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International Association 
of School Librarianship 



JULY 14-17,1980 

John G. Wright 
9130-US Street 
Edmonton, Alberta 
JOG 1P9 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2019 with funding from 
University of Alberta Libraries 


John G Wright 
9130 -Ug Street 
Edmonton, Alberts 
J6G 1P9 



Nelson. Rodriguez Trujillo 
Pola Rosenthal de Benoliel 
Emma Fonseca C. 

Javier D'Aubeterie 
Nimia Sosa de Urdaneta 
Ana Maria Pinto 
Areanne Hecker de Salzberg 


Olga Oropeza de Ojeda 
Arabia Teresa Cova 


Maritza Turupial 











Edited & published by the School Library Program of Banco del Libro 
Caracas, Venezuela, November, 1980. 

Translated by: Roger Salvador and Lesley Johnson 








Greetings and Opening Words of the Organizing Committee 

Dr. Nelson Rodriguez Trujillo . 2 

Executive Director of the Banco del Libro 

Professor Gustavo Bruzual P. U 

President, International Association of School Librarianship 

Mrs . Amy Robertscn. £ 

Representative of the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana 

Dr. Eduardo Castaneda. 9 

Director of the National Library of Venezuela 

Lie. Virginia Betancourt . 11 

Vice Minister of Education of Venezuela 

Professor Aurisela Alvarez Medina . 13 


Amy Robertson, President IASL. 17 


Rosario Gassol de Horowitz, President of the Section 

of IFLA for Latin America and the Caribbean. 25 


Dr. Jean E. Lowrie, Executive Secretary, IASL. 31 


Dr. Carlos Ruiz, Assistant Manager of the Human 

Development of the Venezuelan Corporaticn of Guayana. 39 


Professor Arabic Teresa Cova, Director of the School 
of Library Science and Archives of the Central 

University of Venezuela. U2 


Lie. Virginia Betancourt, General Director of the 
Autonomous Institute of the National Library and 

Library Services.. . Ul± 


The School Library System, Present Situation and 
Perspectives in Peru 

Professor Cesar A. Castro Aliaga . U7 



School Libraries of Nicaragua 

Lie. Orfa Baez Reinoso. 56 

School Libraries in Canada: An Overview 

Professor John G. Wright... 6U 

Colombian Program of School Libraries 

Professor Hugo Acosta Cadena.. 81± 

Present Conditions and Perspectives of the Costa Rican 
School Libraries 

Dr. Elia Maria Van Patten de Ocampo. 90 

Present Situation and Perspectives in School Libraries 
in Jamaica 

Mrs. Amy Robertson. 98 


Dr. Rosario Gassol de Horowitz. 11U 


Dr. Nelson Rodriguez Trujillo . 116 


Lie. Lilian Hung de Leon. 121 


Lie. Nelly Primera. 135 


Lie. Doris Marcano de Diaz. Il±3 


Lilia Carmona Revete... 150 

Dr. Nelson Rodriguez Trujillo . 157 


Lie. Lilian de Carias, Director of the "Tricolor" Journal ... 160 

Lie. Maricarmen Perez, Director of the Children’s Supplement 

of the Journal "El Carabobeno". 162 

Prof. Lilian Aguilar, Chief of Production of Educational 

materials of the "El Macaro" Center for Teacher Training ... 16U 

Lie. Carmen Diana Dearden, Director of Ekare Editions ..... 168 


Basis of a Curriculum System for the Training of Latin 
American and Caribbean Educational Librarians. Contri¬ 
bution to the theme. Venezuela 

Lie. Minerva Leidenz y 

Prof. Arabia Cova.. . 173 

Current Developments in Education and School Librarianship 
in Great Britain 

Michael J. Cooke.. . 191 



School Librarians' Training in Japan 

Mieko Nagakura. 197 

Audiovisual Training Course for School Librarians and 
School Teachers as Library Users in Latin America and 
the Caribbean 

Prof. Hugo Acosta Cadena. 200 


Autonomous Institute of the National Library and 
Library Service 

Dr. Graciela Lovera de Mantellini . 207 

On Public Library Support of the School 

Lie. Alvaro Agudo y Javier Bringas. 220 


Background and Strategies for the Development of the National 
System of Library and Information Services 

Ing. Bias Menda, Executive Secretary. 230 

The Supervisory Function of Library Services in Ciudad Guayana 

Flor Thomas de Alarcon. 23U 

Programming the School Library Network of the State of Zulia 

Lie. Crucita Hernandez de Malaver. 236 

A Project of Curriculum for Teacher Librarians Through the 
Flexible System of Learning 
Elena D'Angelo de Sanz 

Aixa Socorro de Gurevara. 239 









Introducti on 

The ninth annual conference of the International Association of School 
Librarians gathered together in the city of Guayana, Venezuela between the 
lUth and the 17th of July, 1980, under the theme Present Situation and 
Prospectives of School Libraries in Latin America and Other Regions . The 

works presented are gathered in this memoir and represent a valuable con¬ 
tribution in informing those who are involved in the field of school 
library service. During the development of the conference the 
interest generated by the service by school librarians among the greatly 
diverse institutions and professionals was evidenced by the list of spon¬ 
sors and participants that are included in this volume. This interest is 
naturally tied up to the primary role which is our call: school libraries 
within the national system of information, which are considered integrated 
by the school libraries, public libraries, and university or specialized 
ones. Among this system school libraries constitute the first step in the 
formation and development of the skills and habits in reading and the 
search of information that today are fundamental elements in the formation 
of human beings and an important ingredient in the social and economical 
development of man. 

The conference offered the opportunity to discuss and interchange infor¬ 
mation among other topics such as: 

-The present situation of library service in Costa RLca, Peru, Colombia, 
Jamaica, Canada, Nicaragua, United States of America, England, Japan and 
Venezuela. This interchange of information is of a great importance be¬ 
cause it allows the comparison of solutions that each of the library 
systems has proposed in order to solve the problems that are common to many 

-The training of teacher librarians as a theme was brought out in a 

very wide spectrum: from a theoretical aspect related to the new concep¬ 
tion of the school library and the type of librarian that ought to be 
trained in the future in order to meet these demands, to those more prac¬ 
tical aspects such as definitions and mechanisms common to all human 
resource training cn a very regional level. 

-The integration of the school library within a system and the necessity 
to progressively eliminate the conception that the library is an isolated 


entity. This topic is of a great interest and importance due to the fact 
of the scarcity of economic resources among the educational systems ; above 
all, to those countries who are to be developed and who can now dedicate 
effort to the creation and maintainence of library services which are 
necessary to centralize certain services and functions in support of the 
school library. 

-The attention to the formal educational system from the public librar¬ 
ies . 

-The addition of material for children and their uses in services of 
school libraries. 

-The role of the national association of the school librarians in the 
improvement of services and the possible mechanisms for.regional integra¬ 

Besides this, there was the opportunity to discuss union problems, 
especially in relation to institutional and social recognition of the 
teacher librarian and the role that he is to play as an administrator in 
the school library, as conceived as a transforming element in education 
whether it is formal or not formal. It is our sincere wish that this memoir 
may serve to consolidate the professional ties that were established in this 
conference, and to support the plans of action that were discussed here. 

For those who did not have the opportunity to attend, we hope they can 
find in them elements that allow them to enrich their experiencesj 
mechanisms for the solution of problems that are appropriate, and the 
stimuli in order to communicate with other colleagues. 

In the name of the organizing committee, it pleases us to give our 
sincere thanks to those that sponsored and participated in this organiza¬ 
tion, without whose collaboration it would have been impossible to organize 
the ninth conference of the International Association of School Librarians. 
Special mention must be given to the Autonomous Institute of the National 
library and library Service, to the School of Library Science Archives of 
the Central University of Venezuela of the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana, 
the Ministry of Education of Venezuela, to the First National Congress of 
the Republic of Venezuela, to the Technical Secretary of the National System 
of Library Service and Information, to the Lottery of Zulia, and the Organi¬ 
zation of American States. 




Prof. Aurisela Alvarez Medina, Vice-Minister of Education, 

lie. Virginia Betancourt, Director of the Autonomous Institute of the 

National Library and Library Service, 

Dr. Eduardo Castaneda, Manager of human development at the Venezuela 

Corporation of Guayana, 

Dr. Martha V. Tome, Representative of the Department of Information and 

Cultural Diffusion of the OAS, 

Dr. Michael H. Alleyne, Sub-Director of the Department of Educational 

Business of the OAS, 

Dr. Rosario de Horcwitz, Representative of IFIA for Latin America and the 


Dr. Amy Robertson, President of the International Association of School 

Librarianship, IASL 

Dr. Miguel Pinto Salvatierra, President of the Book Bank (Banco del Libro), 
Prof. Gustavo Bruzual, Executive Director of the Book Bank, 

Delegates from different countries that honor us with your presence. 

Ladies and gentlemen participants of this conference: 

In the name of the organizing committee I wish to welcome you to this 
annual conference of the International Association for School Librarian- 
ship, the ninth that has taken place in the world and the first in Latin 
America. As a central theme, the conference has chosen that of the School 
Library in Latin America and other regions. Activities have been prepared 
in which we will have the opportunity to receive information about prior 
status and the present situation of school libraries in different 

countries, as well as to discuss their perspective, their projections, and 
the training of this cornerstone of service; that is the school librarian. 

We have provided, besides, other activities that will allow us to expand 
and reinforce the concept such as how the school library is presently 
managed and that it necessarily is changing in order to adapt itself to 
this new dynamic era in which we live. Finally, we have prepared activities 
that will allow us to contrast the theoretical concepts with the reality of 
the school library, here in the nucleus of library service in the city of 

The choice of this country and this city as it occurred for this 
reunion is not casual. Here, in this place, a development has been taking 
place far 20 years with a very vigorous industrial, urbanistic and educa- 


tional program that conforms to one of the pillars of the Venezuelan future. 
Within this program is the nucleus of library services of Guayana that, 
with the finance of the Minister of Education and the Venezuelan Corpora¬ 
tion of Guayana and also the Government of the State of Bolivar and under 
the coordination of the Banco del Libro, has been personally forming the 
development and the training of librarians taking care, through libraries, 
of those students and teachers of the public schools of the city. 

Recently the Organization of American States has approved the project 
by which Venezuela together with other countries will initiate an exchange 
of information about services of school librarians. This event in itself, 
to those people who collaborate in Guayana and to those in Venezuela who 
are intimately related to the school library, is a very important step in 
the long struggle for the development of services of librarians. 

The organizing committee of this conference was constituted nine months 
ago by the representatives of different institutions such as the Banco del 
Libro, the Institute of the National Library and Services of Librarians, 
the School of Library and Archives of the Central University of Venezuela, 
and the technical secretary of Sinasbi. To the Banco del Libro went the 
task of organizing the logistic support of the local arrangements to which 
it gave great part of its resources. We wish to give thanks for the sup¬ 
port that we have received from the sponsoring institutions and very 
specially to the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana, to the Autonomous 
Institute of the National Library, to the Minister of Education, to the 
technical secretary of Sinasbi, and to other public and private institu¬ 
tions without whose support this great event would have never taken place. 

During the next four days we will share this room surrounded by this 
magnificent natural scenery created by the greatness of the Caroni River 
and united by the common effort of exchanging experiences. We will dis¬ 
cuss the problems and organize our programs of mutual cooperation. All this 
is with a final goal of accomplishing more and better libraries for more 
and better readers today and in the future generations to come. Again, in 
the name of the organizing committee, welcome. 


Speech by Professor Gustavo Bruzual P., 

Executive Director of the Banco de Libro at the Inauguration of the Ninth 

Conference of the IASL. 

Professor Aurisela Alvere, Vice Minister of Education and other distingu¬ 
ished guests of the proceeding. Dear participants in the International Con¬ 
ference of School librarians, ladies and gentlemen: 

I am forced to be brief in my salutation and welcome as a representative 
of the Executive Director of the Banco del Libro. I am honored to address 
this conference because it is certain that authorized voices not only in 
the field of library services but in the field of general education will be 
heard in this inaugural session and throughout the entire conference. 

Banco del Libro constitutes in our country a truly pioneer institution 
in the promotion and encouragement for reading. We recently have arrived 
at our 20th birthday maintaining ourself as an institutional vanguard in 
the field of library and school library services. As it has been well 
pointed out by its founder Dr. Virginia Betancourt here accompanying us, the 
bank is an institution which by testing and giving services has been charac¬ 
terized as knowing and maintaining their work equipped to political imparti¬ 
ality. Of course, as a natural consequence of this, it has been able to 
maintain a continuity of relationship with public organisms which is practi¬ 
cally without precedent in our community. 

Precisely it is because of these characteristics of this institution, 
open to any change or innovation, that the Bank accepted and welcomed the 
responsibility to organize this ninth International Conference of Associa¬ 
tion of School Librarians, IASL. We feel that this institution will con¬ 
stitute, without any doubt, the most magnificent scenario to the most crea¬ 
tive interchange of experience or ideas. All the representatives of the 
Banco del Libro have, as a group been concerned with this event. They made 
this possible by submerging their effort in the best spirit of collabora¬ 
tion in order to transmit the result of our experience and to enrich the 
most valuable contribution of our distinguished visitors from other 

I'm honored to reiterate to you our message and welcome. We are 
pleased to foresee the most successful and productive development in this 


Greetings from President Amy Robertson at the Opening Session of the 9th 


Honorable Vice Minister of Education 

Executive Director of the Banco del Libro 

Chairman and Members of the Local Arrangements Committee 

Members of the Board, colleagues and friends: 

Since the inauguration of IASL in Jamaica in 1971 we have long cherished 
a dream of meeting in Latin America, for, though we do not speak your 
language, we feel very close to you. 

Today this dream has come true and we rejoice that we are meeting in 
this exciting city to share our knowledge, dedication and commitment to the 
intellectual development of our children. 

Through IASL an international forum was created by the concern, thought 
and vision of true educators . 

As we view the vastness of the great country, realizing the vital part 
it is due to play in the economic well-being of the world, we know that this 
is an historic time and place for this, our ninth meeting. We reflected on 
the fact that it is not the millions of Bolivars which your rich earth pro¬ 
duces which has brought us here, nor the natural wonder of your rivers, it 
is a school library program which we have flown thousand of miles to see. 

The fame of the Banco del Libro program has spread over the world. 

It is a model of innovation and philanthropy, and we consider ourselves 
honored to be here as your guest and to have the opportunity of observing 
the program. We realize that there are many teachers, many children and 
librarians working through the school, and we welcome you and want to invite 
you to join IASL family. 

We look forward to your contributions and we pledge to make our News¬ 
letter reflect our internationalism by having articles in languages other 
than English and initiating translations of material of interest to the 
school librarianship community. 

Like many other associations that face difficulties in raising the kind 
of budget which would make our work more meaningful, we are throwing out a 
challenge to you, our members and supportors to catch the spirit of activit¬ 
ies and industry which this town radiates and to help us put our association 
on firm financial footing. 


On behalf of IASL, I want to thank the Conference Arrangements Committee 
whose chairman, Dr. Nelson Rodriguez Trujillo, has been the moving force 


behind these arrangements. 

We hope that you all feel satisfied that your effort has been greatly 
appreciated; we look forward to this week with you. 

Before closing, I invite the representatives of our members' association 
and countries officially represented at this conference to bring greetings. 

IFLA Representative, Mrs. Horowitz 

In the name of the Executive Council of the International Federation of 
library Associations and libraries of the Permanent Committee of the Latin 
American-Caribbean Section and most especially of the Section of Children's 
libraries, I bring the warmest greetings and best wishes for the success of 
the ninth conference. 

I now will call on Dr. Michael Alleyne , Sub-Director of the Department of 
Educational Affairs in the OAS Office in Washington D.C. to bring greetings. 

Thank you. Madam President of the Association. First of all, I'd like 
to congratulate the Government of Venezuela, represented here by the Vice 
Minister, Prof. Aurisela Alvarez Medina, for giving us an opportunity to 
visit this wonderful country. On behalf of the Organization of American 
States, I would also like to congratulate the committee for organizing the 

I would like to bring it to your attention that in the Organization of 
American States there are two departments: The Department of Education of 
which I am Deputy Director, and Department of Culture, which has been 
represented most ably by our dear Martha Tcme^whom many of you knew. 

I would like to think that itis significant that in the Department of the 
Organization of American States, we have been able collaborators both in 
Education and Culture where libraries are associated. I think it 
well for the development of school libraries that the OAS has been bridging 
the gap between education and library services. 

Since 1970 the OAS has been assisting in the development the school 
libraries in Latin America and the Caribbean with projects in Colombia, 
Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru, Costa Rica, Chile, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. 


We have a three-month course for all Central American countries in 
Costa Rica, which is continuing. In 1980-81 we also started a new inte¬ 
grated project in school libraries with the participation of Venezuela, 
Colombia and Costa Rica. I think Peru will enter in 1980. 

We feel very proud in the OAS that we have been able to assist in the 
development of school libraries. We would also like to congratulate the 
Banco del Libro for its splendid work in providing books for schools. 

We are also pleased to know that for the first time a Conference of 
this nature has been held in Latin America, and we are very proud to be 
associated with the effort to have this conference hosted in Latin 

I am hoping that this conference will promote or suggest other pro¬ 
jects of an integrated nature for which the OAS will be willing to fund. 

In particular, in view of the fact that there are no such projects in 
English speaking Caribbean. Especially, too, since Jamaica was the place 
for.holding the inaugural meeting, we hope that an integrated project for 
English speaking Caribbean may emerge from this meeting. So on behalf of 
the OAS, I would like to welcome you to the meeting and bring greetings. 

I hope that this meeting will continue to move school library services even 
further in the social development in Latin America, the Caribbean, and all 
over the world. Thanks . 

Greetings from Michael Cooke, Vice President of IASL 

I'm grateful. Madam President for giving me this opportunity to bring 
greetings from the School Libraries Association in the United Kingdom. 

This is a great opportunity for us to get together and share ideas. We are 
confident that it has much to offer. School Libraries have been developing 
on its am way, and it is an opportunity for us all to see others experi¬ 
ences which we can gain from this association. I might take this oppor¬ 
tunity of bringing your attention to the fact that the next conference of 
the Association will be held in the United Kingdom in Wales. I hope many 
of you may feel able to return the hospitality given us here by joining us 
in Wales in 1981 . 

John G. Wright 

On behalf of the Canadian School Libraries Association which met in 


Vancouver in June, I was asked to convey to this association and all the 
people present our very warmest greetings. Like Mr. Cooke, I ask you to 
think of coming to Canada in 1982, when we shall entertain you and to tell 
you about programs in our country. 

Lucille C. Thomas : 

As chairperson of the International Relations Committee of AASL 
American Association of School Librarians, ., I am delighted to bring 

greetings and to participate in this historic conference, and look forward 
to a better association in the future. Thanks for giving me this opportunity. 

Takako Akaboshi: (Japan) 

On behalf of the School Library Section of Japan Library Association, 

I bring warmest greetings to everybody in this conference. Thank you very 

Katie Mungo - Jamaica: 

As chairman of the School Section of the Jamaica Library Association I’m 
very happy to be here and to bring you greetings from the Jamaica Library 
Association. I wish you all success in this conference, and I expect to 
learn a lot from my colleagues here. 

I’m looking forward to seeing and learning more about the activities 
of the Banco del Libroj for me especially, this is going to be a very 
educational experience. Greetings and thanks in advance. 


Speech by Dr. Eduardo Castaneda, Representative of the Venezuelan 

Corporation of Guayana . 

Professor Aurisela Alvarez Medina, Director General of the Ministry of 


Mrs. Virginia Betancourt, Director General of the Autcnomous Institute of 

the National Library of Library Service, 

Representatives of the International Association of School Librarianship 

Representatives of O.A.S. 

Representatives of the International Federation of Library Associations, 
Directors of the Banco del Libra, organizational entity of this conference. 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 

It gives me double enjoyment and satisfaction to be present at the 
opening of the work of this international conference as a representative of 
Senior President of the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana. It would seem 
perhaps a little bit strange that a regional corporation of development 
would find itself with so many expectances about the results of this con¬ 
ference. Without entering into many details, I should express that it is, 
to us, similarly important what this conference is and what its result may 
be. What the directive lines will be for the execution of projects logi¬ 
cally will be oriented to the major welfare and to the major and great pro¬ 
cess of development of our community. 

I have said that we would like to enter into greater details, but I'm 
forced and obliged perhaps to pronounce some affirmations that are very 
important to us because of our commitment to this entity to promote and 
coordinate the development of our region. To those who have neven been in 
the professional field of library services it is sometimes not of major 

„ i 

importance. You may pardon my indiscretion. Some discussion may arise 
about what our library services are; if they belong to the school or they 
are public services. At this particular point, I repeat our affirmation, 
(perhaps full of audacity and a little bit of ignorance ) 
that within our plans of social development and cultural in this region 
the existence and expansion of library services is very important, be it a 
school kind or maybe of a public service kind. Our perspective is that it 
is both types of services. Both modalities must be promoted, and they must 
be complimentary to each other and divergent. The development of library 
services seems to us to be one of the most valuable auxiliaries that we are 


able to use in order to implement the development of our community. 

In this sense, library services must be oriented toward the point of 
view of the extent of satisfaction which each of us may achieve through 
educational development in order to accomplish a greater standard level of 
educaticn for the whole population and, if you may wish, even to a greater 
level of autonomy of those who have been educated among our citizens. 

It is a measurable contribution that library service may and should 
offer to the cultural development of the region. Especially in a region 
with cultural development such as ours> it is a sign of the peed for 
contribution in order to identify, to promote, and to diffuse these ele¬ 
ments that we can say are constituted to our identity, cultural and his¬ 

To us, it is also very important to increase the library services in 
quality, in quantity, and in the measure to which they are associated with 
the development of information. It will be difficult for us to construct 
or help to construct a society authentically democratic; it will be diffi¬ 
cult for that society to be more solid, if there is not efficient service 
of information of which the libraries have to be the major mechanism In 
these aspirations of a great participation and a great pluralism,ideologi¬ 
cally and culturally, of a great solidarity, we see that the aspirations of 
many countries converge. Perhaps, because of all of this, it is a sign of 
modern times. We see, I repeat, that the- aspirations of many countries 
converge, and they will remain reunited. 

From this point, Venezuela feels great emotion to share these aspira¬ 
tions with them, and it wishes the major success to the deliberations and 
changes of opinions that will be always very vociferous. In the name of 
the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana I want to welcome you with our sincere 
congratulations, to give our best and great encouragement to the success of 
this conference, and to give our most cordial welcome and hospitality, 
which you will always find among our countries. Thank you very much. 




In Venezuela, the systematic development of library services is very 
recent and is closely linked to the establishment of democratic government 
only 22 years ago, to the emergence of popular education, and to the 
processes of urbanization and industrialization. Libraries have, in our 
country become the main instrument for democratization of information. 

During these years the Book Bank, a private non-profit association 
free of bureaucratic and political bindings, has shown that it is not only 
possible but necessary to define common objectives, strategies and pro¬ 
cedures for the organization of library services for children and young 
people. The experimental and demonstration programs of this organization 
have sham that in an underdeveloped — country, common elements are 
predominant in organizing and developing school and public libraries. The 
impact of such programs has created the favorable conditions for issuing a 
body of legislation which considers both types of libraries as complemen¬ 
tary means to reach a common objective: the development of well informed 
individuals, able to take a critical stand and to participate in society. 

We have avoided the pitfall of competing for meager financial resources 
and have maximized the use of scant, specialized, human resources by cen¬ 
tralizing, at a national level, planning, administration and — technical 
processes, and decentralizing operative functions at a local level through 
library networks. 

These operative functions, besides backing formal learning processes, 
also take over the following activities: information on community resources 
and services; procuring and lending of hard-to-find material of local 
interest; organization of users as aides in running library services; 
stimuli to manifest mass culture and of community self-help groups. 

Limited resources have been an encouragement to design an effective 
strategy which differs from our anarchic and individualistic tradition. We 
have integrated various disciplines in a permanent task force and have 
obtained technical and financial contributions from a variety of public and 
private agencies. Such an approach has oriented our activities since the 
onset of the Book Bank, and has continued in the subsequent stages of 
systematization and generalization taken over by the State. 

The institutionalization of this process has taken place by: 


-The establishment, in 1976, of a permanent Commission of the National 
library and Information System (SINASBI) annexed to the National Planning 
Office, at a presidential level. The Commission coordinates the nuclei of 
the library, archives, documentary and statistical systems. This year for 
the first time the Commission incorporated in our National Master Plan a 
General Information Program for a five-year period (1981-1986). 

-Three years ago, with support from all political parties, the National 
Congress approved a law which established an Autonomous Institute respon¬ 
sible for the coordination of the National Library System. 

-Last year an executive decree was issued which established in the Minister 
of Education, agency responsible for the organization of a National Library 
System, founded on the 1£ years of experience gained at the Guayana experi¬ 
mental library network. 

Through visits to other countries we have shared and enriched our 
experience. We have also found that in Latin America, in spite of our 
cultural and economic differences, we must meet common challenges to 
organize library services oriented toward improving the quality of life of 
our people, especially of those most needed: political intervention in 
technical matters, lack of administrative continuity, lack of library 
tradition, authoritarian families, rigid school procedures, lack of high 
quality printed matter and other problems derived from an unfair distribu¬ 
tion of wealth. 

Therefore, we are convinced of the need for agreements in this conti¬ 
nent to share valid experiences at a technical and governmental level. We 
propose the ellaboration and adoption of common principles and norms which 
will allow a demonstration effect on the community, specially of decision 
makers, and will stimulate the progressive institutionalization of library 
services and gain the necessary authority to defend the right of all chil¬ 
dren to have access to high quality books, magazines and films, which meet 
their interests and needs, organized in efficient library services, dynamic, 
flexible and closely immersed in their cultural reality. 

This way we will contribute to develop future citizensable to parti¬ 
cipate actively and dynamically in the needed transformation to reach a 
more just an human society. 



by Prof. Aurisela Alvarez Medina 

It is an honor to represent the Executive Branch in the opening 
session of this 9th Conference of the International Association of School 
Iibrarianship in which specialists from different countries meet to exchange 
ideas pertaining to school library development. 

The importance of this conference lies in the fundamental role that a 
well-oriented reading policy can play in the successful development of the 
educational process, given that one of our main tasks is the achievement of 
qualitative results. 

Reading, as the fundamental instrument in the educational process, is 
the most valuable tool for the educating of individuals. Its great com¬ 
plexity, from an individual point of view, is a fascinating learning 
experience and is achieved by a constant association with graphic signs 
which permits the gradual acquisition of learning. 

Reading is a process which ends with men's life. It provides the reader 
varied dispositions and conditions upon which he uses skills, habits and 
attitudes geared toward a common goal: the acquisition of information and 
enrichment of their cultural baggage. Therefore, reading will continue to 
be a solid foundation for man's development as an active and efficient par¬ 
ticipant in the lifelong educational process. 

Independently of the philosophical and scientific principles which 
guide such policies, it is indispensable for its implementation that a 
rich base of printed material be available, with broad information in all 
areas of learning. Such a situation requires a rigorous selection of 
varied reading resources and its permanent evaluation and classification. 

The theme of this meeting relates directly to one of the major educa¬ 
tional policy propositions of President Herrera Campins: the development 
of a national library system conceived as a useful institutional resource 
for the improvement of education , a lifelong process, as an autonomous 
source of information during one's lifetime. 

Traditionally, in our country the sources of information for the masses 
have been limited by the rigid structure of formal schooling which is 
excessively dependent on the teachers, who are conceived as diffusors of 

Our economic and social development has created the need of 




alternatives: the creation of information and knowledge centers accessible 
to any citizen who wants to increase his knowledge independently of his 
interests and without limitations to his motivations. Moreover, we have 
learned that the access to information and knowledge constitutes one of the 
most important ways to build a truly participant democracy. We also have 
been taught by history that guaranteed access to information or knowledge 
is one of the most efficient ways to distribute power. 

For all of us, closely linked in one way or another to the complex 
world of education, it is evident that the development of a library system 
requires more than the assignment of human and material resources for build¬ 
ing and for the acquisition of equipment and print and non-print collections. 

There is the additional requirement of permanent reinforcement of 
informal social norms, habits as well as individual and group patterns of 
behaviour, on which a library system as a going concern can rely. Without 
taking into account this cultural aspect, the best structure of library 
services, if it is ever consolidated, will be short lived and its social 
impact will be extremely limited. 

For all these reasons the establishment of a system of information, 
which has as one of its principal components, a library system, demands 
the permanent training of children and young people in the adequate use of 
library services. It is obvious that such training can only be achieved 
through practice. Therefore, the total educational system should provide 
the population with ample opportunities for library use in the development 
of educational activities. 

The two main objectives of a School Library System are: the develop¬ 
ment of basic skills in the use of library as a source of information, and 
the reinforcement of formal school learning. Both objectives are mutually 
complementary, and one of them should not be over-emphasized to the detri¬ 
ment of the other. 

If the school library ceases to be perceived as useful for school 
activities it runs the grave risk of loosing support from the educational 
community. Ch the other hand, if the school library loses sight of its 
mission to develop skills useful to obtain information from its own col¬ 
lections as well as from public library facilities and other information 
resources established by society, its contribution to personal and social 
development is seriously restricted. 

In reaching the double mission of the school library several issues 
which require close attention must be brought foreward. I would like to 
refer to some of those issues. In countries like ours, where a violent 
expansion of the educational system has occurred recently, the school 
library is faced with an administrative structure and a school culture in 
which its role is not fully understood both by general education and with¬ 
in social development. 

In this environment the school library can easily be perceived as 
another fixture which competes with traditional school activities for space 
time, and other resources. Given this potentially unfriendly atmosphere, 
it is of prime importance to use adequate procedures to introduce the 
school library so that its roots are fully integrated with the school cul¬ 
ture. It is indeed a difficult task since the school library constitutes 
a technical innovation in countries similar to ours. How can we promote a 
rapid institutionalization process of the school library into an educational 
system that lacks a library tradition? 

On the other hand, while we seek the institutionalization of the school 
library into our educational system we should also avoid its being absorbed 
by old educational practices to such an extent that the library potential 
for transformation will be neutralized. We conceive the school library as 
having a positive effect in transforming traditional attitudes toward the 
book and reading. Such effects will be possible as long as the school 
library offers, through its activities, an image which successfully com¬ 
petes with prevalent traditional and outlooks within the educational system 

Therefore, the school library requires an integration with the school 
which will make it relevant and useful. It must also keep relative 
autonomy, which will allow it to fulfill its cwn educational mission of 
developing people with better skills to obtain information and knowledge: 
How can such a desirable equilibrium be reached? 

We have often posed these questions to ourselves ralatieto the develop¬ 
ment of our school library system. Such reflection can be summarized in 
the following statement: it is fundamental that the development process of 
a school library system take place progressively while we are conscious of 
the social, cultural and economic limitations of learning from experience. 

In our case, we have developed school libraries through projects of 
limited coverage, many of them of experimental nature, as is the case of 


Ciudad Guayana, with the intention of generalizing what is learned by 

The present educational policy faces the challenge of starting a national 
school library system from pilot projects developed in various parts of the 
country with available resources. Meeting the challenge requires the 
capacity to analyze accumulated experience realistically and to be dis¬ 
posed to learn through action. Dus to such a challenge we consider events 
such as this one useful in enriching our thoughts and decisions regarding 
policies for library development and in the realization of reading develop¬ 
ment as a crucial element linking library "knew how” with educational action 
an the broader social scale. 

With these reflections on our experience and objectives, I would like 
to inaugurate this conference of national and foreign specialists which, 
thanks to the International Association of School Librarianship and the 
collaboration of various institutions coordinated by the Book Bank, meets 
this week in Ciudad Guayana, the pilot city of our school library systems 

I would like to welcome all of you and to thank you for your delibera¬ 
tions in advance, anticipating that it will be most useful to our efforts. 



WHAT IS IASL? - by Dr. Amy Robertson 

Before I begin, I would like to introduce the members of the board: 

Ms .R. Horowitz, of Venezuela, and IFLA representative 

Ms. . Mildred Winslow, Treasurer of IASL 

Dr. John Wright, Representative far Canada 

Mr. Michael Cooke, Representative for the United Kingdom 

Dr. Jean Lowrie, of the USA and Executive Secretary of IASL 

As you know, I am the President - Amy Robertson. I come from Jamaica. 


This is a short background statement. IASL is an international forum 
for persons interested in the development of library services in primary 
and secondary schools. It has been the subject of planning from 1967-1971 
within the offices of the World Confederation of Organization of the Teach¬ 
ing Profession (WCOTP). The first steering committee included representa¬ 
tives from six countries: Fhraguay, Malasia, Kenya, United Kingdom, USA 
and Jamaica. At this time the chairman was Dr. Jean Lowrie, IASL's first 
President and first Executive Director. At this point, I would like us to 
acclaim Dr. Lowrie who has done more than anybody to keep the organization 

Meetings were held in many countries including Ireland and Australia. 
The association was formally inaugurated in my own country, Jamaica, in 
1971, and I have had the honor to be associated with it first as a member 
of the Board of Directors, and since 1977 as the President. 

At this time there are over £00 individual memberships, and 16 national 
affiliated associations from 30 countries. 

In order to answer the question "what is IASL" let us look at the 
objectives as follcws: 

1) to encourage the development of school libraries and library 
programs throughout all countries. 

2) to promote the professional preparation of school teachers 

3) to bring about close collaboration between school libraries and all 
countries included the loan and exchange of literature. 

U) to encourage the development of school library material. 

5) to initiate and coordinate activities, conferences, and other 
projects in the field of school librarianship. 


Until new, IASL has achieved its objectives with very little funds, and 
it has mounted an annual conference in a different country each year since 
1972. Immediate benefits include the published conference papers reflect¬ 
ing the state of school librarianship in many countries. Later you will get 
an opportunity to see these publications that I'm refering to. In addition, 
we have been able to meet with experts from several countries to explore 
educational themes such as democratization within the context of the school 

IASL is unique as an organization in its friendly, personal approach to 
its members while being fully cognizant of its larger responsibility to the 
call of education and librarianship. To this end, IASL has established and 
maintained affiliated status with WCOTP, International Reading Association 
(IRA), and with IFIA, whose section for school libraries was established in 
1973* You will be pleased to know that IFIA has appointed your own Mrs. Rosario 
Horowitz to be Representative to this conference. 

A very important development from our relations has been a request from 
WCOTP to prepare a position statement on the role of the school media 
center in education to be presented to the teachers' associations. 

IASL also has knowledge of the activities of IRA and records its 
activities in the Newsletter. It also undertakes joint research projects 
with IFIA. 

Lack of an adequate budget has prevented IASL from accomplishing more. 

Still, it has maintained its quarterly newsletter and has put out publica¬ 
tions such as the Membership Directory, the Directory of National School 
library Associations , and Persons to Contact at nominal prices enabling 
colleagues to keep in close contact throughout the world. A Unesco pub¬ 
lication prepared by Dr. Patricia Beilke of the IASL Research Committee and 
Dr. Laverae Carol of IFIA is called "Guidelines for the Planning and 
Organization of School library Media Centers." I believe it will be avail¬ 
able publically very soon. A monograph series proposed by the Association 
will be launched this year with the publication of the Margaret Scott 
memorial lecture by our friends in Australia. 

And new I think that is enough on the background. I'll call on the 
members in turn to tell you something about the impact of IASL in their 
cwn countries. 


Mrs. Mildred Winslow : 

As Treasurer of the Organization I'm particularly impressed with the 
importance of the publications upon not only the people in our country, the 
USA, but in many other countries because of the number of orders that we 
get for the publications. The proceedings that Dr. Robertson had already 
mentioned that come out every year after the Annual Conference have been a 
great help not only to individuals but to many universities and library 
schools throughout the world really. 

Actually, IASL is about the only professional organization that pub- 


lishes information about libraries and librarianship throughout the world, 
and it is a great benefit to be able to get these proceedings. We do have 
some of the 1978 proceedings from Australia and the 1979 proceedings from 
Denmark for Sale at the back of the room. We have also mentioned the 
Directory of Associations , which is very valuable, and the List of Persons 
to Contact , which is a very popular piece of publication. Many of the pub¬ 
lishing and book companies are buying this list because it enablesthem to 
have further contact throughout the countries. 

Our Newsletter is the other publication which is very important. The 
April, 1980 Newsletter was on the Latin American countries. Although it 
is written in English, we do have a few copies available. I think it may 
be very interesting to you to read about the development of libraries in 
your Latin American countries. 

The Association is not only related with IFLA and WCOTP, but is also 
closely related to the International Reading Association (IRA) and the 
International Book for Young People Association (IBBY). This latter 
association has done a lot to further the understanding of not only one 
another in other countries but of libraries and librarianship. 

Thank you. 

John G. Wright: 

I first heard about IASL when it was organized in 1967 in Vancouver, 
Canada. My first response to it was to welcome the opportunity to talk. 
Librarians read a great deal, but we also need to talk to one another. 

In our country, Canada, we have many contacts with the USA, but we did 
not have many contacts anywhere else. So I wondered what school librarians 
were doing in other parts of the world? This has been, to me, one of the 


very best experiences that I have had. My second response when I heard 
about IASL was to welcome the opportunity to talk about professional prob¬ 
lems. It is so easy in my own country to see only my own problems, and I 
think I am the only person to have so many. But misery, as well as happi¬ 
ness, likes to have company-as we say in English-and I found out that other 
countries have problems that we could share and talk about. This is now my 
third conference and I have made many new friends in USA, in Jamaica, in 
Denmark. And would you believe that I have made friends in Canada too? 

I believe this personal contact with people working on the same field 
has made me feel like a much better librarian and has made me a much better 
teacher of school librarianship at the university where I teach. And I 
know that I speak for many of ray Canadian friends who also wish very much 
to be connected to the international cooperation and the many projects 
that this association makes possible for them. 


Michael Cooke: 

In some ways I share a similar approach to John on this. This is ray 
first year as Vice President of the Association, and one of the roles that 
I have taken on for rayself and the Association has pushed me into as well, 
is trying to look at ways of developing the membership and looking at ways 
of developing more regional activities for the Association. Just as John 
has said, I think individual school librarians tend to be in some ways in¬ 
troverted, seeing their own problems as unique. So it is that national 
school libraries association tend to focus on parochial problems they feel 
are unique and limited to their own national boundaries. 

IASL presents to these associations and their individual members an 
option to recognize that the problems they face are often international in 
character. Through membership in IASL they find the opportunity to share 
ideas across national boundaries and to share different approaches to the 
same problems. 

One of the things IASL must orient itself to is greater regional activity, 
the opportunity for regional groups in neighboring countries to come to¬ 
gether and share in workshops and conferences. 

I think this conference shows that it is possible in the continent of 
South America, in the Latin American area, to get librarians from different 


countries together, and I think this is one of the ways in which this con¬ 
ference can help us to move forward. 

As Vice-President, I propose the setting up of a regional framework to 
make the work of IASL more effective at the local level. 

The United Kingdom's experience may be worthwhile noting. We have two 
independent associations serving school librarians. The School Librarian 
Association, which publishes the periodical "School Librarian," is perhaps 
familiar to some of you. This association has been in existence since 1972 . 
It is teacher-dominated and at times seems rather narrow in its outlook, 
in ray opinion. 

This year a school library section has been started as part of the 
Library Association, the professional organization responsible for 
registering professional trained librarians in Great Britain. This School 
Librarian section is naturally dominated by professional librarians working 
in school or a central school library service. Currently it seems to be 
following a rather independent path from the School Librarian Association. 

I hope that IASL will be one of the ways of getting these two bodies 
to work together in areas which are of mutual benefits and interest. I 
think this is one of the major functions that the IASL has to play: to 
act as a coordinating agency throughout the world to bring association and 
individuals together to share their problems, to work together to define 
areas where mutual benefit can come about through their activity. 

To finish, may I remind you again of the 1981 conference, where there 
will be an opportunity to look at the experiences which we are facing and 
have to face in the United Kingdom scene, to look at the services that are 
being made available to special groups within school: the handicapped, 
the gifted child, the ethnic minorities groups. Our am problems within 
the British scene will be areas which we will be looking at with some 
detail. Wales itself has its am particular problems; it is a bilingual 
country with the problems that bilingualism brings. 

We shall be looking at that experience. Hopefully, we will be able to 
bring the experience of Canada and South Africa as two other countries that 
have something to contribute in this area. And we shall be looking at 
something that I think that British have a strength in, which is the means 
by which supporting agencies can give support to school libraries activities. 
The BBC and ITV which have developed programs which show how radio and TV 


broadcasting can support the educational process. 

Thank you very much. 

Jean Lowrie: 

It is my responsibility to fill in some of the gaps and to call your 
attention to one or two other items with which IASL has been involved over 
the last eight or nine years. 

I would like, first of all, to tell you that the three Directors who 
are not with us today represent Nigeria, the African continent; the Phil¬ 
ippine Island, South Pacific, and Australia, so you see we have a world¬ 
wide Board of Directors who are extremely active in promoting school 
librarianship in IASL activities around the world. The April Newsletter, 
which was mentioned earlier, is something that I want to re-emphasis at 
this point. 

The Newsletter comes to you as a part of your membership and it is a 
quarterly publication. You get it free for becoming a member. The April 
issue is done by Fabio Restrepo, who has been a UNESCO consultant recently 
studying Latin American school librarian development. He is currently work¬ 
ing on his doctoral dissertation in the North Texas Library School. But 
the thing that is exciting about it, is that it is the first time we have 
had a Newsletter which pulls together information about a great many Latin 
American countries. We exceedingly regret that it is in English at the 
moment, but we want to tell you that we are going to have it translated into 
Spanish as rapidly as we can, and it will be available to you people in 
Spanish. In addition, last night the board discussed the need for continu¬ 
ing information in another language and we agreed that we will try to have 
at least one page of the quarterly Newsletter in Spanish on a regular basis . 
So we will have to count on you people to send us information about what is 
happening in your countries. You can send it to us in Spanish, and we will 
see that it is printed regularly. This will be another channel for you to 
use in order to share among yourselves and to make you an even more signifi¬ 
cant part of the development of school library services. 

The Persons to Contact List , which was mentioned earlier, is a rather 
interesting development of the association. Unfortunately, we were not 
able to bring any copy down with us. But let me tell you what it is. It 
is a listing of 89 countries with the names and addresses of at least one 


person, usually two or three people, from each one of these countries who 
are particularly knowledgeable about school libraries and libraries ser¬ 
vices in that particular country. The Persons to Contact list was devised 
to be of assistance to people traveling from one country to another or to 
librarians who wanted to get more information about school libraries in 
another country and, therefore, wanted to have a contact person. A third 
way, which we had not thought of originally but which has become a very 
popular use of the list, is to develop penpals among boys and girls from 
different countries who wish to correspond by writing letters sharing their 
own ideas with each other. 

The Persons to Contact list is also available from the IASL Secretariat 
at a cost of US$1.00 which is Bs. U,00. If you would like to have a copy 
you may leave your name and address with us at the back of the room and we 
will be very happy to see that you have a copy mailed to you immediately. 

I would also like to say a word about the regional developments 
because Mr. Cooke was a bit modest about this. He really is promoting and 
organizing this aspect of the international association. Not only is the 
United Kingdom an example to a degree about regional kind of program, this 
next week in fact, the Scandinavian countries, Finland, Norway, Sweden, 
Denmark and Iceland are coming together to talk about a regional chapter 
or association for school librarians in those particular countries, and it 
will then become a chapter within IASL. So you might want to think along 
those lines for South America and/or Latin America and/or the Caribbean 
countries as you move along in your own school library development. 

Probably the most important thing about IASL is the fact that we 
encourage membership on the part of all people who are interested in school 
library service to children and young people, whether it is in the school 
library or the public library serving the schools. So the educators, 
teachers, principals and administrators, friends of libraries, publishers, 
children's book editors, school librarians are all members of this organi¬ 
zation. It is this coming together of people who are concerned about 
service to children through books and other media that makes IASL a signi¬ 
ficant international association. 

I do hope that as you move through this conference you yourself will 
become more excited and more interested in IASL and will want to become an 
active member of the Association. 


There will be additional publications as we move along over the years 
because we have many articles, many papers, and many very important pieces 
of writing that need to be shared at the international level. We encour¬ 
age your sharing your reports and your progress with us in whatever way 
you possibly can. 

Thank you. 



Presented by Rosario Gassol de Horowitz, President of the Section of IFLA 
for Latin America and the Caribbean 

The International Federation of Library Associations and Librarian 
Institutions , recognizing the importance of the school library as an instru¬ 
ment of support and renovation in the process of teaching and learning and 
as a fundamental element in the integral formation of the child, created a 
few years ago the section of school libraries as a separate entity from the 
section of children's libraries. 

This new section, in spite of this recent creation, has carried out with 
enthusiasm various fundamental activities, and it has established a program 
for the period of 1981 -1985 which aspects are very outstanding; I am going 
to name them briefly. 

In the first place, this section of school libraries has accomplished 
as one of its objectives a most important one: the integration of school 
libraries with national systems of information. 

This point was one of the themes of various works presented in the con¬ 
ference in Czechoslavokia in 1978. 

The accomplishment of this objective is vital in clarifying and defin¬ 
ing certain parts of some basic aspects of school libraries and has 
formed part of the program between 1981-1985 of this section of school 
libraries of IFLA. 

The concept of the school library conceived as a center of resources, 
including a clarification in the terminology of the definition and functions, 
which are especially interchanged between educational technology and the 
school library and of the identification of its respective activities 
and fields of actions. 

In this respect, the UNESCO has published some "Guidelines for the 
planning and organization of school libraries and resource centers," This 
was elaborated and initiated under the coordination of the section of 
school libraries of the IFLA, which is presently developing a program of 
promotion and information about this document. 

The section of the school libraries has among its plans to undertake 
and study of the existing legislation related to school libraries. 


The relationship and cooperation among school libraries and other 
libraries, especial l y those public libraries which include all systems and 

A declaration about school libraries as an essential element of all 
national systems of information will spring out of this conference. It 
could be incorporated into the conference of IFLA that will take place in 
Manila next month. This will constitute an excellent base about this point 

The professional training of librarians is a theme that is similarly 
complex and controversial. In order to develop this aspect of the program 
the professional council of the IFLA has approved the creation of a very 
special group of workers who, in cooperation with the section of librarian 
education, will serve as the block in the elaboration of a standardized 
document. The composition and function of this group of work will be dis¬ 
cussed in Manila and, therefore, it would be extremely convenient if during 
this conference the position of the region Latin America and the Caribbean 
could be defined, and that it could possibly identify candidates to be inte¬ 
grated into this group of work as a representation of the region. 

Instruction to all teachers about the uses of the school library in the 
process of teaching and learning. The section of school libraries had pre¬ 
sented a project to :he UNESCO in order to organize a seminar about this 

So that these initiatives can acquire a sense of validity, it is 
necessary to reflect as much on the felt needs as an action carried out 
throughout all the countries. These needs should be expressed throughout 
the institutions and organizations by all the members of library organiza¬ 
tions within IFLA. 

It is here where they will acquire relevance and justification for the 
section for Latin America and the Caribbean area, which, within the opera¬ 
tional structure of the IFLA, forms part of the division of regional 

The division of regional activities was created in order to increase 
participation in IFLA of the countries via the development and accomplish¬ 
ments of a great and most effective attention to the problems. 

In effect, the necessities and proposals of this country will remain 
deluded among the different professional sections where these countries do 


not have enough representation. 

The division of regional activities presently has three sections: the 
African one, the Asian one, and the Latin American and Caribbean section. 

The specific jobs of each of these sections are promoted and coordi¬ 
nated by a permanent committee composed of no less than five and no more 
than 20 members. 

The permanent committee of the section of Latin America elected in 
Copenhagen in August of 1979 has a period of two years and it is presently 
composed of lU members who represent ten countries. 

The headquarters of the Secretary Office is in Colombia, and the chief 
secretary is Lucille Martinez de Jimenez. 

