and L^a^ypalls having yielded to more modem sectaries. 

Some at least among the sin sects ol the Vishnuite sects, 
which are described by the old writers, appear to have been 
more ancient. Here too one finds Bhaktas, and with them the 
Bhagavatas, the old Pdhearatras, the * hermit’ %''aikhanasas, and 
Karmahinas, the latter ‘‘having no rites.'' Concerning these 
sects one gets scanty but direct information. They all wor^ 
shipped Vishnu under on^ form or another, the Bh^ktas as 
V^udev^^e Bha^ayatas * as Hhagavat. The latter resembled 
the modem disciples of fUminuja and revered the holy-stonep 
appealing for authority to the Upanisbads and to the Bh4^ai-ad 
Gita, the Divine Song. Some too worshipped Vishnu exeJu- 

^ ijinnku] P) h ^pcctittr pnownneed In IV PatfA^ Of 

th^ OtJsfir PurlJIaA the Un^ U ^pttwUr u JTB tlw 

Matsja and oWftr Vijru. &Diuetlia» Q.n Ji * haU- 

fvmaW hat most fff ihn Purtmu am VlshnufEt. 

> Ou tJie i'HJSiu iMK JHA&. p. 

* The wonhipfien of Bha£;i-¥3t w«e url|;iftalh tii^dnrt h-om the Pl!l[;vSnu, but 
whiU ‘R 1 I& the d^lfcrrmv betn^Hfi them b unknairiL vCt ui thu aaxm m the 
IwdcIcKtiiE! b fuKt i^%ktx ttii tun quIj monotb^lc- [^rubiblr the juuiwt 

*r rsauf sfrcli art ratilaed with alleted helM!* ab 4 pracUces. The VSihj^u Puilfm, 
L II. giiT^ a model pmyef wEikli mar ^ tikeiion«e lnT aII u the a.liitude of the 
VbhnoiW: “GlnTr to him ot perfertKi TOdksen, form in 

33) Ilfaiiml, VbhiLii, iad <;iva" Fnnuh^ 


r//£ OJ^ /AY^Af- 

sivelyM Nar^)™iat b^sUcved in a heaven of sensual delights. 
The other secTS, now extinct^ olfer no sf>ccia| forms of worship. 
What is historically most important is that in this list of sects 
are found none that particularly worship the popiiLar diwnititis 
of t<>dayjf no pectiliar cull of Krishna as an infant and no 

infidel sects are numerous in this period, of which sects the 
worst in the old writers^ opinion is the sensual Carvika. Then 
follow the (Buddhist) gfinyavads, who believe in * voM/ and 
Siugatas, who believe that religion consists only in kindnesst 
the Ksbapanakas, and the Jains. The infamons * left-hand 
sectaries arc also well know^n. 

To one side of the Pnranic religions, from the earlier time of 
which comes this account of heresies, reference has been made 
above: the development of the fables in regard to the Infant 
Krishna. That the cull is well known in the later Pnranas 
and is not mentioned in this list of wrong beliefs seems to 
show that the whole cult is of modem growth, even d one does 
not follow Weber in all his signs of modification of the older 

religious festivals. 

For the history of the cult there is in these works much to 
interest one in the description and determination of popular 
festivals io honor of the great sectarian gods- hurther details 
of more specific nature are given in other works w^hich need 
not here be regarded. By far the most important of these 
festivals are those that seem to have been absorbed by the 
sectarian cults, although they were originally more popular. 
Weber In the paper on the to which we have had oc¬ 

casion several times to refer, has shown that a popular element 
abided long in the formal celebrations of the Brahmanic ritual.' 

1 u>ii« shim fw tlwl Ib^ oka die of cldw 

that tbe lawii^prfeat yieldi to Uw UmI In thli fesurt In honor U U* Sdng he 


Undofcibtedty tlie original celebration was a popular one. To¬ 
day the moss interesting of these popular fdccs is in all respects 
the New Vear^s Festival and fche ispring FestivaL The latter 
has been cut up into several parts, and to show the w'hole intent 
of the original ceremonial it is nqcessar)^ to take up the 
mmirrti and place them side by side^ as has been done by 
Wilson^ whose sketch of these two festivals^ together with that 
by Cover of the New Year's Feast called Pong.ol+ we give in 
abstract, premising ihat^ however close be the comparison 
with European festivals of like nature, w'e doubt whether there 
is any historical connection between them and the Hindu 

We begin with the more popuiar New Year's, the Forigol :* 
The interesting feature of this South India festival is that 
the Hindus have done their b-est to alter its divinities and 
failed. They have, indeed, for Indra and Agni got Krishna 
fonnally accepted as the god in whose honor it U supposed 
to be held, but the feast remains a native festival, and 
no one really thinks of the Puranic gods in connection 
with iL Europe also has seen such dynamic alteradona of 
divinities in cases where feasts w'ould persist tiU patrons of 
an ortbodojc Idnd were foisted upon them to give an air of pro¬ 
priety to that which remained heAthenish.* The Pofigol is a f 
New Year's festival lasting for three days* The first day is for | 
Indra ; the second, for (Agni) SCirya; * the third fto which is J 

b jQiuwlly beatm j that SAmiiif ^Jwp* Sht* lii= aia popular aspect 7 that 

them a vpvcbl &tivataELy to run caiued by and 

tlul «hQ]e -BNwuMiy W3J a popular ipHing I'cttbal, lud? iui h Ipuad ti> 4 ajr (Iriit 
wEthouE: the royal jart m the 

I Goirr, JK4S, ; JA. el 

^ In HJadiiE^ it^Qf tlKTi! la a sUikiiig eas^pLe of tbu. The |asiJiiiltb f 
getaaut ^ tempk was ohco dedinted to UudxihA 9w /ofd-wJM «■ laidoitr 

uf the WQfSd^ Nanie, tc&fplr, and kbl<af ate »qw all 

*Thal ia, Rain and Son, tor 3U !odfa'i waililiB-qaalattea aro forf