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Full text of "Issues & Events - Volume 2, Number 23"

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March 12, 1971 

_Volume 2, number 23 

ooUro & EVENTS 

Where is the university 


. the story of*the rise and fall of 
higher education in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries carried a warn- 
ing, or a prophesy for the present. On 
one occasion in modern European history, 
enthusiasm for higher education on the 
part of the state, the parents, the chil- 
dren, and the academics reached extra- 
ordinary, heights, and then collapsed. 
Educational overproduction was judged 
dangerous by the authorities, since it 
created a public nuisance, namely a body 
of alienated intellectuals; it was recog- 
nized as self-defeating by the parents, 
whose over-educated children could not 
find suitable employment. 

“The curriculum was condemned, as bor- 
ing and irrelevant by the students, and 
scholarship itself was condemned by in- 
fluential groups of religious enthusiasts 
as an obstacle to emotional perception 
of the Divine will, while the secular elite 
no longer thought it worth the trouble. 
Student numbers fell drastically, the flow 
of funds from outside dried up, and the 
universities ceased to be centers of in- 
tellectual innovation, since the ebbing of 
the tide of bored and frustrated students 
carried away with it the cultural dynam- 
ism of the universities. Western civil- 
ization admitedly survived, but the eight- 
eenth century was intellectually impover- 
ished because of it. This is what happened 
three hundred years ago all over Europe; 
there is some reason to suspect that, if 
a major reassessment of. the essential 
role of the universities is not carried 
out, it may perhaps be about to happen 
again on both sides of the Atlantic.” 

(L. Stone, “The Ninnyversity,”’ New York 
Review of Books, Jan. 28/71) 

Jane Stewart | 

The Council of Universities is not alone 
in its recognition of the need for reas- 
sessment of the essential role of the uni- 
versities in a society. The problems 
of the 1970’s, of Quebec universities and 
of Sir George Williams University are 
neither new nor unique. The most trou- 
blesome problem for any generation is 
to try to recognize and isolate the parti- 
cular features of its current situation, 
the forces at work, and to maintain and 
build its universities in order that they 
may best serve the continuing interests 
of the society. 

The character of a university is deter- 
mined by many factors, including the goals 
of its founders, its student body, its  pat- 
tern of faculty recruitment, its financial 
base, and its physical location. In spite 
of the resulting diversity among univer- 
sities, it is possible to recognize certain 
essential purposes and features of uni- 
versities in general. The uniqueness of 
the university as an institution, or its 

essential role, is, as the President of_ 

the University of Chicago recently said, 
“traditional and old-fashioned. Its great- 
est service is in its commitment to rea- 
son, in its search for basic knowledge, in 
its mission to preserve and to give con- 
tinuity, to the values of mankind of many 

Within the framework of this essential 
role, the universities in North America 
find themselves performing a number of 
different functions. The emphasis placed 
on these functions by a particular uni- 
versity arise to a large extent from the 


circumstantial factors mentioned. All 
universities, however, serve as_ places 
where scholars may, in freedom and quiet 
experiment, read, contemplate, speculate, 
and formulate new ideas with the aim 
of contributing to man’s knowledge about 
his environment and about himself (‘‘re- 
search” function). They provide envi- 
ronments where a very large preportion 
of youth may achieve a degree of intel- 
lectual and cultural maturity and sophis- 
tication (‘‘general education’ function). 
The universities serve as places for the 
apprenticeship of new generations of 
scholars and teachers (“graduate train- 
ing’ function). The universities train 
students in professional fields arising 
from different branches of knowledge — 
fields such as engineering, medicine, law, 
drama, cinema, agriculture, business ma- 
nagement, architecture, and economic 
planning (‘professional training’ func- 
tion). The universities are resource 
places for knowledge and expertise on 
which the society at large (governments, 
industry, business, labour, community 
organizations, adult education programs, 
etc.) can call for advice, planning and 
help (*‘advisory™ function). 