The center is dedicated to the service and distribution of the public 
documentations produced by IFLA. Besides the information of our profes¬ 
sional events of interest in the region it publishes a quarterly bulletin, 
IFLA Notica , which is bilingual in English and Spanish. 

The principal function of this section is to foster, to facilitate and 
coordinate the participation of all the members of the regions among the 
activities of the IFLA. This implicates: 

-The accomplishment of integrating all competent and fit professionals 
of Latin America and the Caribbean area in the diverse sections of groups 
of work or seminar meetings, etc. of the IFLA. 

-Channeling funds and resources obtained from the UNESCO, private 
foundations and other organizations in order to apply them to practical 
projects that will be engaged in the development of libraries and librarian 
organizations. In other words, to detect these projects in order to deter¬ 
mine priorities and to push its presentation to the groups there are incap¬ 
able of financing. 

In order to carry out this job the section encounters various obstacles: 

1) the enormous extent of the region 

2) a deficiency among the mediums of communication, especially the mail 

3) the fact that the library associations very often are very weak and 
in some cases nonexistent 

U) the lack of knowledge of the Castilian language as the language of 
work in our IFLA. 

Before this situation the section this year has established the work 


agenda that will concentrate efforts in seme concrete activities of organi¬ 
zation, coordination and popularization. 

To this end we have established, three specific objectives: 

1) to contribute to professionalism in the library studies of 
Latin America and the Caribbean area through the foundation of 
professional organizations and the improvement of training of 
library personnel. 

2) To support the establishment and development of these infra¬ 
structures cf the national system of information with emphasis 
on national libraries, school libraries, children's and public 

3) To facilitate the access to the information, stimulating the 
creation of a network of geographical agencies nationwide that 
will grant the production of current bibliographies in each 
country, in agreement to the international norms. 

In order to accomplish these objectives, several steps have been taken 
in account: 

Objective 1 . 

Promotion of Professional Organizations 

1 ) We have tried to establish direct communicatiai among all the 
members of the IFLA association and establish ties among these 
associations by means of personal visitors among the members of 
the permanent committee and also by regular correspondance to 
all the members that are especially outstanding in each of the 

One of the essential elements in order to establish these ties 
among the members is the publication of "IFLA Noticias." 

The Stimulation and Improvement of Training of Library Personnel 

1) The ASCOLBI project of translating and publicating didactic 

2) The project of the Banco del Libro for paraprofessional personnel 
for this region. 

3) The ALEBCI project for the popularization and achievement of 
knowing who is who in library science in Latin America. 

U) Coordinated actions in order to establish cooperation and mechan¬ 
isms within itself. 


5) In 1981 the first meeting of associations of librarians will be 
organized in order to study and analyze the objectives, organiza¬ 
tion, functions and plans of these organizations. As much as 
the actual state of the regulation of the professional practice, 
the institutionalization of these meetings every two years would 
be promoted among regional organisms and international organisms 
who tend to accomplish the improvement of the training of library 
human resources in Latin America and the Caribbean area. The 
main intent is to achieve a coordinated action among the American 
Association of School Library Sciences, OAS, SALALM, IFLA, Unesco, 
and ALKBCI. 

6) Participation of one of the representatives of this section in 
the special committee of the IASL integrated cnly for library 
science educators from Latin America and North America that will 
develop study and will define strategies of action. 

7) Participation in the meeting of library science schools that are 
sponsored by the UNESCO, to be celebrated or to take place in 
Costa Rica. 

Objective 2. 

1 ) The carrying out of studies about the classroom situation will be 
promoted, such as: 

- library legislation in countries of the region 

- present situation of national libraries in countries of the 

- development of public libraries in the countries of the region 

- development of school libraries in the countries of the region. 

The achievement of this study will be promoted on two different levels 
The stage of revealing the information and records about the 
present state, in which case library science students will be 
commendeered in their last semester as work for their degree. 
(Consultations in this sense have been made to the different 
schools of library sciences.) 

This study will yield information on the basis of analysis and 
investigation that are more profound. They could be charged to 
a specialist that will ask IFLA for necessary funds for the pub¬ 
lication of this work and for the contracting of the specialist 


who will be carrying out the final study. 

2) A coordinated action will be promoted among the permanent com¬ 
mittees of national public school or child libraries of the 
IFLA, of the national association of librarians of the region, 
and of the coordinated organisms of the national systems of in¬ 
formation. This will occur along the way to the achievement of 
a regional meeting in 1981 on national strategies for the 
development of substructures that have been mentioned before. 
Objective 3 . 

1 ) It has been proposed to the general secretary of IFLA to include 
in its program of publication the translation to Spanish of all 
materials, norms, and guides, etc. that the program of CBU and 
UAP may published. Translations will be the charge of the sec¬ 
tion for Latin American and Caribbean area starting in the year 
1980 and its cost would be US$8 per translation page. 

Of course, this program will not be able to be carried out if 
none of the essential conditions is met, among which I include: 

(a) The gathering effort of the main committee to work for the 
good of the region and above all personal institutional and 
national modalities. 

(b) An efficient organization of the secretary office and an 
equipped work of the president and secretary. The fact that 
these positions may be located in two brother countries, 
Colombia and Venezuela, with a central geographical location 
in the region will guarantee this. 

(c) Above all, the interest and participation of the members, 
organisms, and individuals. 

In this respect, I would like to hear suggestions and ideas from you 
that I could take to the meeting of our permanent committee in Manila in 
order to integrate them with the work agenda for 1980-1985• 

To finish, I would like to thank you for your kind attention and to 
remind you that I will try to clarify any questions that you may have with¬ 
in my possibility to answer them. 

Thank you very much. 


The Role of the School Library/Media Center 
in Today's Educational Milieu 

by Jean E. Lowrie 


Principle 7 of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child (General 
Assembly of the UN, 1959) declares in part "the child is entitled to receive 
education which shall be free and compulsory .... He shall be given an 
education which will promote his general culture, and enable him cn a basis 
of equal opportunity to develop his abilities, his individual judgment and 
his sense of moral and social responsibility, and to become a useful member 
of society.” I submit to you that the school library/media center is the 
overall tool essential to fulfil this right of the child. In the compre¬ 
hensive scope of materials and the objective acquisition of it's materials, 
it supplements and supports all aspects of the educational program. 

School library/media centers as they are developing around the world 
today are becoming exciting centers of challenge. They are a challenge to 
the teacher librarian or media center specialist or whatever name is used 
to identify the school librarian. They challenge one's ingenuity and 
creativity, management skills, financial adeptness, educational understand¬ 
ing and community awareness, technological acceptance and facility in utili¬ 
zation of same. But most of all they challenge our ability to provide 
service for students and teachers with as many kinds of media as we can 
bring to our programs. The school library/media center must support the 
curriculum in every aspect of its change and development. It must support 
the reading/literacy programs at every level. 

Over the years, since school libraries began in the 1800's, librarians 
have been concerned about the students who could not read; who did not use 
the library; who were always in the library; who read vociferously; who did 
not read at all; who made use of many library tools to find answers to class 
room questions or individual curosities; who entered the library only when 
coerced to do so. We have been increasingly involved in helping develop the 
curriculum, the courses of study, the instructional design. We have 
supported the increased emphasis on individual learning and independent 
study and tried to meld our resources and services to help students become 
effective and innovative instructors. We have been challenged to become 


more involved in the educational program, and we have become catalysts who 
often stimulated new approaches within this program. 

The school library itself has been evolving from the small classroom 
collection behind the teacher’s desk or in the principal's office to an 
exciting resource center with collections of materials, equipment in many 
formats and with a staff of professional personnel working closely within 
the school building as well as in the school system. 

The school library/media center as it is envisioned today establishes 
an environment for learning; maintains a wide selection of media at differ¬ 
ent levels of ability and interest; has organized materials for quick, easy 
accessibility; provides efficient access for individual and group study; 
contributes to the development of skills in reading, viewing, listening, 
evaluation and communication; provides guidance in selection and use of 
appropriate media; assists in developing skills in production of special 
materials; provides opportunities for self directed learning; teaches how 
to find and utilize outside sources for additional information. In addi¬ 
tion the ideal media center specialist will catalog all instructicnal 
material available in the building; provide a professional library for 
teachers; assist in selecting and accumulating materials to support learn¬ 
ing objectives, in planning and production of materials, in selecting text¬ 
book materials; provide information on outside resources both media and 
human; aid in correlating unit materials and activities; provide informa¬ 
tion on new materials and techniques; schedule materials, equipment and 
space for maximum use. 

A media center can also be of service to the administrator through 
centralized purchasing and careful selection of media; maintaining a con¬ 
stant and complete inventory and avoiding useless duplication or out of date 
books; providing inservice training and examination facilities; maintaining 
useful records and statistics; supporting the total school curriculum; pro¬ 
viding continuous orientation to new ideas; participating in building and 
system planning of effective space utilization for effective learning. 

What then has been the main thrust over these past 100 years? To deter¬ 
mine the student's needs and to find the books and other media which would 
satisfy these needs and enrich the total learning experience. 

School librarians, as are many groups of people, are influenced by what 
is happening around them in their immediate community and beyond into the 


larger international arena. As science through space programs and satellite 
communication has stimulated our interests, we have looked for students 
gifted in science and located materials for them. As socio economic and 
Cultural crises have appeared on the scene, we have attempted to assist 
children and young people suffering from these disadvantages. When others 
cried n havoc ,f because literacy programs were failing, we searched for books 
to support the reading programs (adult and juvenile). As we have become 
more and more conscious of those persons suffering from physical, mental, 
emotional handicaps, we have searched for special media so that these stu¬ 
dents might have richer learning experiences, be better prepared to take 
their place in society despite their handicap. But in with all this excit¬ 
ing movement to meet these changing needs and pressures, the school librar¬ 
ian continues to have the responsibility to maintain balance—balance in 
collection building, balance in types of service. Constant planning and 
implementation for programs which will be of continuing value to each and 
every student, is the goal which has been and must continue to be followed. 

Standards and evaluation are key foundation blocks which all school 
librarians in whatever country they are working must devise and carry out. 
Most Ministries of Education or national school library associations (or 
combinations of both) have realized the importance of standards. If you 
come from a country which does not yet have these, then you have a real 
challenge to meet when you return home. But even if you do have such guide¬ 
lines in your nation, it behooves you to find out what has been established 
in other countries. Comparison is always a good educational task. How 
many countries for instance might insist on 10 books per person for a base 
school library collection? Is there a magic number? What do most places 
consider to be the minimum number of pieces of equipment necessary for a 
good program in audio visual? How much space should we allow per child for 
a library serving 500 students, 1000 students, more? The newly written 
guidelines for school library/media centers has just been printed by Unesco. 
This was developed jointly by representatives from IASL and the Standing 
Committee of School Librarians IFLA. You will want to see that this docu¬ 
ment is available in your supervisor's office. Compare it with similar 
publications from other countries and then evaluate or write yours. All of 
us have found this type of basic statement a real boon when working with 
administrators and lay persons in the community. 

3 U 

I have deliberately been talking in generalities avoiding any statis¬ 
tics on number of books per student, for example, or number of projectors 
because I believe that quantity must depend on two things: (1 ) the quality 
of the program per se and (2) the level of support which enables the pur¬ 
chases . To a degree even the latter depends on the first point because 
poor quality begets poor financial support. 

Quality programs will relate to the educational function or goals of 
the school, to the role of the school as envisioned by administrator, 
teacher, or student, to the educational program for the community, region or 
country, to the types of media available. Although these variables will be 
extremely different, depending upon each situation, the role of the school 
librarian/media center remains the same—service and support to the curricu¬ 
lum. Developing services can be enriched more expeditiously if there is a 
large quantity of media available, but the base for developing the service 
is you—the librarian. Management of one' s time and skillful management of 
other's time produces patterns of scheduling, flexible enough to serve more 
individuals, groups and classes, for example, than rigid 30 minutes per 
room schedules. Planning tasks and using support staff, student assistants, 
volunteers, parents advantageously will allow more time to produce the pro¬ 
gram of quality service. Analysis, solution, evaluation and review of 
tasks and problems are the key steps to expanding service. 

Todays media specialists must know so much more today—more than the 
mechanical aspects of ordering, classifying and cataloging. They must know 
clientele in order to satisfactorily assist every patron. They must under¬ 
stand and participate in the reading program in the school, must search for 
the right media to meet special classroom demands over and above the pre¬ 
sented courses of study. They must be aware of the student's own intel¬ 
lectual abilities, his particular handicaps (emotional, mental, physical), 
and be prepared to give individual guidance and assistance in locating 
pertinent materials. The school librarian must study the community, the 
environment, from which the student body comes in order to better under¬ 
stand the cultural and economic pressure, the family situations, which 
effect the student's learning capacities and interests. For example, many 
school media centers are now serving pre school children as well as those 
in formal grade school—primary and secondary-in order to promote an 
enriched educational base. Furthermore, the school librarian is involved 


in basic planning with the classroom teachers so that the latter may be 
introduced to the material in the library. This in turn enables the librar¬ 
ian to know what to expect in the way of questions and assignments, to help 
students have the best learning experiences possible. 

In order that students may have quality experiences an important part of 
the media specialist's work involves instruction in the use of the contents 
of the library. We have moved far beyond rudimentary lessons in how to 
locate books on the shelves. Today our students are involved in learning, 
viewing and listening skills, in using search strategies with reference 
aids and comparing the material located intelligently, in understanding how 
to use technological devices for independent study, in utilizing the card 
catalog as a means for supplementing text and supplementary textbooks. 

Self instructional tools, games, devices, formal and informal instruction 
are all a part of this plan. Students must become as self sufficient as 
possible in the learning process moving from basic to advanced skills. 

Such developmental objectives not only release the librarians to do other 
important tasks of service but will stand the students in good stead for the 
rest of their lives—no matter when or where they may seek information. 

I am aware that many countries still have a problem in procuring text¬ 
books in sufficient quantities, let alone library books, but if we all con¬ 
tinue to push the need for publishing good indigenous materials, we can be¬ 
gin to make a dent on the publishing industry. Schools and libraries are 
their best customers in the long run. All of us must start at the bottom, 
purchasing what is available or affordable, producing and creating other 
materials which will illustrate concepts, enhance reading programs. The 
same thing is true of AV materials and equipment. Not all of us can afford 
video disc or tape players, TV screens or micro computers, but we can try 
to keep up with the information about technological developments so that 
when we have working electrical outlets, or 8mm projectors, or computer 
terminals we will be able to capitalize on their capabilities and demon- 
starte to teachers and students how to use them. 

It is good for librarians to be challenged by gifted or talented stu¬ 
dents, by exceptional students. We have to really search for meaningful 
materials—perhaps create them. We have to take time to understand the ex¬ 
ceptional needs. Likewise if we are aware of the cultural heritage of our 
students, whether they are natives who have always been a part of the 
country or whether they are a conglomerate of representatives from many 


goegraphical areas, we will secure materials which will make them proud of 
this heritage. We will use community resources to develop a program which 
will be of pride to children and parents, which will say: see what our 
school media center is doing for us. Such efforts force us to constantly 
evaluate our programs, to demonstrate our ability to teach, to criticize 
ourselves, if you please, to see if we really are living up to our goals 
and objectives, to sharpen our image so that administrators and specialists 
in the field are aware of the existence of the media center and, even more, 
demand its existence as an important part of the educational program—not a 

This leads me to that second essential quality—the budget or the level 
of support. In these days of rampant inflation as well as massive depres¬ 
sions, of budget cut backs in every community in every country, the school 
media center today must seek financial support in an area of tough competi¬ 
tion can be a stimulant or a threat. The way we treat it may indicate 
whether we continue to exist or become obliterated. Service is the key 
word here. The library should become so indispensable that the community 
will not let it disappear. All these things I've been talking about- 
husbanding of resources, management of time and staff, skillful program 
development, involvement of teachers, administrators and parents, under¬ 
standing of educational needs, imaginative use of new technology, are a part 
of this indispensable quality. 

At the same time school librarians must also look for new ways to attain 
and expand resources. Traditionally we receive monetary allocations from 
some particular government department—local, state, national. There is no 
doubt that we will have to contend more vigorously for the dollar, the peso, 
the kroner, the pound for the next several years. Competition for food, 
clothing and shelter will be strong, but educational forces cannot be neglec¬ 
ted. They should be the elements which will produce greater abundance, and 
the information available through libraries, through information services 
should be the basis for educational and experimental efforts. 

Nevertheless, beyond specific monetary allocation there is another way 
of increasing resources and that is through cooperative sharing. Public, 
school, academic and special libraries must, if they hope to continue to 
exist, explore alternative ways of offering adequate services at less cost. 


We are looking at multi type cooperation from a new point of view today. 

In many countries there is a broader acceptance of the community school as 
the central institution of education of all community members. It is 
acceptable for school library/media programs because it can demonstrate a 
more efficient utilization of existing educational facilities—providing 
balance is maintained among these. More important is the urgent need for 
coordination of all library services and resources at a community level to 
provide maximum service. Multi library agency planning, needs to be studied 
so that the individual library retains its identity. A "mega library” is 
not the answer, but an extended inter connected network of all library 
resources and staffs in an area, can expand service to all, prevent exces¬ 
sive duplication of materials and make wider use of technological informa¬ 
tion sharing devices. Simplistically stated—cooperation helps everyone's 
budget and expands everyone's resources. 

Tangential to all of the above obviously is the program for educating 
school library/media specialists. library education programs today must 
examine course requirements. What are the basic skills needed by all school 
media librarians? What are the competencies, the specialized areas of 
knowledge necessary to implement the new programs, to use the new tech¬ 
nology? What do we retain from the "traditional” core? What do we import 
or borrow from other disciplines which will assist in developing the new 
services, in becoming familiar with new materials, in understanding the 
needs of our children and young people? We are at a point where much eval¬ 
uation, testing and research is needed and to a degree is being dene. But 
as school personnel we must be sure that we are a part of the discussion, 
that we do not allow other areas of information management to forget our 
existence. We must make our voices heard in general education discus¬ 
sions, that we do not allow other areas of information management to for¬ 
get our existence. We must make our voices heard in general education dis¬ 
cussions, in library and information management discussions. We must move 
with the time but we must not forget that school library/media programs 
should be, must be the base on which all other library services grow. 

Library school programs must not be allowed to forget this when planning 
thier new curricula. 

Regardless of ideologies, governmental organization patterns, educa¬ 
tional schemes, school librarians, teacher librarians, media specialists 


each of us has a vital contribution to make to the children in our coun¬ 
tries . The role of the school library/media center today or tomorrow has 
not really changed from its original raison d' £tre: service to all members 
of the school community. The wise use of the complimentary and supplemen¬ 
tary supports which change the approaches but which re-emphasize the pro¬ 
gram makes todays school media centers alive and presents us with the 
challenge of the future. 

The poet Goethe once wrote: 

Whatever you can do or 

dream you can, begin it. 

Boldness has genius, power 
and magic in it. 

School librarians have been bold in the past. We need to be even more bold 
in the future. Our role can have power, can be magic. Let us hold fast to 
the dream and so preserve for our students what is rightfully theirs to use 
and enjoy now and tomorrow. 


Commentary of Dr. Carlos Ruiz, Assistant Manager of the Human Development 

of the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana on the conference of Dr. Jean 


Goof afternoon, dear panel and dear delegates to this conference. 

I would like to thank the organizing committee of this event for the 
honor that they have given me in inviting me to form part of this panel of 
commentators on the conference of Dr. Jean Lowrie. 

I would like to divide my commentaries in two directions: first, I 
would like to congratulate Dr. Lowrie for the wonderful conference. Her 
proposal has touched me deeply because she has expressed something that I 
would like to be a common factor to all of those who are lucky enough to be 
educators; to be an optimist Dr. Lowrie has presented a very optimistic view 
of the role that the school library and the school librarian must play. I 
believe during some parts of the presentation and that does not detract from 
its value - she has extended optimism a little bit. I am saying this 
because I would like to differentiate between being one and having to be one; 
in other words, knowing things really are and how they should be. 

Dr. Lowrie departs a little from something extremely important or inter¬ 
esting, and that is one of the rights of children, which are stated in the 
Bill of Rights of the Child of the United Nations: the topic is the right 
to education, and as the school library is one of the essential instruments 
in order to help and make this right effective, this presumes in this chang¬ 
ing world of more and better education every day, a compromise to try to 
push this situation, this instrument is the school library. 

The problem ought to lead us to reflect upon the question: how and what 
to make this optimistic vision practical in terms of what the library and 
the school librarian should be. I repeat again, How one can really make 
these ideals realistic? 

I do not know the experiences of all the countries. I do not know 
totally those of my own. But I know Guayana pretty well. I know for cer¬ 
tain that if not all the schools, for many of them at least, they have to 
overcome difficulties and barriers which are sometimes impossible to solve 
in order to "sell the idea of the usefulness and benefits that the school 
library has for the entire and the whole community. 

To go to my second point - something very outstanding called my 


attention to the presentation of Dr. Lowrie's lecture. That is the point 
that she makes when she presented the problem of incorporating quality with¬ 
in the concept of extension of the program services. How one can extend 
the services? How can these services reach the majority of the population 
with the good quality-lets say- by interpreting the needs and interests of 
users? Jean Lowrie herself is the one who suggests the idea that a study 
be conducted to create coordinated centers, of a network of libraries, with¬ 
out which individual libraries would lose their institutional features. 

This would be of a better use of resources and services. 

This last point has interested me greatly because I am working with a 
very similar idea and I am pleased that, without knowing this, I see it 
from a different point of view, this being one of planning in the same 
direction that Dr. Lcwrie's is. 

Ify proposal is the following one: if I would have you place the problem 
of the school library in a context I would even go farther and place it in 
the context of development, of a very problematic point of development. I 
would like to qualify or define development. If you wish, you can call it 
economic, social, cultural, etc., but development to me is everything. Why 
should this be the context? Because the school library has to be founded 
and centered on education as well as the fact that we know it is the basis 
of support of curriculum development in the general sense for all that is 
the school community, in principle. 

Nevertheless, education itself should not be suspended in a vacuum, in 
a pure chemical solution, or antiseptic. It is within the context of the 
country itself in such a way that the concept of development implies in 
our case, changes in our educational systems and changes within the con¬ 
ceptual definition of the library or the school library. 

So the problem of educating the children and young ones is presented 
to me because it is clear that through the development of talent we will be 
able to accomplish autonomous development moreover - and that not to say 
that this may be contradictory necessarily - but the development of natural 
resources and the exploitation and refining of petroleum. 

The development of talent is our hope; but though it is certain that we 
must support our resources in this, we should accomplish not only mass 
education but also a better education in terms of adapting it to our own 
needs such as a country . It is also true that one of our greatest obsta- 


cles and limitations that we now have in proceeding ahead is that some¬ 
times we do not understand which way we are going and where we want to go. 

As such we cannot hope that these generations that we are forming now, with 
all the possible resources including the school library, will be prepared 
to begin to make changes. 

In my opinion, we must work together simultaneously on this obligation, 
which is the obligation of the majority of the countries of the world. The 
obligatory school mandate, along with adult education, that part of the 
population that has been left out of being immersed into the school system. 

But what is all this reflection about? 

One of my areas of work has something to do with what we would call 
marginal areas, barrios or neighborhoods, where more than half of the pop¬ 
ulation of Venezuela is located. This situation is common to many other 
countries, not only to Venezuela. 

To comprehend this given situation in these areas, it can't be con¬ 
sidered just a socio-economic problem, but also a problem that, in great 
measure, may be called a cultural problem. The latter has given me the idea 
to return to a very old concept, with which all educators are acquainted. 
This is the necessary bond that should exist between the school and the com¬ 
munity. I am referring to the barrio, to the immediate community, which 
school serves. But how can we accomplish this? In Venezuela we have 
created legal mechanisms by which we could bind together the different 
groups that are represented in our society and in our education such as 
children, teachers, parents, and representatives. Nevertheless, my experi¬ 
ence is that the participation in this has been very limited. I believe 
that the school library could greatly help in this situation because the 
immediate responsibility of the school library is to take care of and sup¬ 
port the curriculum development. What would happen on another hand, if we 
accepted the school as a basic institution of the rural-urban community in 
a certain form? In a more urban setting this concept is being lost but it 
should really be this way, in that the library would support a curriculum 
that should convert itself into a permanent source of cultural diffusion. 

This discussion is being planned now. When we're thinking of creating 
or founding a public library we think of a building with a set of char¬ 
acteristics, with a set of environments, bases, etc. I believe that no one 
could oppose this type of thing, but there is a problem of priority: that 


is. Who are the people who may be using this type of resources? When it 
deals with a person that has already formed a habit and who is very con¬ 
scious of this type of services and what they represent, there's no prob¬ 
lem. But what do we do in terms of development and participation of all 
the types of people who live in this same marginal area, who, in his own 
situation, has no consciousness whatsoever of the right that he has to 
participate in this type of service. I ask this question - and this is my 
point - To what extent can we really detach the function of the school 
library and the public library? To me, this is not a big preoccupation and 
problem. What really worries me is the problem of service in itself. Such 
service, according to my experience, is necessary. It is very necessary 
that there be a permanent mechanism of diffusion of the culture in the 
community and, at the same time, may be able to link the school with the 
life of the community itself. To me, this role may be very easily accom¬ 
plished by the school library that we have planned and we have presented in 
this new form. In other words, let's replan our focus of the school library 
not only to pay attention to formal education, the systematic education of 
the child, but also to work within the wider concept that will really in¬ 
volve all the persons of the community. 

Thank you very much. 

Commentaries of Professor Arabic Teresa Cova, Director of the School of 
Library Science and Archives of the Central University of Venezuela, on 

the Conference of Dr. Jean Lowrie 

Dear distinguished Dr. Lowrie, distinguished colleagues of the panel, 
and distinguished participants of this conference. 

First of all, I bring to you greetings from the Central University of 
Venezuela and best wishes from our highest house of learning for the best of 
success in this conference. I especially bring to you greetings from Dr. 

Rafael Di Prisco, Dean of the School of Humanities, who is regrettably 


absent from this conference, and who is an enthusiastic defender of the *■ 
school library as a substructure of the library system. I assure you, he 
will support any decision regarding the development of school libraries in 
our country. 

comments in reference to Dr. Lcwrie's lecture, will as is natural., 
regard the training of the school librarian, because it is the problem that 


most preoccupies me at this moment as Director of the School of Library 
Science and Archives, responsible for the training in this profession which 
is so fundamental to the development of library service. 

If we start with the premise that school library services are part of 
the educational system, which must be immersed into the social system of 
action, the system requires a permanent and continuing education which, as 
many other colleagues have indicated, seems to be the actual trend in 
today's education. We can justify the necessity of a school librarian cap¬ 
able of attending to the accelerated changes that are occuring among the 
political, scientific, cultural and social stratas. But the school library 
should also attend to these changes, as Dr. Lowrie points out clearly in 
her talk, with audacity, with genius, with that power which is organized 
information, and with that very special magic that Goethe spoke about in 
one of his poems to which Dr. Lowrie made allusion to. 

I ask the question: are our own libraries and the school institutions 
in condition to respond to this daring plan that Dr. Lowrie has mentioned? 
Have we prepared all our professionals required for this new ideal of school 
libraries at all levels? 

On che other hand, are we in condition to determine what and how the 
training should be that we ought to impart now to this professionals? We 
certainly need librarians in quantity, but also in terms of qualifications, 
so that they may respond to the requirements of today and the future service 
of librarians and libraries. A librarian should not be totally absorbed 
by practice, but his competencies and abilities should allow him to rad¬ 
ically modify traditional attitudes toward the book, toward reading, and 
toward the best uses of library services. A professional and-why-not a 
para-professional with very broad vision could successfully compete with 
this positive attitude as the agent, as an innovator leader capable of con¬ 
tributing to the educational excellencies we a.l 1 are looking forward to. 

In one word, a professional knowledgeable about his own technology of a 
specialized field, can be more critical and more participatory. 

We are very conscious of limitations that we have in our country in 
order to confront the growing task of this training. These limitations are 
the stimuli that will take us next Wednesday to an interdisciplinary and 
interinstitutional team that have worked in order to promote desirable and 
realistic alternatives for more rational and efficient training of school 


library professionals that we are aspiring to have. I am sure that this one 
aspiration is commcn to all of us, this aspiration to that causes many 
representatives of other countries to reunite in this room. All of us are 
willingly desiring to integrate our equipment and to gather our efforts 
together in order to accomplish all the objectives that we have proposed. 

Thank you very much. 

Comments by Lie. Virginia Betancourt, General Director of the Autonomous 

Institute of the National Library and Library Services on the Conference 

of Dr. Lowrie 

I believe that we should not forget that this is an international 
reunion, and I believe that it is very important to indicate that when 
Latin America and any other such developed region speaks of curriculum and 
textbooks that we want to say something different from what this term means 
in developed countries. 

I will illustrate this by talking about the case of Venezuela. When we 
speak now of curriculum we are really referring ourself to a single master 
plan that all the schools in Venezuela follow, with changes that may occur 
when introduced once every five or ten years. These plans are reproduced 
almost literally by all textbooks, for those which do not amplify the 
knowledge, who do not stimulate the search for other materials and resources. 
Therefore, in the case of countries similar to ours, when we try to make the 
school library dependent on the curriculum, this simply translates itself 
into converting the library and having it conform to the mediocracy of 
imported morals that, in our case, define learning in terms of objective 
achievements of behavior. We become aware that this transfer as a curricu¬ 
lar model, also implies the transferance of a conception of human learning 
of man which, in this case, leads absolutely away from a national reality. 

It is because of this, that in Venezuela we have put into action the 
necessity of the school library to center its attention on enriching this 
curriculum, getting it near to the reality which surrounds it. This in¬ 
volves not only attracting educational materials that are traditional in 
substance, but unorthodox ones such as the telephone book, the daily news¬ 
paper and any other pamphlets produced to this end that may be edited by 
the Minister of Health in order to orient the new reading population about 

the system of irrigation or the characteristics of a plant. It is because 
of this that the emphasis has been centered also on educating the teacher 
so that he may use many materials in his work and direct it to the student 
who may then look for information by himself. 

On the other hand, I would like to put to question an observation that 
has been made by Dr. Lowrie in her work. The rest of which is exhaustive, 
very illuminating, and stimulating. This observation is, and I read 
textually, ,r We must move with the time, but we cannot forget that the school 
library and programs and resources ought to be and should be a basis by 
which we create all other library services." I believe that a statement of 
this magnitude is very difficult to accept by our countries. Personally, I 
have been affected by the effort that Nicaragua is making in order to 
modernize, the effort that they have made for the first time in order to get 
the world of ideas close to children and to adults. It is a very dramatic 
case in which a people of a government have to define where to begin. The 
literacy campaign of 80 $ of their adult population signifies the need to 
make a continuous effort after this campaign to assure that this teaching 
of reading does not become a demogogic fact, but rather a permanent action 
in order to make participants of all target people of this development who, 
up until now, have been solemn witnesses of their future in Nicaragua. 

Where are we going to begin? In the school which they feel is only close 
to the dominant class? In the school that is closed as an institution, and 
that only takes care of children while the majority of the population are 
adults? The only initial and factual path is to utilize the library that is 
located within the schools in order to open sources of information to the 
people, as well as to the educator and to the student. To complement this 
action to the local level, a public library nucleus for each department 
(this is how they call provinces) can enrich these school-housed libraries 
with materials and with services and as bridges with a national library in 
order to democratize the information. 

As a point of information I would also like to point out, and it seems 
to me that the recommendations of Dr. Lcwrie are very opport-me about the 
creative action of the librarian, the production of useful materials for 
students. In Nicaragua for example, which makes no sense whatsoever, not 
having any more money than we have, buys books that we are obligated to 
acquire by all Latin Americans. These books are produced by trans- 

nationalist with Latin names in Colombia and Mexico. These books are not 
produced in the United States but are continuing to be produced for us. 

There are also books made in Spain that speak about the world of animals in 
which there isn't cue single animal from Latin America, these are also 
books about plants where there isn't one single plant from our countries. 

Really, therefore, when we talk about books for children, when we talk 
about textbooks, when we talk about curriculum, when we talk about our pro¬ 
fession, it is almost impossible to achieve a real communication between 
countries that are developed and those countries that are on the way of 

Among us, in the schools of Guayana, there are children who have 
learned before anyone else the possibility of integrating different ways 
for learning. 

They themselves are the one who stimulate the teacher so he may bring 
maps when teaching geography, taking the opportunity perhaps to read a 
little short story about Africa when they are studying Africa. In this 
case, the cultural dispensors of information are the children whose His¬ 
panic tradition and school rigidity may convert them into docile subjects, 
while they themself may be the agents of learning for adults. 

I would like to provoke a controversary because I feel can be sterile. 
Unless we change the educational model so that the curriculum will respond 
to the regional needs and will change with the times, the school library 
will be dependent on the curriculum, making it convert itself to diffuse 
itself into mediocraty, applicable to all people unreal in every way. It is 
necessary to highlight the importance of the library as a means to incor¬ 
porate a fresh breeze into the school, a breeze sometimes contaminated by 
the community but in all cases a very real one. 

Thank you very much. 





Presented by Prof. Cesar A. Castro Aliaga 


The school library in Pern, up until the decade of the 70*s, did not 
reach a degree of development that was satisfactory to the country due to 
the factors, among which were the traditional conception of the nature of 
its services. In the education disposition we find the school library is 
considered to be synonymous with school texts and merely a complement to 
the school job. The occasions which we can count in which projects were 
presented more or less coherently were in 1922 when the Office of School 
libraries and Museums under the Ministry of Education created the "Fiesta 
del Libro" (Book Fair) and later expedited a ruling for school libraries. 

In the same way in 1966, the library policy was developed about that time 
by the Minister of Education, Dr. Joaquin Basadre. The various educational 
reforms were limited to introducing changes in programs, and they did not 
accomplish the recognition of the school library in its true dimension; 
neither have they proposed plans for such a foundation. The government pre¬ 
occupation in this aspect has been sporadic and insufficient. 

In 1968, in anticipation of the education reform, the Ministry dic¬ 
tated a measure which was apparently very innovative in its consequences. 
This integral and permanent evaluator had to be adopted by schools and 
colleges. This new system demanded from the student a greater amount of 
practical work and assignments, which inevitably implicated the constant 
utilization of libraries, especially the National Library. This library was 
filled with student readers, causing congestion and moreover a complete 
deterioration of the book collection. When confronted with this situation, 
the authorities of the National Library and the Ministry of Education 
decided to assign a commission to study this problem. One of the commis¬ 
sions was formed by the members of the fferuvian Association of Libraries 
which carried out a diagnostic study about school libraries. The results 
were not surprising, for they confirmed the deficiency of the libraries 
at that moment. 

Nevertheless, the solution that they proposed was really new: the creation 
of a library system. Tears later, due to the effort of the National Library 
and the Ministry of Education, with the support of the OEA, the establish¬ 
ment of this system came to life, from which developed the synthesis of the 
present situation and the perspectives of the school libraries in Peru. 


A. Planning 

The establishment of a school library system is not an easy enterprise, 
particularly for Peru which had no experience to this point. It solicited 
the technical assistance of OAS. With this, they could count on the help 
of Dr. GLga Oropeza de Ojeda in 1972, to carry out her enterprising studies 
on various zones; and in 1973, with the expertise of Ilda Nelly Yuspa, to 
facilitate the training of qualified personnel. Later in 1975, this last 
expert returned to Peru in order to evaluate the advances of the system. 
National personnel give the following conclusions regarding the situation 
in scholastic libraries: 

- lack and inefficiency of library services 

- bibliographic inadequacy and poorness 

- lack of professional and qualified personnel 

- absence of standards and technical criteria in the organization 
and selection of bibliographic collections 

- shortage of adequate rooms, furniture and equipment 

Taking into account this reality, the System of Scholastic Libraries was 
planned and begun. 

B. Objectives 

The objectives of the System are: 

- to direct and aid, in a gradual and coordinated manner, the Scholastic 
libraries of the county 

- to provide adequate library services to the prevailing Educative 
System, in special form at the Basic Level. 

- to propitiate the integration of scholastic libraries into the 
educative process 

- to achieve a better distribution of financial, physical, and available 

human resources. 


C. Strategic Actions 

- Creation and operation of the National Office of Scholastic Libraries 
and the Pilot Scholastic Library "Jose’ de San Martin", as a technical 
standard medium and experimental center of the System, respectively. 

- the Organization of Central Libraries in provinces, equipped with a 
bibliographic and basic audiovisual collection and professional and 
auxiliary personnel, using the existing infrastructure. 

- the training of the System’s professional and auxiliary personnel with 
advice from the O.E.A. 

- centralization of Technical Processing acquisition, classification, 
cataloging and part of selection 

- organization of the libraries of Basic Centers. 

D. Structure of the System 

1 . National Office of Scholastic Libraries (ONBE). It is the tech¬ 
nical-standard medium for the System, responsible for the planning, 
development, supervision and control of the scholastic libraries 
at the national level. It centralizes the technical processing 
and trains the professional and non-professional personnel. It is 
contingent upon the National Library. 

2. Scholastic Library Pilot "Jose" de San Martin". It was established 
in 1971 as a means of relieving the overload of scholarly readers 
at the National Library. Today it constitutes the Experimental 
Center of the System, as such it offers a model program of librar¬ 
ian services, though subject to evaluations and reappraisals. In 
order to be transferred to the integral libraries of the System, 
its organization and operation have been based on the conception 
of the Center of Educative Resources. It is contingent upon the 
National Office of Scholastic Libraries. 

3 Scholastic Regional Libraries . They are found situated in some 
capital cities of the provinces and fulfil two basic functions: 
cm the one hand they offer a model program of services and, on 
the other, they give training, supervision, aid advice to the 
libraries. Library administration is dependent on the Regional 
Office of Education. Normally, the National Office of present 
School Libraries meets with the regional libraries in the provin¬ 
ces, especially for beginning projects. 


U. Central Libraries . They function in cummunal Education Centers. 

In agreement with this conception of an educational nucleus, 
libraries centralize their services under the jurisdiction of the 
NEC. Administratively, they depend on the Office of the Education 
Center and normally of the system. 

5. Libraries of State Educational Centers and Private Ones . These 
correspond to each of the Educational Centers. They are coordi¬ 
nated with the central libraries. They are administered by the 
Office of the Educational Centers and normally by the system. 

6. Itinerary Collections . These are assigned to zones with very 
difficult access such as marginal zones, rural zones, and those 
zones close to the frontiers. They depend on regional libraries 
or central libraries. 

E. Human Resources ~ 

The human resources of the system consist of director of personnel, 
professionals, technicians, and auxiliary personnel. 

Director of personnel is formed by librarians with vast experience. 
Professional personnel is formed by educational libraries and an docents 
who are qualified in school libraries. Technical and auxiliary personnel 
have training in technical aspects. Besides this, the National Office of 
School Libraries periodically organizes courses for professional studies. 
The last study was developed last January with the support of the Multi¬ 
national Project of School Libraries and the Center of Educational 
Resources of Costa Rico. 

With regard to the qualifying of non-professional personnel, courses 
are offered by the National Office of School Libraries in Lima and in the 
provinces by the central libraries, with the support of ONBE. A program 
now exists which is more or less ideal in that it has accomplished experi¬ 
ences of thi3 type over the yeans. 

F. Financial Resources 

Initially, the finances of the system was shared by the Ministry of 
Education and the National Institute of Culture. In actuality, the budget 
of the system comes only from this last group in a form that is quite 
limited. Certainly, nevertheless, the communal participation throughout 
the Parents' Association contributes to the maintenance and strength of the 
school libraries. 













































G. Legal Base 

The legal base is found in the last stages of arrangement of the 
regulations of the organization and functions of the National System of 
School Libraries. This instrument institutionalized the system and estab¬ 
lished the mechanisms in order to supply the financial resources. It also 
integrated the educational system. The regulations are the result of the 
experience gained in several years of work. 

H. Accomplishments 

When the basic structure of the system was established, the expansion 
and development of central libraries and central bases was pursued. These 
projects did not receive financial help, so they had to develop at a very 
slow pace. Despite the difficult economic situation in Peru, school 
libraries have maintained a certain degree of improvement of their ser¬ 
vices. Among the accomplishment of the first eight years of their function¬ 
ing, we can mention: 

1. Organization of the basic elements of the system: pilot school 
library "Jose de San Martin"; National Office of School Libraries; 
regional libraries and central libraries in Lima and the provinces. 

'tO, * 

2. Qualifying more than 380 head librarians in libraries of educational 
centers of the country. 

3» Centralization of the technical processes within the system itself, 
in order to facilitate the job of diffusion/delivery and promotion 
of the services of librarians. 


U. Elaboration of the rules of school libraries. 

5* Established "School Library Day" as a means to promote the 
participation of the authorities, of families, and of the com¬ 
munity in general, and the promotion of school libraries. 

6. Recognition by part of the educational community of the importance of 
school libraries and the habit of reading as an indispensable tool 

in the permanent education of the child. 

7. Extension of the library service in provinces through the organiza¬ 
tion of central libraries, which have professional and auxiliary 

8. Centralization of technical processes: acquisition, cataloging, 
classification, and part of selection. 

I. Inconveniences 

The inconveniences we find go hand in hand with those in the country, 
that is to say, the economic crisis that has decidedly lessened the support 
on the part of governmental groups, in this case the Ministry of Education. 
Also, we can mention: 

1 . The lack of unity in the administrative and technical aspects of 
the system. 

2. The permanent anti-pedagogical conditions in the educational 
centers, including teacher training, the infrastructure, and the 
equipment of educational centers. 

3. Lack of a major and clear conception of the school library in the 
plans of educational reform as an implement to them. 

U. Not having educational legislation which favors the development of 
school libraries and the system. 

5. Deficit of professional personnel due to the very lew salaries of 
these state positions. 

J. Projects 

1 . Transferring the National Office of School Libraries to the Ministry 
of Education. 

2. Reinforcement of the qualification of non-professional personnel 
and the improvement in the category of library technicians. 

3* Amplification of the system with the technical implementation of 
the libraries established in modern complex educational centers 
with Project-Peru-BIRF (1U lera. stage; 2nd stage 19). 


U. Approval of the regulation of the system in order to accomplish 
the integration of the school library with the educational system. 

5. Integration of the National System of School Libraries in the 
National System of Information is in the developing process. 

6. Development of a national campaign of diffusion to promote the 
development of the plan of the system noting its importance in the 
educational process and the development of the country itself. 

7. Concentrating the technical assistance solicited from the OAS and 
the "Andres Bello" agreement. 

- Multinational Project of School libraries, in which will partici 
pate Venezuela, Costa Rica, Colombia, and Peru. 

- Meeting of supervisors of school library programs in the coun¬ 
tries signified in the "Andres Bello" agreement. 

- Establishment of school libraries in educational centers of 
Project. Peru-BIRF. 

Annexed document: Map of Peru with the parts of the system 

Organization of the system 

MAP: National system of School Libraries 

LEGEND: Geographic location of school libraries 

National Office of School Libraries BEP "Jose de San 

* Regional Libraries 
A Central libraries 
o Educational center libraries 
- Itinerant collections 




B.E. Callao 

Localizaci6n Geogrifica de 

Oficina Nacional de Bibliotecas 
Escolares BEP "Jose de San Martin" 

# Bibliotecas Regionales 
k Bibliotecas Centrales 

• Bibliotecas de Centros Educativos 

__ Colecciones Itinerantes 






Presented by Lie. Orfa Baez Reinoso 


The Central Office of Development of School libraries of the Ministry 
of Education in the Republic of Nicaragua, when it reiterated its work 
after the triumph of the Sandinista Popular Revolution, requested resource 
materials of libraries in all the educational centers of the country. 

The diagnosis revealed a Nicaragua where everything had to be done. 

The present statistics for the student population are: for primary educa¬ 
tion, U 36 , 3!?2 students from the ages of 7 to 12, and 1!?1 » 578 between 13 
and 18 years old; and for intermediate education, 98,87h. These figures 
alert us to the increase in library service, as well as do the 600,000 new 
literates, potential readers who will demand services. 

The quantity of students to be educated have not received the vital 

support and knowledge, and this has been the prime reason for illiteracy. 

If the Education Media Centers possess very small book collections, this 


information will not sufficient for the cultural and political development 
of our new country. Hopefully, by this school year 1980-81 the number of 
students in formal education will increase by over that of previous 

In the Congress of the National Crusade for Literacy which met the past 
June to evaluate the accomplishments and difficulties of the same, they 
arrived at the conclusion that of the million and a half citizens to be 
taught to read between March and August of 1980, only 600,000 will become 
literate by that date. 


In 1965, the Ministry of Public Education created a program of School 
Libraries and Public Libraries, under the direction of the Department of 
Cultural Extension, the ultimate purpose of this was to provide for the 
creation of libraries in national educational centers and departmental 
seats if necessary. 

In 1966 the pedagogical library was created under the direction of the 
same program with the final goal of this library becoming the headquarters 
and director of school libraries, and being ultimately converted into the 
central library of the Ministry of Education. 


The functioning of these services implicated budgetary assumptions, 
which was not very successful, because most of the time the library lacked 
the necessary budget to attend to the necessities of technical assistance 
and personnel. Nevertheless, they managed to achieve some kind of library 
infrastructure in the national education centers to the level of education 
media. They were self-sufficient financially with the help of certain 
international groups such as OAS, Unesco, AID, and embassies. 

The uprisings of 1978 throughout the country and the war of liberation 
in June-July of 1979 produced the partial and total destruction of these 
libraries, which is manifested in the present diagnosis since the revolu¬ 
tionary triumph. It is indicated there the point of departure for the pro¬ 
posal of a national network of school libraries. 


With the fall of the somocist a dictatorial regime by the Sandanista 
Popular Revolution, under the vanguard of the Sandinsta Popular Army, the 
council of the Government of National Reconstruction has given priority to 
education as an indispensable factor in reconstruction. Therefore, the 
Minister of Education, Dr. Carlos Tunnermann, indicated the restructuring 
of the educational apparatus and is convinced of the role with libraries 
play in this project. He has proceeded with the reorganization of the 
Office of School Library Development, increasing the number of personnel in 
order to achieve a better school library system. 

In the official structure of the Ministry of Education, the Office is 
under the direction of the Division of School Administration, and their 
activities are coordinated with the Offices of Primary Education, Media Ed. 
Industrial Ed., Technical Ed., Agriculture Ed., and the Organization of the 
Masses. This structure is as follows: - Administration 

- Supervision and Advice 

- Pedagogical Library 

- Central Cataloging 

- Audiovisual Services 

- Acquisitions Cooperation 

The organizational chart shows the administrative relation and coordina 
tian with respect to the direction of the Division of School Administration 



Division of School Administration 

Office of Primary 

Development of 
School Libraries 

Organization of the Masses 

Office of Educa¬ 
tional Media 

Technical and 


_r~.„ .. 



1 - 

1 . — "I 



& Advice 





For the organization of the Office they took into account our new 
national reality, concentrating on library necessities and giving it most 
high priority in order to give the school library system backing by educa¬ 


As a principal goal and with the national criteria with which the Office 
of School Libraries is supposed to work, it has been planned to consolidate 
this department in the framework of the educational necessities that the 
process of our revolution demands: improving existing libraries, creating 
new units, qualifying personnel, centralizing technical processes, creating 
an acquisitions cooperative and audiovisual service, and giving regular 
assistance in service to all educational centers. 

In order to accomplish the goals that we propose, the objectives are as 
foil cvs: 

1. Place the present reality of school libraries in terms of physical, 
geographical, and socioeconomic factors, as well and technical, in 
order to evaluate the necessities of these and channel their ser¬ 
vices to advantage of our new educational process. 

Measure the technical capabilities of the different centers at the 
same time channeling the services to advantage of the educational 

2 . 


process and the ideological one in which we are living. 

3. Evaluate the personnel who take care of the libraries, as a fund¬ 
amental element, taking into account personnel aptitudes and 
attitudes, in order to qualify them for efficient service, in 
accordance with the existence of our new education. 

U. Qualify teachers to take charge of libraries in educational 

centers by means of support by international organizations such 
as OAS, Unesco, and friendly governments. 

5. Develop standardized procedures in technical processes for 
better control and improved service which this office will give 
and for future service which may permit automatization, which 
will make possible better bibliographic information service and 
the establishment of interlibrary exchanges among other centers. 

6. Offer audiovisual services as another means of collaboration in 
the process of learning about the new educational programs. 

7. Form a National Network of School Library, in order to achieve 
the coordination of all the activities that the central adminis¬ 
trative office proposes to carry out. 


One indispensable factor for the execution of the stated objectives is 
the creation and functioning of a network of libraries, which will assure 
better planning of the services that this office will offer, besides the 
possibility of coordinating efforts with other institutions in the country 
which give service and help to academic institutions, as well as to the 
community in general. These are: the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of 
Health, the Ministry of Social Welfare, the Ministry of Farm Development 
with its program the Nicaraguen Institute of Agricultural Reform (INRA), 
the Nicaraguen Institute of Natural and Useful Resources (IRENA), the 
Ministry of Housing and Human Needs, and the Organization of the Jfesses. 

It has been thought to operate this in the form of a network because 
this way of organizing materials, equipment, services, and personnel will 
insure the utilization of all, and because our needs at the national level 
demand it. 


Taking into account the 16 geographical departments into which the 


country is divided, the network will begin selectively with an intermediate 
level library and another at the primary level, which will be the head¬ 
quarters in the Departmental Capitols. They will be called the governing 
or nucleus library and will be charged with supplying all the necessities 
of the region’s educational centers while they maintain their own libraries 
We will begin with a total of 3U libraries, because the Department of 
Zelaya by its extension was divided into two zones. The distribution of 
services will be proportioned into five libraries per Department. This is 
in accordance with the diagnosis which this office has elaborated. The 
network will have up to eight libraries, depending on the distribution 
function, that may be proposed in the five-year plan. 

The governing or nucleus libraries of the networks will be under the 
charge of the Supervisors of the central office, which in turn will be 
under the head of the section of the Office of School Library Development. 
This hierarchy of dependency is strictly from a technical aspect, because 
each library will be administered by the director of the educational center 
The following organizational chart shews the formal geographical 
organization of the network: 



Each nucleus library will have the continued assistance on the part of 
the Section of Supervision and Advice of the Office. These libraries will 
guarantee the material to be technically processed, so that the librarian 
will have most of his time available to give service to readers and to 
familiarize them with the materials, and help in the rest of the libraries 
which operate in the region. The nucleus library, then, will generate ser¬ 
vice, not only to its users, but also to the other libraries which have 
been assigned to the region. 

This service will be helped by an interlibrary loan called "traveling 
boxes" (this is a portable service of books that some libraries will have 
to use because of their geographic location), in order to consult with 
their own work center. 

In those cases where the zcne has an extensive nucleus library and no 
other library would be found, as well as where there would exist several 
school libraries, it is contemplated that there will be a coordination of 
public and communal libraries in order to broaden service to all the region 
as well as to the small localities, so they can have a single infrastruc¬ 
ture of a unified library with multiple services, in order not to duplicate 
efforts, and to pay attention to the community with political timetables so 
as not to deviate from the pedagogical purpose of the school library, 
which is the intellectual core of the school. 


The creation of the network of libraries demands the centralization of 
the technical processes. Therefore, it is planned to create a cataloging 
center with headquarters in the central office, with the object of stan¬ 
dardizing the systems of classification and cataloging in all the school 
libraries of the country and to give service which the libraries integrated 
with the network could not cariy out individually. 

In fact, the national diagnosis, which revealed the existing resources 
of the libraries, show that 90 % of their collections are just beginning and 
are not processed. 

The primary education centers all lack libraries, and of the 20 that 
had been in the school centers of Managua, none exists today. 

The principal element that has caused the absence of technically 


organized collections has been the lack of qualified personnel in order to 
catalog and classify. On the basis of this situation, the office is plan¬ 
ing, as an emergency measure, to give central technical service to all the 
school library system in order to promote better service to the users. 
Similarly, it is noted that 80^ of the personnel who take care of the pre¬ 
sent libraries have no knowledge of librarianship. 

The criteria for centralizing technical processes offer us the foliat¬ 
ing advantages: 

- The librarian does not have to devote his time to this work because 
the cataloging center will do it for him, and instead he will be able 
to promote service to the users. 

- The cost of duplication of the materials of work will be reduced. 

- It will be assured that the technical work will improve for the entire 
library system. 

- There will be better control of the acquisition of bibliographic 
materials, avoiding unnecessary duplication. 

- The processing techiques will be unified. 

- The expenses of the infrastructure will be reduced. 


This cooperation will initiate its operations, sending to the libraries 
of the network by means of its nucleus library, lists of library materials 
that they will need to buy. This will be submitted to the central office 
where they will budget the prices. By this means they will fill a single 
order where they will get a higher discount percentage in purchasing. 
Similarly, in this manner they will consolidate acquisitions. Technical 
processes will take place afterwards, sending the materials already listed 
to their respective libraries. 


Having clarified that audiovisual materials constitute an indispensable 
auxiliary to the teaching process and that libraries ought to preoccupy them¬ 
selves by offering these materials to teachers and professors as well as to 
students, this unit will include within its services a budget for audiovisual 
materials and equipment to the libraries of the network. Towards this goal, 
they will form lists of materials that can be offered to the libraries so 
they can include such activities in their service. 



This library was created one year after the Program of School Libraries. 
Its functions are to give service to the personnel of the Ministry of Edu¬ 
cation through specialized library materials in pedagogical education. Its 
headquarters is in the Ministry of Education itself and is taken care of by 
two persons. It functions under the technical and administrative direction 
of the Office of School Libraries. 

Under the dictatorial regime, this library had the same luck as that of 
the school libraries, subsisting on a base of donations, made without any 
criteria of selection, the library material did not supply the correspond¬ 
ing information. 

Presently, its restructuring has been completed. As much in its ser¬ 
vice, in the technical field, as in administration, collecting basic documents 
has been the consequence of its goals. Once selection of materials has been 
made, they are processed technically. In its projections of expansion and 
services, it has carried out expositions, political and educational confer¬ 
ences, etc. 


- The Minister of Education, Dr. Carlos Tunnermann, solicited finances of 
US$113,000 from the OAS in order to train 70 librarians in Costa Rica. 
Presently, h.0 are being trained in the National University of Costa Rica, 
in Heredia; at the end of the year 30 more will be trained. 

- The national diagnosis of school library as elaborated. 

- A manual has been prepared for school librarians. 

- The government of Mexico donated 3*377 school texts and complementary 
literature to this country for this program. 

- The government of Venezuela has donated 3*236 volumes of school texts 
and complementary literature. 

- The government of Costa Rica donated 3*363 volumes of children's 



by Prof. John G. Wright 

Canada occupies the top half of North America, a vast strategic 
area with a relatively small population of 23 million people, most of 
whom live in communities within 161 kilometres (100 miles) of the 
United States border. There are two official languages, English and 
French; English is the first language of 61.4 percent of the population, 
French is the first language of 25.6 percent of the population, and for 
the remaining 12.9 percent, most of whom are immigrants from all over 
the world, there is a great variety of first languages. 

Like other countries in the new world, Canada developed out of 
colonial enterprise, principally that of Great Britain and of France. 

The oldest French colony, Quebec, was ceded to Britain in 1763, and 
along with Upper Canada (now Ontario), Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick 
became part of the newly created Dominion of Canada in 1867. Other 
colonies and territories were admitted up to 1949 when Canada became a 

country of ten provinces and two territories. 


Unlike other American countries which secured their independence 
by revolution, the Canadian colonies negotiated their confederation with 
a British government anxious to prevent the recurrence of revolution 
that had already cost them the loss of their 13 American colonies. 

Under the terms of the British North America Act a limited number of 


powers were granted to each province, and all major and residual powers 
were reserved for the federal government. Education was one of the 
powers assigned exclusively to the provinces. 

Each province of Canada has its own Ministry (or Department) of 
Education, and sometimes another Ministry of post-secondary or higher 
education, and sometimes another for cultural affairs under which puoiic 
libraries may be organized. Since there are no parallel ministries in 
the federal government, it can only influence education indirectly. 
Co-ordination is achieved through the voluntary association of the 
Council of Ministers of Education organized in 1960, which enables the 
ministers to consult one another on matters of mutual concern, and to 
co-operate in joint projects. The current areas of joint action are in 
manpower, instructional media, post-secondary education, curriculum, 
and education statistics. It is not appropriate, therefore, to talk 
about Canadian school libraries, but rather about school libraries in 
each province or territory of Canada. 

While each educational system has unique features, especially 
Quebec whose social structure is inherited from France, there are many 
common elements as well. All provinces have elementary programs of six 
to eight years, secondary programs of three to five years, a school year 
of ten months, a grouping of children by age in a sequence of graded 
levels, a compulsory attendance age, an authorized program of studies, 
and provincially certified teachers. The costs of education are shared 
between grants from the provincial Ministry of Education and from tax 



assessments in each municipality. Formulas are used to equalize pro¬ 
vincial grants so that municipalities with fewer tax resources receive 
correspondingly larger amounts of money. 

Each municipality has a school board elected by local citizens to 
administer its schools (and their school libraries). Sometimes these 
boards may include several municipalities in a larger unit of admin¬ 
istration, especially in rural areas where the population is small and 
scattered. There are marked variations from province to province with 
regard to provisions for early childhood education, for exceptional 
children who require special programs and facilities, and for children 
whose parents desire particular religious or "non-public" instruction 
in private or in "separate" schools. 

Schools in Canada, even in colonial days, had collections of 
instructional resources, usually administered by the principal or some¬ 
one designated by him. The impetus to organize these collections into 
libraries was generated in each school by interested teachers or private 
citizens. School housed libraries which served the community as well as 
the school were a feature of "common" or public schools in Upper Canada 
during the last half of the nineteenth century. The growth of public 
libraries gradually eroded the usefulness of these libraries which 
eventually disappeared or were merged with public libraries. In com¬ 
munities where there were established public libraries, special 
services to schools were provided, often by use of book deposits or 
bookmobiles. Organized libraries were common features of secondary 


schools by the 1940's, but were much slower to develop in elementary 
schools where enrollments were smaller, and where teachers were assigned 
by grade level of instruction rather than by subject to be taught. 

During the 1960's, expanding enrollments and an expanding economy 
made innovation possible, and there was phenomenal growth in school 
libraries. New curricular programs promoted individualized learning and 
inductive teaching, both of which require information resources imme¬ 
diately accessible in the school itself. Teachers became more aware of 
modes of learning, and of the unique roles of non-print media in student 
motivation and retention. School library development was strongly 
influenced by similar trends in the United States, a fact that should 
not prove surprising when one-half to three-quarters of all library 
materials purchased for Canadian schools are published in the United 

While the rate of growth slowed during the 1970's, school libraries 
were consolidated, and benefitted enormously from activities of the 
newly formed school library associations, from the appointment of pro¬ 
vincial school library supervisors, and from courses of study for 
school librarians offered by faculties of education and of library 

The accompanying tables of statistics^ demonstrate both the growth 
of school libraries and the unevenness of there growth. Library 


No statistical data for the Territories or for Quebec were available 
when this paper was first prepared. 


statistics, when reported as averages, hide much of the disparity between 
urban and rural schools, and between elementary and secondary schools. 

The schools without libraries are largely rural, isolated, and small, 
and too often without any access to district or regional services. 
Averaging also hides the fact that secondary schools receive more money 
per library, and have collections at least twice as large as those in 
elementary schools. Print materials still absorb the largest proportion 
(80 percent) of the library budgets, with elementary schools spending 
more on non-print materials than do secondary schools. 

It is gratifying to report that even with slightly declining 
enrollments, expenditures per pupil have increased; but this advantage 
is more than off-set by the reduced buying power of the Canadian dollar. 
Declining enrollments also tend to maintain the relative size and accom¬ 
modation of library facilities. The really critical data are the per¬ 
centages of full-time personnel, now showing a definite decline from 
former years. The increased numbers of full-time support personnel (not 
shown in these tables) do not compensate for the very large numbers of 
part-time professional and clerical staff, especially in elementary 
schools. In Alberta, for example, 64 percent of all school librarians 
are part-time. Further analysis (not shown in these tables) indicates 
that secondary schools have more full-time staff, and more trained 
staff than do elementary schools. 

In most provinces, school librarians are recruited from the teach¬ 
ing profession, and receive their library education in faculties of 


education. In some provinces, such as Alberta, teachers may receive 
graduate diplomas or master's degrees in school librarianship from a 
Faculty of Education. A small number of librarians,fewer than 13 per¬ 
cent, take library degrees from faculties of library science; these 
persons usually assume key positions as consultants and supervisors, or 
as high school librarians. Most provinces do not certify personnel as 
librarians so that many librarians, especially in elementary schools, 
have minimal library training even though they are certified as teachers. 

Each province has its own school library association, usually a 
division of the teaching profession rather than of the library profes¬ 
sion. The teaching connection enhances teaching status and its career 
benefits with regard to tenure, salary, and superannuation. These 
school library associations have their own conferences, their own 
journals, and their own professional policy guidelines. The Canadian 
School Library Association, formed in 1961, is a division of the 
Canadian Library Association, the national organization for English- 
speaking librarians; there is also a school section of ASTED, the 
national organization for French-speaking librarians. CSLA has issued 
a number of significant publications including Resource Services for 
Canadian Schools , a co-operative venture with AMTEC, the national 
association for media and educational technology in Canada. It also 
issues its own Journal, Moccasin Telegraph , and supports a national 
review of Canadian publications, Canadian Materials. 


The late Margaret Scott, one of the founding members of IASL, gave 
a paper on Canadian school libraries at the Conference in Jamaica in 
1971. In it she made some comments about the approaching decade of the 
1970's. It is in the same spirit of anticipation that I should like to 
offer some of my perspectives of the 1980's for school librarians in 

1. One of the concerns of Professor Scott in the 1970's, and one 
which we still have with us in the 1980's, is the long range impact of 
school libraries in the education process. Although physical facilities 
and budgets for library materials are well established features of most 
school systems, and although school librarians are now more numerous 
and better trained for their positions, we cannot be complacent about 
the actual participation of school librarians in curriculum development 
and instructional guidance. Part-time library personnel, especially 
those with limited training and with little or no support staff, cannot 
devote enough of their time in these areas of librarianship. Too many 
administrators and teachers still perceive librarians as managers of 
materials and equipment rather than as specialists in the process of 
teaching and learning. 

2. The increasing evidence of local school initiative in planning 
programs of study and in assigning budget priorities is shifting the 
process of library decision-making away from provincial and district 
consultants to the local school. School librarians must now justify 
their programs and their budget requirements to local principals and to 


their fellow teachers. The value of library programs must be demon¬ 
strated to principals and teachers as well as to students, to teaching 
as well as to learning. 

3. Economic recession has many effects on public institutions. 

In education one of the present concerns of the tax-paying citizens is 
basic learning without unnecessary options or frills. New programs of 
study are becoming more structured and more dependent on prescribed 
materials and testing. School librarians must demonstrate their capa¬ 
city to serve this core of learning as well as the enrichment and 
cultural aspects. These concerns extend to programs for students with 
physical and learning disabilities, and to programs for cultural minor¬ 
ities . 

4. Inflation means reduced buying power and increases the 
importance of obtaining maximum benefit from a minimum of resources. 
More school librarians are now looking for supporting materials outside 
of the school. I believe that school librarians will not only have to 
consider borrowing from but also sharing with the community outside of 
the school. Total community planning, and community access to school 
facilities and materials is now a sensitive political issue in many 
parts of Canada. This does not necessarily mean school-housed public 
libraries, but it does mean increased commitment to community life sur¬ 
rounding the school. 

5. Communication technology, particularly in the rapidly develop¬ 
ing information networks of all kinds, poses new challenges for school 


librarians. Librarians in schools have always been very media con¬ 
scious, but most of them have not been significantly involved in 
computer applications to information storage and retrieval. Our capa¬ 
city to serve the information needs of students and teachers of the 
next decade will be enormously enhanced when the school library is 
tied into regional, provincial, and national information networks. 

This development has many implications for school library education as 
well as for practicing librarians. 

6. The next decade will, I believe, also establish firmly the 
importance of technical and clerical support staff in school libraries 
that are full partners in extended information systems and networks. 

If I am facing the future clearly, and not just gazing at it 
darkly, then the 1980's will be as exciting and as demanding for 
Canadians as the 1970's have been. There will be many hazards in sur¬ 
viving the economic and social upheavals of the approaching decade, but 
they should help to keep us alert and aware of the information needs of 
the next generation. 




9/z t o£o km Z 
10, 72 ,/, £oo pop 



Table I 


Number of 

British Columbia 










New Brunswick 


Nova Scotia 


Prince Edward Island 





Number of 

Number of 




Number of 































Excluding the Territories and Quebec. 

1780 (15.7 percent) schools did not respond to the survey. 
Part-time personnel were excluded from the survey. 


Table II 


% of Schools 
with School 


% of Students 
Served by 

School Libraries 

% of School 
Libraries with 

British Columbia 




















New Brunswick 




Nova Scotia 




Prince Edward Island 











Because large secondary schools may have more than one librarian, 
the actual number of libraries with full-time librarians is fewer 
than the column indicates. Part-time staff are not included. 





O r-l 
£ *X 









< CL 




















3 a- 













3 X 
x 3 
ai a. 
























































< <o- 














r - t 


































r—i CM rH rH 

































































































































































49.5 vo1. 16 $26.2 $8.35 


Table III B 










$ 12.6 


.7 $16.4 

$ 8.0 


.3 $ 9.7 


Average Number Average Number 
Average Size of Pupils per of Pupils per 

Province m (sq. ft.)l Average Seating2 Seating Librarian3 
























r— j 






















































































r— i 












v — ✓ 
























r— i 



















• • 



• • 


















































































































































Table V 






11 (4956 vol.) 
13 (5530 vol.) 

15 (5684 vol.) 

16 (6042 vol.)' 

Elementary: 5194 vol. 
Secondary: 10071 vol. 

Table VI 









383 1 






Table VII 










British Columbia 


Teachers' Federation 





Teachers' Association 





Teachers' Federation 





Teachers' Society 





Library Association 






Protestant Teachers' 



New Brunswick 


Teachers' Association 



Nova Scotia 


Teachers' Union 



Prince Edward Island 


Teachers' Association 





Teachers' Association 








S3S 2 



Canadian School Library Association, a division of the Canadian Library 
Association, the national English-speaking association. 

Section Bibliotheque Scolaire, a division of ASTED, the national French- 
speaking association 

Association for English-speaking school librarians in Quebec 


The number of school-housed public libraries In Canada 1 




Canada. Statistics. Canada Yearbook, 1978-79 ; an annual review of 
economic, social and political developments in Canada. Ottawa: 

1978. 971p. 

Canada. Statistics. "Summary Statistics of Centralized School 

Libraries, 1978-79" (Unpublished data provided by N. Verma, 
Analysis Section, Education Science and Culture Division, 
Statistics Canada). Ottawa: 1980. (Data exclude the province of 

The Canadian school-house public library , ed. by L.J. Amy. Halifax, 
N.S.: School of Library Service, Dalhousie University, 1979. 

(Occasional paper 24) 488p. 

Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Education in Canada ; report 
to the 37th Session, International Conference on Education, Geneva 
July 5-14, 1979. Toronto: 1979. 

Gayfer, Margaret. An Overview of Canadian Education . 2d ed. Toronto: 
Canadian Education Association, 1978. 43p. 

Haycock, Ken, ed. "Special issue: school libraries." Emergency 
Librarian , 6:4-23, May-Aug. 1979. 

Quebec. Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec. Annuaire du Quebec, 1977 / 
78 . 56e edition. Quebec: 1979. 1426p. 

Quebec. Ministerede l'Education. L'Education au Quebec : rapport des 
activites du Ministere de l'Education, 1978-1979. Quebec: 1979. 

Quebec. Ministere de l'Education. Statistiques financieres des 

Commissions scolaires : Annees 1970/1971 a 1975/1976. Quebec: 

1979. 44p. 

Quebec. Ministere de l'Education. Statistiques financieres 1976/1977 
des Commissions Scolaires: couts unitaires . Quebec: 1979. 128p 

Scott, Margaret. "School libraries in Canada, 1971." Canadian Library 
Journal, 29:118-38, March-April, 1972. 

John G. Wright, Professor 
Faculty of Library Science 
University of Alberta 

July 31, 1980 



Presented by Professor Hugo Acosta Cadena 


The Ministry of National Education is proposing a plan for qualita¬ 
tive improvement of education, proposed by means of Decree 088 in 1976. 

This plan is focused basically on the solution of the principal pro¬ 
grams that affect the Colombian educational system. Its purpose is to 
generate a qualitative change in the different levels and modalities of 
education. The emphasis of the program is to give priority and adequate 
attention to the 50 % of the population who are less well off ; that is, the 
Colombians of the rural zones and on the fringes of urban centers. 

The accomplishment of three principal programs is the base of all the 

- The improvement of the curriculum, adjusting it to the necessities 
and characteristics of the different regions of the country, inte¬ 
grating forms of non-formal education with regular or formal educa¬ 
tion, thereby accomplishing a total and coherent education that will 
a llow not only the improvement of the quality of the formal system 
but will incorporate the different forms of permanent education. 

- The certification and perfection of teachers in service, and funda¬ 
mentally in the management of curriculum that will use ncn-tradi- 
tional formats which can optimize training. 

- The production and distribution of materials and educational aids, 
fundamentally throughout the basic school libraries or centers of 
educational help, and which correspond to the present trends of the 


In order to execute this program, the Ministry of National Education 
was restructured, creating on the national level the General Office of 
Certifying and Perfecting Teachers, Educational Curriculum and Media, and 
at a regional level, experimental pilot centers. 

National Unit 

The General Office of Certifying and Perfecting Teachers, Educational 
Curriculum and Media of the Ministry of National Education is the head¬ 
quarters of the program and is charged with the conceptualization, 


production, coordination, and control of the programs throughout the 
seven divisions. 

1 . Division of Design and Curriculum Programming of Formal Education 

2. Division of Design and Curriculum Programming of Non-formal 

3. Division of Printed and Audiovisual Materials 

h- Division of Documentation and Educational Information 

5- Division of Media of Education at a Distance 

6. Division of Coordination of Experimental Pilot Centers 

7. Division of Evaluation of School Efficiency 

Regional Unit 

The Experimental pilot centers are regional units that may be organized 
in each department, mayoralty, commissary, and special district of Bogota. 

They have the following functions: 

- To organize, coordinate, and supervise the certification and per- 
fectioning of teaching personnel. 

- To execute directly programs of certification. 

- To carry out the experimentation of curriculum programs for formal 
and non-formal education. 

- To foster the production of materials and educational aids, and to 
present to planning officials and private officials soliciting them 
technical help and necessary collaboration. 

- To organize the services of educational documentation, school 
libraries, and the units of educational help of the planning 
officials of the departments, mayoralty, commissary, and special 
district of Bogota. 

Local Unit 

To be constituted by the educational nuclei pointed out by the program 
of educational mapping, this unit will be conducive for achieving nucleari¬ 
zation, which will consist of a configuration of a system whose fundamental 
purpose is the integral development of the population group located within 
a geographical area determined by community interrelations. 

This strategy shares the burden with the organization of the nuclei of 
educational development. Each one of them will take care of approximately 
15 school communities with a student populations varying between 500 and 
2000. The nuclei will be grouped by districts, of which there will be 


proportionately 20 to 25 nuclei per district. 

The local units of experimental schools will also participatej these 
schools develop the experimental curriculum of the first through fifth 
grades of basic primary education. 


Within the new curriculum conception, the school library constitutes a 
basic element for the creation of the habits of research and reading, and 
of the core of curriculum development. School libraries constitute the 
base of the pyramid of development in the library system of the country, 
without which any action to advance the levels will lose a great part of 
its efficiency. On the other hand, the school library is a fundamental 
part of the National System of Teacher Certification. In this sense, it 
flows totally into the Subsystem of Information and Educational Documenta¬ 
tion, since in many cases the only fount of knowledge available to teachers 
is the school library. 


- To put in the reach of teachers, students and parents of families 
library materials and audiovisuals necessary for the process of 
teaching-learning, for the levels of basic primary education and 
non-formal education. 

- To foster the creation of the habit of reading and research. 

- To support the National System of Teacher Certification. 

- To support the Subsystem of Information and Educational Documenta¬ 


In order to guarantee an effective decentralized administraticn of the 
program it will operate on three levels: 

National Unit 

The organization of the network will be in charge of the national unit 
representing the General Office of Certification and Perfecting of 
Teachers, Curriculum, and Educational Media of the Ministry of National 
Education throughout the Division of Documentation and Educational Informa¬ 
tion, with the following functions: 

- Planning and adaption of bibliographic instruments for the 


organization and management of school libraries . 

- Certification of teacher librarians who will be in charge of the 
present service of school libraries . 

- Acquisition, processing, and distribution of materials destined to 
school libraries. 

- Design of a flexible model of school libraries which is adaptable 
to regional conditions. 

- Advice and technical assistance to the documentation centers of the 
experimental pilot centers. 

Regional Unit 

It will be represented by the experimental pilot centers throughout 
the documentation centers that will fulfill the functions of coordinating 
at the regional level in each of the territorial entities (departments, 
mayoralties, commissaries, and special district of Bogota), which will 

- To serve to link the national unit and the local units or educa¬ 
tional nuclei. 

- To carry out adjustments and adaptations of the program according 
to regional needs, in collaboration with the teacher-librarians of 
the nuclei. 

- To carry out follow-up and the evaluation. 

- To make suggestions for possible adaptations of the program to the 
national level. 

In each experimental pilot center will be a center of documentation 
for the use of technicians, teachers and personnel committed to educa¬ 
tional action at the regional level. 

Local Unit 

The local unit is constituted by the educational nuclei. Each nucleus 
is composed of a central school (up to the fifth grade in primary schools), 
various stellistes (up to the fourth grade), and some very isolated ones 
such as unit schools. 

They will have the following functions to render service: 

- Circulation 

- Reading 

- Orientation to the user (students, teachers, community) 

- Creation of reading habits 



Each library w ill take care of teachers, students, and parents of 
families of the nucleus. Therefore, each will have materials adjusted to 
the regional needs: 

- Texts 

- Materials to support the different areas 

- Children’s literature 

- Consultation and reference works 

- Special materials (pictures, slides, etc.) 

- Materials for non-formal education (parent projects) 

- Materials about education for teacher use 

The acquisition of these materials will take place by means of the 
following sources: 

- Purchases from national and foreign printing houses (Spain and Latin 
America) carefully selected by a committee composed of technicians 
of the divisions of Design and Curriculum Programming on Non-formal 
Education and the Division of Documentation and Educational Informa¬ 
tion. The aim is to have materials which correspond to the needs, 
and are adjusted to the conditions of the community. 

- Donations from national, official, and private entities: ICA, Caja 
Agraria, Colculture, Agustin Codazzi, Banco de la Republica, Cimpec, 
Banco Popular, Banco de Colombia. 

- Cofinancing with private publishers or public and private entities 
printing especially for the program of school libraries. 

- Donations of the respective territorial entity of the community 


This has been one of the most important tasks to achieve due to the 
lack of human resources qualified to manage the school library. 

Before, courses were presented in different regions of the country; 
nevertheless, the magnitude of the task of certification signaled the 
necessity of employing a methodology which apply advances of educational 
technology and which will allcw optimal results in terms of quantity and 

As has been said, the Ministry of National Education with the financ¬ 
ing of CERLAB worked out an audiovisual course in order to certify 


teachers who work in school libraries. 

National Unit 

Division of Documentation 
and Educational 


- Coordination of the program 
at the national level 

- Design of libraries 

- Certification of teacher- 

- Selection, acquisition and 
processing of material 

- Elaboration and publication of 
^b ibliographic instruments 

Regional Unit 

Documentation Center 
Experimental Pilot Center 


- Coordination of the program at 
the regional level 

- Serve to link the national 
and local links 

- Carry out the adjustments 
of the program 

- Carry out follow-up and evaluation 

Local Unit 

Library of the Educa¬ 
tional Nucleus 


Functi ons: 

Render service: 

- Circulation 

- Reading 

- Orientation for the user (students, 
teachers, community) 

- Creating the reading habit 



by Dr. Elia Maria Van Patten de Ocampo 

Costa Rica is a small country, situated in the Central American Isthmus, 
with an extension of 51 .100 square kilometers and a population of 2,192 .MO 
inhabitants. The highest percentage of its national budget, 26.73$> is 
dedicated to education. 

There are presently 360 kindergartens; 3001 schools and 317 high 
schools, bearing in mind the different types: academics, technicals, 
agriculturals, industrials, handicrafts and artistics. 

These figures represent an immense effort by the Costa Rican society 
which makes the following question worthwhile: What is the country looking 
for with such a substantial investment? What are the school libraries 
roles in obtaining the objectives of the Costa Rican educational attain¬ 

I believe, without fear of being mistaken, that to those of us to whom 
at present are given the job of directing the school libraries we are encour¬ 
aged by the same spirit that is well expressed in the famous UNESCO 1 2 docu¬ 
ment, "To Learn is to Be". 

Has not the moment arrived to demand something very 
different of the educational systems? To learn to live; 
to learn to learn, in a way that new knowledge can be 
acquired throughout an entire life; to learn to think 
in a free and critical form; to learn to love the world 
and make it more human; to learn to fulfill one self 
into and through creative work. 

Despite the important function that is presently being carried out by 

the libraries in the apprenticeship process (these were out of the Costa 

Rican Educational Planning context) and even after the National Educational 


Development Plan was prepared in the year 1971, when the library services 

1 Edgar Faure and others: " To Learn to Be ". (Aprender a Ser) Madrid: 
Alianza Editorial, 1973 j page 132. 


Costa Rica: Ministry of Public Education, Planning of the Educational 
Development: Program. (San Jose, Grafica Litho Offset, 1971 ), page 166. 


were considered; the projected integral Educational Plan, 

because of diverse reasons, among them the lack of economical content, 
was not carried out. 

The libraries were unattractive places where the pupils 
went when a professor was absent or a pupil was placed under punishment; 
few times in a spontaneous and coordinated form with the professors. The 
librarian was limited to lending books and demanding silence in the read¬ 
ing room. 

The printed material that existed was not technically organized due 
to the lack of able personnel and the shortage of basic technical instru¬ 
ments . 

The premises destined to the libraries in the main were uncomfortable 
and badly situated. 

The libraries were isolated, without any relationship to the study 
plans nor to proper coordination with the stafS and the librarians, who work¬ 
ed without communication between them, nor any alignment or general 
policies to guide them in the biblio-technology field. 

Due to factors like those enunciated, the school libraries did not 
respond to the newer educational methods that were in demand and, naturally, 
had no positive influence in the development and improvement of the school 
community to which they served. 

Changes Procedures; 

Beginning in 197U for the first time an Advisory Board of School 

Libraries was appointed at the Ministry of Public Education* Its organiza¬ 
tion was initiated to which many factors were joined to obtain positive 
results: the clear vision of the Ministry of Public Education authorities, 
who considered their functions vital to the school libraries during the 
learning process; the technical counsel and economical support founded by 
the O.A.S., and the firm decision of the school libraries to improve the 
quality of the services offered. 

The initial procedures were: 

1 .- The libraries were combined so that they would no more exist as 
isolated entities, forming a net; initially with 16 nucleus, to 
thus obtain the optimum use of the available resources and to 
offer maximum contribution to the cultural, social, economical 
and educational developments of the country. 


2.- The basic technical materials were standardized through the 

appointment of several librarians commissions who during a 

vacation period worked on these functions: 

a) School libraries regulations 

b) library carnets (I.D. cards) 

c) Statistics formulas 

d) Borrower's card 

e) Basic material for Reference Service 

f) Formulas for the Accession Catalog 

A librarian was appointed as coordinator for each nucleus and per¬ 
mission was obtained for each group to have a monthly meeting. 

At all moments it was emphasized that the library System cannot be con¬ 
sidered as a group of members who act and react in a similar form to a 
mechanical system, therefore, stress is placed on success residing upon 
good inter-personal relationships and on the firm intentions of not only 
improving the services of each library but of all those that constitute the 
System; joining forces and coordinating actions. 

To keep the various Ministry of Education officials informed, meetings, 
seminars and workshops, etc. were made and through consultantship visits 
and continued circulars and various documents, directions were offered to 
the librarians to standardize and technically put the school libraries to 

During the changing process it is necessary to underline the determined 
technical and economical aid received from the Organization of American 
States. Since the year 197£ during which the restructuring and strengthen¬ 
ing of the Costa Rican school libraries were planned and these functions 
conceived as a "System", the OAS, has contributed to the accomplishment of 
a high percentage of the projects. 

From the moment we set off from a deficient organization to, today, 
where with great pleasure we can state a base for future accomplishments 
at a national level and for effective aids that are being offered in the 
bibliotechnological field to other countries. Doctor Martha Tome has been 
our guide and this opportunity is taken to express, on behalf of the Costa 
Rican school libraries, our eternal gratitude to such a distinguished OAS 


Present Condition; 

The School Libraries Unit that constitutes the Center of the System, 
which has as its specific functions the execution of all technical- 
pedagogical activities, whose objectives are to raise qualitative or quanti¬ 
tatively the libraries services to all cycles, levels and modalities of 
teaching, are at the Ministry of Public Education Headquarters offices. 

The Unit is constituted by a Head who is in charge of the following 

a. - Catalographic Center (or Classification Center) 

b. - Tobias Retana Library 

c. - Audiovisual Section 

d. - CEMTC 

e. - Consultantship and Supervision 
Catalographic Center 

The Catalographic Center functioning since 1976 technically pro¬ 
cesses in a centralized form the printed material from the school libraries. 
Presently, work is being done on the retrospective stage; processing the 
books that constitute the existing collections. 

The libraries send the basic data on each book and tickets (cards) 
that are distributed to them; once the author's classifications are com¬ 
pleted, title, material and topography are alphabetized and are duly 
delivered to each educational institution. 

It is projected to initiate centralized acquisition, once the present 
stage is ended, and thus be able to send the books with its respective set 
of index cards to each school or high school. 

With the Catalographic Center, various benefits have been obtained for 
the libraries, such as, the standardization of the classification and 
cataloging; this fact allows the librarian more time to coordinate with the 
staff, to attend to the pupils and to give the users the bibliographical 
background on each library. 

Tobias Re tana Library 

Operates at the Ministry of Public Education Headquarters and is 
characterized by possessing a collection specialized in education. It is at 
the service of educators and students in this area. 

Among its objectives the country's teaching staff is to assist 
and to serve as a model library accomplishing all types of activities 

through the OAS collaboration, this collection has been enlarged. 

Audiovisual Section 

Audiovisual materials and equipment that are at the services of the 
universities and other autonomous and state organization^ staff and pupils, 
are selected, acquired and organized at the Audio Visual Sections. 

The OAS, has contributed technical equipment and improved services for 
the us ers. 


The Center for Educational Means of Cartago, is conceived as a Model 
Center of Resources which constitutes one of the main activities of the 
School Libraries Multinational Project, the OAS Center of Resources and the 
Ministry of Public Education. 

At this Center, educational materials are produced and audiovisual equip¬ 
ment is located such as: ’ projectors, video-cassettes, 

posters and films, books, magazines, brochures, texts and, in general, 
bibliographic material constitute a rich pedagogical collecting, instructive 
and of great impact within the education community making possible the 

application of new techniques and methods of learning. 

One of the CEMIC objectives is to integrate the curriculum of the 
Resources Center and a high percentage of this goal is being attained. 

In addition, technical consultantships are offered to professors, librar¬ 
ians and pupils, at the institution where it is located, the Liceo Vicente 
Lachner, as well as other institutions in the country and the librarians 
from other countries who receive courses and assistantships in Costa Rica. 
Consultantship covers the following fields: 

a - Integration of libraries and Resources Centers to the curriculum 
b - Production of posters, retrotransparencies, audiovisual setup 
c - Preparation of rotafolios 
d - Recording of sound tapes 
e - Scriptwriting 

f - Preparation of auto-instruction modulus 
g - Guides and printing on audiovisual techniques 
h - Uses and handling of audiovisual equipment 
i - Guide and consultant ship on the planning and development of 


cinemaforum, bookforum, recordforum 

j - Consultantship on educative photograph. Making up of posters 

k - Planning and making up interest centers 

1 - Editing, printing and distribution of bibliographies of support 
on the curriculum development 

m - Research and review of didactic techniques with the aim of 
offering these to the staff to improve teaching aspects 

n - Coordination of assignments that these may result more technical 
and functional 

Audiovisual production has been increased year after year, the same as 
printed documents that are used for consultantship and coordination. CEMIC, 
additionally, organizes and presents a large variety of cultural activities 
that are duly found on the calendar and programmed, in the educational 
institution work-plan and are projected to the community. 

Consultantship. and Supervision 

There are two consultants that are in charge of the country's school 
libraries: The Third Cycle and Diversified Education (high school) con¬ 
sultant attends 1 87 libraries; aid in tie First and Second Cycles (primary 
schools) a consultant advises 59 librarian teachers and offers guidance 
to the school library organization without librarians and the many 
schools requesting advisorship. 

The school libraries are integrated in 2k nucleus and include those 
that work in primary as well as secondary school. This is an integration 
experience at both levels, is new and has given excellent results by giving 
the secondary school librarians a technical preparation and the primary 
school a larger staff capacity. 

These meetings held monthly, are already completely organized and 
have the necessary documentation that allows coordination and collaboration 
between the more active librarians for the services that are offered, 
as well as for the education of the staff; and, basically, to retrofeed the 
System with recommendations, and suggestions # 

Consultantship of Third Cycle and Diversified Education School Libraries 

The main function of this consultantship is in offering the school 
libraries the technical consultantship required that they may be capable of 

r * 

placing at the professor 's and pupils' disposition the most useful and 
applicable material; of coordinating the services with the staff, offering 


the user the proper orientation in their investigation work and innovat- 
the library service in accordance with the economical and technical 
possibilities and bibliotecological advances. 

Training courses have been organized for the personnel in services that 
still had no specific studies and experts from the O.A.S. have offered 
further training studies to all the school librarians of the country. 

Through meetings, con stilt ant ship personnel and multiples of technical 
documentations, general policies to follow are reported and basic required 
directions are offered for the organization and services contribution. 

Consultantship of First and Second cycle (primary) School libraries 

The consultantship of I and II Cycles, established in 1975* the work 
being initiated with a diagnostic to find out which schools had the minimum 
requirements to establish pilot libraries. 

In 1976, the first teachers were appointed, who would work as librar¬ 
ians. They were appointed through readjustments and were trained through 
courses offered by the Univeridad Nacional (National University) Consul- 
tantship. A basic collection of books were given to 1 3U0 rural schools, 
through a program sponsored by the First Lady of the Republic, Mrs. 

Marjorie Oduber. 

The work done by these Civil Servants in charge of these cycle libraries 
has been intensive in order that their function be understood in the educa¬ 
tional institutions; such as coordinating the library activities with the 
rest of the staff, what help to offer to teachers and pupils and in which 
aspects they could ask for the staff and pupils library collaboration. 

Consultantship has been also offered to the principals and supervisors of 
these schools so that they would better understand the library and the 
librarian's importance. When personnel is appointed to attend the library, 
another type of consultantship is made consisting of meetings with the 
principal and all the institution staff to coordinate activities, to obtain 
the maximum collaboration and to elaborate plans that they will jointly do. 

The parents and family in general are continuing to be able, with 
great satisfaction, to count on real library models, considering not only 
the personnel in charge;attitude but,also the activities that they accomp¬ 
lish, the in ocupation in making the library a place of surprises 
where a child is happy and is fully fulfilled and learns to learn. 

Various technical documents have been edited serving as a basis to each 


type of consul tantship. 


1To strengthen and to bring to perfection the organization and operation 
of the School Libraries of Costa Rica System, to facilitate the forma¬ 
tion of the "National Librarian System" and in the future to integrate 
the libraries of the country in one "World Net of Libraries". 

2. - To produce, publish and distribute technical materials to keep the 

school libraries actualized. 

3. - Coordinate activities, share experiences and interchange technical 

materials with school librarians of other countries. 
a.- Achieve the operation of school libraries that contribute in obtaining 
the excellency in education and complete fulfillment of the users' 

9.- Project the activities and services of the school libraries and the 
communities to obtain their development and improvement. 



By Amy Robertson 

Jamaica is the largest of the English speaking Caribbean islands. Its 
population is just over 2.1 million. 

According to the Education Act of 1965? the government is responsible 
for promoting public education. This responsibility is carried out by the 
Ministry of Education "the political and executive organization established 
by law for the purpose of administering the national education system." The 
Ministry sees itself as concerned with every aspect of the education system 

ensure that it plays a major role in equipping 
individuals with knowledge, skills, attitudes, 
creativity and a cultural milieu which assists 
in the rounded development of its citizens. 1 

Education development is therefore marked by innovation and continuous 
expansion both qualitative and quantitative. For example in 1977-78, empha¬ 
sis was on the implementation of the shift system and a maximization pro¬ 
gramme in secondary high schools, the aim being to provide a greater number 
of secondary school places. 

In democratizing education to enable every Jamaican access to some edu¬ 
cational opportunity, new structures, objectives and goals are being estab¬ 
lished. The school library/media centre is an important element interfac¬ 
ing between the teaching/learning process and the goals and objectives of 
each institution. 

Listed below are the categories of institutions (see Appendix 1) into 
which the libraries fall, and a brief indication of the programme of in¬ 
struction in each. The libraries are classified according to these 

Government Owned or Grant-Aided 

i) Early Education Unit 

Basic and infant schools, infant departments of primary and all¬ 
age schools. 

Ministry of Education Report, 



ii) Primary and All-Age Schools 

Primary schools comprise grades one through six, age range six to 
eleven plus years. All-Age schools comprise grades one through 
nine, age range six through fourteen plus years. Primary education 
is offered primarily by government owned and grant aided schools. 
All-Age schools continue to function particularly in the rural areas 
where secondary schools have not yet been established. Education 
beyond age fifteen is continued through a variety of programmes 
such as: 

the award of secondary school places to selected 
ninth graders; 

recruitment of grades 7 and 8 students into the 
Jose Marti Cuban model work study school; 

the availability of correspondence courses used 
by some students for preparation of the Jamaica 
School Certificate examinations (70,000 subject 
entries in 1977). 

iii) Secondary Education Unit 

Institutions falling in this category are: 

a) Secondary High Schools 

b) Secondary Schools 

c) Technical High Schools 

d) Comprehensive High Schools 

a) Secondary High Schools 

These are the traditional grammar of high school offering a 
basic five-year instruction course leading to the G.C.E. 

'0 f Level. A further two-year programme in some 
lead to the 'A' Level programme. Candidates are also pre¬ 
pared for the CXC examination first held in 1979. The 
special feature of these examinations is that they are not 
designed on a pass or fail concept. Instead, weaknesses 
and special abilities of school leavers, particularly in 
the technical and vocational subjects can be discerned and 
used in the overall development of the students. 

b) Secondary Schools - known also as "New Secondary and 
"Junior Secondary." 

These schools offer a five-year course of instruction with 


the last two years emphasizing the development of individ¬ 
ual skills in the practical areas. Their enrolment comes 
from designated feeder schools. The Grade 10 and 11 pro¬ 
gramme designed to create persons with saleable skills and 
attitudes to foster self employment is evaluated by the 
national examination, the Secondary School Certificate 

c) Technical High Schools 

These schools offer a four-year course leading to the 
Associated Examination Board (A.E.B.) which is an 
externally based examination as the G.C.E. Courses cover 
technical and vocational training, applied science, skills 
in various sectors - agriculture, commerce, industry, 
commerce, industry, etc, 

d) Comprehensive High Schools 

These provide training in academic as well as technical 
and vocational subjects Most of their enrolment comes 
from designated feeder schools. Some have been upgraded 
from a secondary status- 

iv) Independent Schools 

In 1977/78 there were 305 independent schools registered by govern¬ 
ment. They offer no less than nine types of educational training 
including kindergarten and special education These schools are 
maintained mainly by student fees. Government does not assist the 
library programme. 

Government Responsibility 

The Ministry of Education is responsible for libraries in government 

owned and grant-aided schools. Basic schools are the only category not yet 

served. However, government has expressed its intention to provide for them 


in the Five-Year Flan. The Jamaica Library Association has meanwhile 
organized the library for one basic school described in Appendix A. 


Ministry of Education. 

Five-Year Education Plan, 1978-1983• 


Libraries in Secondary High and Technical Schools 

These libraries are organized and managed autonomously. The Minis try- 
used to make a special grant of three dollars ($3) per pupil but there is 
now no formal library budget. Funds for library purchases may however be 
taken from the textbook and publications grant. Naturally, these libraries 
differ greatly in services and amenities. 

The development of all types of libraries has been greatly enhanced by 
the free Consultancy Service offered by the Jamaica Library Service from its 
inception • 

Robinson (1975)^ identified some 50 grant-aided schools with over 50 
percent providing independent library rooms and elevan supervised by quali¬ 
fied or trained library personnel. 

Robinson also suggests that the three dollar student grant is not ade¬ 
quate to upgrade and maintain these libraries, and the lack of regular and 
adequate supply of books remains the greatest obstacle to their progress. 

In supporting this view, Mungo (1980)^ suggests certain existing anomalies 
"which make the existence or quality of libraries in these schools very 
problematic." The fact that the post of 'School Librarian' does not 
officially exist and the principal may or may not have anyone who can organ¬ 
ize a meaningful library programme; the ridiculously low funds spent on 
collection building; and inadequate or unsuitable housing. She suggests 
that where provision is good, and staffing is by professionals, it is due 
more to "the foresight of certain school boards and principals than to any 
official provision in the system." This view is borne out by the establish¬ 
ment of the Shortwood Practising school library described by its Principal, 
Mrs. Elecia Jones. (Appendix B) 

The Jamaica Library Association Section on school libraries is now con¬ 
ducting wholesale research into all aspects of school library staff and 
management and should be publishing results by the end of the year. 

Libraries in Secondary Schools 

These are organized by the Schools Library Service, a centralized ser- 

^Robinscn (1975)* 
^Mungo (1980). 


Libraries in Comprehensive, All-Age, Primary 

and Infant Schools 

These libraries represent the most extensive network served by the 
Schools Library Service. There are 821 schools in the programme. Librar¬ 
ies in comprehensive schools are being organized on the same basis as those 
in secondary schools. 


The Schools Library Service has responsibility for selection, ordering, pro¬ 
cessing and allocation of books and periodicals for distribution to the 
regional headquarters and secondary schools ; 

supervision of service to schools and establishment of closer liaison 
with teacher/librarians; 

- arrangement of training courses and seminars for principals and 
teacher/librarians in secondary schools. 

It operates from the Headquarters which shares accommodation with the 
Jamaica Library Service in Kingston, the capital city. Work is decentral¬ 
ized through five regional headquarters The libraries in these schools 
maintain a circulating collection changed or replenished at set intervals, 
usually once per term. 

Five book mobiles bas d at each regional headquarters usually situated 
in the most important town in the region visit two schools per day. From 
the 2,000 stock carried by the bookmobile, the teacher/librarian, other 
teachers and senior pupils select the new stock, returning those they no 
longer want, and books in need of binding and repairs. The bookmobile 
librarian gives guidance in the choice of books and proper techniques for 
administering the school library. Allocation to schools ranges from 150 to 
1,000 books or more depending cn accomodation and enrolment. Staff at each 
region consists of two Bookmovile Librarians, a Driver/Book Attendant and 
one Book Attendant. The bookmobile service is closely supervised by senior 
staffers of the Jamaica Library Service which provides accommodation for the 
Regional Headquarters. 

For further information see Robinson "Jamaica (Libraries in)." 



Jamaican school libraries are generally print oriented. The concept of 
curricula based resources is not yet developed, hence the programmes are 
traditional, supporting the curriculum in an organized if not in-depth 
fashion, and satisfying the recreational needs of students. 