Though these are the functions which the 
universities can and do perform well, 

. and which are consistent with their es- 

sential role, these functions do not al- 
ways coincide with the expectations of the 
society. From time to time the univer- 
sities find themselves performing other 
functions which create new and different 
expectations in the society. Thus, for 
example, in periods of rapid technical 
development a university education may 

Up and coming film makers, page 3 
Dancing to pots, page 4 

Board of Governors, page 6 . 
Letters, page 6 

provide for economic advancement of 
individuals. At other times employers 
may use them merely as_ selective 
screening devices for potential employ- 
ees. In_periods following revolutionary 
upheaval, governments in power may ex- 
pect the universities to provide the poli- 
tical indoctrination necessary to stabilize 
the new society. In periods of religious 
ascendancy, the universities may be ex- 
pected to promote the religious beliefs 
and values of its supporters. In times 
of great social and political awareness 
the universities may be asked to serve 
as bases for social and political action. 
The shortness of human memory may 
create the idea that these functions are 
the more natural and thus essential. The 
universities must recognize the tempo- 

rariness of these diversionary uses of 

their resources and resist being battered 
by short-lived intellectual, political and 
social fads or whims. This is not to deny 
that the universities must change as so- 
ciety changes, but the direction of changes 
must be conceived primarily as improve- 
ments in the ways of accomplishing the 
essential functions. 

What then can be said of the direction 
which Sir George Williams University 
should -take to best accomplish the five 
primary functions, research, general edu- 
cation, graduate training, professional 
training and advisory? These different 

- functions are so intimately related that a 

separate discussion of each is difficult. 
I would like to consider some of the ge- 
neral issues first and then make a few 
observations and suggestions concerning 
the possible directions to be taken in 
individual areas. 

In a large highly developed society with 
extensive education needs, a vast amount 
of duplication of its most important re- 
sources is essential and not wasteful. 

continued page 2 

from page | 

Even at the university level large numb- 
ers of students often in quite diverse pro- 
grams must be exposed: to similar ma- 
terials and individual tuteledge. This is 
especially so at the undergraduate level. 
At the graduate level, even though fhe 
, absolute number of students is less, the 
need for duplication in a broad sense 
also exists. To provide the kind of in- 
dividual apprenticeship experience which 
graduate education calls for, many ex- 
perts in closely related fields are requi- 
red. The society must make every ef- 
fort to take advantage of the scholarly 
resources it has available, wherever they 
may be located. The most important 
resource of the university is its schol- 
ars, teachers and researchers. There- 
fore, every effort must be made to main- 
tain a situation and.atmosphere in the 
university which will continue to attract 
and hold scholars of high quality with 
commitments to scholarship and teach- 

A developing university acquires such in- 
dividuals gradually. A stagnant univer- 
sity loses them rapidly. Scholars are 
seldom situation bound. Because of the 
universality of specialized knowledge (a 
paradox often not recognized), their know- 
ledge and skills are transferable com- 
modities. Knowledge is neither class, 
society, nor nation specific. For this 
reason the university can continually en- 
rich and improve its resources and those 
of its society. For the-same reason a 
society cannot automatically hold its grad- 
uates or its scholarly.resources. A com- 
mitted researcher and teacher will seek 
out the place most congenial for perform- 
ing scholarly activities. Most would a- 
gree that these activities flourish best 
when they are combined with teaching 
and the resulting stimulation from inter- 
ested students. The commitment to 
scholarship is extremely individualistic. 
It is the delicate product of individual 
curiosity and subtle encouragement and 
can seldom be produced on command or 
demand. For this reason the university 
must foster scholarship and research in 
all its branches through the provision of 
time and the provision of facilities: The 
fostering of all areas of scholarship 
should not imply equal support;  excel- 
lence must be recognized where it exists 
and selectively supported. It is the em- 
ergence of these pockets of excellence 
that enhances the overall reputation of a 

At the graduate level of education it is 
my view that planning for the most effect- 
ive use of resources would not necessar- 
ily involve program: planning, but would 
rather involve planning which could allow 
students to study in an apprenticeship 
fashion with individual scholars. Pro- 
gram planning which would have the re- 
sult of limiting high level studies in 
certain fields to one or two institutions 
could have bad results. It would effect- 
ively sift out the best scholars for one 
or two. institutions. Furthermore, it 
could result in parochial uniformity. No 
more than a university wants to acquire 
all its scholars from one institution, does 
a society want to draw its educated from 
a single university program. It may be 


that at some levels of professional train- 
ing, a degree of interuniversity planning 
in certain centers makes sense. In some 
fields, however, high level scholarly and 
teaching activity can proceed with a mi- 
nimum of formal structure. 