Time-tabling is a general feature of the programme, especially in the 
lower grades. 

Library skills are taught, and some schools, e.g. Pembroke Hall Secon¬ 
dary, run tests to ascertain student's proficiency. There is usually close 
collaboration with other library systems. 


Requirements for staffing school libraries have not been laid down, 
practice therefore is not consistent. However, an increasing number of 
schools employ dually trained teacher/librarians. Training facilities are 
good and if the programme in teachers' colleges is intensified, and place¬ 
ment of graduates from the programme well organized, reasonable service 
should be maintained. 

The increasing cost of books and the general economic situation have 
made it difficult for libraries to grow in these latter years, but Parent 
Teacher and Alumni Associations have been very influential in securing funds 
for library development. 

The Jamaica Library Service maintains a fine network of branch librar¬ 
ies, but as yet there are no school/community libraries. 


In the absence of specific government regulations for accommodation, 
considerable differences exist in library provision from one school to 
another. Most impressive is the recently constructed Excelsior Education 
Center incorporating pre-primary/primary, secondary (two shifts), community 
college (day) and community college (evening). The focus is on lifelong 
education, curriculum development, community outreach, work-study projects 
and "innovations in education." Floor space is approximately 10 , 1*20 sq. ft. 
Cost is three quarter million dollars and the following areas are included: 

Reading area 
Reference area 
Audio-visual room 


Dark room 

Conference rooms 

Staff room 

Store room 

Office and workrooms 

Six objectives of the learning centre have been identified. They are: 

1 ) Enhancing the ease which individual students at EXED acquire 

2) Enabling teachers to acquire more easily the new knowledge needed 
thus increasing the effectiveness of the learning experience to 
which students will be exposed 

3) Providing skills development related to educational technology 

U) Acting as a technological source of aids for use in classrooms 

5) Encouraging teachers to use the center as a teaching area, 
especially where media is used, or where equipment is particularly 

6) Developing instructional materials 

Much emphasis has been placed on the use of educational technology. 

It is expected that this new facility will give impetus to improved pro¬ 
vision in all types of educational institutions. 

Libraries in secondary schools are the best housed. The programme 
which started in 1968, has the advantage of modem buildings, specially 
designed libraries, proper furnishings, providing seating facilities for 
scheduled classes supervised by a teacher/librarian. 

Libraries range in size from 286 to 11U7 sq. ft. according to enroll¬ 
ment. Two schools donated by the Cuban Government have additional equip¬ 
ment such as catalogue cabinets. 

The position in secondary high, technical and vocational schools is not 
so favourable. Some of these schools have celebrated centenaries and while 
buildings may be picturesque, the library may not be housed in a functional 
building. However, libraries are frequently resited during building and 
extension programmes. 

One of the oldest boys' schools in Kingston, Jamaica College, which has 
enjoyed a good programme, has a new library building capable of seating l£0. 

It is divided into three distinct areas - Teaching, Reference, Reading and 
Study, and can be used for large group instruction. The audio-visual col¬ 
lection is gradually being built up and the library is well integrated into 
the life and work of the school. The Parent Teachers Association is extreme¬ 
ly supportive of the library. 

Another library moving into new buildings is that of the Immaculate Con¬ 
ception High School, funding for which was provided by the Alumnae Association. 


This school has a good library tradition. Seating is available for 120 
persons . 

Libraries in the primary and all-age sector are generally under¬ 
developed because of poor accommodation. Many of the school plants are 
old, overcrowded and insecure. However, where rooms have been provided 
in newer secure buildings, good programmes and services have developed, e.g. 
Shortwood Practising School library in Kingston (see Appendix 2). Govern¬ 
ment has expressed its intention to 

continue to provide adequate space for libraries in all 
new educational institutions and extensions and/or modi¬ 
fications to existing educational institutions.^ 

also that where facilities exist 

ent collections 

will be established in primary schools. 0 
As far back as 1977? the Schools Library Service had recommended per¬ 
manent collections in all schools "in view of the fact that the bookstock 

government's promise of "having teacher/librarians not included in the staff/ 
pupil ratio of schools augur well for the future of primary school librar- 


ies." Where no room has been provided, the books are housed in locked cup¬ 
boards or in the principal's office and often used by classes in class¬ 
rooms . Interested teachers find innovative ways of bringing the library to 
the class. 

Promotion of School Libraries 

School libraries in Jamaica are placed in the social and economic net¬ 
work of the national information system. The National Council on Libraries, 


Archives and Documentation Services (NACOLADS ) * * 7 * 9 recommends among other 


a) expansion of the present Jamaica Library Service 
Schools' Service to serve all government supported 

^Five-Year Education Plan (Draft 2), 1977. p. 136. 

^Ibid., p. 135* 


JLS - Schools Library Service Report (1979/80). 
^op. cit. p. 136 . 

9 NAC0LADS Plan (1978). p. U 8 . 


schools in one unified system; 

b) full training for professional librarians at 
the University of the West Indies; 

c) short courses in librarianship for teacher/ 
librarians until enough qualified librarians 
are available; 

d) implementation of the Jamaica Library 
Association Standards; 

e) compatible salary scales and working condi¬ 
tions for school librarians. 

The body most prominent in school library promotion has been the 
Jamaica Library Association (JLA) which established a Schools Section in 
1973* Since its inception, the Section has like its parent organization, 
conducted meetings'islandwide. It has been uniting persons engaged in 
school library work. 

The Association has been active in publications and training. In 1971, 
the first ever Standards for School Libraries was published to coincide 
with the inauguration of IASL at the WCOTP Assembly of that year in King¬ 
ston, Jamaica."*^ Government has accepted these Standards in principle, and 

schools are continuing to upgrade their libraries. In 1977, the Associa- 


tion published a Teacher/Librarians Manual which has been of great value 
to the profession. The Association has been very active in establishing 
training facilities for school library personnel. 


Training programmes are mounted by the University of the West Indies 
Department of Library Studies, Teachers' Colleges and Community Colleges. 

The Schools Library Service holds one-day seminars and conducts in- 
service training for teacher/librarians. 

The Department of Library Studies established with UNESCO assistance in 
1971 has been training librarians at both undergraduate and graduate level. 

There is no specialist certificate in school librarianship, but stu¬ 
dents at either level who wish to become school librarians can do courses 
in library services and literature for children and adolescents. 

^JLA Standards (1971)* p. U8. 


JLA. Suggestions for Teacher Librarians (1977)* 


Between 1972 and 1973, the Department offered a ten-week course lasting 
over two summers with an intervening fieldwork period, to persons from the 
Caribbean area wishing to upgrade their skills as school librarians. 

Earlier in 1970, the Ministry of Education approved a training pro¬ 
gramme for teacher/librarians in a selected number of teachers' colleges. 
There are now over 1^0 graduates from the programme, placed mostly in 
secondary schools. 

Training for library technical assistants has been carried out by two 
community colleges, Exed and Knox. A core of trained paraprofessionals 
should add much to the library staffing needs of institutions. The situa¬ 
tion is indeed favourable as noted by Mungo (1980) 

Jamaica is happily placed as regards established 
infrastructures - for training librarians, and for 
organizing centralized schools services - which 
could make it the English-speaking Caribbean 
country with the highest standards of school 
librarianship.^ 2 


One of the most important and far-reaching proposals yet to be imple¬ 
mented is the incorporation of libraries in all secondary institutions into 
one centralized scheme. The intention is to meet the needs of all stu¬ 
dents not only those in secondary schools but those pursuing secondary 
education by means of distance education. 

Raising of the ratio of books to readers two to one for all types of 
school libraries is another projection (some secondary school libraries 
already enjoy this ratio). 

A perusal of the present Five-Year Plan (1979-1983) reveals govern¬ 
ment's understanding and canmitment to the development of school libraries 
both qualitatively and quantitatively: "to make them effective instruments 
in the educational process and gradually develop them into learning 
resource centers."^ 3 

The Schools Library Service has been outstanding in its work to 
establish a good infrastructure. It is now left to the Educational Adminis¬ 
trators, Principals, Classroom Teachers and students to fully utilize 
school/media services in the teaching/leaming environment. 

^Mungo (1980) p. 

13 Five-Year Plan (1977). 



Jamaica Library Association. School Library Standards . Kingston, 1971• 

Suggestions for Teacher Librarians , ed. Hazel E. Bennett. 
Kingston, 1977. 

Jamaica Library Service. Schools Library Service Departmental Report , 
April 1979 to March 19^0. 

Jamaica. Ministry of Education. Five-Year Education Plan (1978-1983). 
Draft 2), 1977. 

Jamaica. National Council on Libraries, Archives and Documentation 

Services. Plan for a National Documentation, Information and 
Library System for Jamaica - Kingston , NACOLADS, 1978. 

Mungo, Katie M. The School Librarian in the Caribbean : A Paper delivered 
to Acuril XI. Santo Domingo, 2^-31, May 1980. 

Robinson, Joyce. ’’Jamaica (Libraries in)” Encyclopedia of Library and 
Information Service , v. 13> 1975* 

Samuda, Ron. A Library Learning and Resources Center Excelsior Education 
Center . Kingston, Jamaica... A Proposal, Kingston 1975• 

Jamaica. Ministry cl Educofcion# Flve-Yo^r iJaucation 
plan (1973-inn). 1977. p.?3 



( 1977 ) 



Case Study of Greendale Basic School Library 

Greendale Basic School Library 

A basic school is defined as a school 

i) established by persons within a community to 
provide training for children in the age range 
of h years to 8 years; 

ii) situated outside a radius of two miles "from 
the nearest primary school." 

Only certain basic schools are recognized by government, which pro¬ 
vides some funds far their expenses. Pupils pay very small fees. Teachers 
are usually of "marginal academic level." The aims of the basic school pro¬ 
gramme are to get the child to express himself and be ready for the formal 
lessons in "big school." 

There is no formal provision for the libraries in these schools, the 
majority of children attending basic schools come from homes in the lower 
socio-economic strata, hence the urgent need to extend their learning 

In 1976, the Jamaican Library Association began to develop this library 
as a special project. A Committee comprising persons involved in work with 
children including Teacher Trainers in Basic Schools was formed. Funds 
were raised from various sales including material donated by publishers 
representatives at the Library Association Book week in 1977 - 

By 1978, a total of four hundred and ninety seven dollars ($U97) was 
collected and used to purchase the initial collection of 2$0 books. The 
books were processed by the Associations members and a special bookcase 
designed. The Library was opened in 1979, special recognition being given, 
then to the International Year of the Child. Unfortunately, it is not yet 
possible for home-lending to be instituted. 

The Association is continuing this as an on going project, although this 
school is limited by its accommodation in a Church Building. It is felt 
that other basic schools in the area. There are presently two hundred chil¬ 
dren and six members of staff, great enthusiasm has been shown not only by 

1 Project for Early Childhood Education (Basic School)UWI Institute. of 
Education and Bernard van Leer Foundation. Kingston. 9p. Undated /Brochure? 


staff and students, but by the parents, who are actively involved in the 
development of the library. Approximately six hundred basic schools are 
in the Parish of St. Catherine in which Greendale is situated. 



Case History of Shortwood Practising School Library 

Note Practising Schools are attached to 
Teachers' Colleges 

The Shortwood Practising School Library 

Towards the end of the 60s and into the early 70s the Ministry of Educa¬ 
tion was involved in a programme to increase the temporary building erected 
to accommodate the large numbers of children admitted to schools. When the 
second building was completed there were nine additional classrooms. These 
were to be stacked with benches and desks just to take more children. Che 
of the weak areas in the schools programme was reading and it was my con¬ 
viction that if reading should improve then the climate should be provided 
for this growth. Why not develop a library resource center a classroom with 

An appeal to the Ministry of Education and discussions with personnel 
at the Jamaica Library Service brought some interesting results. Co-opera¬ 
tion was at its highest. The Library provided the specification for shelv¬ 
ing and the furniture and the Ministry agreed to furnish what should have 
been a double classroom in a special way - Tables and chairs in a range 
sizes shapes. Coloured upholstering for the Infant chairs. 

The loss of library books ai loan from Schools Library Service had been 
a severe problem. Poor storage - poor administration of the Collection 
were problems experienced for years. Reading was confined to a reading 
corner where teachers kept a few books in boxes in the classroom. 


The Ministry would not provide a librarian so the school administration 
had to find ways and means. Careful scheduling of a teacher's work and the 
use of library assistance provided from among the older students made the 
full scheduling of the library possible. Class teachers also brought their 
classes to the library for library periods . Staff was augmented by Youth 
Corps Volunteers. 

Provision of books and materials 

The staff worked towards a Book Fair organized with book stores and 
dealers in Educational Technology. 


Parents and friends of the school attended the fair and bought books 
which they donated to the library. Children put on special programmes 
during a full week of activities. Community people donated books they had 
at home. Citizens groups organized a collection drive. Book stores donated 
books. The Schools Library Service utilized the additional space to in¬ 
crease the collection substantially. Teachers decorated the walls. Neigh¬ 
bouring high schools and the college made donations. Gifts came from Canada, 
S.R.A. reading materials were donated. 


The children poured into the library all through the day - lunch time, 
after school - their curiosity was aroused. Some just looked at pictures - 
they chased from table to table sharing books with one another. 

The teacher librarian organized classes to train pupils in the proper 
use of the Library. There was story time for the young ones. Children's 
creative criting, art work, and collections were displayed. 

The children have developed good attitudes, they have learnt study and 
research skills. The reference section is used by the students - they know 
where to go to find information. Their performance at academic work has 
shown improvement. Performance in examinations has been rewarding. News¬ 
paper cuttings have been invaluable as a resource. 

Teachers Reading 

Teachers read while their classes are reading, make use of resource 
materials-maps etc. Provide collections of children's comic for read¬ 

ing enj oyment. 


If problems in reading are to be reduced, the schools should provide 
the sort of stimulation in which reading skills can develop. 

The Principal/Administrator must have vision and be prepared to give 
leadership in the development of supportive programmes for primary educa¬ 
tion . 

The school must provide for any deficiencies in the home and provision 
be made for reading in and out of class. 




Coordinator: Dr. Rosario Gassol de Horowitz 

In the morning session of Tuesday, the 15th of July, the panel talked 
about "The Present Situation and Perspectives of the School Library in 
Iatin America and the Caribbean" with the participation of representatives 
of Peru, Nicaragua, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Jamaica, under the 
guidance of Dr. Rosario Gassol de Horowitz, Chairperson of the Section of 
Regional Activities of IFLA for Latin America and the Caribbean. 

Members of the panel summarized and commented on their reports in the 
following order: Professor Cesar A. Castro Aliaga presented "The System of 
School Libraries in Peru"; Lie. Orfa Baez Reinoso talked about "The Project 
of School Libraries in Nicaragua"; and Dr. John G. Wright of Canada gave his 
general vision of school libraries in his country. After a brief recess, 
the second part of the morning session began with the presentation of Pro¬ 
fessor Hugo Acosta Cadena on "The Colombian Program of School Libraries," 
followed by the presentation of Dr. Elia Maria Van Patten de Ocampo about 
"The Present Conditions and Perspectives of School Libraries in Costa Rica." 
Closing this cycle of presentations was Ms. Amy Robertson, of Jamaica, with 
a brief talk on "The Present Situation and Perspectives of School Libraries 
in Jamaica." 


The development of school libraries in Latin America and the Caribbean 
presented many points in common. There was a trend of developing pilot 
projects, of centralizing technical processes, of supervising and certifying 
and organizing of networks with geographic criteria and establishing head¬ 
quarters of nuclei of systems. A prevalence of non-professional personnel 
and an emphasis on the certification of teacher librarians were observed. 
Also evident was the predominence of budget problems and the lack of legis¬ 
lative bases. 

Regardless of the efforts to develop school libraries and resource 
centers, notable differences were presented. Emphasis on certification in 
Peru; major assistance by intergovernmental organizations in Costa Rica; 
popular ties of the school library and the literacy campaign in Nicagagua; 
emphasis on a systematic certification and focus on the integration of the 


public library and the school library in Colombia; and the initiation of 
librarian services taken from the point of departure of school libraries, 
in Jamaica. 




Dr. Nelson Rodriguez Trujillo 

Today we will be listening to three reports of activity talcing place 
in Venezuela in the field of school librarian services. Dealing with the 
experience of the Nucleus of Librarian Services of Ciudad Guayana will be 
the presentation by Lie. Lilian Hung de Leon; the experience developed in 
the state schools of the State of Zulia will be presented by Nelly Primera, 
and the experience that is taking place in the Ministry of Education in 
Caraca, will be presented by Lie. Doris Marcano de Diaz. These experiences 
shared common backgrounds in activities, educational philosophy, jurisdic¬ 
tion, and inclusiveness of personnel. But they have been developed, never¬ 
theless, in relatively independent forms. In order to facilitate the pre¬ 
sentations and to avoid repetitions, let me bring to your attention in this 
introduction the common aspects on which these experiences were founded. 

One may point out, without fear of equivocation, that the focus of 
school librarian services conceived within a system is relatively new in 
Venezuela. Until recently the library was considered an isolated element 
within the school, without any relationship with other library services in 
adjacent schools. Moreover, it was conceived as a depository of books, 
whose fundamental responsibility was conservation; there was also lending 
service to the classroom and to the home, but the interrelation between the 
library and the classroom was relatively tenuous and unsystematic. The 
creation of these libraries was, save in a few exceptions, the product of 
the initiation of a director or of a group of vanguard teachers. The excep¬ 
tions to this rule include the Venezuelan Experimental School, the Miguel 
Antonio Caro School, the Educational Group of the Republic of Bolivia, and 
the Francisco Pimental Educational Group. 

From I960, with the creation of the Banco del Libro, this situation 
began to change substantially and rapidly. The activity of the Bank was 
directed to the provision of textbooks to primary school children by means 
of exchange activities. Great campaigns to gather books were carried out 
with carefully organization and orders, which placed at the disposition of 
the children books through means of exchange. That is to say, children 
could receive the textbook for the year to study in exchange of a book that 


they could afford. The collaborators of the Banco del Libro (Book Bank) 
soon understood that this action was not sufficient to overcome the defici¬ 
ency of reading materials. From an analysis of the real situation, they 

a - The absence of a collective recognition of the value of reading as 
a means of training and the book as an indispensable educational 

b - The lack of reading materials fit the interests and needs of the 

c - The scarse provision and circulation of reading material in primary 
and secondary schools, and also the very low quality and very high 
cost of the few textbooks on the market. 

d - The lack of formal training of the teacher in the selection and use 
of reading material within the classroom itself. 

e - The lack of library tradition, manifested in the lack of school and 
public libraries, which was perpetrating lack of reading habits 
among teachers who ought to be the guide for the new generation in 
the use of reading material. 

Out of this grew the necessity of developing school librarian services, 
which initially functioned in an isolated manner, but which were rapidly 
integrated into systems in order to lower costs, allow standardization, and 
facilitate training. Afterwards grew nuclei with centralized functions and 
operational units. A history of this type of activities will be heard later 
on in each of the reports; what is important to note here is the philosophy, 
the concepts which the new school libraries follow. 

The first element which will be brought to your attention is the fact 
that the library began to be conceived not as an addition to the school, but 
as a true element of educational innovation. That is to say, that the role 
of the library within the school is more than a simple depository of 
materials. According to this concept, the library must introduce itself in 
the classroom, modifying the teaching-learning process, supporting and 
extending itself beyond the classroom. This concept also implies a very 
important strategic element. It is well known now that the established 
systems will accept change. The educational system, personified in its 
teachers, is no exception to this rule. The introduction of the library as 


an active member of the school will permit the organization of surrounding 
activities that will progressively modify the conduct of the teacher toward 
reading and teaching itself, toward textbooks, and toward library and non¬ 
library materials. Obviously, in order to affect these changes, it was 
necessary to emphasize the training directed toward the teacher librarian, 
the classroom teacher, the director and the school supervisor. This train¬ 
ing proceeded to be oriented toward the significance of the library, its 
functioning, and the materials which it contains. 

A second element which will influence the development of school librar¬ 
ies is a modification in the concept of the teaching-learning process, 
which led us to believe that knowledge was transmitted from the teacher to 
the student, who received the knowledge passively. Thus came forth the idea 
of self-learning, and the skills of information searching were more highly 
valued. They must occupy a primary role in the total teaching process, 
independently of what the material or the school grade dictates. There¬ 
fore, the teacher will no longer be a transmitter of knowledge, but will 
become an administrator of resources which will allow the child to develop 
his skills in order to read, to investigate, to read, and to observe. 

A third significant influence is the concept of reading as a process in 
which several elements intervene: the reader, as an individual with speci¬ 
fic interests and needs is the first; the school, which trains the readers, 
is second; reading materials constitutes the third; the system of distribu¬ 
tion and access to reading materials, including school libraries, is the 
fourth. It should be aware of all these elements simultaneously if it 
wants to substantially influence the reading situation in a society, con¬ 
solidating the skills and habits of reading from the primary school on. 

Parallel to the development of these librarian services, various pub¬ 
lic and private organizations, among them the Banco del Libro, carry out 
activities that touch the philosophical bases, jurdisdiction, technology 
and economics in order to support the development of school librarian ser¬ 
vices. It would be well to note the following documents: 

1 . Decree 567 of 17 June, 1966, which established the obligation of 
the Venezuelan State to provide free textbooks to all children who 
attend primary school. 

This decree points out that the texts sent to the schools will form 


part of the school library collection, and it is important to 
produce textbooks adapted to Venezuelan conditions. This decree, 
which is still in effect, defines an official policy in relation 
to the textbook and educational materials. 

2. Presidential Dscree 575 of lU April, 1971, which established 1U 
April as National Book Day. This fact has importance in that it 
permits the organization of activities oriented toward the foster¬ 
ing of reading and the establishing of the book as a learning 

3- The policy of reading in the State of Venezuela, which was pro¬ 
posed in 1972 on the part of the Ministry of Education, which 
included school library services as an important part. 

U- Resolution 157 of the Ministry of Education in the year 1972, in 
which the experimental program for the School Library Services 
Program of Ciudad Guayana is declared. This program has been 
initiated in 1965 through the contacts established between the 
Banco del Iibro and the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana. This 
resolution established, besides, that the experience of Guayana be 
generalized to the rest of the country. 

5. Throughout its experiences, the Banco del Libro has published many 
technical documents which systemize the concepts which had arisen 
from practice. One of them is The Taxonomy of School Library Ser¬ 
vices, published in 1971. This document classifies and defines the 
diverse types of services which have been tried out in Guayana. 

6. Presidential Decree 559 of 19 November, 197U, by which the National 
Commission was created for the establishment of a National System 
of Information. One of the task forces created by this conmission 
is constituted of school library specialists, who presented a 
report to the commission in July, 1975* The report contained a 
diagnosis of school libraries in Venezuela and a recapitulation of 
the technical documentals and propositions for the development of a 
national system of school libraries. 

7. The law of the Autonomous Institute of the National Library and 
Library Service, approved by the Congress of the Republic on 29 
July, 1977, by which the Autonomous Institute of the National 
Library was created. This institute has the traditional role of 


being the depository of the collection of library and non-library 
materials of Venezuela. Its ends are: 

1 ) To execute the policy of the National System of Library Service; 

2) To elaborate and on force standards and technical procedures 
relative to the functioning of the distinct types of libraries 
that integrate the National System of Library Service, and to 
keep an eye on its fulfillment; 

3) To establish the National System of Public Libraries; and 

lx) To technically assist the Ministry of Education in the creation 
of a System of Library Service in educational establishments. 

8. Presidential Decree 2^31 of 3 January, 1978, by which the Coor¬ 
dination Commission was created of the National System of Library 
Service and Humanistic Information, of Scientific and Technological 
Information, of Archives and of Statistics and Information. This 
Commission, annexed to the Central Office of Coordination, has the 
objective to stimulate, harmonize, and standardize the development 
of the system. Such a commission has among its functions to draw 
proper lines of policy in matters of library service; and to orient 
and coordinate plans for library development. School librarian ser¬ 
vices which are annexed to the System of Library Service have the 
Autonomous Institute of the National Library and Library Service as 
a nucleus. 

9. Presidential Decree 188 of 27 June, 1978, which created the National 
System of School Librarian Service, by which development will take 
all the previous experiences in school libraries and update them to 
the moment. 

The reports which we will hear continue to all have common origins, and 
all have, to a major or minor degree, influenced the experiences and the 
documents which I have pointed out. 



By Lie. Lilian Hung de Leon 

1 . Background of the School Library Program in Ciudad Guayana 

Project Guayana (1965-1969) 

The School Library Program in Ciudad Guayana began in 1965? within the 
Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana-Banco del Libro Agreement. The objective 
of this agreement was to efficiently supply school tests and other materials 
to support low-income students in primary schools in Ciudad Guayana. 

The Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana, which was preoccupied with the 
progressive improvement of the conditions of the educational system in the 
zone both in terms of quality and quantity, solicited technical help from 
the Banco del Libro to solve the problems that confronted primary schools 
at the time. 

The Banco del Libro, which has initiated joint programs of help and 
cooperation in popular education since I960, had accumulated certain 
experience in programs of textbook exchanges and of library organization. 
Because of this, the emphasis was oriented toward the library as a very 
efficient pedagogical instrument in order to guarantee access to important 
sectors of low-income children of school texts and other reading material. 
Thus, between I960 and 1965 the Banco del Libro organized nine school 
libraries in the metropolitan area, the "Daniel Navea Pedagogical Library 
in the central headquarters, and the "Mariano Picon Salas" Library. 

From that came the answer of help by CVG, the School Library Project 
of Guayana, which would be developed under the technical direction of the 
Banco del Libro, with the financial support of CVG and the teaching person¬ 
nel of the Ministry of Education. 

The project was defined as "an educational program which has as an end 
to lift the quality of education by the instilation of seven special school 
libraries and the professional improvement of teachers, which will guaran¬ 
tee the economic development of the region."^ 

It would constitute the possibility for the Banco del Libro to develop 
a school library program determined by a geographical context and within a 
research and development perspective; that is to say, the opportunity to 

Progress Report of the Operative Program, Banco del Libraro, 1972. 


try out and put into action their concepts of the school library, and to 
derive conclusions that are useful for the generalization of this experi¬ 
ence . 

In the first three years of Project Guayana six school libraries were 
installed and functioning. Various educational materials were progressively 
given to this service. Technical standards were developed for their organ¬ 
ization and functioning as well as for architectural infrastructure, equip¬ 
ment and personnel. 

One area that demanded special attention was the certification of school 
personnel in the library headquarters. In order to do this, a general pro¬ 
gram of teacher librarian certification was developed, thereby improving 
libraries, school supervision, outreach to the community, and classroom- 
library integration. 

In 1969, Project Guayana was extended to new schools as a result of 
the general pressure in the zone by the demonstrated effect of the services 
initiated in 1965. In 1970, the project took care of 1U school libraries 
with 13,000 students and 358 teachers. 

The Agreement of Ministry of Education-Banco del Libro Service 

The experience developed by the Banco del Libro through its trial pro¬ 
grams in the areas of reading material and school and public libraries 
between I960 and 1970, caused the institution to delimit its objectives 
more precisely to orient itself to "carry out educational innovation 
relevant to the reading process, education materials and library service in 

order to contribute to the education of a knowledgeable person with the 


critical capacity to participate creatively in normal development." 

The systematic activities developed in Project Guayana permitted closer 
work ties between the Banco del Libro and the Ministry of Education. These 
relations, nevertheless, were characterized as being informal. 

With the amplication of the project the need was seen for a greater 
degree of formality and rationality in this relation. From that came the 
need to write an agreement that would supply the legal basis and the parts 
for the institutionalization of the relations between these two organiza¬ 
tions . 

op. cit. 


On 2 February, 1971, the Agreement of the Ministry of Education-Banco 
del Libro Services was signed. In it was established the compromise of the 
Banco del Libro to contribute alternative means for the planning and in¬ 
strumentation of policies relative to: 

1) The definition of technical characteristics, evaluation, selection 
and use of textbooks and other reading materials. 

2) The production and commercialization of tests and other materials. 

3) The interrelationship of educational study materials and library 
service programs. 

Besides this, the agreement established that the "Ministry will oilize 
the technical services of the Banco del Libro in order to plan and organize 
school library service, and in order to certify personnel required by such 
services." It provided for the cooperation in carrying out related 
research on reading and language in Venezuela, and for the compromise of 
the institutions to combine their technical and human resources in order 
to develop the actions to be executed. 

For its instruments and financing, it was agreed to designate a mixed, 
qualified Commission to be responsible for elaborating plans and programs 
of action and for establishing respective financial action charged to the 
budget of the Ministry of Education. 

The Nucleus of School Librarian Services in Ciudad Guayana—1972 

The result of testing the relevancy of the aforementioned agreement 
was the establishment of the Nucleus of Librarian Services in Ciudad Guayana, 
which will integrate the service created in the zone and reorient the 
Guayana Project. 

The evaluation of the experience developed in librarian services by this 
effort signaled the importance of: 

1. Centralizing certain technical service functions with the goal of 
optimizing the use of the scarce human resources and available 

2. Organizing systematic mechanisms of orientation and training of 
teachers for the efficient use of the library and educational 
materials integrated into teaching; 

3. Forming an awareness about the role of the library in the educa¬ 
tional process among the different educational agents. 

On the other hand, the Banco del Library saw the need to design a 


national program of school libraries in the near future. They adapted 
a concept of school library service as "modules that may be assembled in 
different forms according to the needs and available resources in each 
geographic sector. The modules are of two types: operation and support, 
concentrating in the first all that which concerns service to the user; and 
the second, relative to centralization, popularization, orientation, and 

"The Nucleus of Librarian Service in Ciudad Guayana constitutes the 


first attempt to apply this concept." 

The Nucleus of Services of Ciudad Guayana will integrate: 

1) operational units: School Library Service; 

2) Centers of Demonstration, Popularization, and Distribution of 
Educational Materials; 

3 ) a service of mobile units (bibliobuses); and 

L) an administrative unit which will direct, coordinate, and supervise 
the activities of the Nucleus. 

At the end of 1982, the Nucleus is expected to include a pedagogical 
library, 1U central libraries, 13 classroom libraries, and a mobile service 
unit. These services will take care of approximately 28,000 students and 
600 teachers. 

Experimental Program of Librarian Service in Ciudad Guayana 

In October, 1973? the Nucleus of School Librarian Services in Ciudad 
Guayana was declared, by the resolution of the Ministry of Education, to be 
a Experimental Program of Librarian Service Development for three years, 
with the goals of: 

- trying out educational resources that facilitate active learning and 
diversifying the function of permanent education. 

- carrying out research in the field of reading and cooperating with 
those being accomplished by the Ministry of Education. 

- elaborating, adapting, and evaluating educational materials adapted 
to the needs of the country, and trying to use the same creatively. 

- incorporating educational resources and trying alternatives for 

^Rosario de Horowitz, 
del Libro, 1972. 

"Taxonomy of School Librarian Services," Banco 

12 ^ 

maximum benefits. 

The resolution established the creation of a directive council, inte¬ 
grated with representatives of the Ministry of Education and the Banco del 
Libro, which would have the responsibility of programming, supervision, and 
evaluation of the program. In the same way, the Banco del Libro was 
assigned to execute the experimental program and coordinate it technically. 
The Ministry of Education and the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana will 
guarantee financial support. 

The Nucleus started with a stage of consolidation of its structure. 

It increased the technical equipment and administrative support, install¬ 
ing new services, and thus starting a massive process of ampliying teaching 
with the incorporation of various bibliographic and ncn-bibliographic 
materials. The activities of promotion and demonstration of educational 
materials, as well as the training of technical librarians in the use of 
educational materials, represent important efforts of the teams in Ciudad 
Guayana and in the headquarters of Caracas who are responsible for the 
execution of the program. 

Special emphasis is given to the attempts of library-community populari¬ 
zation. The programs developed in the barrios of San Felix utilized the 
library facilities during vacation periods, and incorporated voluntary com¬ 
munity personnel. 

This new stage of the Nucleus will redirect itself to organizational 
consolidation, to the revision and delimitation of its objectives and 
priorities, and to the reformulization of the projects and activities of 
the program. 

In 1976, a new ministerial resolution prorated the experimental program 
three additional years, and defined two new objectives for this period: 

1 ) preparatory activities for the gradual transference of the program to 
the Ministry of Education, and 2) the start of attempts to give attention 
to young students in intermediate education through public librarian ser¬ 
vices . 

From this moment on, the process of delimiting big areas of action was 
accented: the area of librarian services and the area of experimentation 
and systemization. 

Special emphasis was placed on the improvement and consolidation of 



services: through the updating of teaching, of mobilized and team methods, 
in order to complete the installation of services, to augment its technical- 
administrative efficiency, to intensify the training and recycling of 
librarian personnel, to design strategies for training teachers in the use 
of educational materials that exist in the library, or to the elaboration of 
materials that could be incorporated into the collections. 

The activities of evaluation and systemization acquired major relevance 
in the perspective of transfering the program experience. Library models 
are attempting to be systemized, as are teaching forms, different service 
activities, technical standards of library organization, and collection 
maintenance, etc. 

Characteristics of the Program 

The program of library services in Ciudad Guayana responds to the con¬ 
ceptual model of library system development of the Banco del Libro. The 
system is integrated by distinct components that guard interdependent rela¬ 
tions and fulfill specialized functions on various levels. 

1 .. Elements that make up the model 

Two categories of components may be distinguished: 

- Operational Units , in other words, librarian services of different 
models, which operate in a decentralized manner in each plan. 

- Technical-Administrative Support Units , that centralize special¬ 
ized and very complex functions cn a regional or central level. 
This centralization responds to the need to optimize the use of 
resources (whether human or financial) on one hand, and on the 
other, to standardize technical functions considered to be in¬ 
dispensable for the harmonized functioning of the system. 

It is important to notice that the libraries share common standards of 
organization and functioning, which allow networks to be organized on each 
local level. 

The program of librarian services of Ciudad Guayana involves : 

20 central school libraries 
8 rotating school libraries 
U public libraries 
1 mobile service unit. 

These constitute a network that integrates public and school librarian 



- Regional technical-administrative functions 

- Local Administration 

- Programming 

- Library supervision 

- Mechanical processing and collection circulation 

- Library instruction 

- Demonstration and popularization 

- Execution and systemization of attempts 

- Central technical functions 

- Planning 

- General administration and control of execution 

- Selection, acquisition, cataloging, and classification of educa¬ 
tional materials 

- Preparation of manuals and instructions in the use of educational 

- Preparation of manuals, guides, and proposals of technical 
standards of organization and functioning of school library 

- Research, experiments and systemization of experiences 

- Design and execution of training programs for technical librarians 
in the use of materials 

The combination of operational units and technical-administrative ’units 
on the regional level make up the Nucleus of School Librarian Services of 
Ciudad Guayana. 

Present Coverage of the Program 

- Librarian Services 

In a systematic form, the libraries take care of educational needs, 
reading, and information of approximately 37,000 students and 980 teachers 
in 31 primary schools in Ciudad Guayana. 

Presently, the annual textbook budget is trying to be developed in three 
schools in the area. The results of this pilot project will allow the in¬ 
strument to be a guide for the National System of School Libraries, which 
was started by the Ministry of Education. 

The public librarian services of the network will basically take care 
of the educational needs, recreational and informational reading of stu¬ 
dents in intermediate education. The actual circulation figures in the four 
public libraries of the network are approximately 10k,000. On the other 


hand, these services will develop activities for library extension to the 
surrounding rural areas. 

School Library Models 

The school library is conceived as an instrument for educational inno¬ 
vation, which puts within reach of students and teacher a wide gamut of 
educational materials, facilitating dynamic and participatory learning. 

Its principal function is to instrument and support the educational 
system, generating new needs within it. In this way, the school library 
will constitute a factor of stimulation and renovation of the educational 



Within this concept, different library services are being designed and 
tried out in Ciudad Guayana, and its efficiency and degree of adequacy are 
being evaluated for organizational characteristics of the educational 
establishments with the available resources in each locale. 

The Rotating Library 

"Is a unit of operation conceived and organized in order to supply 
classrooms with basic text and reference materials that are indispensable 
for the development of the program of study. 

This service will function as a depository of texts and will not have 
specialized personnel, but rather will be taken care of by commissions of 
teachers and students who will rotate in "guardian commissions."^ 

In terms of collections, as has been pointed out before, it will con¬ 
tain texts (95% and some reference materials (5 %)• 

In terms of circulation activities, it will be reduced to classroom 

In the framework of the program, this type of library has been con¬ 
sidered as an initial phase in library service development. In its opera¬ 
tion, directors, teachers and student will be motivated and trained as users. 

It is recommended, especially in the case of large educational estab- 

are Journal, No. 5/6, Banco del 

^Marcano, Doris and Russo, Grecia, 
Caracas, 1975* 

6 _ ,, 

See the more detailed analysis of 

Libro, September/December, 1976. 
"Manual of the Operational Unit," 

A. M. Pinto, Op. cit., p. 39-^6. 


lishments, that once this kind of library has created the necessary condi¬ 
tions of receptivity of the school personnel, that it be transformed into a 
central library. 

Mobile library Service 

The service of mobile units of the nucleus of library services of 
Ciudad Guayana will develop support activities for the rotating libraries. 

These units will also be utilized as library motivators in schools that 
do not contain services of this type, with the goal of motivating the in¬ 
stitutional population and generating demands. 

The bibliobus would arrange a collection of complementary and recrea¬ 
tional library materials that will circulate to the homes. Lending will be 
carried out directly, to the individual, or through traveling boxes or 
mini-buses, which will be circulated as a whole to the classroom. 

The bibliobus will also develop activities of cultural outreach to the 

It is estimated that a mobile unit could take care of ten sections 
daily. In order to be effective, it is recommended that the unit visit 
the educational establishments every fifteen days. 

The Central Library 

It is a dynamic center of learning integrated with the school, which 
will put at the disposition of students and teachers diverse educational 
materials and equipment. 

It will provide the classroom with the materials needed to meet in¬ 
structional objectives in the programs of study. It will orient teachers 
in the selection and use of materials required for the adequate complement 
to the same. 

It will also offer students materials and orientation in order to 
support the instructional objectives of the programs. 

The collection will consist of a variety of library materials (text¬ 
books, supplementary books, references, recreational reading, periodicals 
and books for the teachers) and non-print materials (maps, globes, labora¬ 
tory equipment, pictures, games, audiovisuals, filmstrips, slides, films, 

The central library will contain a reading room, depository and admin¬ 
istrate area, as well as mobile and corresponding equipment. It will be 


taken care of by specialized personnel, which will include as a minimum, a 
librarian and two auxiliary librarians, one for each school term. 

The most important activities that ought to be fulfilled by this model 
of service are the following: 

- circulation activities: lending materials to the classroom and in 
an individual form for use in the library or outside. 

- pre-established activities that respond to a concerted plan between 
the librarian and each teacher in the school to support the teaching¬ 
learning process. The library will develop pre-established, strict 
opening hours. 

- complementary activities: such actions will contribute to the pro¬ 
motion of reading: storytelling, dramatization, puppets, movies, 
games, plastic and corporal expression, etc. 

- cultural extension that will contribute to school-community inte¬ 
gration. Examples of these activities are: forums, movie clubs, 
conferences, etc. 

- interlibrary loan: throughout the network of services, this will 
establish models that will allow optimal use of collections and 
costly and scarce materials. A central depository exists by which 
materials are circulated to the different schools. 

- user orientation: activities will consist of student induction and 
instruction in order to use resources and available materials 
efficiently, and to develop skills in information searches and the 
capacity for independent research and study. 

The central library is a library model of excellence. Within the 
strategy of progressive development of librarian services, it constitutes 
the ideal type which is possible to achieve when created in conjunction 
with conditions such as technically qualified human resources, financial 
resources appropriate for the maintenance of materials and equipment, and 
users capable of efficiently utilizing materials within their reach. 

The Classroom Library 

It will constitute a small collection of educational material, located 


in the classroom under the administration of the teacher of that grade. 


See Horowitz, Rosario. Op. cit. 


This model has been tried to a small degree in the Guayana Project. It 
corresponds to a type of service that is apt for the rural milieu, but it 
presents serious difficulties of instrumentation in urban environments 
because of school organization and the characteristics of the educational 
establishments located in densely populated centers. 

Technical Functions of Support 

The library models that have been described briefly in the past section, 
have been tried and evaluated in the execution of the program. In light of 
this experience, the redefinition of these models can be worked in terms of 
their essential elements and basic requirements in order to function effi¬ 
ciently in the context of Venezuelan schools. 

These library services are integrated functionally in a more complex 
structure. The network of libraries, in this case, is the Nucleus of School 
Librarian Services in Ciudad Guayana. 

In order to function more adequately, library services need to be ful¬ 
filled in conjunction with strategic functions of support. These functions 
are specialized: 

- Evaluation and Selection of Educational Materials 

These areas have been the object of special attention within the pro¬ 
gram. The activities developed since 1965 have been diverse and systematic, 
and have generated important products. 

A critical area in our countries consists of the lack of reading 
materials that respond to the needs and interest of children. This appre¬ 
ciation is equally applicable to educational materials that serve to support 
classroom activity. 

One task that has been accomplished in the program is the important 
gathering of outstanding teachers and other professionals. They have, among 
other activities, analyzed programs of study and systematically evaluated 
materials existing in the local and international market. This has led to 
important products. We will note among them the development of evaluation 
and selection criteria and guides for school texts and other reading 
material as well as non-print educational material; and the preparation of 
basic lists of materials for libraries and activities supporting the teach¬ 
ing-learning process. 

Publications such as "The Book Bank Recommends" have been amply used in 


the country and in the Andean region. 

Production and Use of Educational Materials 

This area of work is a result of the activity of evaluation and material 
selection. Learning obtained in the exhaustive study of the materials has 
led to the definition of criteria for the production of reading and educa¬ 
tional materials which use will be established in the program. The distinc¬ 
tive aspect of this activity, in our case, has been the emphasis on low- 
cost production with local materials and very simple techniques in a way 
that teachers can prepare those materials and make innovations from the 

There are also many other materials such as games and different instru¬ 
ments which may be established in the curriculum. They have been converted 
into real pedagogical materials when they supplement pamphlets used to 
train users in their use and development, with the end of demonstrating 
activities that imply the creative use in classwork. 


The continuous certification and sustaining of the personnel is a stra¬ 
tegic factor in the development of the program. Since it began in 1965, it 
has paid special attention to the area. 

Since 1975 a coordinated program of certification has been structured 
in the Nucleus, in the area of library technicians as well as in the use 
and preparation of materials. 

In the area of library technicians, intensive work has been done in the 
design and adaptation of courses for auxiliaries and school librarians 
through a flexible system of learning, which was designed by the Banco del 

In the area of pedagogical techniques and the use of materials, differ¬ 
ent strategies of certification as well as learning materials have been 
designed and tried out. The emphasis in this task is the result of supply¬ 
ing initial information that was lacking for our teachers. It is conveni¬ 
ent to point out that they have paid attention not only to the teachers of 
the schools involved in the program, but also to others in the area, includ¬ 
ing other cities in the State. 

Librarian Supervision 

This is conceived as a function of technical assistance to library 



In the program environment, different supervision strategies have been 
tried with varying degrees of success. One fundamental problem that still 
needs to be solved is how to achieve a major degree of participation in 
these functions by the director of personnel of the educational establish¬ 
ments. In actuality, a team made up of teacher librarians with wide experi¬ 
ence in the program and of other specialists will work on the redefinition 
of the system of library supervision with the goal of systematization. 

Accomplishments of the Program 

- The continuation of the program throughout the years and throughout 
governmental transitions. 

- The training of technical personnel in interrupted form, which has 
permitted the degree of present development of the Nucleus. An 
important number of specialists in the program have been formed in 
the program to function in academic centers in State institutions. 
Through them it is possible that the experience generated may be 
utilized efficiently in other programs and activities of this sort. 

- Its action as a pressure group for the definition of actions and 
policies related to the promotion of reading. 

- Its contribution at the creation of conditions necessary for the 
organization of the National System of School Libraries. 

Future of the Program 

The experience by the Banco del Libro in the Nucleus of School Librar¬ 
ian Services in Ciudad Guayana is now an important base for the development 
of the National System of School Libraries, which was organized last year 
by the Ministry of Education. 

It is evidence of the explicit recognition of the office that it desig¬ 
nated the Banco del Libro to design, coordinate and develop the library 
system. In such a way, the Banco del Libro was active in the design of 
the system and the definition of alignments of policies and strategies for 
its development. 


1. One important function that should be fulfilled by the program 
within an action research strategy is on continue to feed the development 
of the National System of School Libraries. In this perspective, the 


library services of Ciudad Guayana and the technical and human resources 
which are concentrated there will have to be directed to the development of 
innovations and adaptations of technology in the library field. These 
pilot experiences may be incorporated progressively with the System of 
School Libraries. 

2. Certification of school librarian personnel. The existence of the 
service network, the characteristics of the operational units, and the tech¬ 
nical infrastructure of certification offer ideal opportunities for the 
development of professional training programs. 

3 . The attempt to integrate a system comprised of public libraries, 
school libraries, university libraries, documentation centers, and his¬ 
torical and religious archives. The region of Guayana will offer possi¬ 
bilities for the development of an integrated experience on a managable 
scale that may be used by the National System of Library Services, Infor¬ 
mation, Documentation, and Archives. 



By Lie. Nelly Primera 


On 17 June, 1966, Degree 56? was published, refering to the free distri¬ 
bution of primary school textbooks. In conformity with this degree, start¬ 
ing from 1967, the Secretary of Education in the State of Zulia began to 
receive collections of school texts that would be located in its depository. 
But adequate distribution of the same to the primary school children of the 
region was not achieved. 

In March of that year (1967), Professor Pedro Barboza de la Torre pre¬ 
sented a project of school libraries before the Secretary of Education. 

It was approved, and it marked the start of an action that signaled the 
opening of library service in primary schools of the first category in 
Maracaibo District. 

The functioning of these services was made possible through the 
collaboration of the University of Zulia, which dictated a course on 
library techniques. Thirteen teachers were graduated, and they took charge 
of the libraries created in the District Maracaibo schools, using as a 
collection basically the texts received by Decree 567. In January, 1968, 
the appointment of these teachers as teacher librarians was made official. 

During this first period, the functioning services were basically 
supported by the dedication and enthusiasm of the teachers who were 
charged with the same. 

In 1969 a coordinater of school libraries for the Maracaibo District 
was appointed, which began an action of major rationality in the function¬ 
ing of these services. A diagnosis of the situation was made, and the 
development of activities was planned, directed to the training and per- 
fectioning of personnel and to the acquisition and technical processing of 
the library collections. 

In 1971, the coordinating body was assigned, for the first time, a 
budget of 10,000 Bolivares for the acquisition of books. This same year a 
visit was made to the Nucleus of Library Services in Ciudad Guayana, 
organized by the Banco del Libro. 

In 1972, based on the knowledge acquired in the visit to Project 
Guayana and in the professional school library certification course carried 


out in the University of Medellin, a plan of development of school library 
services for all of the State of Zulia was presented and approved by the 
State Secretary of Education. 

This plan received a grand push, starting in 1 97b., with the establish¬ 
ment of the Department of State Library Services, ascribed to the Secre¬ 
tary of Education. Growth continued, and from 1978, the System of Library 
Services of the State of Zulia was created through a decree passed by the 
state government. This decree has as its central purpose the integration 
of the different state library services. It constitutes the first case of 
the creation of a regional system in the country. 

By 1980, the school library services, which are part of the State 
System of Libraries, had an annual budget of Bs. 379,000 for the acquisi¬ 
tion of library collections. It consisted of 52 school libraries, super¬ 
vised by well-qualified personnel who give adequate attention to service. 


The services present different characteristics with regard to locale, 
collections, furniture, personnel, and functions. 

This situation is due to the fact that in the creation and later 
development of the services, the established norms for the coordina¬ 
tion of school libraries were not followed. 

The coordination of the services has taken measures to correct this 


Services extend to primary schools of the first and second category 
in all the districts of the State of Zulia. The case of the Maracaibo 
District stands out with its 30 libraries. For the rest of the State, 
the distribution is as follows: Mirand 2; Pa.ez “\; Colon 1; which 
makes a total of 52 school libraries supervised by 52 teacher librar¬ 
ians, U3 auxiliaries and 10 classroom teachers. By means of these 
services, a population of U3,375 students, 1,21x1 classroom teachers 
and 3 U 8 special teachers are served. In addition, service includes 
9 traveling boxes that cover 9 other schools of 1200 students and 15 



Further functioning of the services were installed in classrooms (2 
or 3). Some schools had special rooms designed for the functioning 
of services, while some enlarged services through the annexation of 


In general, services are supervised by one teacher librarian and one 
auxiliary, although in some libraries, because of their size, a 
greater number of people are in charge. Work is accomplished during 
regular school hours in five-hour shifts (morning and afternoon) by 
the teacher and the auxiliary in separate forms. Teacher librarians 
as well as auxiliaries receive special and permanent training. 

Initially the need for furniture and equipment was covered by com¬ 
munity donations. Now this situation has changed, thanks to the use 
of funds specifically designated to this purpose. It permits acqui¬ 
sition in accord with standards of quality established by the Auton¬ 
omous Institute of the National Library and Library Services 


The network depends on the Secretary of Education and Culture of the 
State of Zulia and is integrated with the Department of School Library 
Services in charge of a coordinator and with the Pedagogical Library and 
Audiovisual Aid Units, which support the functioning of the operating 
units (libraries and traveling boxes). 



It is in charge of the coordination and supervision of the services 
and is supported by two units: the pedagogical library and audio¬ 
visual aids unit. 

At this level a series of centralized functions is carried out. 

The following are mentioned: 

Planning of services, which uses the previous study in order to 
expand and build the next libraries. 

Coordination of the activities through a uniform format, prepara¬ 
tion of daily and special library programs, preparation of 
special programs to be carried out by the department itself. 
Supervision: by librarian teams and teacher advisors who 
supervise the work of the teacher and auxiliary librarian; 
organization of material, teacher records, fulfilling established 
programs, relations with classroom teachers and the community; 
by means of monthly visits and interviews with different teachers 
and representatives. 

Administration: preparation of budgets for the service, acquisi¬ 
tion of collections and furniture, preparation of statistics and 
facts that may be presented to the Office of the Secretary of 

Certification: personnel training who will enroll in librarian 
certification courses based on the experiences of the Banco del 
Libro, utilizing regional resources (library schools, college 
of library science, outstanding teachers, educational personnel 
of the department). 

Courses in specific areas for in-service personnel and workshops 
on themes of interest by teacher demand. 

Production of audiovisual materials: preparation of audiovisual 
materials that implement library work; e.g.: how to use the 
catalog, hew to borrow a book, etc. Generally one may use slides, 
films, photos, games, etc. 

Circulation of materials: lending of materials and audiovisual 
equipment to libraries to prepare planning of activities between 
the teacher and the personnel of the audiovisual aids unit. 
Distribution of materials: the acquisition of print collections. 


non-print, and furniture may be done through a budget assigned by 
the Secretary of Education and Culture. 

This will arrive at the department which will distribute the same 
equitably, although in some cases it will be necessary to adapt such 
distribution to the needs of the libraries. 

OPERATING UNITS (Libraries and Traveling Boxes) 

The operating units consist of: 

a) The central school libraries which function in the schools of 
primary and secondary categories. They will be taken care of by 
teachers and auxiliaries and they will fulfill the specific 
functions according to the program objectives relative to the 
classroom teacher, circulation, and extra program activities. 

b) The traveling boxes function primarily in rural schools under the 
responsibile director-coordinator of the school nucleus or a 
teacher, who will fulfill the function of internal and external 


In the libraries the following services will be fulfilled: 

Advising teachers: this will consist of collaborating with the 
classroom teacher in accordance with the program objectives 
through materials selection, orientation to special activities 
and related themes with the book and the library and which com¬ 
plement the objectives that the teacher considers but cannot 
achieve with his students himself. 

Lending materials to the classroom, in the school, and to the home. 
Within the daily schedule, the first and last minutes of the day 
can be dedicated to the circulation of materials to the classroom 
and to the homes of students and teachers. Individual items are 
circulated because the scarcity of the collection cannot permit 
collective lending to all the classrooms. 

Pre-established activities: daily assistance in the library and 
grade sections according to the assigned time for each section 
through weekly pre-established activities. Assistance will vary 
according to the number of library staff available and the kind 
of activity to be carried out. 

Free reading: the lapse of time designated for student recreation 


can be helped by providing students with educational games and 
recreational reading. 

Extra-program activities: In order to integrate the educational 
community a variety of special activities will be carried out, such 
as expositions, chats, visits, shows, etc. 

Library work will be integrated with classroom work. The teacher 
librarian will plan jointly with the classroom teacher the activities to be 
carried out by the children in the library in order to meet that grade's 
objectives within the educational program. The classroom teacher will be 
like the principal collaborator with the teacher librarian; he will facil¬ 
itate situations in the classroom which will require the use of materials 
offered by the library, help fulfill library programs, and see to it that 
the library room will have continuous movement without it becoming a study 


Interest demonstrated by the governmental and educational authorities 
of the region since 1967 to create a network of school libraries, even 
without sufficient planning or resources. 

Enthusiasm and a sense of vocation in service by teacher librarian 
personnel that form local school library functional units, which are 
occupied and integrated through special activities and the preparation of 
educational materials in order to fill the deficit of collections and in 
order to work with all the students. 

Formation of a department that will assure the functioning of all the 
services of the state primary schools under the same direction, programming, 
and evaluation. 


A proposition of the Autonomous Institute of the National Library and 
Library Services (INBINA) led to the acceptance of Decree 92 by the State 
Government on 3 July* 1978. By this means, the System of Library Ser¬ 
vices of the State of Zulia was created. 

The object of defining what the decree would implement was achieved in 
November, 1979> by a compaign of integration. They arrived at an agreement 
about the major form of the functioning of these services, bringing to 
attention the priority of what direction school library development should 


The integration of the network of school libraries will be conducted 
along the following lines: 

1. The network will combine primary and secondary school libraries, 
dependent on the execution as well as the Ministry of Education. 

2. A team of professional library supervisors will support the 
laborers in each area of the network. 

3. New libraries will install subjects in the school according to 
type, number of students, and location of the region. 

U. Schools that do that do not possess the conditions required for 
library installation will be the object of study in order to 
achieve another type of service, for example, traveling boxes, 
bibliobus, etc. 

5>. Personnel to be integrated should be pre-selected according to 
norms of the Personnel Office of the Autonomous Institute of the 
National Library and Library Service. 

6 . The coordination will be located in a center that will be charged 
with the popularization, display, and distribution of materials. 


1 . The situation of state primary school library services does not 
permit absorption of the consultation potential that the students 
could generate. It is below a satisfactory level, especially 
when compared to the rest of the states or even in the states of 
Boliva and Zulia. 

2. Despite the fact that the school libraries were installed without 
planning and without a sufficient budget, they have been success¬ 
fully established and have formed a network similar to Project 

3. The increment of library services depends on the support of the 
educational community in general, on the public authorities, and 
on the dedication of the personnel in charge of the services. 

U. Zulia is the first state to form a system that integrates all the 
public and school library services under the same direction, 
dependent on the state government. 


To take Decree f?2, 3 July, 1978, of the government of the State of 
Zulia, as a model for the integration of public and school library 


services in the state. 

That Decree 567 may be fulfilled throughout the library services 
in a manner that the books may be distributed and used so that the 
users will be conscious of the need to conserve them for common 

That the personnel in charge of the libraries be qualified as 
school librarians, and that they may be given special treatment 
from an administrative point of view. 

That youth in the regions be given scholarship during vacation in 
order to convert school libraries into public ones, and receive 
major benefits from the conversion through the ’’Vacation Adven¬ 
tures” program, put into practice in public libraries. 

To integrate coordinated budget assigned to school libraries in 
the agreement between the Ministry of Education and the state 
government. Throughout the years this assignment passed to other 
destinations and the school libraries of the Regional Office of 
Education were abandoned. 




By Lie. Doris Marcano de Diaz 

The contributions of the experiences mentioned already had been deter¬ 
mined by the Ministry of Education reorienting their attention and seeing 
that they could create school library services within the formal educational 
system. This was understood to be an educational innovation that would gain 
significance by means of contributing and producing changes in the teaching¬ 
learning process. 

Concerning the basis of these experiences, the Ministry of Education 
designed and applied a project of School Library Nucelus in the metropoli¬ 
tan area with the goal of trying out and establishing mechanisms that would 
facilitate the consolidation of the future network of school libraries in 
the federal district. 

The execution of this action was possible, thanks to the contributions 
which allowed the integration of a corps of standards, ideas, policy 
designs, strategies, work mechanism, and fundamental service models in 
order to orient and make real any programming related to the area. 

The results of such contributions, together with great pressure arising 
from the school population when they publically manifested their dissatis¬ 
faction with the scarcity of resources for learning in their respective 
institutions, contributed among other factors to influence the Ministry of 
Education to design an administrative structure, what within the organiza¬ 
tion, could become real and could coordinate and execute these programs. 

By 1976 a departmental level unit was created, charged with the 
coordination and execution of school library program of the country. 

Since its creation, this department faced a series of limitations in order 
to assume its responsibility to increase librarian programs previewed by 
the Ministry of Education to a national scale. These limitations were: 
budgetary, lack of specialized personnel, scarcity of resource materials, 
and infrastructure. In the same way, the low level hierarchy within the 
organizational structure of the Ministry of Education impeded decisions 
that would have solved the problems. 

In consequence of the aforementioned, the department undertook a study 
and analysis of the project that has been outlined previously, with the 
goal of restructuring and reformulating the objectives and goals, and to be 

able to be oriented about the basis of the conditions and available 
resources. To such an effect, research was started on a national scale in 
order to determine the resources and conditions to be found within the 
schools of the different educational areas. 

Given the circumstances of the established central coordination unit 
located in the federal district, it studied the possibility of taking charge 
of this entity because it would facilitate and guarantee major improvement 
of the available resources and, at the same time, would permit serving a 
bigger school population. 

In relation to this aspect, 106 schools in the metropolitan area were 
taken into account, of which only 23 met minimalconditions in terms of room, 
material and human resources in order to implement this program. 

During theyears from 1976 to the beginning of 1979, 16 state schools 
obtained libraries. They now form the network of school libraries in the 
metropolitan area. 


A. Strategy 

The strategies of development applied in order to make this project 

a reality hadasaframework, besides the support of institutions such 


as the Banco del Libre the Autonomous Institute of the National 
Library, the national commission for the establishment of a library 
information system, and the gathering of experiences of personnel 
who integrated the department and whose people had been partici¬ 
pating actively in order to develop these actions. 

Giving attention to these actions, the design of library models 
was accomplished the readjusted mechanism and work procedures 
were achieved in order to begin the creation of such a network. 

At this particular point, it is now opportune to remark about the 
participation and collaboration of supervisor personnel, directors 
and teachers of the area, and most especially of the Valle-Coche 
sector, which made possible the creation of a sub-network of 
school libraries. 

The goals were oriented about the following bases: 

- To serve all the school population on the different levels of 
study in the formal educational system. 


- To select schools that will offer conditions able to mount 
service: those who will possess better means and have better 
librarian personnel. 

- Design library models that will be adjusted to the conditions 
and characteristics of the locality and type of school. 

- Design mechanism that will permit the creation of sub networks 
of librarians as basic nuclei that will be integrated with the 
network. This procedure will guarantee the implementation and 
coordination of these services. 

B. Library Models 

About this particular concept, the models tried and experimented 
with in the Guayana Nucleus were studied, with the intention to 
determine the advantages and operational activity. From this study 
and analysis they arrived at selecting the dominant model, '’central 
school library," for its great pedagogical advantages and because 
of adjustments of installations to the local conditions of the 
selected schools. 

The application of this model suffered some variance because of 
the characteristics and dimensions of the locales. Keeping in mind 
this aspect, four central library models were designed: 
the model called "resource learning center" 

- model library type A 

- model library type B 

- model library type C 

Library model types B and C constitute models of great generaliza¬ 
tion in the country due to the fact the references for its mounting 
may be adjusted to the conditions and characteristics of the local 
libraries and schools constructed in the latter years. 

The surface of area of these was between i|0 and 70 square meters. 

The models called resource centers and library tape A have been 
implemented only in those school buildings constructed before 1950 
having space for libraries of approximately 80 to 200 square meters. 

C. Sub Networks of Libraries 

The strategy for the conception of these sub networks as basic 
nuclei in the progression structuring of a library network was 



accepted as a compromise whose application facilitated and guaran¬ 
teed complete attention to all the school institutions located in 
the same geographic sector; besides, it permitted major improve¬ 
ment of the resources, an efficient coordination of services, 
interlibrary loan, interrelations between the same institutions, 
and permanent technical assistance. 

The characteristics of these sub networks are given in the follow¬ 
ing aspects: 

- To possess a principal pilot library, that will be the head of 
the sub network. This library will be considered as: 

- Center of librarian training, of demonstration, and populari¬ 

- Unit to link school libraries in the sector, library head¬ 
quarters of the network in other sectors, and the central 
coordinating unit. 

- Basic unit for the fostering and establishment of inter- 
library loan between libraries of the sector and all the 

- Nuclear link between the library headquarters of the net¬ 
work and itself. 

- It will consist of various pilot libraries at each level of 
study. These libraries will constitute linking units between: 

- School libraries of the same academic level. 

Pilot libraries of the sector. 

- And the network headquarters. 

These mechanisms were applied given the demographic complexities of 
the different sectors making up the metropolitan area. 

In each case, each sector represented by parochial units, urban and 
barrios, were considered separately due to its own characteristics 
and needs. 

Upon this base the network of libraries of the federal district was 
created, which consisted of 16 fully functioning school libraries 
and 5 In the process of organization. 

a) ten libraries that would make up the sub network of the Valle- 
Coche sector, constituted by: 


- One pre-school school library 

- Eight primary school libraries 

- One intermediate school library 

This sub network possesses a library headquarters of the network 
and a pilot library for each academic level founded on the linking 
elements of: 

Libraries of the same level 

- With libraries of the sub network 

- and with the network library headquarters 

In equal form, these libraries will constitute centers of demon¬ 
stration, popularization, and librarian training, 

b) Six pilot libraries, located in different sectors established 
by the network headquarters. These libraries are: 

1. One library conceived as a resource center for preschool 


and primary school learning, located in the Sarria sector. 


2. One intermediate level library in the Boleita sector. 

3. One preschool library conceived as a resource center for 
learning in the Casalta II sector. 

U. Three libraries in the Catia sector. 

5>. Two primary school libraries 
6. One intermediate school library. 


1. The most outstanding characteristics at the network level are deter¬ 
mined by the following aspects: 

a) It is made up by a combination of libraries located in the same 
geographic sector and possessing similar conditions and char¬ 
acteristics . 

b) They possess a central coordinating unit that executes the library 
policy of the Ministry of Education. 

c) To permit different types and models of service to be tried out in 
the different institutions and academic levels of that sector. 

d) Each sub network possesses a pilot library for each academic level. 

e) They all have a central technical processing unit which guarantees 
the organization of services. 

f) They are directed by a program of common schedules. 


2. The characteristics of the library level are as follows: 

a) They are directed by the same program, although each one possesses 
its own work plan in which all the school personnel participate. 

b) Within the plan, interlibrary action is the motor that makes the 
actions for each library dynamic. 

c) They each possess a library collection processed and adjusted to 
the needs and interests of the school population it serves. 

d) They possess furniture and equipment adjusted to the existing norms. 

e) They function with similar time schedules. 

f) Personnel working in them join the necessary requisitions in order 
to carry out their functions. 


1. The library services that make up the network of libraries of the 
Ministry of Education are the product of the transference of experi¬ 
ences achieved in the country by different public and private organi¬ 
zations . 

2. The libraries created by the Ministry of Education up until 1978, were 
oriented to attending to the necessary educational materials for 
students on three academic levels of the formal educational system: 
preschool, primary, and intermediate. 

3. Because of its closeness to the central coordinating unit, the network 
of school libraries in the federal district have received the benefits 
of: continuous supervision, collection renovation with great regula¬ 
rity, librarian orientation and permanent technical advice. In the 
same way, they have been able to avoid problems of infrastructure by 
the creation of Demonstration and Popularization Centers. 

U. Because of the few organized school library services in the metro¬ 
politan area, in order to attend to the demands of the school popula¬ 
tion, the libraries of the network have been converted: 

- To a center of training for the formation of new human resources. 

To permanent research workshops for university students of schools 
of library science, education, psychology, as well as for pedagogy 
and other university level institutes. 

To experimental centers for the central university, which have 
permitted models, projects of standards and library procedures to 
be put into practice. 


5. The activities of the former which use this central unit, have 

encouraged the preparation of outlines of each library that make up 
such a network, with a goal of future transfers. 


The consensus of all the results of the experiments achieved in the 
country, in the field of school librarianship, constituted the basis in 
order to pave the way for the implementation of Decree 188, of June, 

1979^ which created the National System of School Libraries. 

These experiences contributed to the following results to the system 
for its future expansion: 

A team of duly qualified school librarians. 

256 school librarians prepared by the Department of Learning 

58 school librarians prepared in the Guayana Nucleus. 

52 school librarians prepared in Zulia. 

Duly evaluated and selected basic collections, in order to serve 
the needs of the three academic levels. 

Models of service adjusted to the needs of the student and the 

Combination of library norms and support materials, which direct 
the implementation of these programs. 

Educational materials and duly processed catalog, which guarantee 
the technical organization of the services being installed. 

This experience accomplished by the Ministry of Education demonstrated 
that in order to create a school library system of national scale, it is 
necessary to consolidate small service centers as basic cells which pro¬ 
gressively make up school library networks. 

In their way, these networks will be the eyes which will constitute 
the national system of school libraries. 

The nuclei or sub networks must be oriented to put emphasis on the 
formation and certification of personnel and to the management and use of 
different educational materials. This personnel training will permit the 
preparation of human resources needed to the functioning of libraries and 
those multiple agencies of this experience. 



By Lilia Carmona Revete, Director of the School Libraries Program of the 
Ministry of Education 

In fulfillment of the social rights established in the Constitution of 
the Republic of Venezuela, which point out and indicate in articles 78 and 
80, that education is a right of all citizens and determine that its goal 
consists of "the full development of the personality, the formation of 
citizens suited for life and for the exercise of democracy, the fostering 
of culture, and the development of spirit of human solidarity"; in virtue 
of the declaration of the necessity and gratitude of education in the State 
of Venezuela, this article should guarantee the resources to 
assure access to education and culture. From the beginning of this pro¬ 
nouncement as interpreted by Antonia Guzman Blanco in 1870, formulas have 
been created with the claimed intent to respond to the satisfaction and 
enjoyment of the right to receive the education each Venezuelan is 
entitled to. 

It was a democratic defiance that started the development and con¬ 
struction of an educational policy that permitted real access to education, 
not only through the creation of schools, but also by considering the pro¬ 
vision of basic and immediate resources that would make the teaching-learn¬ 
ing process effective, in this way making possible the enjoyment of educa¬ 
tion by the population having scarce resources. 

In consequence. Decree 567 of 17 June, 1966, initiated the implementa¬ 
tion of the educational policy being planned at the moment by the State of 
Venezuela as one of its immediate actions. The Ministry of Education was 
responsible for the workings and execution of the decree mentioned. 

In some of the aspects that are relevent to the substantial content of 
this decree, we may point out the need for the Ministry of Education through 
its competent units to bring itself to "the preparation of teaching texts 
and materials for students of educational establishments in the country and 
in the city which will be edited and distributed free within the official 
primary schools." In the same way would be established "texts published by 
the Ministry of Education to be distributed by the official primary schools 
in number equal to that of the students in each grade or school." It was 
considered that the texts given to the schools would form part of the col¬ 
lection of the same, and the school would maintain the library as an 


establishment for the use of those being educated. Similarly, the Ministry 
of Education compromised and gave supplementary and recreational reading 
books to each school library, with the aim of enriching the teaching-learning 
activities. Teachers were responsible for the promotion of "reading those 
supplementary books by means of assigning them that incite periodic consul¬ 
tation or foster artistic or literary expression by writing, recitation, or 
representation in school." Other relevant aspects of this decree state 
that "the school libraries will be open to the community, and in parent- 
teacher meetings and all such events in which the school or its personnel 
participate, they will receive stimuli in order to enrich and utilize such 

Among the limitations of this educational policy is the lack of unified 
criteria for the implementation of the decree, as well as no adequate 
rationalization of designated resources. This made it impossible to effec¬ 
tively achieve the objectives stated in the decree in reference. Neverthe¬ 
less, several actions are being directed toward the creation and development 
of school library services, located in the federal entities of Bolvar, 

Zulia, and the federal district. 

From the revision of the administrative structures of the National 
Public Administration emerged the need to take immediate action to insure 
the transformation in funding according to the demands of the country. The 
Ministry of Education took into its hands the educational reform with full 
agreement "that education should be free, and in order to be free, it should 
be of the mode that man will be capable of constructing the society that he 
aspires to without renouncing his center in it." 

This reform brought, as a consequence, the revision of plans and educa¬ 
tional programs, with the proposal to "convert each Venezuelan into a 
critical and involved man with a sense of vast responsibility capable of 
determining his own destiny, with guaranteed success, confronting the 
accumulation of alternatives with force and pushing the present to full 
life. ,f1 

Within this order of ideas, the Ministry of Education formulated the 
declaration of reading policy. The contents were directed to considering 

Perez Olivares, Enrique. ,r New View of Educational Reform." Ministry 
of Education, Caracas, 197U, pp. U6 and 1±7. 


reading as a priority at all levels of education. Similarly, the pro¬ 
duction of printed materials destined to bring out our national values 
guaranteed free access of high-quality materials to the Venezuelan student 

Other no less important aspects: 

"Research in the reading skills of the population, the motivation 
of the Venezuelan in the field of reading, and of his vocabulary. 

The training and perfecting of teaching personnel at all educational 
levels in new techniques for the learning of reading skills for the 
use of printed materials, and the gradual development of a National 
System of School Library Service" which would respond, for one thing 
to the educational and cultural needs of the Venezuelan student 
population, and for another, to the compromises contract by Venezuela 
in the Andres Bello Agreement. 

In such a way, the Ministry of Education, through Resolution 17 of 16 
October, 1973declared the Nucelus of School Libraries of Ciudad Guayana 
to be a program of experimental character, assigning it the following 

a) "To try out a combination of education resources that would 
facilitate active and diversified learning as a function of 
permanent education. 

b) To carry out research in the field of reading and cooperate with 
those achieved by the Ministry of Education. 

c) To prepare, adapt, and evaluate educational materials adequate 
to the needs of the country and to try out the creative use of 
the same. 

d) To incorporate educational resources and try out alternatives 
in order to maximize benefits." 

It is important to notice the responsibility to execute this resolution 
was assigned to the Office of Planning and other dependencies of the 
Ministry of Education in conjunction with the Banco del Libro and the 
Venezuelan Corporation of Cuayana (CVG). 

The President Decree of 19 November, 197U, created the National 
Commission for the establishment of a National System of Information 
"fundamental in an infrastructure of documentation, libraries, and 


archives." To this Commission was assigned the following functions: 

The vast and detailed evaluation of the services of documentation, 
libraries, and archives existing in the country, as well as to propose 
objectives, policies, and the corresponding infrstructure 

From this evaluation it was derived that only 19$ of all the primary 
schools in the country were said to have some type of library service, let 
alone respond to a coordinated and sustained plan of action. The experi¬ 
mental program of library service in Ciudad Guayana and the school library 
service of the Secretary of Education and Culture of the State of Zulia 
constituted exceptions to his situation. As a solution to the situation 
previously outlined, the Ministry of Education created the Department of 
Learning Resources in 1976, ascribed to the Division of Educational Tech¬ 
nology in the Office of Teacher Support. It had two fundamental objectives 
the evaluation of educational materials and the coordination and develop¬ 
ment of school library services on a national scale. Problems of organiza¬ 
tion, budget, and administration’impeded the full development of the pro¬ 
gram. Nevertheless, they developed actions at the national level, among 
which may be mentioned the experience of the Valle-Coche network and 
federal district networks and the creation of several libraries in other 
federal units. 

For the five-year plan of 1980-1985, education, seen with broader 
vision, was considered as a primary priority within the national planes. 

In this sense the right of every citizen "to have access to the oppor¬ 
tunities of education of the highest quality possible, is the duty of the 


State and the society in its facilitation." 

Within the programs destined to improve the educational system 
quantitively and qualitatively, those that emphasized assistance to stu¬ 
dents acquired singular importance. In them we can point out the program's 
strength and breadth for student use, assuring the distribution and improve 
ment of resources, as well as the "emphasis given to library services, the 
design and production of didactic materials, and designs of an educational, 
cultural, and recreational character." 

1980. p. xxx 

Ministry of Education. 

Report and Account 1979• 



One legal instrument that guaranteed the implementation of this policy 
was Decree 188 of 27 June, 1979, which included in its basic plan the 
obligation that the State has to provide educational establishments with 
resources for the learning and attention of the primary school student popu¬ 
lation through specialized library services and the recognition of actions 
of an experimental character, carried out by public and private organiza¬ 
tions that have demonstrated that library services are translated into 
efficient vehicles in order to give textbooks and other educational materials 
to vast sectors of the population. 

With this decree the System of School Library Services was created, and 
the Ministry of Education was assigned the responsibility of organizing it 
with the technical assistance of the Autonomous Institute of the National 
Library and Library Service. 

In order to faithfully fulfill this decree, the system should accomplish 
a series of objectives such as: 

"To lend specialized library services to all public primary schools to 

those they serve in support of the teaching-lending process." 

In such a way, subsystems of library services should be developed which 
respond to the different administrative regions of the Ministry of Educa¬ 
tion, and the rationalization in the use of resources that the State gives 
for the acquisition of texts and other educational materials to assure its 
efficient distribution. 

The Ministry of Education is competent to organize an administrative 
structure that will allow the achievement of annual individual budgeting, 
the development of school library service subsystems at the national level, 
and the active participation in "the definition of the evaluation and selec¬ 
tion policy of school tests and other educational materials and the develop¬ 
ment of criteria and instruments in order to exercise this policy." 

The Ministry of Education, together with the Autonomous Institute of 
the National Library and Library Service, will give attention to the inter¬ 
mediate student population through different modes of library service. 

In order to carry out the objective of Decree 188 of 27 June, 1979, the 
Ministerial Office of the School Library Service System was created and was 
assigned the resources and functions of the programs for the free distribu¬ 
tion of textbooks, which was under the direction of the Office of Socio- 
Educational Studies and the school libraries, and the evaluation of educa- 


tional materials that were developed by the Department of Learning Resources. 

Among the first actions developed by this office, one can mention the 
programming and implementation of the individual annual budget and the 
diagnosis of the school library infrastructure in the following federal 
entities: Portuguesa, Cojedes, Bolivar, Zulia, and the federal district. 
Consequently, the installation of school library programs was started for 
1980 . 

In the present five-year plan we have provided for the attention of 
7,7U9,533 public primary school students through the annual individual 
budget that will achieve the provision of two books per student in the first 
grade in the areas of mathematics and language, and four books per student 
in the second to sixth grades in the areas of mathematics, language, social 
studies, and natural science. This will mean the distribution of 27,601,872 
textbooks during the five years. 

In relation to school libraries, the creation of 1590 libraries in basic 
educational establishment is estimated, in 23 federal districts. With the 
installation of that number of libraries, it will cover 27$ of the total 
number of buildings. 

These actions will imply the incorporation of 25UU school librarians 
who will be in charge of service required at the institutional level. In 
order to guarantee the training and certification of such personnel, a 
minimum of fifty courses will be offered. 

From an organizational point of view, the creation of school library 
coordinating centers will be provided for at the level of the different 
educational zones. 

Relative to the evaluation of educational materials, the revision pro¬ 
cess to include the procedures to document this activity has been started. 

In the technical aspects, the office has provided for the organization of 
activities relative to the acquisition of materials and technical process¬ 
ing, and has reaffirmed the importance of coordination with the Sectorial 
Office of Planning and Budget, inherent in the evaluation of educational 

It will be significant that the gathering of all facts of this exposi¬ 
tion, as well as the achievement of the foreseen goals, requires not only 
optimal financial resources, but it is also fundamental to have the active 
and effective participation of public and private institutions and 


organizations of diverse nature, involved in the educational problems, as 
well as the singular importance to have the concurrence of planning educa¬ 
tors, supervisors, teachers, students and assorted members of the educa¬ 
tional community. 



By Dr. Nelson Rodriguez Trujillo 

As has been pointed out in the introduction, these three experiences 
share common origins; they have been influenced and, in their way, have 
Influenced the development of certain legal documents that, in their 
totality, form what is today the foundation for the development of a 
national system of school libraries. 

Moreover, these three experiences have not been isolated incidents, 
but have maintained relations among them. The experience of Ciudad 
Guayana was the first program to be developed and served as an element to 
train personnel who later developed the Nucleus of Zulia, presented by 
Nelly Primera, and developed the project described by Doris Marcano. 

From the conversations we had in order to organize the panel, we found 
that even though the three experiences were developed in independent ways 
and adapted to dissimilar circumstances and conditions, they all shared a 
concept of the school library as an instrument of innovation. Besides 
that, the library is conceived a formative element for the individual, an 
individual capable of permanent learning, and disregards the idea of a 
school library as a mere addition to the classroom, which was the domirflnt 
concept before. 

In another aspect, these three experiences developed a similar struc¬ 
ture. In order to optimize their functioning, they concentrated certain 
support functions . They have centralized and developed peripheral opera¬ 
tional units, and receive support from the central units so they can 
develop service to the user. 

Another point that has been emphasized is the training of teachers and 
users. These experiences have demonstrated that it is not sufficient to 
implant a library in a school, but that a total training process is neces¬ 
sary, not only for the teacher librarian but also for supervisors, direc¬ 
tors and the same children who will be library users. Only then will they 
achieve an optimal use of the resources placed at the schools disposition. 
Nevertheless, besides all these common elements, each of these experiences 
have had to make adaptations to local conditions in order to give service. 

In reviewing the three experiences we become aware that there are 
variations in terms of available resources and variations with respect to 
the modes of functioning. 


These experiences have demonstrated this central concept that can be 
shared: the fact of adapting to local conditions and managing functions 
and providing circulation services, despite minimal conditions. 

On the other hand, these experiences have demonstrated that though 
internally they have a high decree of coherence and functionality, there 
is little coherence with the educational system in general. This is demon¬ 
strated, by example, in the fact that the development of library services 
was not accompanied by the development of a curriculum that included library 
service within the teaching-learning process. Moreover, these programs had 
problems being transferred and generalized at the national level. Up until 
very recently, there did not exist an office in the Ministry of Education 
high enough within the hierarchy and with sufficient resources to develop a 
national program of school libraries. 

The fact that each of these experiences had not been coherent with the 
educational system in general, created a certain limitation in the possi¬ 
bilities of developing each program in particular. This is manifested in 
internal tensions in each program, which has been manifested most clearly 
in this conference. An example is the fact that there does not exist a 
seniority scale for the teacher librarian profession, which would permit 
development. This creates internal problems because it is a limitation in 
development in that each program cannot independently establish policies, 
seniority, and salaries that might afterwards collide with fixed national 

The other conclusion is the fact that those programs have survived due 
to the fact that there has been continuous programming either through an 
institution that backed the development of these programs or through person 
who were intimately involved in the program and gave it continuity. There 
was no official policy that backed them at the national level until 1970 
when Decree 188 was produced, which defined such policy. 

These programs demonstrate on one hand the need for a certain degree of 
decentralization at the regional level in order to maintain a functioning 
program. Besides, they also demonstrate the need, together with this 
regional decentralization, for the existence of national level norms to 
guarantee a minimum quality for their functioning. 

Besides this regional decentralization, a degree of cohension at the 
regional level is needed in order to allow the maintenance and accomplish- 


ment of the norms that have been established or should be established. 

To reiterdethese three programs show that certain strategies were 
found most clearly for the development of school libraries: 

1) that there ought to be a very strong emphasis on the training 
of users and personnel who are in charge of libraries; 

2) the need for regional or local centralization of certain tech¬ 
nical functions from which will be derived less costly function¬ 
ing and the guarantee of achieving standardization; 

3) a decentralization of the budget for services with an emphasis 
on supervision for the maintenance of standards; 

U) a definition of the professional status of teacher librarians 
or school librarians and a definition of the hierarchy and 
seniority for teacher librarians, which will permit them to go 
up within this career, as a mechanism for the certification and 
maintenance of human resources; and finally; 

5) the progressive development of networks with a strong support 
of local units that will give them continuity. That is to say, 
the idea is that, given the scarce resources that exist, it is 
not possible to install great systems, but thought should be 
given in terms of progressively developing school library net¬ 
works . 



Presented by Lie. Lilian de Carias, Director of the "Tricolor” Journal of 
the Ministry of Education 

In the world in which we no* live, so dynamic and which invokes a 
world of images nevertheless, I believe that the instruments of human 
learning will be the printed medium. Publications will continue to have 
much importance to the great degree that they will direct children in all 
the nations as in Venezuela where the youth and infant population is the 

In our country we have a children's magazine "Tricolor", which was 
founded by Professor Rivero Orama in * 19119 - In other words, our magazine 
is 31 years old. 

"Tricolor" came out with a very clear, somewhat egotistical, objec¬ 
tive: to counteract the penetration at this time of the Argentina maga¬ 
zine "Billiken," which naturally transmitted to our children values and 
idioms of another country. Therefore, it was thought to publish a 
children's magazine that would transmit Venezuelan values and would con¬ 
tribute to reaffirm the national identity, using the language that was 
appropriate and the idioms that were Venezuelan. 

In its inception, people worked on "Tricolor" who are now famous. The 
artists Trompiez and Cruz Diez were its illustrators and great Venezuelan 
writers were its first editors. 

At this point, we believe that the magazine must change because the 
children denot have the same approach they cannot follow the same ideas 
of thirty years ago. There are other media with which we have to compete. 
Audiovisual media practically bombard infantile and juvenile minds and puts 
into their reach much information, sometimes in a harmful way. 

Because of this, we have wanted to convert "Tricolor" not into a 
didactic piece as such, but we are trying to orient the magazine in such a 
way as to create a recreational magazine that will inform, but not did¬ 
actically. We utilize information and reports about the actual world to 
give children an objective vision of today's world and a projection into 
the future. Although we continue to reaffirm the Venezuelan identity, 
using indigenous language and our folklore, we adapt them all to the pre¬ 
sent time. 

As for production, I want to make it clear that we are always thinking 


of the ideal magazine. There is always criticism saying that something 
must be said in such and such a manner. This criticism is based on an 
ideal magazine. But we ought to remember that we are on the earth, in a 
real world, and we have to utilize what we have at hand. 

We face many problems at the level of human and economic resources. 

At the human resources level, for example, there really isn't much person¬ 
nel in the field of children's literature; very few people are dedicated to 
this field, and the majority are improvised. Anything will apply to what 
we call children's literature; this is a great limitation. Nevertheless, 
we try to select material that is more geared to the children in such areas 
as short stories and poetry, only good poetry. In this issue we are in¬ 
cluding a selection of Chinese Hai-Ku poetry because we think that children 
should know about real literature. There is not a very clear definition or 
division between children's literature and literature for adults. I 
believe that children can read anything as long as the grammar is clear in 
their reading. 

We also insert science materials but viewed from another perspective 
rather than emphasizing what teachers say in class. For example, we would 
not repeat that the human body is divided into the head, trunk, and extrem¬ 
ities, but would rather present a different vision. For example, in one 
issue we might present "The world of the Paraguana spine," which is science 
but in a different manner than seen in class. 

Similarly, we transmit our values at a historical level as well as in 
literature. Personalities of yesteryear or nowadays are interviewed and 
geared to the level of children in order to awaken their creativity and 
imagination. At the recreational level we include short stories, games, 
jokes, that is to say a variety magazine, not a didactic piece to support 
teachers. Illustrations are photographs and drawings. If the material is 
appropriate, it is illustrated with drawings; if the theme is of the real 
world and more documentary in nature, photographs are used. We have incor¬ 
porated much photography, including the cover. 

As for diagrams, we are trying to change it little by little. We have 
to adopt more modern designs in the graphics. The field has advanced a 
lot, and the magazine is really a little behind. 

In content we also try to have material for the population that the 
Ministry of Education pays attention to, including special educational 


in an area taken care by the Ministry of Education. For pre-schoolers we 
put within the magazine a publication called "Tricolorin." 

The distribution problem caused by poor mail service impeded the 
arrival of the magazine for a considerable number of subscribers. This has 
been solved in great part by enclosing it in the periodical of national 
circulation. That is an excellent means of distribution and guarantees the 
dissemination of 200,00 copies in equal number to the Venezuelan homes 
throughout the country. The 50,000 remaining copies are distributed in 
school libraries and institutions. 

In regard to its relations with the school library, precisely, we 
believe that "Tricolor" should be used as a means to foster the reading 
habit. We believe it should be utilized more. It has the advantage of 
presenting short informative and recreational works. Besides, it would be 
economical because it is distributed free. I think that there should be 
coordinated efforts with the school library because "Tricolor" is a 
vehicle used to promote school libraries. There should be more con¬ 
tact and published information about how to use the school library, such as 
how to take care of books, etc., so that children know how help can be 
offered by the school library. In agreement that the printed medium is 
important and that children need reading elements, the Ministry of Educa¬ 
tion has thought about publishing other types of publications, such 
as "Special Tricolor Editions," and has published books such as "Young 


Simon Bolivar," a series of biographies for students which are extracts 
from the lives of personalities and worthy Venezuelans, which students like 
very much. We can mention "The Child and the Plastic Arts," "My School 
Songs" and others. They have published enough material that could be used 
by teacher librarians. I believe that would be a good idea to establish 
close ties and, in this way, work together very much. 

Thank you very much. 



The journal "El Carabobeno," which is published in Valencia in the 
State of Carabobo, has in mind with this supplement to create a children's 
reader. The supplement comes on in the Sunday edition with a circulation 
of 55,000 copies. It was first published in May of 1977. 


Besides gaining readers, we have in mind to stimulate the creativity of 
the children and to give them values. Because of this, we always use a 
child's drawing for the cover. They send us pictures without our need to 
solicitate them, vfe also hope that the supplement will serve as a guide 
to support parents and teachers. 

In the distribution of material within the supplement is included: one 
page dedicated to parents and teachers, one short story, one game or some¬ 
thing the children could make, for example, a collage; we offer them examples 
of how to make it or show the works of other children. In the course of the 
following week, we receive much work prepared by the children. In order to 
illustrate the short stories, we use illustrations made by children or 

We are always preoccupied with proposing new things in the most fun form 
in order to involve the children and awaken their interest. And, of course, 
because of the penetration that the supplement has, we want the children to 
consider it and value it 100$. In this respect, I believe that we have 
accomplished our purpose and we have gotten the children to collaborate 
enthusiastically, among them some little girl who lives for it, having 
accomplished a creation and hoping to see it printed in the pages. 

Regardless of the fact that the supplement is well received by children 
and adults, we cannot say the same thing among the teachers. We cannot 
understand why it is net utilized, not as a didactic piece strictly speak¬ 
ing, but as supplementary materials. For example, it amuses me that a 
teacher told me that she did not use the supplement because the material 
that we published, for example for 5 July, was different from that in the 
books. We believe that the supplement material has to be different from 
the text; otherwise, if they are equal, what are we doing? 

For example, we think that the short story of Carlos Izquierdo that we 
published in commemoration of the Battle of Carabobo presents a much more 
fun picture than that version repeated every year in school. It could 
serve as a good support document. It is our hope to increase the recep¬ 
tivity in school, and in this sense our work will be appreciated more. 

As for school libraries, although it is well received in Ciudad Guay- 
ana, we cannot say the same for the rest of the country. In other cities 
there are very few libraries and those that exist are disregarded. It is a 
field that I do not know much about, and I would like to hear judgments 


about it in particular. 

Thank you very much. 



We may affirm that children's and young adult publications are almost 
nonexistent in relation to the immense number of children and youth who have 
no possible access to information or to the pleasure of reading. A great 
percentage of what we have today comes from the publishing industry which 
feed us sources that are different from the interests and needs of the users. 
It is also well to say that the natural competence as well as the require¬ 
ments of subject materials in the curriculum, have gradually modified the 
situation. It is no less certain that harmful concepts still persist about 
our own culture. A common characteristic of the problem of children's work 
is the scarce designation of financial resources, technology, and human 
resources necessary in order to develop a publishing policy. It is urged 
that the state assume the responsibility of promoting and coordinating a 
system of production of high quality material as well as guaranteeing the 
right of children and youth for its use. This will imply fixing guide¬ 
lines in order to design and develop materials, train human resources in 
order to produce, distribute, and apply materials; and have legal and 
financial support for the publishing activity oriented as a social function. 
The coexistence of state and private enterprise will stimulate the creation 
of children's and young adult works that will exalt proper cultural values, 
the coproduction and free circulation of educational materials that make up 
Latin America, the fostering of editions of universal literature, and the 
accessibility of materials through their low cost selling or by means of 
library service networks. This would be the type of platform, to which 
the El Macaro Center of Teacher Training would be moving in order to have 
this job. 

I would not like to talk about materials without talking about Macaro. 

In Macaro we always want to make the work fun with the sentiment, 
that we call ourselves "the forge of hope." 

Macaro is situated in the State of Aragua, near the lake of Valencia, 
on the road that goes from Maracay to Turmero. Macaro was started with the 
slogan which said "Keep Venezuela, give us the country." Our job was rural. 


Macaro is U2 years old. It was first a teachers' school, then an agrarian 
school, and next a training center in order to guide rural education. Much 
later it was a center to prepare programs for rural education, and ulti¬ 
mately, it became a center for production of educational materials. The 
training center is an institute for teacher pre fecting and is ascribed to 
the Office of Higher Education of the Ministry of Education. This 
has made us sacrifice part of our identity for which we are ascribed to the 
Institute of Professional Improvement of Teachers. At this moment, we are 


in a campaign of rescuing the Institution, because we think that Macaro 
cannot lose its identity. Macaro is, besides, a laboratory for the design 
and development of printed educational materials destined for basic educa¬ 
tion . 

We started primarily in the training of directors, but we saw that every¬ 
thing has to be within a context. We had initiated the study of rural edu¬ 
cational programs, without noticing the deficiency of the materials we had, 
and that was when we began to produce prototypes. We made prototypes of 
materials of around 3000 copies when we talk about books, and 12,000 to 
15,000 copies when we refer to magazines, pamphlets, and worksheets. We 
have more than U0 published titles. 

First we were dedicated to producing textbooks because we thought here 
was an immediate need. Later although we continued to think that the book 
was important, we determined that it was not all and that we had to diversify 
production. Because of this, we were dedicated to preparing supplementary 
reading books and children's literature, and the preparation of magazines. 
Presently, we have the magazine "Sembrador", which is 18 years old. Another 
magazine is "Conono" for the Amazon Territory and "Maraisa" for the Delta 
Amcuro Territory because we thought that these indigenous areas had been 
abandoned for so long that we needed to rescue them. 

Macaro is the executive institution, according to the Ministry of Educa- 
tion-OAS Agreement, of inter-American projects of printed educational 
materials and children's literature. In this way we evolutionized textbooks 
and those projects we supported. Initially, we had executed the inter- 
American project for science and mathematics materials. For eight years we 
had courses for scholarship in all Latin America with the idea of trans¬ 
ferring the experiences that we had acquired. In this process we enriched 
ourselves because in this interchange of experiences each time we thought 


we were giving something we were receiving much more, and this is, to me, 
the value of the projects. 

Mathematics and science produced a boom, but we were certain that we 
had to increase the production of materials in other areas, so the mathe¬ 
matics and science project was ended. We started with printed educational 
materials. Next we initiated the children's literature project, which was 
conducted in principle with CONAC. In actuality, CONAC formed part of the 
project as a nominal co-executing institution. The action was assumed by 
another co-executing institution: the Banco del Libro. 

Macaro, in the same way as the Banco del Libro—I think without 
modesty—has, as few institutions do, a high quality in learning and use of 
resources. The Banco del Libro was the first to take steps in this improve¬ 
ment, but we have taken over the direction of coordinating and integrating 
institutions. We work with the Simon Bolivar University, the Central Occi¬ 
dental University, the INAPE, and other national and international organi¬ 
zations . 

The inter-American projects serve to enrich our literary production. 
First, in seminars and workshops of literary creation at the national level, 
from the workshops we had two years ago we, we published "Stories of Vene¬ 
zuela for America." Before that, in improving the mathematics and sciences 
courses, all the literary production of the scholars have been sold. We 


had published "Burbuja", "Burbujas 2",* we have 'Burbujas and "Burbujas L ,f 
is almost ready for sale. 

From the following international workshops, of the Seminar on Children's 
Literature for the Americas, carried out last year, we are making a report 
and an anthology of stories of the persons (authors) who participated. 
Illustrators and publishers also participated inthis seminar, and it was 
very interesting. 

Macaro is an organization of permanent educational innovation. In this 
sense we are adopting the focus of the system and are applying it to the 
design of materials. Ws have made profile designs and have worked jointly 
with institutions on documents on the characteristics of the materials. 

Generally speaking, it is thought that production is the most important 
thing. But we cannot forget the interdependency among production, distribu¬ 
tion, and use of materials, in order to avoid cases such as the one when the 
Ministry of Education printed a title of 300,000 copies. But because of the 

lack of distribution, they were lost in depositories and were destroyed by 
bookworms and other insects. We have become aware that the library service 
networks are very necessary in order to accomplish a rational distribution 
of printed materials that are produced in the country. 



1 . Background of the Editorial Board of the Banco del Libro 

Ekare Editions emerge: 

1) From the conviction of the Banco del Libro of the importance of 
children's literature in order to teach children to relate to read¬ 
ing with pleasure, and on the other hand, to place the textbook 
whose fundamental function is to transmit information, within a 
relatively rigid framework. 

2) From the importance of children's literature, the supplementary 
reading book as a book of information that will stimulate the 
curiosity of the child and will lead him to research at his own 
pace and will teach him interesting things that will be the proto¬ 
type for research. 

3) From the frustrations that were being faced by people working in 
the library of the Banco del Libro, persons who worked in the 
Department of Evaluation, and those in the Committee of Selection 
who could not find Venezuelan material for our schools. 

If Ekare Editions is two years old, it is with the support of 20 
years of work by the Banco del Libro with children and young adults 
by which we could accumulate great experience through the probings 
of needs and interests, detected among the users of the Banco del 
Libro Library. 

Ekare Editions has been defined as a job oriented by the following 

1 ) To produce books in accord with the interests and needs detected 
in the Banco del Libro libraries of Ciudad Guayana as well as in 

2) To fill the gaps of children's literature market. This purpose is 
quite ambitious because Ihe deficiencies of the market are almost 
total. For this, we have defined three big areas of work: 

1) Books for children 6, 7, and 8 years old, initiation to reading 

2) Books on Venezuela and Latin America, for all ages. 

3) Books of information of Venezuela and Latin America, concen¬ 
trating on children 10 to 1U years old and trying to cover 
children from 7 to 9 years old. 


3) To take the library as a principal client because it is the main 
way to reach a major number of children free. 

In the beginning of the Editorial Board, when we faced alterna¬ 
tives of producing children's books, we thought about two 

1) To produce books in mass very cheaply. The Banco del Libro 

did not have that possibility because it was determined that 

we had to have titles of 300,00 copies in order to sell them 

for 1 or 2 bolivares apiece. 

2) To produce them with very good materials that will last in 
order to distribute them to all the libraries. 

We chose this second alternative. 

h) To interest the authors in order that they would produce more and 
better books for children, and to provide children illustrators in 
order to form specialists in illustrations of children’s books. 