The implication of these remarks is that 
Sir George Williams should seek the pro- 
vision to grant higher level degrees in all 
areas of its present expertise. The ex- 
pansion of large new programs is not 
implied. Neither is the creation of new 
professional schools implied. Such a 
move would, however, have implications 
for a related issue, 

Is there a danger of producing too many 
individuals with high level training? If 
there is, I think that the ill-effects are 
temporary and that we should not over- 
react. We still want our best students to 
have the best _ educational experience 
and training we can offer them, 
whatever their field of — interest 
and whether or not their education brings 
them better employment immediately. Not 
to provide them with this is to seriously 
affect their future effectiveness and their 
ability to deal with the rapidly expanding 
knowledge in their field. The problem 
then is not to reduce the number of stu- 
dents attaining the highest levels of educ- 
ation available, but rather, to prepare 
them to contribute to the solution of 
problems in a complex society. \In a 
society with rapidly changing social ins- 
titutions and increasing awareness of 
social problems, job descriptions and re- 
quirements are also changing. It is the 
experience in disciplined inquiry and pro- 
blem solving, rather than specific know- 
ledge acquired in advanced training, which 
will allow new graduates to function most 
effectively. Higher education continually 
renews and enriches a society. Through 
education, individuals from a variety of 
backgrounds from within it and from 
outside it can be provided with the com- 
munality of experience which makes. it 
possible for them to function at their 
highest levels within the society. 

The traditional “general education” func- 
tion of the universities may be the one 
in greatest need of revision at this time. 
Interestingly enough it is not the disci- 
pline-research-oriented honours and gra- 
duate students or the students in the 
professional schools that are presently 
questioning the role that the universities 
are playing in their education. It is those 
students sometimes characterized as 
“mildly curious’, as “going to university 
because its the thing to do’, as “not 
leaving school because they need an 
education to get a good job”, or as “be- 
ing kept off the job market” that are 
dissatisfied. It is my view that they have 
lost interest in what the university can 
offer them for several reasons. First, 
the university is no longer the unique 
source of new ideas, cultural stimulation, 
and general diversion it once was for 
large groups of bright young people. 
General affluence and technical innovation 
have made culture, the arts, books, in- 
formation about the world, and discussion 
and debate on almost every issue, direct- 
ly available through public media. The 
increased numbers of students and the 

setting up of universities in close proxi- 
mity to “home” have eliminated for most 
students any unique social or intellectual- 
social function of the university. The 
opportunities for discovering the nature 
of the scholarly life-styles through casual 
student-professor exchange do not exist 
for most students. The diversions of the 
affluent life have interfered with the time 
spent by both students and professors in 
thought and discussion (time spent often 
because there was little else to do or no- 
thing else that one could afford). 

In spite of the increase in availability 
of general culture there is at the same 
time a paradoxical ignorance among the 
young. To my mind the two areas of 
greatest ignorance are ignorance of -his- 
tory, even of the recent. past, and igno- 
rance of what adults do and how people 
in the society live. It has been suggested 
that this lack of information is related 
to where the young get information. Know- 
ledge of at least the recent past has 
traditionally been acquired from other 
people, usually parents and grandparents 
and thus has had familiarity and imme- 
diacy. Changing living arrangements and 
the acquisition of television has virtually 
eliminated this source of knowledge of 
the past. Knowledge of what adults do 
and how people in the society live has 
traditionally been acquired through the 

observation of people at their place of 
work and by meeting and making friend- 
ships with the range of people who live 
in small but diverse socio-economic com- 
munities. Large cities and uniform sub- 
urban developments have tended to isolate 
young people from places of work and 
from intimate knowledge of people from 
other socio-economic groups. Students 
of today often have. highly artificial ideas 
about what is ‘old-fashioned’, how the 
“establishment” lives, and what “the 
masses” want. My view is that the “ge- 
neral education” function of the univer- 
sities could be much enriched in the 
1970’s if the traditions of dedication to 
basic inquiry and of discipline in intel- 
lectual training were combined with an 
opportunity for students to observe and 
to experience directly the workings of the 
adult community. Such programs would 
both expose the adult working community 
to the concerns and idealism of students 
and expose the student to the rewards 
and frustrations of dealing with problems 
on a day-to-day basis. The idea is not 
to initiate a new group of professional 
training programs, but rather to provide 
real-life situations for study and analysis 
and for trying out of problem-solving 
skills in several broad areas of public 

enterprise (e.g., education, welfare, go- - 

vernment, administration, health, con- 
servation, etc.). 