In Venezuela there are excellent artists, but there is no tradi¬ 
tion to illustrate children's books. 

6) To publish Venezuelan and Latin American books, but not to dis¬ 
regard very good original translations of other countries so that 
children may know about other cultures. 

6) To develop production processes that will allow the sale of books 
at reasonable prices. This had been the hardest fight because the 
Venezuelan cost of books are not at all reasonable for the public. 
Libraries continued to be our principal market. 

7) To systemize the experience acquired in the publication of 
children's and young adult books in order to establish ways that 
could be shared by other publishers in Venezuela and Latin 

2. Collections 

Based on the experience acquired in the libraries, we have developed 
various collections: 

1 ) Indigenous Narrations . For children beginning to read, we return 
to our indigenous and Creole roots with collections of narrations 
beginning with one of the peasants of Gran Sabana. These books, 
"El Rabipelado Burlad" and "El Cocuyo ya la Mora," are the result 


of a first pre-selection of almost 200 stories, myths, and indigen¬ 
ous legends. Fifty of them were approved by the libraries and 
children. Those are the first two children’s stories of the peas¬ 
ant cycle, and we are arousing a great reaction. I don't know if 
we reached the collective subconscious, but there was a truly pro¬ 
found identification with the stories. They are fresh texts with 
simple anecdotes: "Why does the rabipelado smell bad? Why does 
the cocuyo have a fire in his tail?" The third story in this col¬ 
lection is "The Tiger and the Thunder," which is already on the 

2) Rhymes and Puzzles . This is a collection that gets at the terrible 
and marvelous thing called poetry, which many children hate because 
in the schools they are obliged to memorize long verses. Therefore, 
we resolved to look for poems that tell a story and would make a 
beautiful book of tales. This will help the teachers to introduce 
poetry to the children. We chose the famous poem "Margarita" by 
Ruben Dario, and we achieved a work of illustration that took away 
the tackiness that many people attached to it. Although several 
people described it as flashy, we believe that we cannot deny the 
beauty of the language in "Margarita." In our edition the illustra¬ 
tions combine realism and fantasy in an excellent manner. 

Another of these poem-stories is "The Moorish Prince" by the famous 
poet Fernando Paz Castillo. It is a story that not too many chil¬ 
dren like because the prince is a really seedy character who loses 
his kingdom at the end and goes fishing. Regardless of all the 
warnings of the good fairy godmother, the prince goes with the bad 
fairy godmother. With this book something interesting occurred. 

We first tried the original where the prince dies. The children 
asked us not to kill the prince. So we went to the author and asked 
him to change the ending; he left the prince fishing in the pond. 
When we sold the book, we asked the children what their opinion was 
about the ending of the book. One of them said, "Well, if the 
prince remained fishing for such a long time (because the illustra¬ 
tion shows him with a fishing rod with a spider web on it), it must 
show that he was happy and that he would stay there. So there was 
nothing else to do." 


A third book in this collection is "What will be, what will not be?", 
a recompilation of fhymes, puzzles, and popular refrains. Children 
of all ages are fascinated with this such that this has become a 
best seller. 

3) Nature and Ecology . This collection of books is to be colored, but 
not the traditional way that we don't like. The idea is to present 
a scientific book where the children learn by doing. When they color 
a corocoro, they will learn not only the colors of the bird, but 
also the form of its wings, its legs, its habitat, etc. The reason 
for coloring the book in the first place is to stimulate the child's 
participation, and in the second place because it would be too 
expensive to do it in four-color printing. 

Another participation book without text is "What happened?" The 
illustrator draws different situations, mainly humorous, but with¬ 
out ending them. Therefore, the child completes the illustrations. 

Another collection which is in the preparation phase is "This is 
the way we live." Aspects of daily life, of real life in the 
country and the city are shown, where the children take active part 
in resolving problems. 

Another collection, "Ponte Poronte," is geared to children 3 to 6 
years old and touches warm and familiar themes such as care of 
teeth, the first day of school, a birthday present. The collec¬ 
tion "Our people" treats different groups of people who live in 

"Love and fright" is another collection for children 11 and on, 
with more text. Books of intrigue, love, and suspense are liked 
by adolescents. 

"Creole Stories," within which are presented the very Venezuelan 
relations of "Uncle Tiger and Uncle Rabbit," are understood by 
children very well. 

Among the translations, I would like to mention "Rewarded Cur¬ 
iosity" for parents with questioning children. The Brazilian 
story "Tail of the cat" is for beginning readers. 


3. Problems that confront children's published in Venezuela 

1 ) The high cost of preparation and production. 

2) The lack of specialized personnel. There are very few children's 
illustrators, very few children's writers, and no editors. 

3) Lack of knowledge on the part of teachers, parents, and educators 
about the market because there are no reviews where they can see 
what has been published for children. 

U) Lack of libraries. Here it is important to promote school librar¬ 
ies because they form readers and create the reading habit. 

U. Positive Aspects 

1 ) We may be pioneers in this field, pioneers in the sense of accom¬ 
plishing a systemization of publishing production because in 
Venezuela, before the Banco del Libro, there were many people who 

had produced my valuable things in children's literature, but, 


apart from Marcaro, there hasn't been any systematic publication. 

2) We must awaken great interest and receptivity for books at all 
levels: children, teachers, parents, and the public in general. 

3) The field of work for authors and illustrators of children's lit¬ 
erature must be increased; it is a source of vast and valuable 
human resources. 

h) I would also like to feed our field by seeing a receptivity on the 
part of the Ministry of Education. Although it has started for 
books, it isn't there for textbooks. The best thing of all is the 
creation of library networks pushed by the National Library and 
ultimately the possibility that the Ministry of Education will put 
out Decree 188 and get it functioning as a result of this confer¬ 

ence . 






Investigating Team 

Cova, Arabia Teresa 
Leidenz, Minerva 
Liendo, Marta 
Ochoa, America 
Oropeza de Ojeda, Olga 
Ramirez, Yolanda 
Sanz, Elena 

Coordinator : 

Olga Oropeza de Ojeda 

Advis or: 

Zoila Bayley 


A. Introduction 

Venezuela is one of .the young countries of the Third World, which 
because of its strategic position in Latin America and the basic of the 
Caribbean, cannot maintain the margin of reality surrounding it. 

This circumstance within the country's democratic system, constitu¬ 
tes a frame of reference that does not have the influence and does not 
reflect itself in action in its own social system. It should be projecting 
itself more into the frontiers through educational action that may take 
care of problems that affect our society. 

After realizing these factors with relation to the general theory of 
the system, it could contribute to the evaluation and the necessary changes 
in the different educational, geographic, and political fields that face 
our social and historical reality. 

In this systematic sense, we have wanted to orient this work as 
a contribution to the theme "New ideas and trends in school librarian 

We share the idea that none of the programs related to school library 
work should be confronted with practical delimitations or by the margin of 
a social, historical, political, and educational context. It is obvious 
that these circumstances weaken the significance of school library services 
conceived in systematic form as well as the transference that the educa¬ 
tional system can offer in order to achieve social changes and the type of 
human who demands the development of our country. 

The traditional changes from the point of view of conceptual ideas have 
been seen to operate in the social system of action of our people. They 
take a philosophical focus on the education of today and in the future. 

Among these factors are the ones that move us and encourage a curriculum 
system design that will give major relevance and significance as well 
as to the training of the educational librarian at an occupational level 
within the context of the region in which he works. 

B. Brief diagnostic impressions. Considerations . 

The studies carried out in Venezuela and other Latin American countries, 
which strive to diagnose the conditions and possible school library service 
development, infer that we face common problems in achieving organization 
and efficient functioning of the library system as an infrastrueture of the 


educational system in which it fits. At the same time, it is conditioned 
by the system of social action in which it is involved. In this sense, we 
believe emphatically in two basic conditions: a conceptual type and a new 
philosophical platform. 

- From the conceptual point of view, the social system of educational 
action has suffered radical changesthat create a new philosophical 

Here are facts justifying the sector of educational libraries: 

- The family and the community are an integral part of the educational 
process and the necessary foundation of technical support. 

- The primary school is converted into a basic school; in other words, 
it prolongs education to eleven or nine grades. 

- Education is continual, permanent and conceived as training and 
service development. 

- Higher education is prolonged to the Uth level (Masters-Doctorate) and 
up to the 5th level (Post-Doctorate). 

- Moreover, there is the possibility that the formal educational 
system will disappear and that learning resource centers will be 
created. (Ivan Illich). 

- Among the common practical problems detected, which affect the 
development of our school library services and which we suggest 

and will dominate education and in order not to limit the concept 
of primary school and academic education because this forms part of 
the educational phenomenon in general and of the social system of 
action is evidence of the need to know quantitively and 

qualitively the professional and paraprofessicnals who must be 
trained at the different levels. This is necessary in order to act 
and efficiently take care of the organization, the development, 
and consolidation of educational library system. These should be 
conceived as infrastructures of the social system of action in which 
education occupies a large role. 

In Venezuela, we have proved that to satisfy this necessary objective 
is not an easy task in a short time, but neither is it impossible to achieve. 
The imposing task relying on numerous and high-quality professionals neces¬ 
sary for the establishment of the National System of Library and Informa¬ 
tion Service (SINAS3I) contemplated in our hierarchy search, has been 


converted into a pressure that exerts organizations to implant or treat 
the developing information and library services. It is also a preoccupa¬ 
tion of institutions responsible for forming human resources that require 
the aforementioned system. 

In the special case of school libraries in the country, the need to 
train qualified personel in that specialty has been still more evident 
through the Presidential Decree 188, of 27 June, 1979, in which 

the creation of the System of School Librarian Services was contemplated. 

In order to approach this problem in a systematic and effective way, 
it was considered convenient if the institutions responsible for training 
human resources in this field of specialization would unify criteria, 
efforts and resources, with the goal of setting the bases of curriculum 
design for the training of an educated librarian, who by preparation and 
attitudes, would be capable of attending to the growing demand for infor¬ 
mation and educational needs of the population, from which extends their 
radius of action. 

This motivation and the interest to share experiences with other coun¬ 
tries made it possible for representatives of different institutions such 
as the School of Library Sciences and Archivists of the UCV, the Ministry 
of Education, Banco del Libro and the Executive Secretary of the National 
System of Library and Information Services together to reflect on the need 
and importance of finding the best way to face the responsibility of train¬ 
ing the educational librarians required. 

The project that we present here is the basis for preparing a 

curriculum for the training of educational librarians and is founded on 
the following considerations: 

- The present conception of education has an obligation 
educational librarians, as ascribedfto different educational sub¬ 
systems . 

- The diagnostic impressions made in Venezuela and several Latin 
American countries relative to the training that educational 
librarians have establishes the need to update and increase 
the number of educational professionals. 

- The need to conceive of the training of professional and parapro- 

i »•> 

fessional educational librarians in a systematic focus in order 
to rationally attend to the requirements of the System of Library 


and Informational Services in each country. This will allow us to 
carry out an investigation in order to define the professional pro¬ 
file of the educational librarian. 

The profile study, together with the diagnostic, quantitative impres¬ 
sion in the theoretical conceptual framework would constitute the funda¬ 
mental basis for the design of the corresponding curriculum. 

The curriculum design will be determined within the systemic concep¬ 
tion for the conceived theoretical framework and the exit profile 
at different levels of training. 

Provided this proposition, we have established the following research 

C. Objectives 

1 ) General Objectives 

Divide the different levels of responsibility of educational 
librarians within the social educational system. 

Know the qualitative needs of educational librarians by means 
of analyzing the demands of activities and tasks that are 
developed in the media center. 

- Study the occupational market demand for educational librarians. 
2) Specific Objectives 

Know the activities and tasks relative to the diverse func¬ 
tioning that, to a greater or less degree, follow the process 
of the educational librarian. 

- Analyze the scientific knowledge and theoretical areas that 
the educational librarian must face in order to accomplish his 
functions (activities-tasks). 

Note the mental ability and motor skills that the educational 
librarian must develop. 

Investigate what values and attitudes conform to and orient the 
conduct of the educational librarian in the development of his 

D. Reference Framework 

In order to define the objectives, the theoretical framework and our 
research methodology, we consulted specialists and asked the advice of Dr. 
Zoila Bayley, who, with great logic and coherence, gave us the directions 


in order to proceed once the following questions were cleared 

- How is our social, educational system formed in relation to infor¬ 

- Are we in agreement with such systems and information resources 
that we make available? 

- Are we in agreement with the training given to educational librar¬ 
ians by our institutions? 

- Is the present librarian capable of taking care of information 
demands and serving as an agent of transformation in a country that 
is subject to accelerated changes in order to accomplish development 

- Of what significance is the definition and analysis of the profes¬ 
sional librarian and what advantage is it to our report? 

- What will be the research methodology used to define, analyze, 
and describe or diagnose a professional and concrete profile of the 
educational librarian, in order to achieve the resultant hopes? 

- What levels of desirability and facility exist in order to create 
a coordinated system of educational librarian training for Latin 
America and the Caribbean? 

- To what conclusions and recommendations will we arrive in this 

E. Work Agenda 

The path in order to clear up the formulated questions and to reach the 
research objectives and the proposed action plan, is the design and develop 
ment of a total curriculum with systemized focus, for which the following 
scheme is proposed: 

1. Justification 

a. The motivation and interest that exist in the institutions 
and personnel involved with the development of library and 
information intrastructures and with the training of profes¬ 
sionals that the country demands quantitatively and qualita¬ 
tively, in order to fulfill the legal ordinance that calls for 

"The planning, organization, and progressive development of 
the National System of Services Libraries and Humanistic, 
Scientific, and Technological Information; of Archives and 


Informative Statistics", according to Presidential Decree 
2^31 of 3 January, 1978. 

- The creation of the Autonomous Institute of the National 

Library and Library Services "as a nucleus charged with poro- 
moting, planning, and coordinating the development of the 
National System of Library Services within the framework of 
the National System of Service of Librarians and Humanistic, 
Scientific, and Technological Information".”* 

b. The diagnostic impressions obtained in Venezuela and other 
Latin American countries in the matter of educational librar¬ 
ian services. 

c. The programs developed and the results obtained in training 
educational librarians at different levels and the projects 
presented by public and private institutions, which constitute a 
significant background that should be taken into consideration 
in order to define the actions to take in the future. 

d. The accomplished efforts and the interest manifested by diverse 
institutions, organizations, and personnel in the national, 
regional, or international in order to unify criteria and 
gather efforts through programs or conventions of cooperation 
and transference of experiences to give the most 

adequate training to educational librarians. (Examples: 

Andres Bella Agreement, OAS, Unesco, COFEBU, Banco del Libro, 
UCV, etc.) 

2. Conceptual Theoretical Framework 

Concept of the Educational Librarian 

We allowed ourselves to propose as a first definition: 
"Educational librarian services have, as a goal, to be an inte¬ 
gral part of the educational process and factor of renovation 
and stimulus of education, putting in reach of the persons to 
be educated, of teachers, and the members of the community sur¬ 
rounding the educational establishment, a great variety and rich- 

Law of the Autonomous Institute of the National Library and Library 
Services. Article lx. Declared 27 July, 1977. 


ness of appropriate educational materials, of adequate equipment, 

and services that facilitate learning and improve the formation 


integral to the individual at all levels l* 

It is because of this that we justify the need for educational librar¬ 
ians capable of developing activities and library tasks that reach the 
goal of educational library services and the objectives of the academic 

In other words, by their educational, preparation, competence, and 
efficiency, as well as by the capacity of library technology and teaching 
methods, service, education, and positive attitudes that can carry out 
their change, all of these convert the quality librarian into a mediating 
agency and innovator in order to achieve excellent education. 

In order to have quality librarians we need to select human resources 
and to train them adequately. In the case of Venezuela and other 
develop rents we know the type of training to give school librarians by 
means of diagnostic impressions. But do we know if we are in the condition 
to determine objectively what and how the training should be that we impart 
to librarians in order to carry out the role that corresponds to the 
social, educational system? 

To determine this is not a question of improvisation, but rather should 
be the object of previous research. We must know: 

- The needs of the social environment according to the policy of the 
educational system. 

- The epistemological dimension that states that librarianship is a 
science or technology, in order to focus information systems 
relative to education of today and the future. This will serve as 

a frame of reference in order to define and analyze the professional 
profile of the educational librarian and as a source for curriculum 

We believe it necessary at this time to particularize what we mean by a 
professional profile and to that end we will report, analyze, and 

define it. 

This definition was prepared with modifications to be the concept of 
goals for school librarian services, which appears in the Taxonomy of 
Librarian Services in Venezuela. Banco del Libro. 


The professional profile constitutes the process of training in the 
field of education. But in the job market, this is a way out of the system 
itself. The profile defines the complexity of the role that the profes¬ 
sional (educational librarian)has in relation to other complementary roles 
in the system (in this case, education); it describes the orientation, 
theory, practice and culture sphere that should be part of training, per¬ 
mitting the emergence of reality in conjunction with all the expectations. 

The expectations of the complementary roles produce two levels: 

- real expectations that are the processes which here and now must 
be developed in the role in question; and 

- ideal expectations that are the processes, which as an innovative 
factor in the system, should be integrated into the role. 

The real expectancies portion of the profile, that is to say, of 

the social system of action in present temporal circumstances, necessi¬ 
tates that the personal fulfill the role-status ascribed so that the system 
functions in a. state of equilibrium. 

The ideal expectations allow the definition of the ideal profile; that 
is to say, the social system of action needs the professional in order to 
assure the innovations, modifications, and changes that it will guarantee 
the community or the social system thanks to systematic progress or 
radical change. 

The profile is a useful instrument because it permits taking educa¬ 
tional and job decisions, at the same time constituting a description so 
analytical that it can be utilized in psycho-dynamic processes to accept 
and understand what a person can hope for within a determined role-status, 
and as a fundamental base for curriculum design and plans of study. 

3. System of Action of the Educational Librarian 

To define and analyze the profile of the educational librarian 

required to develop librarian systems in Latin American and Caribbean 

countries includes: 

a. Determine the radius or system of action that the librarian 
faces at: 

the pyramid of the education system 

the job and current educational pyramid of the educational 


the ideal educational job pyramid 





* *» 

b. Prepare a basic scheme for an integrated curriculum, °n which 
will hang the training of educational librarians who can give 
efficient service at the national level and will be prepared to 
take care of the educational social system requirements at the 
national as well as regional level. 

To illustrate the above, permit us to present the action system 
of the educational librarian in our country. 

In Venezuela, the radius of action of the educational librarian 
is a part of and reflects, with major or minor intensity, the 
following social system and sectors of the educational system 
from which the information resources are found in order to 
attend to the integral necessities of the subject (educational 
experimentation, research). 

Fig. 1. 

System of Action of the Educational Librarian 

In the educational system and the sectors that it forms, is found the integrated subsystem of the 
job and educational pyramid of the labor field in which the school librarian fulfills his actual 
role. It is necessary to divide his job pryamid. 










18 U 

The research methodology for the definition, description, and study or 
diagnosis of the professional academic profile of the librarian in different 
areas of specialization, within the frame of reference of the social system 
that is education, will arrive at integrally defining the concerns of exist¬ 
ing work. In consequence, the ideal pyramid of the librarian will be deter¬ 
mined by the following levels of training in conformance with the demands 
of the National System of Library and Information Service. 

Figure 3 



The academic-professional profile can determine the following ideal 
job pyramid within the present educational system. 

Figure U 


U. Proposed project to prepare the basic schema of an integral 

curriculum upon which to base the training of the educational 


We have mentioned that the study of the educational librarian pro¬ 
file will constitute, together with the quantitative diagnostic impres¬ 
sion and the conceptual theoretical framework, the fundamental base for 
the training of educational librarians at different levels. 

The description of the integral curriculum for all the levels of 
the job pyramid and the educational subsystem prepared by means of the 
profile of departure, will obtain the research results that have been 


5. Methodology 

The methodology used in order to arrive at the basic schema for the 
curriculum in question is based on the utopian-concrete model proposed 
by Dr. Zoila Bayley in her document "The systematic focus as a method¬ 
ology for the description of the professional profile." 

The instruments used for the collection of information are two 
questionnaire (annexed) and will permit us to know the present situa¬ 
tion of the practicing educational librarians and the expectations 
that the social-educational system have in order to define the ideal 
profile of the librarian in the educational market. 

For the analysis of the profile we have used the "Matrix of the UO 
cells of information", which permits the description of the profes¬ 
sional profile of the educational librarian within the social and edu¬ 
cational system to which it corresponds in actuality. 

The methodology, which employed the utopian-concrete model for 
curriculum design, has been tried out with success in the definition 
of professional profiles in other disciplines and consists of the 

a. Determine the universe of inquiry as two .joining ones . 

the universe for the study of the real profile formed with¬ 
in the official sector (pre-school, primary, intermediate, 
technical, and higher) that fulfills functions related to 
the training or development of educational librarian services, 
the universe for the ideal profile integrated by the per¬ 
sons who give the training or those high level persons having 
an educational perspective in relation to the library and 
information services with those who must teach the country. 

b. Fieldwork 

A previously trained team will interview each member of the 
sample determined in the universe of inquiry. 

The semi-directed interview will be based on those items in 
the questionnaire dealing with the 10 big aspects that compose 
the UO cells of information. 

Two questionnaires will be applied to the actual profile by 


one that will apply to the ideal profile. 




c. Profile Description 

For these, we will achieve a trial run that will give us 
partial results with a small sample in order to define the 
professional profile of the Master in educational librarian 
services; this has as a goal to probe the effectiveness of the 
matrix of the 1±0 cells of information, which gives a total 
structure that tends to repeat itself like a regular pattern in 
the description of the professional profiles (ideal and real). 
These results will give the framexvork of desirability and 
facility for the design of teaching programs; that is to say, 
the academic profile within the system that acts as a profile 
of entrance at the necessary level of the student, taking into 
consideration the physical environment, the educational tech¬ 
nology, and teaching method, etc. 

The curriculum schema will conform to: the aims, objec¬ 
tives, standards to fulfill, plan of studies, organization, 
legislation and proceedings to follow, all of which will be 
the object of systematic and formative evaluation. 

F. Conclusions and Recommendations 

1. Adopt the name of educational librarian because the term is more 
adequate for the present and prospective concept of education. 

2. Have the necessary field research that permits the definition of 
the conceptual theoretical framewoi*k and the educational librarian 
profile in different occupational levels for Latin America and the 

3. Propose the creation of a multidisciplinary and multinational team 
that, in short stages, presents desirable and achievable alter¬ 
native, for the rational and efficient training of professionals 

to satisfy the educational needs in the total sense expressed here. 

U. We permit offering the experience Venezuela can get to apply 
curriculum design that encourages the training of educational 
librarians in Latin American and Caribbean countries. 

5. To recommend that the institutions involved with the training of 
school librarians unify criteria, achieved efforts, and resources 
in order to become the Multinational Project proposed here. 


6. To organize a National Commission of Human Resources of different 
countries in order to support and participate in research of the 
quantitative and prospective needs of the library in the present 
and future society. 

7. To recommend to official organizations responsible in each country 
in the region to define librarians as a function of the job pyramid 
and the field study suggested. 


Bayley, Zoila. The systematic focus as a methodology for the description 
of the professionax profile/ Zoila Bayley. Caracas: OAS, Simon 
Bolivar University, 1980. 

Guedez, Victor. Academic lines for the definition of professional profiles 
Vic or Guedez. Caracas: Multinational Seminar on Curriculum, 1980 

University of the East. Study of the professional profile of specialists 
in curriculum. Cumana, Venezuela, 1980. 




(At the levels of: Master - Licenced/Certified - Technician - Teacher - 
Assistant and Auxiliary in Educational Library Service) 

1 . Do you fulfill activities and tasks of"* _ 

in the practice of your profession? Yes _ No _ 

2. What activities and tasks do you fulfill in your functions_ 

3. What knowledge is necessary for you to employ to fulfill your functions 

of _? 

U. What abilities (mental) and skills (motor) must you rely on in order 
to fulfill the activities and tasks of _? 

What values and sttitudes necessitate the _ in order 

to fulfill the activities of __ 

pointed out by you? 

programming, design for execution, 
evaluation, self-information. 

diagnosis, decision-making, planning, 
execution, orientation-supervision. 



Presented by Michael J. Cooke, Senior Lecturer, College of Librarianship 


In Britain, as in other parts of the world, there is evidence that 
society is changing and that these changes are affecting the pattern of 
education and in turn the provision of resources and the development of 
school libraries. 

Many of these changes will be equally true of Venezuela and I have no 
wish to dwell on them. Perhaps if I list a few of the changes that I 
think are important on the British scene discussion can indicate their 
relevance to Latin America. 

(1) Contemporary society has become more urban in character and this 
has meant new relations between people and between people and 

(2) This same urban society is showing much greater cultural diver¬ 
sity. Some of our towns have seen a large influx of immigrants 
and some of the schools within these towns may have up to 

or more of children of ethnic minorities. 

(3) Urban society is tending to become highly organized with groups 
becoming stronger pressure forces in the society. For example 
the National Front Party, a racist, anti-immigration body is 
making its presence felt in many towns and have developed a youth 
movement which is causing problems for schools where they are 
actively campaigning. They are particularly causing problems for 
school libraries by making literature readily available to them 
and the school librarian is having to decide whether to house it 
or not. 

(U) Instant world-wide communication is exposing students to the 

current issues in society as perhaps never before, and they find 
themselves caught up in philosophical conflicts. 

(5) Student activism is a fact of life and schools are having tp find 
ways of making this activism beneficial. 

(6) There is strong evidence to suggest that children in schools 
now may have to face ’’continuous education” as the norm rather 
than just for an academic minority. They will need to retain. 


move into new work areas, several times during their working 

(7) An increase in leisure time. If British Trade Union intentions 
bear fruit, we could find ourselves with a three day week-end 
very soon. 

We are probably all familiar with the general international pronounce¬ 
ments about the modern factors that influence curriculum development but 
I can perhaps emphasise that it is affecting British Education by quoting 
from a Welsh Education Authority (I am sure I do not need to tell you that 
Wales is not normally seen as progressive and radical, in this regard). 

In an Information Bulletin that went to all schools, this authority 
noted five important tendencies in modern society: 

(i) the declining demand for unskilled labour 

(ii) the greater expectation of life - education must be life-long- 
accommodating personal renewal and re-equipment for changing 

(iii) the rapid obsolescence of information - the child must learn how 
to learn; ways of inquiry rather than collections of factual 

(v) increasingly less distinction between the social roles of men 
and women 

This authority argued that in order for the secondary school curricu¬ 
lum to be relevant to the real (and changing) nature of knowledge, man and 
society consideration must be given to the pupils' needs (physical, 
social, emotional, intellectual, and vocational) as well as the influence 
of the community and society. 

The clear implications inherent in these points are: 

(a) new curricula will be needed for all children and particularly 
the less academic child 

(b) education must be seen as a life-long process 

(c) children must be given the skills to retrieve information rather 
than given collections of factual information. 

School libraries 

One of the characteristics of the British school library scene is the 
lack of uniformity, the variation in approach from one Local Education 
Authority to another. 


I think this is main ly because there has been no positive lead or 
direction given by the Department of Education and Science, the central 
government body responsible for all levels of education in the United 
Kingdom and also responsible for library development generally. They 
have over the years produced a few reports, made the right sort of noises, 
but have issued no directives which have made it binding upon Local Educa¬ 
tion Authorities to do any more than provide a room which can be labelled 
"school library" and used for that purpose occasionally. No guidance has 
been given about staffing or even about a budget for library materials. 

It is left very much in the hands of the local authority or even one might 
say in the hands of the Head of the School for the British scene, the head 
has a great deal of local autonomy and power and without his support no 
school library will develop far. 

So, as I said earlier, a great deal of variation is possible. 

1 . The School Librarian could be appointed by the County/Borough 
Library Service operating in the school during term time and 
reverting to County Library staff in the vacation 

2. The professional librarian (chartered by the library Associa¬ 
tion) could be appointed by the Local Education Authority to 
an individual school with the same conditions of service as 

3. Several schools sharing a professional librarian appointed by 
the Local Education Authority or the County Library Service 

U. Teacher-librarians with a variety of training 

Alongside these possibilities some County and Borough Libraries may run a 
centralised Schools Service either instead of professional librarians in 
schools or as well as. The services that are provided through this central 
service vary considerably also from those that just provide supplementary 
books on a regular basis to primary schools, to some authorities who provide 
full resource materials in all media to support project work being under¬ 
taken in schools. 

Perhaps the most useful thing I can do is to look in more detail at two 
of these centralised services. 

1 9h 

Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) 

This is the largest of the L.E.A.'s in Britain, being responsible for 
approximately 1200 schools and colleges. It was one of the first authorities 
to appoint full-time professional librarians to its secondary schools and is 
probably the only education authority in Britain that runs a completely 
independent library service, with no official connection with the various 
Borough Public library Services-though there is much cooperation in evidence. 

Over the years the ILEA has developed a growing network of services to 
support the work of the teachers in the authority. They have had an Educa¬ 
tion Equipment Centre and a thriving Education Library Service for many 
years and later added a television service which has been actively pro¬ 
ducing programmes for use in the authority's schools. 

In 1971, a Media Resources Centre was established to support and en¬ 
courage the use of learning resources. Its stated aims are 

1 . to provide information about the growing range of commercially 
produced learning materials with facilities for previewing them 

2. to work with teachers to produce materials to support curriculum 

Since its inception, this centre had been actively involved in producing 
learning materials with the help of a team of teachers, seconded on a regu¬ 
lar basis from the authority's schools. These teachers are supported by 
designers, technicians, librarians and administrative staff to form a pro¬ 
duction team. Many of the ideas have arisen as a result of identified 
curriculum problems and new materials have been designed, developed and re¬ 
produced in quantity for purchas by the schools at a subsidised price. 

In 1977, many of these support services developed by ILEA were inte¬ 
grated into a Learning Resources Branch under the same roof. This has 
brought together the Library Service, the Media Resources Centre and Infor¬ 
mation Service together with a Learning Resources Advisory Team and the 
Exhibition and Loan Collections. 

Another unique service developed by ILEA is a kind of "task force" 
called a Resources Support Group which is intended to help schools develop 
"Resource-Based Learning". The group consists of three librarians, and 
three media resource officers supported by two clerical officers and two 
audio visual technicians. They can spend some time in a school in order to 


accomplish a special project. 

The Inner London Education Authority currently employs some 500 pro¬ 
fessional librarians and over U00 Media Resources Officers. 

Wiltshire County library Service 

In contrast to ILEA Wiltshire has an enviable reputation for its 
centralised system of Learning Resources-a multimedia collection giving sup¬ 
port to all schools in the county. In 1978 there was still only one pro¬ 
fessional school librarian’s post in the authority. In the majority of the 
secondary schools in Wiltshire responsibility for the library resources is 
allocated by the Head Teacher to one of the teaching staff with the help of 
a part-time or full-time clerical assistant. 

So often in the British situation, the professional librarian is classed 
as non-teaching staff for which schools are allocated a global sum of points 
based on the number of pupils on the roll. Within the global sum each 
school is free to determine its own priorities for non-teaching staff which 
includes clerical assistants, laboratory and workshop technicians. It can 
be seen therefore, that provision of a professional librarian must compete 
with the demands of the Science and Craft departments for technicians and 
the administration for clerical assistance. You can perhaps appreciate what 
I said earlier about the importance of the Head Teacher in this position. 

Many of these County Schools Library Services have a publication role . 
Wiltshire produces a Resource Directory, which acts as a guide to the resources 
available in the county. They also publish a Subject Index which is a list 
of classified subject headings based on the Dewey Decimal Classification. 

When there are so many untrained teacher-librarians responsible for school 
libraries in the county, this is a useful document to have available for 

Other publications produced by other School Library Services are review¬ 
ing journals and newsletters and a variety of guides, posters and booklists. 

Like many others, Wiltshire have a Projects Collection "multimedia 
collections supplied to meet their teachers requests every term. Informa¬ 
tion and inspiration are available in a variety of media. ... If a pro¬ 
ject collection is immediately available, it will be delivered to the school 
within ter. days of the telephone request. . . . Project collections are 
issued for the period of the current school term with the facility for 


Another valuable seriri.ce offered by many School Library Services is a 
Centralised Purchasing scheme which enables school libraries to take advan¬ 
tage of discount obtained by bulk purchase and also ensures that stock 
arrives in the school catalogued and processed ready for the shelves. In 
conjunction with this there may be an exhibition collection where the latest 
publications can be viewed by teachers and librarians or even, as in Wilt¬ 
shire, a mobile library taking such as exhibition collection round the 
schools. In the case of Wiltshire non-book materials are also available 
for purchas through this scheme. 

Most School library Services provide some form of bulk loan service to 
schools. They vary from the loan of a small collection of books to primary 
schools to large exchanges of books to both primary and secondary schools. 

Wiltshire has such an exchange service. Each school holds as part of 
its stock a collection of books supplied by the Library and Museum Service. 

An agreed number of these books may be changed when the mobile library visits 
the school. 

There are four Area Children's and Schools Librarians responsible for 
the services in Wiltshire and they visit the schools with the mobile library 
at regular intervals and this is an opportunity for advisory work on the 
use of resources. 

Other services offered by School Library Services include in-service 
training programmes and regular meetings and workshops for those respon¬ 
sible for school libraries in their area. 

This has been a very brief glimpse of the current scene in British 
Schools. The world economic situation has seriously affected the resources 
made available to school libraries in Britain over the last few years. 

Even so some Education Authorities have continued to appoint full-time 
librarians to schools and to maintain and even develop their services, but 
it would still be true to say that the strenght of the school library picture 
is the service provided to schools through the Public Library rather than 
well appointed individual school libraries. 



by Mieko Nagakura 

Three basic components of modern library are library premises, mater¬ 
ials and librarians, as you knew. Back in 1953 in Japan, we had to decide 
the priorities among the above three components at the enforcement of our 
"School Library Law" because of financial problems after the big war. We 
gave the first priority to library premises, the second to materials, and 
the last to librarians. This decision has hampered sound development of 
our school library. The reference quoted below from a new publication of 
Japan Library Association, Libraries in Japan (1980) proves this fact. 


Under the postwar Education Act, the present 6*3-3 system was established. The first 
nine years of education are compulsory. Following the enactment of the School Library 
Law in 1953, 93% of approximately 40.000 primary, junior high (middle) and high 
schools now have school libraries. 


Average No. 

No. of Books 
per student 


Books Others 





V 302,000 Y 421,000 





449,000 814,000 





1,012,000 1,440,000 


(as of 1979) 

Nevertheless, in 1479 statistics show that primary and junior high (middle) school 
libraries are still inadequately financed, staffed and stocked. Only one third of tie 
school libraries have a full-time tcachcr-libraxian. Most of the teacher-librarians arc 
graduates of >unior colleges and have a “certificate of teacher-librarian” with eight 
credits in library science in addition to a “certificate of school teacher.” Even though 
universities and junior colleges offer courses for teacher-librarians, it is impossible 
to improve the personnel problem unless Supplementary Provision No. 2 of the School 
Library Law is amended. 

(School Library Law, Supplementary Provisions: 

#2 Schools may defer compliance concerning teacher-librarians for the present, not¬ 
withstanding the provision of Article S, paragraph 1.) 

Librarians cost much more than buildings and materials. However, if a 
library would have a good librarian, the librarian will run around, and some¬ 
how will acquire some money for materials and pursuade the school adminis¬ 
trators to remodel a school roan into their library. Give the first priority 
to librarians for the development of school library. 

There are three categories of opportunities for the training of school 
librarians in Japan. The first is the formal training at universities and 


colleges to attain "certificate of teacher-librarian”, the second is the 
in-service training programs offered by local education authorities, and 
the last is workshops, study meetings and conferences planned and executed 
by local and national professiaial organizations of school librarianship. 

In the first category, it is notable that students who take teacher- 
librarians' certificate courses are increasing rather rapidly. In the 
second category, there is a tendency to put more emphasis on dissemination 
of instructional methods for library skills as fundamental learning skills. 
In the third category, discussions on school librarians' responsibility in 
educational innovation are in fashion. 


A "certificate of teacher-librarian" is required by "School Library law" 
to be appointed as a teacher-librarian. (See Article 5 of the Law) 

School Library Law 
1953 (Law No. 185 ) 

(Ubrajitt 4 Teachtrs) : 

Article 5. 1. Schools rausl, appoint a tc«<:her-librarian xho shall pci form the 

special duties of hayin'? charge of school libraries. 

2. Tcuchtff* shall be appointed as teacher-librarian mentioned in 
. the preceding paragraph. In that case, the teachers concerned shall 

bo those who have finished short course for teacher-librarians. 

3. The short course for teacher-librarians as provided for in the 
preceding paragraph shall kfi given by universities at the request of 
the Education Minister. 

4. In relation to the shoit ceurso for teacher-librarians the subjects 
of study, required tyjits, and other necessary items, to the exclusion 
of the particulars eruuncralcd in the preceding paragraph, shall he 
designated by the Miuistry of Education Ordhmncc concerned. 

The subjects of study, required units, and etc. for the certificate are 
designated by the Ministry of Education Ordiance. They are: 

Introduction to School Librarianship 
School Library Administration Sc Management 
Selection of Library Materials 
Technical Processing of Library Materials 
Utilization of Non-book Materials 
Reading Guidance of Students Sc Children 
Library Skills Instruction 
Majority of college and university students in social sciences and humani¬ 
ties would take "certificate of teacher-librarian" without having definite 
intention to be librarians. The belcw quotation from Libraries in Japan 

1 semester hour 




shows general view. 

There axe 94 universities and 90 
junior colleges that offer a minor in library science with 19 credits for a "certificate of 
librarian.” K "certificate of teacher-librarian” is awarded after 8 credits in library 
science. In 1978. 5,130 students attending universities and 7,354 students attending 
junior colleges were awarded a “certificate of librarian” or a “certificate of teacher- 
librarian” or both. In addition, eight universities offer two-montlr summer courses 
and three universities offer correspondence course* ail year-round. Graduate students 
can major (specialize) in library science in the Faculty of Education at Tokyo, Kyoto 
and Hiroshima universities. 


Each local government which is also education authority in Japan 
establishes educational research institute. Such institutes are responsi¬ 
ble for practical studies and expiments on school education in their own 
communities and provision of in-service training programs for teachers. 
According to the most recent survey conducted by the National Federation of 
Educational Research Institutes of which headquarters is our institute, 21 
out of 56 such institutes (38$) offer regular training programs on school 
librarianship for practicing teachers. Aimes, contents, professional levels 
and duration of such programs vary. Attendance to such programs are not 
compulsory, but local government furnishes all travel expenses, room and 
boards for all attending teachers. 


School Library Division of Japan Library Association has about 300 
individual memberships. Besides annual national conference, each local 
group offers study meetings and workshops during weekends and vacations. 

Japan School Library Association is a federation of 63 regional school 
library associations representing 25*000 schools. School principals and 
teacher-librarians are designated as their members as ex-officio . Each 
regional association keeps autonomy, and provides abundant opportunities 
for professional growth through monthly meetings. More than 3*000 
teachers and librarians participate in the National Conference which is 
held bi-annually in different parts of the country. This year, in August, 
the National Conference at Morioka will offer 80 different sessions of 
lectures, speeches, demonstrations, reports, overseas reports, discussions 
and visits during three full days. 




Presented by Prof. Hugo Acosta Cadena 

The audiovisual training course for school librarians was made up by 
the Educative Documentation and Information Division of the Colombian 
Ministry of National Education which is in charge of the planning and 
coordination of the school libraries National Programme- in conjunction 
with the Regional Center for Book Development in Latin America and the 
Caribbean, CERLAL. 


Most Latin American and Caribbean countries have initiated school 
libraries national programmes, or have taken the decision to do so. 
One of the main difficulties they have faced is the lack of human 
resources, qualified enough to handle school libraries. 

The size of this training task has implied the need to employ a 
methodology to apply the advanced educational technology, allowing 
thus, a maximum improvement of results in quality as well as in 

On the other hand, the training has been traditionally focused 
towards the handling of bibliographic techniques, partially neglect¬ 
ing the aspects related with school library and curriculum, the 
teaching-learning process, the creation of reading habits and 
children's literature. 


2 .1 General Objective 

To fulfill the training needs of librarian teachers in a school 
library's programme or system. 

2.2 Specific Objectives 

- To reduce training costs of the librarian teacher through 
the employment of educational technology and cover a larger 
population by making use of material of an easy reproduction 
which requires a minimum of human resources for its adminis- 

- To motivate the course users on the importance of the school 
library and its relation with curriculum. 


- To motivate the course users on the importance of the 
school library and its relation with curriculum. 

- To establish basis and norms for material processing. 

- To motivate in the teachers, the need to create reading 
and research habits and to provide them with the 
appropriate tools. 


Even though the course was basically designed for the persons in 
charge of the school library, either a teacher or a librarian, its 
modular structure permits the application of some modules in the 
training of other teachers for library utilization. 


The course structure is made up of instructional modules which can 
be used either in a sequen ial way or independently one from the 
other s.. 

Semi -ins tructi onal 

This characteristic mainly refers to the administration of teaching 
materials and activities. These, in spite of being self-sufficient 
in their content, demand a teacher for their accomplishment. 


In the make-up of the course, diverse learning means have been used; 
printed materials, audiovisuals, graphics, group works, forums, etc. 

The course may not be adapted to individual applications; it may be 
applied in average groups of 25 participants. 


Due to its modular characteristics and to the training needs, additional 
modules can supplement the course. 


The objective of the course is not in any case to inform, but on the 
contrary, to obtain a change in attitudes in relation with the concept 
and activities developed in a school library. 



It consists of three modular units, each of which corresponds to a 
specific area of training. 

First Modular Unit: The School Library} it consists of h. modules 
Second Modular Unit: Technical Organization} it consists of 6 modules 
Third Modular Unit: Projections and Services} it consists of 2 modules 

The following is a scheme of each of the Modular Units that make up the 













c . t Kunct! jns . „ 

—___ - . , ,j 


i “ 


Physical Installation 










A selection of means based on real needs was made for the course. As 
a result, the following kinds of materials were obtained for each of 
the learning experiences of which it is composed. 

6 .1 Audi ovi sual s 

The course consists of a total of 8 audiovisuals (779 slides and 
6 cassettes) which fulfill two essential functions. 

- To motivate course participants on the theme 

- To sum up the concepts and the accomplished work 

6 .2 Printed Matter 

Printed materials have been designed in accordance with their role 
within the instruction process: 

Librarian-Teachers Handbook 

Each module has its own handbook which includes: the terminal and 
specific objectives, the report of activities to be developed, the 
kind of materials that make up the module and the development or 
thematic contents of the theme itself; the latter, includes the 
pertinent self-evaluations and recapitulations. Total: 12 

Trainer's Handbook 

There is a handbook for each module; they present the outstanding 
aspects that the trainer of the course must take into account for 
its development such as: general orientations, description of 
activities, approval criterion and correcting guidelines for the 
evaluation instruments to be applied. This document is to be 
used only by the trainer. Total: 12 

Evaluation Instruments 

This material will allow participants to test two aspects: 

Their initial behaviour in relation to the level of 
knowledge they have on the theme. 

Their final behaviour to determine the level of progress in 
relation to the concepts already learned. 

Only one evaluation instrument was designed to be applied as a 
pre-test and a post-test in each module to accomplish, the 
pertinent measurements. Total: 12 


Exercises Notebook 

Its basic function is to compile examples and works on librarian- 
ship techniques in order to reinforce the concepts learned in the 
corresponding module. Total: 1 

Backing Instruments 

These are considered as useful materials for the participants in 
the development of the technical tasks. Total: 6 

Complementary Readings 

This material, is taken from other sources and it is adapted for 
the needs of the course, with the purpose of using it to broaden 
or deepen into the corresponding thematic contents. Total: 3 

Group Activities Notebook 

This material is for the use of the teacher trainer and its 
function is to provide the trainer with adequate materials to 
develop group activities with the school librarians. Total: 1 

Course Introduction Document 

This material outlines the basic information on the course itself 
offering the participants the possibility to compare their own 
expectations in relation with the information offered in it. 

Total: 1 

Registration Sheet 

Registration of general information on each participant in rela¬ 
tion with his training in the theme or in other areas and his 
former working experience. 

Handbook of Group Dynamics Techniques * 

A useful material for the trainer in order to accomplish presenta 
tion communication and group integration activities of partici¬ 
pants. It contains general orientations on 6 different group 
dynamics that may be used indistinctly. Total: 1 


Here, the mechanics of the development of each one of the modules is 
described in a general way. Nevertheless, the specific activities for 
each module are included in the handbook of the trainer. 


1. Application of the evaluation instrument (pre-test), in order to 
measure the initial behaviour. 

2. Group reading of the general information on each module in rela¬ 
tion with its objectives (terminal and specifics) and a summary of 
contents and activities to be accomplished. 

3 • Initiation of the thematic development itself through individual 
or small groups reading and accomplishment of self-evaluations and 

U* Audiovisuals projection: this activity is complementary to the 

reading of some modules, as a motivation or as an instruction rein¬ 
forcement . 

5. Fulfillment of group activities such as simulated games, practical 
exercises, case studies, summaries and others which are also used 
for some modules, according to the case. 

6 . Application of the evaluation instrument (post-test), in order to 
measure the final behavior in relation to the learned concepts. 

7. Joint evaluation (teacher-participants) of the work accomplished. 



Autonomous Institute of the National Library and Library Service 

Presented by Dr. Graciela Lovera de Mantellini 

Conscious of the importance of library and information service as a 
means to contribute and affirm the cultural identity and support national 
development, the National Executive createdthe National Commission for the 
Establishment of the National System of Information in November, 197U* This 
Commission was made up of qualified representatives of the Ministry of Edu¬ 
cation, the National Council of Scientific and Technological Research 
(CONICIT), the Organized Commission of the National Council of Culture 
(CONAC) the General Archives of the Nation, the National Council of Univer¬ 
sities, the Central Office of Information and the National Library. This 
Commission was charged with "achieving a full and detailed evaluation of 
the services of documentation, libraries, and archives existing in the 
country" and of proposing objectives, policies, and actions that should be 
accomplished as well as the corresponding infrastructures. 

In November, 1975? the Commission presented a general study on the 
situation of services and arrived at the following conclusions: 

- The services of libraries, archives, and existing information were 
insufficient to attend to the potential demands of the country, and 
did not fit with the libraries resources, nor with the minimum space 
necessary to give adequate service to the users. 

- Budget provisions were minimal or insufficient for quality library 

- There was a grave deficiency of professional librarian personnel, 
as well as assistants and auxiliaries, who characterized an inte¬ 
grated and coherent policy of training human resources to take care 
of these services. 

- There was a lack of a coordinated policy as well as an institu¬ 
tional infrastructure that could implement existing services that 
function isolated one from another. In practice, this is trans¬ 
lated into duplication of efforts, lack of attention in areas and 
significant tasks, and in remedial cases, of available resources. 
Criteria did not exist for standardization, organization, and func¬ 
tioning of the existing libraries, as well as fa* the acquisition 


and ordering of the collections. This applied to local references, 
equipment and furniture. They were achieved in individual ways, 
and many times without the support of technical-library criteria. 

In the face of this situation, the Venezuelan Government responded by 
means of actions to establish a National System of Library and Information 
Services, distinguished among them, the following: 

A. Presidential Decree 1758 of 7, September, 1976, by which the 
National Commission was created, changed with the organization of 
the National System of Library and Information Services, ascribed 
to the Secretary of the President of the Republic and made up of 
the National Library, the National Council of Scientific and Tech¬ 
nological Research (CQNICIT), the National Council of Universities 
and the General Archives of the Nation, as a nucleus of library 
services, documentation and information center, university library 
and archives, respectively. 

B. Approval of the law creating the Autonomous Institute of the 
National Library and Library Services in July, 1977. 

C. Presidential Decree 2531 of 3 January, 1978, which abolished Decree 
1759 and conferred on the National Commission the character of the 
Coordinating and Permanent Commission, incorporating the area of 
Statistics and Information to the system; it defined its objectives 
and structure and assigned the Commission to the Central Office of 
Coordination and Planning (CORDIPLAN). 

D. Approval of the law reform giving the shipment of printed works to 
the National Library and other similar institutions on 27 July, 

1979. The law increased the obligation of the legal depository 
and the nonprint works and precisely clarified the subjects obliged 
to fulfill with the law. 

E. Presidential Decree 188 of 27 June, 1979, by which the System of 
School Librarian Services was created. 


Services of librarians and of information selection, organization, and 
distribution of scarce and costly material put them at the disposition of 
increased numbers of sectors of the population who otherwise would not have 
access to them. They permited people to be informed, to investigate, educate 


themselves, and have continuous recreation, according to their interests 
and needs. Thus, the character of basic public service is one that gives 
the rights to all citizens, rights that the state is obliged to facilitate 
in order to: 

Guarantee the right of each individual free access to resources 
of information, independently of his level of scholarship, profes¬ 
sion, or location in the national territory. 

Contribute to improve the process of decision-making in the public 
as well as private sector, on the basis of adequate and opportune 

- To permit increased urban participation in national life and in the 
development of economic and social plans of the State. 

- Support educational actions, formal and non-formal, especially life¬ 
long education. 

Contribute to the development of scientific, technological and 
humanistic research by means of opportune and adequate informa¬ 
tional support. 

- Affirm the cultural identity of the country. 



The national organization responsible for the implementation of the 
National System of Library Services is the Autonomous Institute of the 
National Library and Library Service, created by the law of July, 1977. It 
was assigned the accomplishment of the goals: a) of the National Library, 
as such, and b) the nucleus of the National System of Library Services. 

In the first category of goals, are pointed out: 

a. To be the depository center of documentals, print and nonprint, 

of Venezuela and Venezuelans, as a permanent source of information 
for research on the country and the Venezuelan people with the 
goal of creating and administrating a national periodical library, 
national map library, and audiovisual archives of Venezuela. To 
watch for the fulfillment of legislation on legal deposits. To 
compile, organize, and publicize current, retrospective and 
specialized Venezuelan librarians hip. To place at the disposi¬ 
tion of researchers and students gathered print and nonprint 


To create and administer a National Center of References, in order 
to offer current information on existing print resources in the 
country; in order to create and administrate a National Center of 
Bibliographic Information and compile a National Union Catalog, 
b- In the second category the goals would be: 

Formulate and execute the policy of the National System of Library 
Services, within the plans of economic, social, and cultural 
development of the nation. To prepare and apply norms and techni¬ 
cal library procedures to integrate the National System of Library 
Services and estimate its completion. To participate actively in 
the training and perfecting of human resources necessary for the 
National System of Library Services. 

To provide for the enrichment and conservation of print and non- 
print resources of the National System of Library Services. 

To establish a National System of Public Libraries in agreement 
with public and private institutions. 

- To technically assist the Ministry of Education in the crea¬ 
tion of a System of Library Services in educational estab¬ 
lishments . 

- To periodically evaluate the quality of the services of the 
National System of Library Services existing in the country, 
correct deficiencies, and contribute to its modernization. 

- To serve consulting organizations and advisors of the public 
sector: national, state and municipal, and materials for 
their competencies. 

In order to accomplish the goals described, the Institute will require 
increased national cooperation, not only to reinforce the application of 
policy, generalization of the standards of functioning, supervision and 
coordination, but to obtain financial resources that guarantee the per¬ 
manent development and sutenance of the services that make up the system. 


The Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of Library Ser¬ 
vices, as of 1975, has turned out models, developed norms, and procedures 
that permit the establishment of a National System of Public Libraries. 

The proposed models are formed with the conception of public library 


services not just as passive receptors of the demands of information, but 
rather as integrated centers and promoters of cultural activities (coordi¬ 
nators of human resources, materials, and existing facilities) and 
achievers of program and activities that respond to the necessity of creat¬ 
ing reading habits and contributing to awakening interests by activities 
that contribute to improve the quality of life for the population. 

The Autonomous Institute of the National Library, in agreement with 
the Venezuelan reality and experience, recognizes in the experimental pro¬ 
ject of school libraries of Ciudad Guayana and in the network of public 
libraries of the metropolitan area,that the defined form of a public library 
The institution of service that must assure all the citizens of the 

country, independent of his level of education, access to print and non ¬ 

print material required, with the goal of facilitating his participation, 
on the basis of adequate information in all aspects of national development . 

Within this concept and in order to guarantee to all the population 
free access to public libraries and optimize the use of available resources, 
it is necessary to organize existing library services in each federal 

The networks of public libraries are in conformance with existing public 
library service and by their creation in each one of the states, terri¬ 
tories and the federal district. Their organization is the most rational 
form to integrate existing service in order to obtain from them a large 
input with the following benefits for the collectivity. 

The networks of public libraries are, besides, conceived in order to 
coordinate the resources, services, and activities of each of the units that 
it contains, so that users will have access to the totality of resources 
and services resting in the determined region. The installation of a net¬ 
work is, besides, the result of a coordination and planning effort 
directed to give to a federal entity an infrastructure of service that 
is required: 

- To adequately form users in order to obtain better benefits of 

- To support education of all levels and, especially, research and 
lifelong education. 

- To stimulate continuous and responsible participation of the citi¬ 
zens in the development of the federal entity and in National 


development as well as educational cultural, and economic-social 

- To contribute to great knowledge of the federal entity on the part 
of its inhabitants, to make available print and non-print material 
that permit them to identify with their environment. 

This basic structure of each public library network consists of: an 
Office of Network Coordination, dependent on the Autonomous Institute of 
the National Library; a central public library, affiliated with the 
National Library, to which it reinforces the compiling, conservation, and 
diffusion of print and non-print documental assets of the federal entity; 
level I and II public libraries; reading rooms, and mobile units. Differ¬ 
ent types of services are organized according to the density of the popula¬ 
tion, the geographic characteristics, and the political-territorial organi¬ 
zation of each federal entity. 

In each federal entity, the Autonomous Institute of the National 
Library and of Library Service has established an coordinator of the public 
library network, whose first objective is to assure users opportune and 
efficient access to material and services that public libraries should 

In order to achieve this objective, the coordinators of the network 
of each federal entity, must fulfill the following functions: 

1. Creation of the central public library or reorganization of the 
service of great tradition in the capital of the federal entity 
in order to convert them into a central public library. 

2. Reorganization of the existing public library services. 

3. Creation of level I and II public libraries, reading rooms, and 
mobile services (bibliobuses and traveling boxes) required, taking 
into account the characteristics of the federal entity. 

U. Integrate all the public library services into a public library 
network, with the aim of achieving a larger use of existing ser¬ 
vices . 

£. Integrate the network of libraries of the federal entity into the 
National System of Public Libraries. 

6 . Rescue, organize and spread the documental assets of the federal 


The Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of Library Ser¬ 
vices give the coordinators of the public library networks technical 
support necessary for the major fulfillment of the tasks of planning, 
budget preparation; development and evaluation of services; training of 
personnel; selection of basic collections; orientation for the sellection 
of terrain and for the construction and remodelling of locales in order 
to lodge services that the libraries offer; stimulate the population for 
the use of resources and library services; and all other activities con¬ 
ducted for the improvement and extension of public library services. 

The support of the Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of 
Library Services is directed to centralize, in this first step, all the 
aspects relative to the technical organization of services in order to let 
qualified personnel concentrate on attending to the users, who constitute 
the essential reason for the formation, development and implementation of 
a network, in order to therefore cover their information needs in the 
field in which they are planted. 



Public library services, integrated with the public library networks 
in the different federal entities, are endowed with a structure, resources, 
personnel, and locales that permit them to fulfill the basic objective of 
this type of service in our reality: 

To promote lifelong education, facilitating social change and citizen 
participation, freely making print and non-print materials available to 
each individual in order to satisfy his educational needs and his informa¬ 
tion and recreational needs, and to develop activities that contribute to 
the rational use of free time, to affirm our cultural identify and to 
improve the quality of life of the population. 

It is convenient to point out the importance of all service the library 
provides the users. The active participation of them and the attention and 
opportune response to requested information, assure the importance and sur¬ 
vival of the public library networks in each federal entity. 

Library service is open to all the members of the community. Never¬ 
theless, the public who use the services offered the most are represented 
by children and youth, who ask for help and support necessary in order to 


fulfill their academic programs. 

This situation, which is repeated throughout the country, has led the 
Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of Library Services to 
incorporate into the libraries, resources, programs, and models of service 
that result in attending to this growing category of the population. 

Besides, it is the responsibility of the services to capture the inter¬ 
ests of children and youth, not only in those are$ popularized in formal 
educational processes, but also to be aware of the need to be capable of 
starting and developing reading habits, awakening interests for useful and 
constructive recreation, and to contribute to forming habits of citizen¬ 
ship to demonstrate that the resources of the library are common to the 
reach of all. 

Public library networks,developed in the annual work plan, activities 
of promotion and extension, directed in different sectors of the community 
to motivate the use of the library and its resources. In the 
activities the following are pointed out: 

1. Train and inform users in the use of the library and its services: 

- ffe-intain current posters of information. 

Prepare cards, pamphlets, guides, etc., with the aim of maintaining 
information about the use of programs and activities that libraries 

- Prepare lists of material that the service owns, in accordance with 
the demands of the academic program (textbooks, supplements) and by 
areas of interests (short stories, sports, theater, photography, 
biography, etc.). 

- Train users in the use and handling of library services by means of 
popular material, presentations, and individual and group presenta¬ 
tions . 

ffeintain permanent contact with users by means of direct attention 
in the different rooms. 

2. Promotion and outreach of library services: 

- Establish contact through visits in the communities in order to 
give them knowledge about the activities that the libraries develop 
and offer, and the resources contained within. 

- Establish direct contacts with the community schools and high 
school year, in order to give them knowledge about the services 

21 5 

libraries offer and the inodes of use. 

- Organize activities in conjunction with the surrounding schools 
in order to support the academic program. 

- Form and maintain the Society of Friends of the public libraries. 

3 . Promotion of reading and other activities: 

Program activities in infant rooms, around specific and ephemeral 
themes (national and local) and national/international happenings. 
Develop specific activities for visiting programs of schools in the 
vicinity, and in order to take care of special group requests. 

- Show periodical expositions with materials that go along with 

- Organize groups of children and youth in order to carry out 
activities such as study circles, reading clubs, book repair, 
photography clubs, etc. 

Organize chats, seminars, forums on literature in general. 

- With groups of children and youth, carry out narrations of differ¬ 
ent kinds of literature: stories, legends, poetry, fables, etc. 

- To carry out supplementary activities related to reading such as 
painting, collages, dramatizations, puppets, etc. 

Dramatization of readings by means of costumes and use of puppets. 
Program and develop activities that generate the use of educational 
games and chess. 

- Develop audiovisual programs by projecting filmstrips, slides, 
opaque projectors, music, etc. 

- Form theater groups. 

- Organize book exchanges among users. 

- Organize and update vertical files. 

Update print posters. 

Print and non-print collections of the public library networks are 
presently in a stage of formation. The Autonomous Institute of the 
National Library and of Library Services, is attending to the ample experi 
ences developed by the Banco del Library, a non-profit private institution 

Taken from the Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of 
Library Services. Office of Library Services Coordination of the Public 
Library Network of the Metropolitan area. List of typical activities of a 
public library. Revised January 21, 1980. 


which, for the last few years, has been dedicated to forming a team of 
apecialists of high level in the area of selection of evaluation of print 
and non-print educational material for children. They have been assigned 
the selection, acquisition, and technical-mechanical processing of basic 
children's collections for the public library networks in federal entities. 

The compiling of these collections has been based on the needs and 
realities of each public library network and pays attention to the criteria 
of evaluation and selection established by the Banco del Libro. 

The composition of the print and non-print basic children's collection 

is the following: 

Reference materials 
Supplementary books 35$ 

Recreational books 30$ 

Picture books 15$ 

Textbooks 10$ 

Educational games 5$ 

100 $ 

The selection, acquisition, and technical-mechanical processing of the 
general basic collections is the responsibility of the Autonomous Institute 
of the National Library of Library Services, who fulfills this function by 
means of a Selection Committee, made up of specialists in different areas, 
library directors, and consultants. 

The selection of the basic collection is achieved taking in account the 
bibliography recommended in the official programs of study of the Ministry 
of Education, the recognized experiences of the services of the public 
library network of the metropolitan area, and consultation of experts in 
different disciplines, book reviews, etc. This task has brought about, as 
a result, basic lists in different areas, which are continuously updated 
by the committee. 

In restocking the general collections, the interests and needs of each 
public library network must be paid attention to, reinforcing the areas of 
major demand. In this step, the coordinators of the networks incorporate 
the process of selection for the federal entity in which they are respons¬ 
ible . 

The composition of the basic collection is as follows: 


Reference materials 


Supplementary books 


Recreational books 




100 % 

In Presidential Decree 188 of 27 June, 1979, by which the System of 
School library Services was created, the lending of specialized library ser¬ 
vices became the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, which serves 
to support the teaching-learning process for all the school population for 
primary education and instruction by means of the Autonomous Institute of 
the National Library and of Library Services in those areas in order to 
attend to the student publication of basic and intermediate education. 

The implementation of the cited decree will permit the increase of 
service to the student population to a greater number than that who now 
attend, by means of the public library networks. 

So that the Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of Library 
Services can accomplish the services established in the referred-to decree, 
it is essential to obtain from the Ministry of Education the means by which 
it can permit the incorporation into collections, of material appropriate to 
satisfy the demands of the academic porgram of the basic and intermediate 

In the same way, it is the responsibility of the Autonomous Institute 
of the National Library and of Library Services to take care of the area of 
human resources for the National System of Public Library Services. In 
this field they have orchestrated activities for the training and perfect¬ 
ing of different levels of personnel who work in the system. 

It is suitable to point out the celebrated convention between the 
Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of Library Service, and 
the Grand Marshall Foundation of Ayacucho, in which they provided courses 
for post-graduate perfectioning for professional personnel; seminars and 
workshops of updating at the under-graduate level; scholarship in order to 
study librarianship in the University of Zulia; and training courses for 
auxiliaries and librarian assistants at the technical level. 

The Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of Library Ser¬ 
vices is responsible to proportion the knowledge and basic skills necessary 


to perform the functions in public library service, to such an effect that 
they have applied a program tried out by the Banco del Libro by means of 
self-learning modules for the training of auxiliary librarians. 

The Banco del Libro, besides the courses for library auxiliaries, has 
developed and directed courses for library assistants. In these courses, 
personnel who work in the different public library networks attend. 

The physical infrastructure of public library services has been the 
object of special attention on the part of the Autonomous Institute of the 
National Library and of Library Services. 

In such a sense, they have organized a team of professionals in archi¬ 
tecture who have the responsibility to improve existing locales and prepare 
propositions of remodeling that result in necessary service, taking into 
account the different environments of the regions of the country. 

In order to undertake the job of remodeling and in order to construct 
new buildings, the Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of 
Library Services has established a conference with the Ministry of Urban 
Development (MINDUR), the organization responsible at the national level 
for the construction of infrastructures for public services. 

The functioning of the National System of Public Library Services 
demands a budget converted from a low level. By 1980, it will be converted 
to the level of Bsl£,538,172.50. 

The financing of the National System of Public Library Services is 
covered by the Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of Library 
Services, the government of each federal entity, the municipal councils, 
the ministries, state contracts, and autonomous institutions of the public 
and private sector interested in the development of library services in 


1. Summary of activities carried out by the institute in the develop¬ 
ment of the National System of Public Libraries, integrated by the 
public library networks in the federal entities. 

Persons interested in these appendixes can ask the Office of Library Ser¬ 
vices of the Autonomous Institute of the National Library and of Library 
Services. Macanao ed., Calle Fhris Urb. Las Mercedes, Caracas. 


2. Demands, coverage, and deficiencies of public library services for 
1980, distributed by federal entities. 

3. Potential demand, coverage, and deficiencies of public library 
services for 1985> distributed by administrative regions. 

U. Pictures, summaries of experiences of conversions and costs of 
functionings of each administrative region during 1981-1989* 



By Lie. Alvaro Agudo y Lie. Javier Bringas 

In countries such as Venezuela, in which the tradition of regular use of 
library service is practically nonexistent, the library must add to its 
general function of giving information that of teaching how to use this in¬ 
formation, including teaching and demonstrating that information is a daily 
way to solve problems. 

This situation signifies that the school library will have to give in¬ 
formation that the educational component demands and, similarly, conceive 
and apply programs that generate need and interest for reading. It also 
means that the children's public library must conceive of and carry out 
programs that permit the response to the need and taste for reading gener¬ 
ated in the formal educational process. Public libraries and school librar¬ 
ies thus form a system in equilibrium. They are points of balance and ccn- 
cidentally will be the programs in which to develop reading skills and 
reading habits. 

But, the countries such as Venezuela, in which, besides not having a 
tradition of library service use, the infrastructure of these is minimal, 
and the need of information use by children and youth is ignored by the par¬ 
ticular need to respond to the demands of the school component. 

The scarcity of school libraries, taking as a consequence of the mini¬ 
mal infrastructure of public library service for children and youth, is 
subordinated by the demand for support of institutional education. The 
public library is obliged to concentrate concrete efforts and resources 
for the attention of the school and students, relegating to second place 
the programs of promotion in the use of information and reading by the 

1. Attempts to attend to the school by the public library 

The reality described makes institutions such as the Banco del Libro 
dedicate itself to efforts with library services to design and probe 
different programs of support by the public library for schools. 

By means of these programs, it is intended: 

to make available to students didactic material in support of 

- to make available to the school general reading material in order 


to contribute to the development of the need and task for reading. 

- to use the infrastructure of the public library in order to demon¬ 
strate to student users, teachers, and schools the service of 

a. Models of texts and exchange service 

In order to make supportive didactic material available to students, 
the Banco del Libro selects collections of school texts that, with the 
number of modules, constitute sections in children's and young adult 
rooms in public libraries, destined to respond to the requests for in¬ 
formation of the secondary and primary schools. These sections are 
supplemented with consultation by means of exciting students about 
research and the sniffing out of information. 

As antecedents to the intent to satisfy by "modules" the demand for 
support didactic material, and as antecedents of the same library ser¬ 
vices of the Banco del Libro, this institution has a service of exchange 
of textbooks** consisting of collecting, storing, and organizing school 
texts and utilizing them by class sectors in order to make available to 
low-income students a means of interchanging. The service functions 
when a student is able to store and change a determined quantity of 
textbooks corresponding to a grade or year of previous instruction for 
an equal-quantity of textbooks corresponding to the next higher grade. 

Both services, modules and exchange of textbooks, will make unneces¬ 
sary existing libraries in schools. Their implementation is a manner of 
substituting the essential collection of the school library by the 
public library. Both services, which the Banco del Libro gives, will 
doubtless be permanent, until the development of a national system of 
school libraries occurs. 

b. Mini-boxes and Bibliobuses 

In order to make available school material of general reading, dif¬ 
ferent modes of mobile library service have been designed and tried 

out. Of major significance have been the number of mini-boxes and 


The mini-boxes service consists of giving each school grade a 
little box with a selection of recreational books and general informa¬ 
tion complementary to the study program. The number of books selected 
for the box is equal to the maximum number of students registered for 


the grade of the school served. In consequence, it is possible to 
lend a book to each child in each grade. This is achieved by the inter¬ 
vention of the teacher and a commission of students. The ready-made 
selections are different for each grade. Each week or two, the teachers 
and students can interchange the miniboxses, repeating the lending pro¬ 
cess for each student in each grade. This service consists of a collec¬ 
tion of 10,000 to 20,000 volumes, located in a special depository, where 
the miniboxes are stocked permanently. 

The bibliobus service tried by the Banco del Libro utilized the 
instruments known internationally and consisting of several high schools 
as intermediaries of a mobile unit, a collection of recreational and 
general informational reading complements to the academic program. The 
mobile unit, with a capacity of 100 to 1500 volumes, is stocked from a 
depository that has a collection of 5000 to 10,000 volumes. Circula¬ 
tion is weekly and direct; students choose their reading liberally on 
the covered shelves of the bibliobus. 

Both services, mini-boxes and bibliobus, intend to satisfy school 
needs of the student that must be supplied by the public library. Both 
services, now in the process of evaluation are being suspended tempor¬ 
arily by the Banco del Libro in hopes of a major application as a form 
of support in the promotion of reading, 
c. School visits to the public library 

In order to demonstrate to school users what the library is and 
how it serves, the model of the Banco del Libro, "Mariano Picon Room 
of Caracas/’has been designed and put into practice in public libraries. 
It is a program of contacts and school visits to the library. To con¬ 
tact the schools a calendar of visits to the library is made , with the 

intention that each grade can know about the library. 

When receiving the students and teachers of each grade who 

come as visitors, a program is prepared which includes' receive 

the children and teacher and succinctly explain what is in the library 
as well as what services it has; show the installation; demonstrate 
catalog use, circulation controls, and the way to access the collection; 
explain the necessities in registration and having use of the lending 
services. One way to fulfill this descriptive step is to carry out 
activities to motivate each grade to read and offer a children's room 


regularly in the library. This activity, in general lines continues 
in the following cycle: presentation of a book of narration of a 
story, or collective reading of a text; directed and motivated discus¬ 
sion of the presentation, narration, or reading; carrying out of some 
activity of plastic or dramatic expression- having as a base the theme 
of the motivated discussion. To program the visit, the school or the 
teacher can choose the theme or the activity that will be carried out 
with the students of the different grades. 

In this manner, students and teachers of schools without libraries 
have a first contact with this type of service. In the public library, 
resources and possibilities are discovered that should be in the school 
library. This contact makes conscious the lack of motive for the need 
of the use of the library as an educational instrument. In general 
terms, it can be said that the program intends to train teachers and 
students as users of library services. This program of directed visits 
follows the public library framework of the Banco del Libro. 

2. Evaluation 

In the manner shown above, the Banco del Libro has intended to support 
schools by the public library. But this attempt has limited vision because of 
joining several problems first by the increase of the demand for service 
of support for the school; second, by the same concept that subjugates 
existing service: the intent to monopolize from the public library func¬ 
tions wh£t belong to school libraries, and the intent to fulfill in the 
school functions wh^t should be accomplished in the public library. 

To continue, the difficulties encountered in each of the services 
described above, are indicated: 
a . In the modules 

To make available to the students, principally in intermediate 

education, a collection selected of texts and reference materials 

respond to the necessities of the academic program. The general rooms 

of public libraries are filled with students, filling up to capacity 


and taking up the attention of personnel. The library is incapable of 
developing programs to promote reading in the community, and there are 
no free personnel physically capable of receiving and attending to the 
demands. As a consequence of this, the modules are overused and the 
rest of the collection is underused. Putting the most demanded 


materials, texts and references, on restricted use, makes the essen¬ 
tial service of the library to be that of circulation in the room and 
minimizes home circulation. 

In this manner, the general rooms of the public library are trans¬ 
formed into school libraries situated apart from the school and besides, 
without support, financial or technical, of the Ministry of Education. 

b. In school visits to the children's room . 

To offer the library - : school visits emphasises the scarcity of 

public libraries and the relative abundancy of school, the influence 
of the latter ^ a program created primarily to take care of 

students and visiting teachers. The children of the community are dis¬ 
placed by the permanent influence the schools an the public library. 
Also, the children's room is transformed into a school library, with 
the aggravation that in the general room, there is no effective service 
given. The quantity of schools that respond and the number of grades 
and grade sections in each school make the visits of the same grade too 
far apart. Each child who participates in the program visits the 
children's room only one time, maximally two times a year.^ And when 
he visits, participating in an activity to motivate reading, there is 
no leading; he cannot choose or have a book. Thus, the children's 
room is jammed with children, but service is an illusion. What habits 
will a child create with one or two group visits a year to a library 
without getting or borrowing a book? In definition, the child gets to 
know the library, but he doesn't sense the need of its services. 

c. In the mini-boxes service 

The mini-boxes services is doubtless most effective from the point 
of view of the creation of reading habits. The attending child receives 
approximately one book weekly during the school year, thus taking the 
opportunity to make contact with a full gamut of reading materials and, 
even more important, having the possibility of regular reading as a 
form of recreation. Two inconveniences, nevertheless, face this ser¬ 
vice: the first is based on the difficulty of the child to choose 
material. The child reads but doesn't learn the relationship between 
his taste for reading with needs and desires. The second consists in 
the nonexistence for the child of a public counterpart in order to 
generate the habit. To receive service while in school but not know 


and not look for them in the community shows the habit needs support beyond 
initiation. It is the object of the action, but the transfer is 
not made by the subject to the same. The public library that teaches 
him to read keeps him ignorant and confused. Such a 

problem exists for the child who visits the children's room only. 

d. In the bibliobus to the high school 

The bibliobus service, in visiting the high schools responds in 
principle to a demand for which no such need has been conceived: that of 
textbooks. The high school user is, without a doubt, a young user with 
diverse interests that need to be satisfied with recreational and gen¬ 
eral information collections. But, in that the student is in school, 
his more immediate needs are those that respond to the requirements of 
the academic program, meaning that the bibliobus cannot satisfy him 
given the composition of its collection. It is possible, nevertheless, 
to provide relatively effective service when the promotion of material 
is intensified and the selection of the collection clearly responds to 
the informational needs and creates current reading of the students 
according to school specifications. When this has been successfully 
done, the service has been transformed in practice from a substitute 
for the public library for the school population served and faced with 
the inconveniences mentioned through a mini-box service to generate a 
need that the user must satisfy at a public library during his free 

e. In the exchange service 

The exchange service, on its part, has functioned for more than 15 
years. But, to function isolated in the library service system, pre¬ 
sents two inconveniences: the first, consists in obtaining textbooks 
on the part of the student cannot be perceived as more of a service 
than the distribution of educational material, not as an act of social 
service, not taking advantage of the opportunity to contribute to creat¬ 
ing an awareness of the usefulness of the library. The second is con¬ 
ditioned by the unlucky characteristics of the composition of the stored 
collection, which means that the student can choose only necessary books. 
This is frustrating because the books not encountered in the exchange 
cannot be obtained from the immediate library. 


In summary, it is clear that in evaluating the attempts to pay 
attention to the school by the public library, vh ich is such a subtle 
part of the need for unsatisfied information support due to the scar¬ 
city of school libraries, the public part destined to develop skills 
and reading habits mixes its relations with the formal schooling and, 
in consequence, neglects its own objectives of promoting reading by 
satisfying different information needs of the students. It is also 
clear that the intent to fulfill these functions directly in the 
school, an isolated action because the student has little access to 
free time, is given to public libraries who satisfy the general need 
for information and reading generated by service in the school. In 
this manner, the intent to generate reading habits and the use of 
information is blocked in the public library by the isolated school 
needs due to the lack of a public infrastructure and the achievement 
of user habits. 

3. Propositions 

The experience of the Banco del Libro points out that in countries like 
ours the growth of the demand for information by children and youth is pro¬ 
moted by the concrete demand of formal education. It means, therefore, 
the creation of a type of relation between the public phase and the school 
system to promote reading together with attending to the demands of 

general school users so that the public library can respond. That is to 
say, that the student information needs will be the point of departure or 
the point of discovery for the same subject needs by youth, community 

members, etc. 

In such a way, attention to the school by the public library must be 
accomplished in a manner that permits it: 

to respond to the school needs that the student imparts 
to free public library resources, previously occupied in respond¬ 
ing to student demands, in order to use them in programs to promote 
reading in the community. 

to rescue the student user by aforementioned programs to promote 
reading in the community. 

This means, the improvement of scarce services of scarce services 
by the support of institutionalized formal education in order to generate the 
needs for service that support informal, extra-curricular education. For 


this, it is necessary that the public and school user be the same, belong¬ 
ing to the same community. In consequence, the first task of the public 
library is to delimit its community and give priority to schools and high 
schools surrounding it . 

A second task is the design of programs geared to the schools and high 
schools that permit the decentralization of circulating material that sup¬ 
port formal education , attending to the school user in the grade school cr 
high school. 

A third task is to design programs to promote reading and the use of 
information so that what the users started in the school will develop in 
the public library on their free time. 

On the basis of the expounded analysis, the Banco del Libro plans to 
reformulate the programs it has developed in order to attend to the schools 
through public libraries, in the following manner: 

a. Definition of a library model a geographic area which can be con¬ 
sidered as its specific community with this objective that research be 
carried out in order to ascertain at what distance potential users will 
be willing to use their free time to use library services.^ In this area 
which resultsfrom conforming to a circumference of 1000 meters in 
radius, the research will establish the maximum distance that is , 
acceptable to ' potential users to determine the area of natural in¬ 
fluence. From the point of view of planning activities for the promo¬ 
tion of reading, the population that lives in the area of natural in¬ 
fluence of the library constitutes the community of the same. 

b. Inventorying and contacting the grade schools and high schools sit¬ 
uated in the area of natural influence, with the hypothesis that stu¬ 
dents in those educational establishments are the major members of the 
same community of the library, in other words, live in the natural area 
of influence. 

c. Proposing to each of the schools in the community a visiting 
schedule to the public library, with the intention of making available 
to students, members of the library community, programs to promote read¬ 
ing and the use of non-academic information use. The first visit to 
the library on the part of each grade in each school will also be the 
object of the first circulation of the mini-box service, similar to that 
discussed earlier . Even if the student does not visit the library 


officially again, he will receive a book weekly in his school, through 
lending. In this way,service generates reading habits in the student 
which can be increased during free time in the library and makes the 
library accessible to the same community. 

d. Proposing to the educational community in each high school and 
community school, the organization of a service of internal exchange, 
so that the students of each year and grade will donate texts to a 
common depository in the high school and so gets as many books as he 
has given. The collection of the common depository of the high school 
or other school will increase its own collection for the educational 
community in the area corresponding to the area of influence of the 

This service will be supplemented by a bibliobus in order to give 
service for academic research for the students. Eventually, all the 
action will be supplementary with the use of text modules in the head¬ 
quarters of its own library. The regular relationship thus established 
with the students in the school will permit the promotion in the educa¬ 
tional establishment of non-school collections through programs of 
promoting reading especially as conceived by means of indirect circula¬ 
tion . 

In this manner, it is hoped to improve the 
experiences accumulated in order to try to rescue the objectives of the 
public library, which were abandoned in consequence of the intense 
demands of the schools. 



1 . In fact, this was the first service of the Banco del Libro and in a 
certain way its reason to be started; hence, the number of the 

2. The Banco del Libro has tried through all its experiments different 
kinds of bibliobus service: service to barrios (as a motivation for 
future public libraries, as a substitute for a public library, and 
as outreach of the same); service to high schools and grade schools, 
which was the major dimension and for multiple reasons was trans¬ 
formed into the name of mini-boxes service. 

3. During 1969, the Mariano Picon Salas Library, 29,913 youth (U5*66$ 
of the total the visiting users) consulted 33,319 books of which 
98.75$ were just texts and references (20,18U), which represent 
7.2$ of the total titles owned by the library. This does not in¬ 
clude supplementary materials: psychology, physics, chemistry, 
mathematics, history, geography, etc., that made up 88 .l_uU$ of the 
total consultation before. (Data extracted from the statistics 
present in monthly reports of such libraries and of the inventory 
accomplished in May of this year.) 

U. During 1979, 12U3 children from 9 schools of different sectors of 
Caracas visited the Mariano Picon Sales Library. 78.2$ came only 
one time, 17.9$ two times, and only one grade (32 children) 
repeated their visit a third time in the year. (Data taken from 
the monthly reports of service.) 

5. For more information on this study, see the documents: "Research 
in order to determine the areas of influence of a library" by 
Alvaro Agudo, head of the Daniel Navea Center of Information and 
Documentation, Banco del Libro, Caracas. 





Presented by Ing. Bias Menda, Executive Secretary 


The National Commission for the establishment of a national system of 
information by Decree 559 of 19 November, 197k, was based on the recommen¬ 
dations formulated in meetings convened by the Andre's Bello Agreement and 
Unesco through the conceptual framework NATIS. The report of this com¬ 
mission was said to bring about the approval of Decree 1759 of 7 September, 
1976, by which the National Commission for the Organization of the National 
System of Services of Libraries and Humanistic, Scientific, and Technolog¬ 
ical Information was created, dependent on the President of the Republic. 

On the basis of the experiments achieved, Decree 2531 passed the old Com¬ 
mission to the Coordinating Commission of Library Service and Humanistic 
Information, of Scientific and Technological Information of Archives, 
Statistics and Information SINASBI. It is now assigned to CORDIPLAN or 
the Ministry of the Secretariat of the President and Planning. 

The Coordinating Commission SINASBI functions on the basis of a 
National Commission; of a technical secretariat and four operating sys¬ 
tems, which are: 

1. The System of Library Services and Humanistic Information. The 
nucleus is the Autonomous Institute of the National Library and 
the Library Services. 

2. The System of Services of Scientific and Technological Informa¬ 
tion. The nucleus is the National Council of Scientific and 
Technological Research (CONICIT). 

3. The Archives System, with the nucleus of the General Archives 
of the Nation. 

U. The System of Statistics and Information. The nucleus is the 

Central Office of Statistics and Information of the President of 
the Republic. 

We have proposed a strategy for development 1980-1990 with the follow¬ 
ing objectives: 

1 . Create adequate mechanisms capable of assuring each Venezuelan, 


independent of his grade of schooling, social position, pro¬ 
fession, or locale in the national boundaries, free access and 
use of information. 

2. Help in the improvement of the conditions of life of Venezuelans 
and his intellectual and cultural enrichment through consulta¬ 
tion of opportune, reliable, and truthful information available 
without any kind of impediment. 

3. Assure the consultation of print and non-print information in 
order to sustain decision-making at all levels by helping in the 
research and supporting education in all its branches and models, 
including lifelong adult education. 

In order to orchestrate these objectives, we have proposed a group of 

1. To carry out, within the framework of the economic and social 
plans of development, the national policy on library and infor¬ 
mation services. 

2. To determine the priorities of the National System within the 
context of this policy and in agreement with the objectives of 
the plan of national development and available resources. 

3. To stimulate the development of the four systems that make up 
the National System of Library and Information Services, and 
establish plans of harmonizing, of cooperation, and interrelations 
among them, participating in the evaluation of these services for 
the community, to formulate recommendations in order to improve 

h. To study and propose to the systems standards and technical pro¬ 
cedures for standardization that are indispensible in order to 
make compatible the functioning of the systems among themselves 
and to obtain from them the maximum benefit with the minimum of 
change (concept and rationale). 

5• To promote and stimulate the education and preparation of person¬ 
nel necessary at all levels for the different branches of the 
national system. 

In the second annual meeting of SINASBI this year, we proposed four 


1. Coordination and integration of the nuclei of the system 

2. Training of human resources 

3. Research 

U. Promotion and diffusion of library and information services 

For program 1, we proposed two big objectives: 

1 . Unite standardized actions and supervision of the coordinating 
commission with the execution of the operating plans in each of 
the nuclei of the system. 

2. To accomplish a major operating union among the different nuclei 
of the system. 

Decrees 2718 and 2719 of the past government. 

Decree 2718 decreed the construction of a central library in each of 
the ministries and assigned institutions (autonomous and contracted by the 
State). We worded the decree in order to begin to design—not to execute — 
a project model that, at the end of two years, we could see outlined and, 
in approximately 10 years, see orchestrated into a library infrastructure 
of the public administration (Ing. Menda clarified that the nuclei of the 
system carry it out). 

We also proposed the design of project in the industrial area (metal¬ 
lurgy) and in the rural area {75% population urban and 25% rural). 

For CONICIT we proposed a model infrastructure that would serve the 
rest of the educational institutes of higher learning (universities). 

The model project serves to develop library intrastructures for an average 
type university (e.g. Central West University of Barquisimetic, Lara 
State, which has 3000 students) and the University of Carabobo with 33*000 

For program 2, human resources, we have considered the two areas of 
formal and non-formal education. 

a. In formal education we have worked with a team in collaboration 
with UCV, Dr. Olga de Ojeda, and Prof. Arabia Cova, in order to 
design ideal and real profiles of pyramid structures in order to 
determine the real needs. 

Similarly, we have post-graduate courses with Unesco. 

b. As for non-formal or continuing education, the first workshop 
carried out 12 to 16 May, 1980, revealed the need to train per¬ 
sonnel in several areas of functional orders. We have proposed 


managerial courses; for example to train personnel little by 
little for the infrastructure, to formal educational institu¬ 
tions which teach this type of course. 

Project 3 - Research 

Objective: to research in priority areas of the nuclei that make up 
the National System of Library and Information Services with the goal of 
helping to detect the limiting factors for their development. We believe 
that it is important to research the ideal and real profiles as well as to 
research the legislation comparing Venezuela and other countries. 

We are working on an Archives law. The present law for the Archives 
of the Nation dates from 19U5 and requires amendments in order to adapt 
it to a national system. 

Program U - Promotion and Diffusion 

Promotion of the system at the level of printed material, which 
the public can consume as information. Use state TV channels (5 
and 8) to cover the user primarily between 15 > and 30 years old. 

- Design a policy of mass communication in order to attract the 
attention of users who consume major quantities of information. 

Finally, the review of SINASBI was discussed as a popularization organ 
of activities to be carried out. The review of science and information 
also have projects. 

The circumstance was also alluded to that the government has as a 
goal—which reaffirms human resources—to teach 700,OCX) people how to read 
in two years, but the country doesn't have the infrastructure of informa¬ 
tion services to guarantee the process and follow-up of the new readers. 



Presented by FIor Thomas de Alarcon 

I would like to present the functions of the supervisor in the school 
library program of Ciudad Guayana. 

I point out that the program is divided into three geographic juris¬ 
dictions, each with ten libraries (30 in total). 

The sector is taken care of by a supervisor. The library is in the 
charge of a teacher librarian and two auxiliaries. The supervisor is 
charged with a minimum responsibility of 30 people, besides controlling 
these ten libraries, coordinating other library programs in the schools 
that have no central library. 

In the office, the supervisor . also has a coordinater and a technical 
advisor who support the field work of the supervisor. 

Functions of the supervisor: plan and evaluate new programs; for 
example: the System of Annual Circulation of textbooks in schools that 
lack libraries. 

- link with the coordination of the Nucleus institutions that can¬ 
not be solved at the level of supervision. 

Coordinate interlibrary activities. Prepare annual plans, inter- 
library courses and interchange experiments. 

Supervision as such: 

- Orientation in specific activities; for example, carrying out the 
annual inventory. 

- Orientation of the teacher librarian to promote specific types of 

- Train the teacher librarian and follow-up the training. 

In the Nucleus of Library Services in Ciudad Guayana the training of 
technical librarians and educational technicians is directed. The tech¬ 
nical librarians refers to the maintenance of the library in optimal con¬ 
dition; and the educational technicians pursue greater use of existing 
resources, support the librarian in the planning of weekly, monthly, and 
yearly activities, control the fulfillment of administrative functions on 
the part of the reacher librarian to define the role of the supervising 
librarian) he must fulfill in the nucleus (given the personnel to carry 
out activities of supervision ) this level of activities. Before beginning 


to function. the teacher librarians are being trained now as supervisors 
and at the same time being advised on the role of the supervisor to relate 
functions to the curriculum. 

The action of the supervisor is framed within the modem conception 
of supervision, abandoning the concept of finance and inspection, emphasiz¬ 
ing pedagogical aspects and oriented to the same. 

Supervision visits are oriented to toward a diagnosis of the library 
situation, to give necessary corrections for the good running of services, 
and to control and direct work with the objective of library-classroom in¬ 
tegration . 

The supervisor must have goals of planning, direction, coordina¬ 
tion, control, and evaluation. 



Presented by Lie. Crucita Hernandez de Malaver 

In view of the characteristics of the library network of Zulia pre¬ 
sented by Nelly Primera, I will concentrate on the aspect of the program¬ 
ming put into practice through different stages. 

This is the result of the development process of programming of 
school libraries, which if it hasn't arrive at all its objectives, has 
had positive results, has enriched our knowledge with experiments that 
have become programs more in harmony with the interests of our education. 

In these programs the objectives of the primary education program are 
taken as a base for a different treatment while the other arrives at a 
different sequence. 

The experiences obtained permit us to reach several goals. Neverthe¬ 
less, we will consider it convenient to submit the program to a new pro¬ 
cess of evaluation in agreement with the new structure of education in 
Venezuela. We believe that the final result of all these procedings will 
bring about a new model for school library programming and will serve as 
a central motor of activities in the school institution. 

Start of the activities as the base for programming 

From the beginning, the school libraries of Zulai planned a fixed 
goal that was the carrying out of a series of activities that contributed 
to the formation of new readers and served to affirm, implant, and motivate 
the objectives proceeding in the classroom by the teacher. All the programs 
of primary education were analysed, especially in the area of language, in 
order to thus make precise the activities in which we could give our sup¬ 
port in order to arrive at a positive development. 

As a result we obtained a first programming in which was listed the 
contents of the obligatory objectives so that the teacher librarians could 
have direct contact with the instrument of work. In that way, our first 
experience in programming was as follows : 

For example, in pre-school we were ready to talk about personal experi¬ 
ences, practice manners, narrate stories, participate in popular dramatiza¬ 
tions, show the desire to read, celebrate dates, for each primary grade. 

All the activities were destined to support the program of work in the 
classroom. For the new school year we take into account experience of the 


teacher librarians to review the past and with new contributions to follow 
a new program that covers other aspects of the child’s education. 

We take into account the contents, activities, and specify the resources 
to be used. All the activities were conceived in such a manner that we could 
adapt them to different levels of primary education, and thus the teacher 
librarian will have a broader field of action. 

In the following years the teacher librarian was freed in accordance 
with the needs and existing resources in the schools to prepare an annual 
work plan, taking into account the general objectives of the annual plan 
of the department of library services. From the experiences they recycled 
ideas which resulted in a new program that transformed the school lib- ary 

into a center to generate school activities, where all the educational 
community participates. Thus, as in the school year of 1979-1980 a program 
was presented based on the daily happenings to celebrate each month. 

Into the program were placed workshops creative literature, where 
children write their own stories. which were published. 

For 1980-81 we visualized programming that condenses all our propo¬ 
sitions in order to arrive at the goal of the definitive program that will 
transform the school library into a language laboratory when methods 
are used to contribute to the formation of the individual as a researcher. 
Such a program is based on activities with grade sections, to intensify 
basic library research, improve the quality of reading and writ¬ 

ing, develop creative capacity, transforming the child into a social being 
and projecting the school library into the community. 

We highlighted the mobile service by means of traveling boxes—similar 
to those of the Banco del Libro—sent to the rural area, with the following 

- To create an awareness between the educators and the students of the 
importance of library services in the development and renovation of 
the educational process. 

- To project the services of the traveling boxes to the rural commu¬ 

- To develop the creative capacity of children. 

- To see that teachers and students become acquainted with new 
techniques of information and documentation. 

To help them improve their use of free time. 


- To see that the mobile service functions in all the rural areas of 

In order to give more attention to rural schools, the Division for 
traveling boxes prepares a monthly plan and carries out adaptations of 
supplementary books to the different guides of the program. 

Mrs. Mieko Nagakura, of the National Institute of Educational Research 
in Tokyo, Japan, presented an audiovisual entitled "Educational libraries 
in Japan." 

Prof. Arabia Teresa Cova, Director of the School of Librarianship and 
Archivists of the Central University of Venezuela, presentedan audio¬ 
visual "The School Library." 



Presented by Elena D'Angelo de Sanz and Aixa Socorro de Gurevara 
1 . Background 

The Banco del Libro, from which was created the library services of 
Venezuela, was conceived as a medium of innovation and stimulation within 
formal and non-formal education. It is for this reason that from the 
beginning library services of the Banco del Libro and the Nucleus of 
Library Services of Ciudad Guayana have required librarian personnel and 
well prepared paralibrarians. In Venezuela until 197U no institutions 
existed to train personnel at the paraprofessional level. Until this date, 
the Banco del Libro trained personnel who entered service like the public 
as well as traditional students which did not permit taking care of the 
real necessities of the institution. 

In view of the interinstitutional demand and the pressure that organi¬ 
zations began to exercise, and in view of the necessity for a system of 
learning that would permit paraprofessional personnel training in a rapid 
and systematic manner the models of the Banco del Libro were applied. 

Therefore, a model was developed with the advice of Glenn Nimicht, 
North American educator with ample and recognized experience in flexible 
programs of learning, who was supported by an interdisciplinary team of 
Venezuelan people specialists in pedagogical techniques, librarians, and 
the production of educational materials. 

The Unit of Training was created, which initially tested and applied 
this flexible program systematically in order to train librarian personnel 
in institutions and through in-service. 

In constant evaluation, the initial program was transformed from 
training to an apprenticeship through regular and intensive courses. The 
adjustment was carried out satisfactorially, thanks to the accumulated 
experience in personnel training at different levels of preparation, per¬ 
taining to diverse institutions. 

The design of several learning materials were modified and mass repro¬ 
duced in artistic form. To date, the final revision is being finalized 
and is listed for industrial printing. 

2. Justification 

In Ciudad Guayana, the Banco del Libro developed this experimental 


program of library services in 31 public schools. They took care of approx¬ 
imately 35*000 students and 915 teachers. 

The program is the base for the establishment of a National System of 
School Library Service. 

Its programming, coordination, execution, and control demand the crea¬ 
tion of a technical-administrative structure that permits the following 
objectives to be fulfilled among them: 

- To define the profiles of librarian personnel at the different 
levels that the program requires. 

- To design, probe, and evaluate an in-service training program for 
school librarians and corresponding material for it. 

- To form teams of trained monitors to apply the program. 

- To train school librarian personnel. 

To accomplish such, the training unit of the Banco del Libro proposes 
as an alternative a curriculum project for teacher librarians based on the 
flexible system of learning. 

3 Objectives 

General Objectives 

- To establish flexible system of learning for school librarian 
personnel and use this model to train in a rational and continuous 
form the human resources that the country requires for the develop¬ 
ment and outreach of school library services. 

- To transfer this model to other countries. 

Specific Objectives 

- To define the competencies required for school librarian personnel. 

- To develop strategies of learning that implicate these competencies. 

- To establish a program of training for school librarian personnel 
who give service in the different schoollibrariesand who have dif¬ 
ferent levels of responsibility and specialization in the school 
library profession. 

U. Characteristics 

The flexible system of learning consists of a program of training 
librarian personnel, with the goal of dividing a systematic model into areas 
of competencies necessary in order to distinguish the different functions 
of library service. 

It is a system because it consists of a mixture of elements related 

to one another in accordance with an order that is consistant and contri¬ 
butes to train a specific level: the teacher librarian. 

It is flexible, for various reasons: 

It permits the personalization and individualization of experiences 
with the minimum of directed teaching, having the emphasis on auto- 
directed learning and personalization. Thus it is possible that 
personnel can learn at their own pace and in different ways, and 
can exercise a high degree of control over their learning experiences. 

- It permits administratively monitored modules or groups of mater¬ 
ials, individually or in groups, in accordance with the conditions 
of ambiance and the needs of learning. 

- In some cases it permits the learner to initiate training in the 
most urgent area in order to carry out his functions or main per¬ 
sonal interest. 

5. Theoretical Fundamentals 

The conceptual elements that function in the program development as 
well as for the areas of competencies are: 

- The theory of Jean Piaget on human development. 

- The delineations by Jerome Bruner to prepare a theory of instruc¬ 
tion . 

- The theory of B. F. Skinner on operant conditioning and programmed 

The notions that there should be an atmosphere of learning (Social- 
psychological theories) based on Omar Khayam Moor, on R. R. Allan, 
and S. B. Anderson. 

- The taxonomy of instructional objectives by B. Bloom. 

6. Basic Concepts 

The key concepts are modules of learning, competencies, areas of com¬ 
petencies, and monitoring. 

A Module of Learning is a mixture of written material, visuals, audio¬ 
visuals, etc., organized according to a basic concept that facilitates a 
process of systematic learning, which objective is the development of tasks 
in specific areas and the stimulation of self-directed and personalized 

A Competency is the possession of knowledge, aptitudes, and skills 
required for the adequate execution of a task acquired by means of learning 


modules and that permit a rational carrying out and the fulfillment of a 
determined function within the library; for example, to file books on the 

Area of Competency is the acquisition of a group of competencies by 
means of an orderly mixture of modules that develop aptitutes or skills in 
the determined area. For example, in order to carry out the interfiling 
of books in shelves adequately, the learner must have had the following 

- Dewey Classification System 

- Dewey subdivisions 

- code and its significance 

- alphabet 

Monitor is some person who joins certain characteristics that permits 
the transmission of the training and facilitates the learning of the appre 
tice. His most important function is to orient, supervise, and evaluate 
activities that the learner has acquired by means of modules, as well as 
the organization of activities that require his intervention. 

7• Resources 

The flexible system of learning demands the use of a monitor guide, a 
learner's guide, an exercise book, a notebook of evaluation, recompilation 
of obligatory readings, audiovisual and other material such as simulations 
card games, etc. 

Implementation requires an educational center, a library laboratory, 
and classrooms. 

8. Contents 

The contents are organized into two sections: areas of competencies 
and competences. Tentatively a project reflects the curriculum of teacher 
librarians through the flexible system of learning. 



A1. To plan service activities 
in coordination with the 
general plan of the school 
and the teachers of each 

A2. To apply standards and pro¬ 
cedures of the library 
system to your program. 

A3. To systematically detect the 
needs and interests of the 
users and channel informa¬ 
tion, activities, and 
materials that satisfy them. 


a) Demonstrate knowledge and manage¬ 
ment of school programs. 

b) Demonstrate knowledge about the 
annual plan and about each school 

c) Demonstrate knowledge about plan¬ 
ning methodology. 

d) Demonstrate knowledge and manage¬ 
ment of material and equipment 
that the library directs, of the 
pedagogical value of the same, 
and their limitations. 

e) Establish a time schedule to use 

a) Use and manage the manual of 
standards and procedures for 
service organization and function¬ 
ing established by the Learning 
Resource Centers. 

b) Identify areas of the program 
that do not fit the standards or 
the established procedures. 

c) Develop a plan of achieving stan¬ 
dards and modification of needs 
of the Learning Resource Centers. 

a) Identify interests and needs of 
the students based on their bio¬ 
psycho-social development. 

b) Identify interests and needs of 
the surrounding community in 
relation to its individual char¬ 

c) Select information and materials 
that satisfy the interests and 
needs of students, teachers, and 
the surrounding community. 

d) Prepare a plan to compile exist¬ 
ing community resources that are 
useful in the program. 




To maintain records and data 
that contribute to the effic¬ 


iency of the program in 
evaluation results 



Prepare monthly, annual and 
other reports solicited by 
the supervisor according to 


established lines. 



A6. Supervise and facilitate the a) 

training of personnel in your 
charge. .x 


A7. Maintain appropriate chan- a) 

nels of communication with 
area supervisors of school 
library services. 





B1 . Suggest criteria for the a) 

evaluation and selection of 
material and equipment 
needed for your center. 



Enumerate and describe the 
records that must be kept. 

Interpret statistical data as a 
function of service efficiency. 

Describe and interpret informa¬ 
tion solicited in different 

Identify the program elements 
and work plans that will form 
part of the report. 

Clearly and concisely edit 
different types of reports. 

Describe the functions of each 
staff member. 

Identify programs that affect 
the accomplishment of functions, 
and suggest changes. 

Apply minimal techniques of 
personnel supervision. 

Analyze the organizational struc¬ 
ture of the Nucleus of School 
Library Services and determine 
the levels of authority. 

Describe mechanisms of communi¬ 
cation with area supervisors of 
library services. 

Demonstrate knowledge about the 
supervision manual of the area 
library services. 

Identify areas of the program 
that need supervisor consultation. 

Analyze the requirements of your 
program and the community in 
which the learning resources 
center is located. 

Develop a policy of evaluation 
and selection for your center. 

Develop a policy of audiovisual 
equipment selection as a function 
of the use of library services. 



B2. Participate in the team of 
selection, evaluation, and 
acquisition of materials and 
equipment of the coordinat¬ 
ing organization. 

B3. Obtain materials, not given 
out by the centralized ser¬ 
vice, by means of inter- 
library loan. 

BU. Assume the responsibility 
for the processing and 
organization of all material 
and equipment not processed 
by the coordinating organiza¬ 

B5• Notify your users about new 
material, equipment, and 

B6 . Prepare bibliographies of 
all types of materials. 

a) Know the criteria of selection, 
evaluation and acquisition of the 
coordinating organization, 
established in the policy manual 
of selection ad acquisition. 

b) Take new criteria from base to 
base in your center. 

c) Demonstrate the capacity to write 
critical reviews on material. 

a) Identify real needs in order to 
solicite leading from other 
libraries and institutions. 

b) Demonstrate knowledge of other 
sources of resources. 

c) Plan the use of these materials. 

d) Demonstrate knowledge about the 
rules of interlibrary loan. 

a) Demonstrate knowledge about the 
cataloging and classification 
process of material. 

b) Apply established routines of 
the procedures manual. 

c) Adapt organization principles to 
the actual situation of your 

a) Establish user profiles of the 
school teachers. 

b) Prepare a program of promotion 
of new material. 

c) Plan the information process of 
new materials, equipment, and 

a) Select, together with teachers, 
areas in the curriculum that 
justify the compilation of lists 
of material. 

b) Demonstrate knowledge about bib¬ 
liographic entry form. 

c) Develop a process of making these 



B?. Carry out the annual inventory 
of material and equipment of 
the learning resources center. 


Cl. Consult and plan with 

teachers the appropriate use 
and hourly distribution for 
the use of materials in the 
teaching-learning process. 

C2. Plan activities with class¬ 
room teachers, giving atten¬ 
tion to the needs of the 
users and recommend ways to 
satisfy them. 

C3. Serve as a support for 
teachers in activities. 

CU. Help teachers integrate 

resources with educational 


a) Demonstrate knowledge about the 
planning and supervision of the 
inventory process. 

b) Demonstrate knowledge about the 
organization of the topographic 

c) Identify the necessary records in 
order to complete the inventory. 

d) Demonstrate familiarity with the 
inventory process in accord with 
the procedure manual. 

a) Demonstrate knowledge about the 
academic program. 

b) Identify resource needs in dif¬ 
ferent units of the academic 

a) Identify academic and recrea¬ 
tional needs of the students. 

b) Select material that satisfy 
these needs. 

c) Program general and specific 
activities for groups and 

a) Orient the teacher in library 
science about the different modes 
and styles in learning theory. 

b) Demonstrate knowledge about learn¬ 
ing theories. 

c) Plan together with the teacher 
enriching classroom activities 
with appropriate materials at the 
level of child development. 

a) Demonstrate the use of different 
resources in specific areas of 
the academic program. 

b) Recommend bibliographies about 
the basic elements of instruc¬ 
tional design. 

c) Prepare a resource unit for the 
learning unit. 



C5. Stimulate student use of 

materials in order to acom- 
plish their tasks. 

C6. Plan activities that stimu¬ 
late student and teacher use 
of materials. 

C7. Teach students and teachers 
the use of materials in the 

08. Guide the user in reading, 
visual, and auditory 


a) Identify requirement of the 
academic program. 

b) Establish channels of communica¬ 
tion with teachers in order to 
know about tasks. 

c) Plan activities that relate 
tasks to resources. 

d) Demonstrate knowledge about the 
resources that the library has. 

a) Design a public relations program. 

b) Prepare a program of promotion 
of library materials. 

c) Plan, with students, teachers, 
directors, and the community, 
activities to stimulate reading 
and individual and collective 

a) Describe the characteristics of 
a program of instruction. 

b) Formulate a plan of training by 

c) Produce teaching material that is 
useful in the training program. 

a) Demonstrate knowledge about 
children's literature. 

b) Demonstrate knowledge about the 
interests and reading of chil¬ 
dren according to their level 
of psychological development. 

c) Describe advantages and disadvan¬ 
tages of different types of 
visual and audiovisual materials. 


9 . Procedures 


This type of program requires that all the activities be centered on 
the planned objectives, which must start with a clear image of the strategy 
to follow. Next, a detailed plan is designed in order to accomplish this 
goal. In order to design the strategy one must know what activities must 
be accomplished, in what sequence, and what resources are needed in terms 
of equipment, material, timing, and personnel. The constant carrying out 
of the program is very important and implies a continuous process of 
review, consultation, and revision, which supplies a dynamism that permits 
accelerated change today in this society. 

To prepare the learning program which aids in learning and acquiring 
competencies in an effective and efficient form. 

To evaluate the learning process at its different stages. 

Evaluation is initial, formative, and summative. It has as means 
written tests, questionnaires, observation guides, simulation, interviews, 

Initially, the accomplishments of each candidate in the entrance of the 
program are evaluated. 

Training occurs after each cycle of competencies. The monitor gives an 
evaluation which permits the learner to knew if he has reached the objec¬ 
tives previously set. In case he does not, he can accomplish the recupera¬ 
tion until he achieves the determined objectives. Besides, individual or 
group study can be proposed to library science students for each moduel. 
This permits the learner to develop knowledge, learning something new and 
reinforcing his concepts and reading habits. 

2 h9 


(Editor's Note: The following re¬ 
marks concluded the 1980 IASL Con¬ 
ference held in Ciudad Guayana, 

After the last four days of work, 
the time has come to close this IX 
Annual Conference of the Inter¬ 
national Association of School 
Iibrarianship. During this time 
we have had the opportunity to 
hear interesting reports by dele¬ 
gates from Canada, Colombia, Costa 
Rica, Dominican Republic, England, 
Jamaica, Japan, Nicaragua, Peru, 
United States and Venezuela as 
well as from IASL, OAS, and IFIA. 
Thanks to those reports and the 
active participation of the public 
we have been .ble to reach the 
following conclusions: 

1 . In relation to the pedagogi ¬ 
cal functions of the school 

1 .1 The school library must 
be conceived as a media cen¬ 
ter, that offers to the stu¬ 
dent information resources 
that are important not only 
for reaching the objectives of 
the curriculum but also in the 
development of reading skills 
and permanent reading habits. 
Given the scarce human and 
economic resources available 
for library development, the 
school library must be also 
open to the community, serv¬ 
ing as a cultural resource 

1 .2 Today, learning is con¬ 
ceived as a lifelong process. 
The school library is one of 
the instruments to support 
that process allowing the in¬ 
dividual to develop indepen¬ 
dent information skills. 

1 .3 The educational process 
must respond to the rapid 
changes that are occurring in 

all realms of society; the school 
librarians must be trained to 
comprehend those changes in a 
critical and participative appro¬ 
ach and be able to transmit that 
approach to the student. 

2. In relation to the present situa ¬ 
tion and perspectives of the 
School Library in Latin America . 

At the present time interest - 

ing experiences are being carried 
on in school library development 
in different countries in latin 
America and the Caribbean. Many 
of those experiences would be of 
use in other countries in the 
Region but due to a lack of in¬ 
formation means, parallel devel¬ 
opments are the rule. Therefore, 
it is recommended: 

2.1 To intensify the exchange of 
information and experiences in the 
development of the school library 
services in order to optimize and 
rationalize the scarce human and 
economic resources available in 
the Region. 

2.2 Stimulate the international 
organizations, both governmental 
and private, to foster the ex¬ 
change of information and experi¬ 
ences by publishing their results 
at a regional level. 

3• In relation of the training of 
school Librarians . 

In Latin America and the Car¬ 
ibbean there has been a parallel 
development of training programs. 
Common elements in its conception 
have not been a systematic appro¬ 
ach. It is recommended: 

3.1 That a multinational and 
multidisciplinary team be organi¬ 
zed that carries on research in 
order to: 

3.1 .1 Reach a better definition 
of the role and characteristics 
of professionals in charge of 
both school and public libraries. 


3*1 .2 Define, for Latin America 
and the Caribbean, the conceptual 
framework and the professional 
profile of the librarian in 
charge of libraries at the dif¬ 
ferent educational levels., 

3.1.3. Develop within that frame¬ 
work training programs that re¬ 
spond to the specific needs of 
each country, but, at the same 
time, allow for a certain level 
of c ommunali ty. 

3.1 .U Request from the official 
organizations responsible in each 
com try, for defining and execut¬ 
ing personnel policies, to take 
into consideration the results of 
the research projects defined 

U. In relation to creating inter ¬ 
national associations . 

Given the expressed feel¬ 
ing that time is ripe for ex¬ 
changing information and execut¬ 
ing common projects, the need 
arises for international organi¬ 
zations that incorporates school 
librarians, it is recommended 

U.1 A provisional committee 

be organized to study the possi¬ 
bility of creating a regional 
association of school librarians 
in Latin America and the Carib¬ 

U.2 To ask UNESCO to trans¬ 

late to other languages, signif¬ 
icant documents related to 
school library services. An 
important document that requires 
immediate translation is "Guide¬ 
lines for Planning and Develop¬ 
ing Media Centers," prepared by 
Patricia Beilke and Laveme 
Carol, which should be dissemi¬ 
nated urgently. 

5. In relation to school libraries 

in Venezuela. 

Most Venezuelan school 
libraries have developed as 
independent organizations with¬ 

in the school. In the last 
fifteen years three school 
library systems have evolved in 
which certain technical func¬ 
tions are centralized to ration¬ 
alize resources and give support 
to each library. Those experi¬ 
ences provide results that allow 
the following recommendations: 

5.1 To centralize the norming 
function for school libraries at 
a national level and develop 
regional centers that implement 
at the local level those policy 
and norming decisions. The school 
library system in turn must be 
incorporated within National 
library and Information System to 
all or for continuity in the use 

of resources and standardization 
in policy implementation. 

5.2 Regional centers should par¬ 
ticipate in planning, training 
and giving technical support to 
local library development. They 
should also implement programs 

at the regional level. 

5*3 A Reading Policy of the State 
should be defined, in which among 
other elements a definition be in¬ 
cluded of the important role that 
the school library has to play in 
the development of reading skills 
and permanent reading habits. 

5.U The professional status of 
the school librarian must be de¬ 
fined as one of the fundamental 
prerequisites of the development 
of a National School library 

5.5 In the development of a 
National School Library System, 
the experiences developed until 
now must be taken into considera¬ 
tion and incorporated as an 
integral part of the system. 



The annual meeting of the International Association of School 
Librarianship was held on Wednesday, July 17, 1980 at the Intercontinental 
Hotel in Ciudad Guyana, Venezuela. The President, Mrs. Amy Robertson, 
presided. The minutes were approved as read. It was moved and seconded 
that the treasurer's report be accepted as appended. The President then 
presented her annual report to the conference. 


I believe I can say on behalf of the Board that IASL has had a 
successful year, the crowning achievement of which is this first bilingual 
conference in Latin America. 

It is the people of this region who have wanted the Conference, 
worked for it and arranged it. The moving force has been Dr. Rodriquez 
and his staff and I am sure the years to come will bear testimony to the 
timeliness and importance of this Conference. The high interest shown by 
all is proof that rapid development is on its way. 

As we look back at the Denmark meeting in 1979> we are pleased to 
report that our plans are being realized - our proposals for Regional 
chapters is getting off to a good start and we hope that by the end of the 
year as reported by our Director in Scandinavia, Mr. Axel Wisbom, the 
Scandinavian Chapter will be a reality. I express the hope that the Latin 
American chapter will also be a reality in the near future. 

Publications ♦ Work is progressing on the monograph series. 

Unfortunate circumstances have been responsible for the delay, but our 
Publications Committee is very enthusiastic and are working steadily. 

The Guidelines for planning and developing school library media 
centers coauthored by ourselves and IFLA has now been published as reported 
before. We are approaching UNESCO the sponsors, about the possibility of 
translation into other languages, particularly Spanish. 

Future Conferences . Plans for 1981 Conference in Aberystwyth, Wales, 
are very well advanced - thanks to our energetic Vice-President, Mr. Michael 
Cooke. The theme - libraries for A11?" 

Our Board Member, Mr. John Wright, has secured an invitation from the 
Canadian School Library Association for us to meet in that Country in 1982. 
We are interested in hearing what themes you would like discussed in 1982 


and future meetings. 

IASL/UNESCO Cooperative Action Project . The importance of this pro¬ 
ject, the UNESCO Book Coupon Project cannot be overlooked at this time of 
weak economies, and consequent poor library budgets, expanding school 
populations and the growing pattern of disruption in the lives of children 
throughout the world. The programme is new under the direction of Mrs. 
Lucille Thomas, and she needs all the support and help of this body. We 
are certain that the programme will achieve the success it achieved in the 
past if we are all behind it. 

Task Force to Analyse Resolutions . We regret that the group which 
we tried to set up to analyse the resolutions passed at various conferences, 
and make proposals for implementing them, has not got off the ground. We 
would welcome offers of assistance from you. 

Statement to WCOTP . A final draft of the Statement requested by 
WCOTP on "the place of the school library in education" is in final stages 
of preparation and will be forwarded to the Secretary-General soon. 

Copies will be appended to the Newsletter in course of time. 

Conclusion . Every successive conference convinces us that the work 
we set out to do is worthwhile. We cannot be effective without members, 
and so I make an appeal for membership. Already UO persons have joined 
this year. We are depending on you our members to help us bring them in. 

The Nominations Committee, chaired by Walter Kalyn of Canada, 
presented the following slate: President for a second term - Mrs. Amy 
Robertson of Jamaica, Directors for a second term - Mr. John Wright of 
Canada and Mrs. Rosario Horowitz of Venezuela. It was moved and seconded 
that the nominations be accepted and the three officers elected. 

Mr. Michael Cooke gave a brief report on the 1981 conference. The 
theme of which will be "Library Services to All". This will be held 
July 30th to August U, 1981, at the College of Librarianship, Aberystwyth, 
North Wales. The emphasis will include supportive agencies for school 
libraries and it is expected that the independent TV and the BBC will do 
a joint broadcast. There will be a study tour of five days to look at 
school libraries in England following the conference. Information and 
application forms were available at the desk following the meeting. 

There followed a discussion of memberships and attendances at 
conferences, with the hope that IASL may be able to develop more regional 


centers so that more of the members will be able to attend meetings on a 
regular basis, even though they cannot attend the large annual world 
conference every year. 

A resolution to Unesco that the new guidelines for School Library 
Media Centers be made available in Spanish was offered by John Wright. 
This was forwarded to the coordinating committee of the conference for 
presentation at the final session. It was also strongly advocated that 
at least some part of the Newsletter be printed in Spanish on a regular 
basis if possible, so that the members in Latin America would be able to 
participate more fully in IASL. It was also agreed that the minutes of 
this meeting would be sent to all members as soon as possible in Spanish. 
The President thanked Mrs. Rosario Horowitz who served as translator for 
the meeting as well as all of the members for both their patience and 
their interest. The meeting was adjourned. 

Jean Lowrie 
Executive Secretary 



I .A .S .L. 


President: Amy Robertson (Jamaica) 

Vice-President: Michael J. Cooke (United Kingdom) 
Treasurer: Mildred Winslow (United States) 


John G. Wright (Canada) 

Rosario Gassol de Horowitz (Venezuela) 

Joseph 0. Fadero (Nigeria) 

Ursula G. Pi cache (Fnilippines) 

Valerie Packer (Australia) 

Axel Wisbom (Denmark) 

Executive Secretary: Jean E. Lowrie (United States) 



17 July, 1980 

Two groups of participants were organized in order to facilitate the 
observation of services and to permit translation to the foreign group. 

The visit included: 

1 . The Nucleus of library services in its locale of centralized ser¬ 
vice. The installations of training, technical processing, maintenance 
workshops, mobile units and depository were visited. 

2. The "Ana Emilia Delon" Public Library, which serves students and 
the community was visited. 

3. Two school libraries were visited: the "Jose'" Luis Guzman school 
group, and the "Puerto Ayacucho" school group. In them the teacher librar¬ 
ian and the supervisor explained the functioning and the school library and 
the experiences developed in this school in particular. 

To end the morning, the waterfall of Llovizna, one of the most beauti¬ 
ful sights in the area of Guayana, was visited. 



(I .A.S.L.) 

1U - 17 JULY 1980 


MONDAY : 1h July 1980 

8:00 am Registration 

11:00 am Opening Session 

Welcome by the Organizing Committee 
Dr. Nelson Rodriguez Trujillo 

Words of the Executive Director of the Banco del Libro 
Prof. Gustavo Bruzual 

Words of the President of the International Association of 
School Librarianship, IASL 
Dr. Amy Robertson 

Words of the Representative of the Venezuelan Corporation of 
Guayana (CVG) 

Dr. Eduardo Castaneda 

Words of the Director of the Autonomous Institute of the 
National Library and Library Service 
Lie. Virginia Betancourt 

Words of the Director General of the Ministry of Education 
Prof. Aurisela Alvarez Medina 

2:00 pm What is the International Association for School Librarianship? 
Dr. Amy Robertson, President of IASL 

3:30 pm Activities of the Regional Section of IFLA for Latin America and 
the Caribbean 

Dr. Rosario Gassol de Horowitz, Representative of IFLA 
L:00 pm Recess 

U:30 pm Pedagogical Function of the School Library 

Dr. Jean Lowrie, Executive Secretary of IASL 
Coordinator: Dr. Martha V. Tome, Representative of OAS 
Commentators: Dr. Carlos Ruiz, Submanager of the Division of 
Human Development of the Venezuelan Corporation 
of Guayana 

Dr. Michael H. Alleyne, Representative of OAS 
Prof. Arabia Cova, Director of the School of 
Library Science and Archives of the Central 
University of Venezuela 



8:00 am 

10:00 am 
2:00 pm 

3:00 pm 

8 :00 am 

15 July 1980 

Present Situation and Perspectives of the School Library in 
Latin America and the Caribbean 
Coordinator: Dr. Rosario Gassol de Horowitz 

Prof. Cesar A. Castro Aliaga, National Library of Peru 
Lie. Crfa Baez Reinoso, Office of School Libraries of the 
Ministry of Education in Nicaragua 

Dr. John G. Wright, School of Library Science of the University 
of Alberta, Canada 

Prof. Hugo Acosta Cadena, Division of Documentation and 
Educational Information, Ministry of Education in Colombia 
Dr. Elia Maria Van Patten de Ocampo, Head of the School 
Libraries Unit, Ministry of Education in Costa Rica 
Dr. Amy Robertson, President of IASL, Jamaica 


Background of the School Library in Venezuela 
Coordinator: Dr. Nelson Rodriguez Trjillo, Director of the 

School Libraries Program of the Banco del Libro 


Lie. Lilian Hung de Leon, Banco del Libro 

Lie. Nelly Primera, Government of the State of Zulia 

Lie. Doris Marcano de Diaz, Ministry of Education 

Book Production in Venezuela, Reviews and Periodicals for 

Coordinator: Prof. Gustavo Bruzual 

Prof. Lilian de Carias, "Tricolor" Review of the Ministry of 

Lie. Marycarmen Perez, "El Carabobeno" JoDuranl (of Valencia) 
Lie. Carmen Diana Dearden, "Ekare" Editions 

16 July 1980 

Symposium on New Ideas and Trends in the Training of the 
School Librarian 

Coordinator: Dr. Olga de Ojeda, Central University of 
Venezuela (UCV) 


Dr. Michael J. Cooke, School of Library Science in Wales 
Lie. Minerva Leidenz, Ministry of Education in Venezuela 
Prof. Arabia Teresa Cova, Director of the School of Library 
Science and Archives, Central University of Venezuela 
Mrs. Mieko Nagakura, Institute of Educational Research of 
Tokyo, Japan 

Prof. Hugo Acosta Cadena, Ministry of Education, CERLAL in 

Lie. Elena D'Angelo de Sanz, Director of the Certification 

Program of the Banco del Libro 

Lie. Marta Liendo^, UCV 

Lie. Carlos Ortuno, UCV 

Lie. Yolanda Remirez, SINASBI 


2:00 pm 

U:00 pm 
U:30 pm 

7:00 pm 

8:00 pm 

8:00 am 
2:00 pm 

8:00 pm 

16 July 1 980 

Support of Public Libraries in the School System 
Coordinator: Dr. Alfonso Quintero, Autonomous Institute of the 
National Library and Library Service 


Dr. Graciela de Mantellini, Director of Librarian Services of the 
Autonomous Institute of the National Library and Library Service 
Lie. Alvaro Agudo, Director of Public Librarian Services of the 
Banco del Libro 


Perspectives of School Libraries in Venezuela 

Prof. Lilia Carmona Revete, Director of the Office of Librarian 

Services of the Ministry of Education 



Lie. Elena D’Angelo de Sanz, Director of the Certification 
Program of the Banco del Libro 

Prof. Arabia Teresa Cova, Director of the School of Library 
Science and Archives of the Central University of Venezuela (UCV) 

Meeting of the Board of Directors of IASL, open to the conference 

17 July 1980 

Visit to the Nucleus of Librarian Services of Ciudad Guayana 

Coordinator: Lie. Carlos Ortuno, General University of 
Venezuela (UCV) 


Ing. Bias Menda, Executive Secretary of SINASBI 

Mrs. Flor Thomas de Alarcon, Nucleus of Librarian Services of 

Ciudad Guayana 

Lie. Crucia Hernandez de Malaver, Office of Culture and Education 
of the State of Aulia 

Mrs. Mieko Magaura, Institute of Educational Research of Tokyo, 

Prof. Arabia Teresa Cova, Director of the School of Library 
Science, Central University of Venezuela 


Reading of the Resolutions of the Conference 
Dr. Nelson Rodriguez Trujillo 

Words of the President of the Banco del Libro, Dr. Miguel Pinto S. 




Maria Elena Rodriguez 

John G. Wright 

Shirley Wright 


Hugo Acosta Cadena 


Maria L. Alvarez Restrepo 


Elia Maria Van Patten de Ocampo 

Michael H- Alleyne 

Patricia F. Beilke 

Jim Bennet 
Jean Lowrie 

Lucille C. Thomas 

Martha V. Tome 

Asociacion Intemacional de Lectura(IE.O 
Talcahuano 1010 Of. Ill, Buenos Aires 

Faculty of Library Science University 
of Alberta 9130 - 11 6 St. Edmonton, 
Alberta T6G 1P9 - Tel. U32-531U, Canada 

Faculty of Library Science University 
of Alberta 9130 - 11 6 St. Edmonton, 
Alberta T6G 1P9 - Tel. U32-531U 

Division de Documentacion, Informacion 
Educativa del Ministerio de Educacion 
C.A.N. Av. El Dorado, Bogota, Colombia 
Tel. 69U219•- 

Directora del Programa de Bibliotecas 
Secretaria de Educacion de Antioquia 
Av. Peru U9-100, Medellin, Colombia.- 

Jefe de la Unidad de Bibliotecas 
Escolares del Ministerio de Educacion, 
San Jose, Costa Rica - Aptdo. Postal 
3U98, San Jose - Tel. 35-18-90 

Sub-Director del Departamento de Asun- 
tos Educativos, Organizacion de Estados 
Americanos (OEA) - 17th St. and Consti¬ 
tution Av., Washington D.C. 20006 

Dept, of Library Science, Ball State 
University, Muncie, Indiana U7306 - USA 

50 Roundabout E. Smithtown, New York 

Executive Secretary, International 
Association of School Librarianship, 
School of Librarianship, Western Michi¬ 
gan University, Kalamazoo, MI U9001 

Assistant Director Libraries, New York 
City Board of Education - 118L Union 
St., Brooklyn, New York 1125 - Tel. 

Dpto. Informacion. y Difusion Cultural 
de la OEA - 17th St. and Constitution 
Ave., Washington D.C. 20006 

Mildred Winslow 


Treasurer, IASL, 160U Evanston, 
Kalamazoo, MI U9008, USA 


Michael John Cooke 


Beatrice Louise Anderson 
Katy May Mungo 

Amy Blanche Robertson 

Takako Akaboshi 
Mieko Nagakura 


Orfa Baez Reinoso 


Cesar Augusto Castro Aliaga 

Manuel E. Osoria 


ACAGUA, Roger Jose 
AGUILAR M., Lilian C. 

Vice-President, IASL, College of 
Librarianship Wales, Llanbardam Fawr 
Aberystwyth Dyfed, Wales 

10 Millsborough Av., Kingston 6, 
Kingston, Jamaica 

c/o Dpt. of Library Studies, Univer¬ 
sity West Indies, P.0. Box 181, Mona, 
Kingston 7> Jamaica 

President, IASL, 1 Hobart Rd., Kings¬ 
ton 5, Jamaica 

5- 16-10 Komazawa Setagayaku, Tokyo, 
Japan 1 5U 

6- 5-22 Shimomeguro Meguro-Ku, 
Tokyo 1 3 > Japan 

Chief Research Officer National Insti 
tute for Educational Research 

Responsable de la Oficina de Biblio- 
tecas, Escolares del Ministerio de 
Educacion, Managua, Nicaragua 

Av. Abancay s/n. Biblioteca Nacional 
Lima, Peru 

Universidad CETEC, Director de la 
3iblioteca "Lie. Victor Estrella Liz" 
del Iiceo Secundario Comercial 

Edf. 3U, Apto. 3« Honduras del Norte 
(INVI), Carretera Sanchez, Santo 
Domingo, Republiea Dominicana, 

Vereda 22 No. 11 Urb. Dona Barbara 
San Felix, Estado Bolivar 

Jefe de Produccion de Materiales 
Educati_, vos Centro de Capacitacion 
Docente "El Macaro", Turmero, Estado 


ARAQUE, Jesus Enrique 

AREVALO, Teresa 

ARIAS, Mercedes 


BAEZ de Escobar, Carmen 

BALBAS, Maigualida 

BELLO de Gruber, Norys 


BOLIVAR Perez, Luisa B. 

BONACIA de Mesa, Ligia 

BRITO de Maita, Damelis 

CALZADILLA P. Aura del Valle 

CAMACHO, Carmen Patricia 
CAMFERO, Eloina de 

CARDENAS, Carmen Josefina de 

CARTAS, Lilian de 


Calle Quintero No. 6-08, Urb. Moreno 
de Mendoza, San Felix, Estado Bolivar 

Biblioteca Publica Central "Andres Eloy 
Blanco" Av. Dalla Costa # 17, Tucupita, 
Territorio Federal Delta Amacuro 

Carrera Miguel Pena 05-03> Mendoza 
San Felix, Estado Bolivar 

Unare 2 Sector 2, Av.3 #61, Puerto 
Ordaz, Estado Bolivar 

Calle Cayaurima, Qta. Yoli, Urb. 
Macaracuay, Zona K., Caracas 

Bloque 1 Apto. A-3, Villa Colombia 
Puerto Ordaz, Edo. Bolivar 

Residencias Villa Latina Edf. B, 

5°Piso, Apto. E., Puerto Ordaz 

Calle Mexico, San Felix, Edo, Bolivar 

Calle Anzoategui N° 291 U.D. 102 
San Felix, Edo. Bolivar 

Directora General del Instituto Autonomo 
Biblioteca Nacional y de Servicios de 
Bibliotecas - Calle Paris con Caroni, 
Edf. Macanao, Urb. Las Mercedes, Caracas 
Apartado 6525 - Tel. 911UUU 

Calle Simon Rodriguez, San Felix, 

Estado Bolivar 

Av. Cordillera de los Andes N° 912 
Cumbres de Curumo, Caracas 

Bloque 13 Apto. 010U, Conjunto Mucurita 
U.D. h Caricuao, Caracas 

Ur’oanizacion Manoas, San Felix, Estado 

Av. Intercomunal, El Valle Caracas 

Carrera Anzoategui, Urb. Simon Bolivar 
San Felix, Edo. Bolivar 

Calle Suapure Qta. No. 705, Bello Monte 

Ministerio de Educacion, Revista Tri¬ 
color, Esq. de Salas, Caracas. 

Jefe del Programa de Bibliotecas Escol- 
ares del Ministerio de Educacion. Edf. 
Ministerio de Educacion, Esq. de Salas, 

CARPI0, Delia 

Grupo Escolar Roraima, Puerto Ordaz 


CAREERO, Josefina 

CASTRO, Edilma de 

CARRUYO, Emicia Ccnsuelo 
CEBALLOS, Maria del Rosario 

CEBALLOS, Mirtha Van Grieken de 

CERMENO, Maria del Carmen 
CLEMANT, Libia Garcia de 

COLMENAHES, Zarraga, Enriqueta 


CORONA, Sonia del Carmen 
COVA, Arabia Teresa 

CUPARE, Yolimas 

CURRA, Maria M. de 

CHUECOS, Guillermina de 

DALMADY, Orla de 
DARNOTT, Hernandez, Ali 

DELGADO, Rubia Elena 

DIAMONT, Belkis 
DRIJA, 0. Nalliba 

ESPINOZA de Chinchilla, Aura 

FARIA, Olga Margarita 


FLORES, Norma Almeida de 

Residencias La Cumbre 3B Av. Cuyuni 
Colinas de Bello Monte, Caracas 

Apartado 658 Puerto Ordaz, Banco del 
Libro - Estado Bolivar 

Av. 5 El Monan, Estado Zulia, Venezuela 

Manzana 15 No. 16, Villa Africana, 

Puerto Ordaz, Estado Bolivar 

Calle Guara, Qta. Mamagena, La Trinidad 
Sector Coracrevi, Caracas 

Ciudad Guay ana 

Aranacos No. 22 Manzana 13* Manoas, 

San Felix, Estado Bolivar 

Av. 9 No. 7-79 Comp. Cardon Maraven 
Estado Falcon 

M 10U C.N. 11 Villa Brasil, Puerto Ordaz 

Calle Taurepanes, San Felix, Edo. Bolivar 

Directora de la Escuela de Bibliotecolo- 
gia Universidad Central de Venezuela 
3a. Av. Campo Claro, Dos Caminos, Qta. 
"Arabia", Caracas 1070 

Av. Constitucion No. 59 , San Felix, 

Estado Bolivar 

Calle Oporto No. 30, Los Olivos, 

Puerto Ordaz, Edo. Bolivar 

Av. Guacharo H-13 Ur’o. Mendoza. Puerto 
Ordaz, Estado Bolivar 

Apartado 51.827* Caracas 1050 

Manzana 13 No. 38, Altavista Sur, 

Puerto Ordaz, Estado Bolivar 

Carrera Payures, Manzana U No. 9* San 
Felix, Estado Bolivar 

Banco del Libro, Puerto Ordaz 

Reducto a Glorieta, Torre Nassu Piso 11 
Ofc. 11 lu, Caracas 

Carrera Tocoragua UO-11, San Felix 
Estado Bolivar 

Urb. Las Delicias, Bloque 2 Apto. 08-81 
Maracaibo, Estado Zulia 

Calle 79 No. 13A-67* Maracaibo, Edo. 


Edificio 33—Cl, Villa Central, Pto. 



FIGUEROA, Jesus N .T. 

FRANCO, Audelina 

GALINDO, Francisco Antonio 
GARBAN de Lunar, Migdalia 

GARBAN de Rodriquez, Nerys 

GOMEZ, Aureliano Jose 

GONZALEZ de Blanco, Elides 

GONZALEZ de Garcia, Elina 
GONZALEZ de Molero, Lucia 

GONZALEZ de Pinango, Norma 

GONZALEZ, Ulmarys de 
GOVEA de Semprun, Isabel 
GRILLET de Ochoa, Elena 
GUERRA de Acosta, Carmen 
GUZMAN, Clara 
HERNANDEZ, Aminta de 
HERNANDEZ de Gonzalez, Ana 
HERNANDEZ de lalaver, Crucita 
HERNANDEZ, Maria Loursdes 
HOROWITZ, Rosario de 

Manzana 22 No. 99* Villa Asia, Ciudad 
Guayana, Estado Bolivar 

Calle 7 No. 18, Sector 1 Nueva Chirica 
San Felix, Estado Bolivar 

Unare 2 Sector #U, Puerto Ordaz 

Calle Panare N° U9 Manoas, San Felix 
Estado Bolivar 

Carrera Anzoategui, San Felix, 

Estado Bolivar 

Manzana U - 3 No. 27 Unare 3 Ciudad 
Guayana, Estado Bolivar 

Calle Jose Chocano 6301, San Felix 
Estado Bolivar 

Grupo Escolar Calderon. Maturin 

Calle Bari Manzana 29 No. 3 Puerto 
Ordaz, Estado Bolivar 

Ministerio para la participacion de la 
Mujer en el Desarrollo - Palacio de 
Miraflores, Av. Urdaneta, Caracas 

Calle Mayacaran #l±7-06, San Felix 
Estado Bolivar 

Avenida 2C No. 63-U9* Maracaibo, 
Estado Zulia 

Villa Central, Puerto Ordaz. 

Edo. Bolivar 

Carrera Payures Manzana Ciudad 
Guayana, Estado Bolivar 

UD 102 Senda Merida San Felix, 

Edo. Bolivar 

Calle Chirinos No. 19* Ciudad Guayana 
Estado Bolivar 

Calle 60A No. II 4 . 3 -I 6 I, Maracaibo 

Av. 196 No. 99A-09* Maracaibo, Edo. 

Apartado 18137* El Silencia, Caracas 
1012 A 

Representante de IFLA para America 
Latina y el Caribe.- 1790 Walnut St. 
Apto. 203, Berkeley, Calif. 9U709-USA 

Villa Alianza Sector 1 No. 173? Pierto 
Ordaz, Edo. Bolivar 

KALL Rivero, Laura 


LABADY Salvatore, Yolanda 

LAGRAVE, Dioanny 

LEIDZNZ, Minerva 

LIENDO, Marta 

LOPEZ de Montiel, Neide 

LOPEZ de Tovar, Nelly Maria 
LQVERA de Mantellini, Graciela 

MARCANO de Diaz, Doris 

MARIN Rivas, Merida Rosa 

MARIN Acosta, Maria Milagros 

MARTINEZ-Barruchi M., Paquita 
MARTINEZ, Petra de 

MEDINA Loyo, Mima 
MELFO, Hugo Daniel 

MENDA, Bias E. 

MENDEZ, Abigail 
MILNE, Trina de 
MORENO de Hernandez, Angela 

NICOLAI, Caridad 

ORDAZ de Bichler, Enid 

ORTUNO B., Carlos 
ORZATY, Rosa Elena 

Direccion de Cultura Gobemacion del 
Estado Bolivar. Edf. Mardey 1 Planta 
Baja, Paseo Heres, Ciudad Bolivar 

Urb. Manoas, Manzana 12 #11, San Felix 
Estado Bolivar 

Ministerio de Educacion, Esq. de Salas 

Apartado 1 3 L 6 , San Martin, Caracas 

Urb. Monte Claro, Sector A, No. A1, 
Maracaibo, Estado Zulia 

Timotes 17B, Puerto Ordaz, Edo. Bolivar 

Instituto Autonomo Biblioteca Nacional 
Calle Paris con Caroni, Edf. Macanao 
Las Mercedes, Apatdo 6525 

Programa de Bibliotecas Escolares 
Ministerio de Educacion, Esq. de 
Salas, Caracas 

Calle Saliva Manzana 5 #8, Urb. 

Manoas, San Felix, Estado Bolivar 

Calle 8 Qta. Margot, Vista Alegre 

Av. A-Boleita, Caracas, Tel. 712l±75 

Francisco Fajardo Manzana 12 No. 6 
U.D. 10U, San Felix, Estado Bolivar 

Av. Intercomunal del Valle, Caracas 

Nucleo de Servicios Bibliotecarios de 
Ciudad Guayana, Bco. del Libro 

Secretario Ejecutivo del SINASBI, 

Parque Central, Edf. San Martin, 
Mezzanina Local 5> Caracas 1010 

Miguel Pena 05-10, San Felix, Edo. 

San Antonio 19-A (A-U) Puerto Ordaz 
Estado Bolivar 

Calle El Colegio Americano, Torre B. 
Resid. El Naranjal Apto. 96 Piso 9 
Minas de Baruta, Caracas 

Calle Sicilia No. 16, Urb. Los Olivos 
Ciudad Guayana, Estado Bolivar 

Banco del Libro, Grupo Escolar Puerto 
Ayacucho, San Felix, Edo. Bolivar 

INCE, Av. Nueva Granada, Caracas 

Grupo Escolar Manoas, San Felix 
Estado Bolivar 


OROPEZA de Ojeda, Olga 
PAEZ, Cesar Elias 
PALACIOS, Coromoto Solisbella 
PARA7ISINI de Salazar, Daisy 
PLATTA Ferrer, Sandra 

PLATTA, Melida 

FEDRIQUEZ, Zurama de 
FERSDA de Camejo Carmen 

PEREZ, Maricarmen 

PRIETO de Suaez, America 
PRIMSRA, Nelly Josefina 

PULGAR de Villarroel, Mercedes 
QUINTERO, Alfonso 

QUINONES de Matute, Amanda 
QUINONES Leon, Belkis 
RAMIREZ, Yolanda 
REQUENA de Gutierrez. Carmen 
RESTETC de Issa, Aida 
RIVERO Mejias, Veronica 
RODRIGUEZ 3., Oscar Jose 

Calle Manaure, Zona K, Qta. Orfeo 
Urb. Macaracuay, Caracas 

Calle Tamanaco, Ciudad Guayana, Edo. 

Carrera Baldomero Lillo, Vereda hi #08 
U.D. 1U5, Ciudad Guayana, Edo. Bolivar 

Bloque 1-1 Apto. U Urb. Mendoza, Puerto 
Ordaz, Estado Bolivar 

Calle 75 entre Avenidas 3E 7 3E Edif. 
Campo Alegre Apto. 7, Maracaibo, Edo. 

Calle 75 entre Avenidas 3F y 3E, Edf. 
Campo Alegre, Apto. 7, Maracaibo. 

Edo. Zulia 

Calle Nueva Esparta #335 Ciudad Bolivar 

Escuela Dr. Wenceslao Monserrate, San 
Felix, Estado Bolivar 

Directora del Suplemento Infantil, 
Diario "El Carabobeno", Valencia, 

Estado Carabobo 

Av. B N°7, Urb. Boyaca, Barcelona 
Estado Anzoategui, Tel. 78079 

Bib. Publica del Estado Zulia Av. El 
Milagro, diagonal con el Hospital 
Central Maracaibo, Estado Zulia 

Av. San Francisco de Heres, Ciudad 

Instituto Autonomo Biblioteca Nacional 
Calle Paris con Caroni, Las Mercedes 
Apartado 6525^ Caracas 

Av. Luxemburgo Qta. Acacias, Urb. La 
California Caracas 

Edf. Los Testigos Piso 17 Apto. 17—C 
Sector La Montana, El Paraiso, Caracas 

SINASBI, Parque Central Edf. San 
Martin, Mezzanina Local 5> Caracas 

Calle Libertador, San Felix, Edo. 

Carrera 2 No. 5 San Felix, Edo. 


Campo Miraflores Bachaquero #1 14 . 6 , 

Estado Zulia 

Calle Oviedo y Banos 02 -h U.D. 1 LuU 
San Felix, Estado Bolivar 


RODRIGUEZ de Herrera Maria de J. 

RODRIGUEZ Malave, Yulis M. 
RODRIGUEZ de Millan, Angela 

ROJAS Ascencio, Mario Bernal 
ROJAS Rojas, Orlando 
RUIZ B., Carlos 

RUIZ de Albujas, Olga 
SANCHEZ, Aracelis 

SANTANA, Astudillo, Adriana 
SANTANA Astudillo, Belen Maria 
SCOPE, Ana Elisa 
SIL7EIRA, Luz del Valle 
SIMMONS, Rafael 
SUCRE, Florinda Rosa 
TOLEDO Garcia, Xiomara 
TURUPIAL, Maritza 

TYLKIS 01szak. Ana Emilia 
VASQUEZ de Ramos, Maria E. 
VELASQUEZ de Araujo, Estilita 
VI LORI A, Guadalupe 

Senda Araguato, Ciudad Guayana, Grupo 
Escolar "Jose Luis Guzman". 

Carrera h# 38, San Felix, Edo. Bolivar 

Biblioteca Publica "Simon Rodriguez" 
Guanta, Edo. Anzoategui 

Manzana 8 # 2, Villa Asia, Puerto Ordaz 

Carrera 176-15, San Felix Edo. Bolivar 

Subgerente Division Desarrollo Humano 
Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana 
Ciudad Guayana, Edo. Bolivar 

Av. Trujillo Qta. Vimerto, Urb. Las 
Palmas, Ca ra ca s 

Biblioteca Publica Central "Julian 
Fbdron" Av. Libertador con Av. Orinoco 
Maturin Estado Monagas 

Urb. Orinoco, Calle Guanare #18-X, 
Puerto Ordaz, Edo. Bolivar 

Urb. Orinoco, Calle Guanare #18-X, 
Puerto Ordaz, Edo. Bolivar 

Av. Tamanaco, Ciudad Guayana, Banco 
del Libro 

Calle 11 de Abril #20, Bella Vista, 
Ciudad Guayana, Edo. Bolivar 

Biblioteca Publica "Andres Eloy Blanco" 
Ciudad Guayana - Banco del Libro 

El Roble Av. Principal, San Felix 
"Grupo Escolar Francisco G. Colmenares" 

Carrera Macuto Edf. U3 Apto. C-2 Urb. 
Villa Central, Pto. Ordaz, Edo. Bolivar 

Jefe de Relaciones Institucionales del 
Instituto Autonomo Biblioteca Nacional 
Calle Paris con Caroni, Edf. Macanao 
Urb. Las Mercedes, Caracas 
Apartado 6525> Caracas 1010 

Calle Orinoco, Apartado 603h } El Tigre 
Estado Anzoategui 

Av. Miranda 11-7, San Carlos, Edo. 

Vereda 17 #19. Dona Barbara, San 
Felix, Estado Bolivar 

Instituto Autonomo Biblioteca Nacional 
Calle Paris con Caroni, Edf. Macanao 
Las Mercedes, Apartado 6525 > Caracas 


WILLS de Ruiz, Ana Isabel 
YANEZ de Sanchez, Smyrna 
ZERPA de Sarabia, Xiomara 
ZURUTA de Moya, Dilia 


AGIIDO, Alvaro 

BENOLIEL, Pola de 
BRUZUAL, Gustavo 
BUDNIK, Clara 

DEARDEN, Carmen Diana 
LEON, Lilian de 
OSTRIA, Francisco 
PINTO, Ana Maria 
PINTO S., Miguel 
POLGAR de Berry, Eva 
RENAUD, Bruno 


SANDOVAL, Mercedes 
SOLIS de Axmacher, Dilis 

SOSA de Urdaneta, Nimia 

Sector 2 Villa Alianza 2, Puerto 
Ordaz, Estado Bolivar 

Calle Guayaquil #29-A1, Puerto Ordaz 
Estado Bolivar 

San Antonio 20-A (A-U), Puerto Ordaz 
Estado Bolivar 

Calle Ocumare, Puerto Ordaz, 

Tel. U1509 

Calle Anzoategui #271, San Felix 
Estado Bolivar 


Director del Programa de Bibliotecas 

Asistente de la Secretaria Ejecutiva 

Director Ejecutivo 

Jefe del Centro de Documentacion 

Directora del Programa de Capacitacion 

Director del Nucleo de Servicios Biblio- 
tecarios de Ciudad Guayana 

Directora de Ediciones Ekare 

Asistente Administrative 


Monitor - Centro de Capacitacion 


Jefe de Planificacion 



Director de la Biblioteca de 
San Jose La Urbina, Caracas 

Director del Programa de 
Bibliotecas Escolares 


Asistente Administrative Nucleo de 
Servicios Bibliotecarios, Guayana 

Jefe de Relaciones Institucionales 
del Nucleo de Servicios Bibliotecarios 
de Ciudad Guayana 



la. Avenida Altamira Sur, cruce con Av. Libertador 
Apartado Postal 5393 - Caracas 1010 
Telefonoss 32-31 -36; 32-57-11 y 32-50-17 


U.D. 102, Urb. Simon Bolivar, Senda Merida 
antiguo Grupo Escolar Jose Tomas Machado 
El Roble, San Felix - Ciudad Guayana 
Tel. (086) U097U - U0125