Jane Stewart is chairman of Psychology. 


film makers: 
@ idea people 

MI ad eit 

a, J 



The thing that has made our program 
different is that we're teaching the art 
of film making, and technology only in- 
sofar as~ it is needed to realize the 
images wanted, rather than the other 
way around. The’ techniques must be 

motivated by the films, not the film - 

by the fancy techniques. I'm trying to 
get students to make films, not so that 
they'll be trained as cameramen or 
technicians for the CBC or the film 
industry,- necessarily, but that they will 
use the medium to express. themselves 
in an individual effort as much as they 
would through painting or sculpture. 

We have a program which is set “up 
to. offer several film-making classes 
of varying degrees of technical exper- 
tise and sophistication. Most of the peo- 

ple who sign up for my beginners cour- 

se have never even held a camera in 
their hands before. We supply Super- 
“$ cameras which are- far from mo- 
vie cameras. They're very expensive, 
very fancy. Nevertheless they're cheap 
to use, so that students don’t have to 
worry too much about every foot of 

My feeling is that the way to get the 
best results from students, very few 
of whom have a positive idea of what 
they want to do, is to send them out 
with the Super-8 cameras, let them 
shoot film, and see what happens. Then 
when . they come back, they've made 
their mistakes and are generally much 
more prepared to listen to lectures on 
technology. Otherwise they will not sit listen about focal distances and 
F-Stops and light meter incidences. The 
technology necessary for ‘these came- 
ras is very simple. A lot of fancy tech- 
nical gadgets do not ensure a good 
film at all. So I'm dealing with their 
ideas more than anything else. ; 

And their ideas encompass the most 
amazing variety of things. Some of 
them want to make the great Canadian 
epic with their very first roll of film. 
But they get over that very quickly and 
make movies about things around them, 
things that they know well. A lot of 
films deal with the physical environ- 
ment, with the place. One boy has just 
made a film about back alleys which is 
perfectly beautiful, charming and sim- 
ple, showing junk and debris and colors 
and textures of the back alleys. He's 
gone through them as a~painter would, 
with a painter’s eye. 

Others make films about their families, 
each other, but in a very documentary 

way. Many are cause-oriented. One of 

the best student films I’ve ever seen was 
made by a student in my film history 
class. It’s about a French student who 

lives in a predominantly English neigh- 
borhood. He gets taunted by the other 
kids, can’t find a job, and is afraid 
he'll have to drop out of school. He 
sees an English student. getting a job 
right before his eyes, that he had been 
told was closed. He becomes increa- 
singly politicized and joins the FLQ 
and participates in a_ kidnapping, all 
in the space of about twenty minutes on 
Super-8, beautifully shot and _ beautiful- 
ly conceived. ° 

The main concern is how well they suc- 
ceed in what they want to try, and that’s 
what we talk about. It’s difficult to set 
standards for any kind of film, or art, 
but if the:film is making a point of so- 
me sort, whether it’s a narrative story 
or meant simply to conjure up feeling 
about something, it either succeeds, or 
it doesn’t for the audience. The best 
way to offer perspectives is to show 
the students films of the great film ar- 
tists. All that I can say isn’t worth what 
I can show them, by picking out the ap- 
propriate films. Students who have had 
film history or film aesthetics prior to 
this_ course, simply because their  vi- 
sual literacy has been so much increas- 
ed, do far better, although there are 
some exceptions. I find that students in 
Quebec have not seen many films. Only 
three out of two hundred. last year had 
seen The Seventh Seal; which is one of 
the masterpieces of all time. I try to 
show an immense variety of films and 
everything that other students have do- 
ne or are doing. You can’t teach peo- 
ple to be artists, but you can someti- 
mes show them how to see with more 

I think that film-making sis as valua- 
ble an experience for the student .as 
writing a term-paper. A student in a- 
ny department ought to be able to have 
this. In fact it’s often those who are 
deeply committed to some subject or 
other who have the most to say, whe- 
ther it’s on paper or on. film. I've had 
a lot of films on. pollution lately, but 
why not? There’s been a lot written on 
pollution. Ordinary things can make ve- 
ry good film matter if handled with a 
fresh approach. If people try too hard 

to be complicated or clever, they get _ 

bogged down. 

There’s a great deal more information 
being made available to us from  outsi- 
de the classroom than within. Most of 
this is because of the media, one way 
or another. And most media are vi- 
sual, whether newspapers, film or te- 
levision. That's only going to increa- 
se. It seems to me that the university 
as part of its continuing responsibili- 
ties to the community needs to con- 
sider developing a discriminating au- 
dience for these media, if the media 
themselves are to improve. That’s one 
reason for a very broad base of ac- 
quaintance with visual media. Further- 
more I warn my students that they're 
not getting out of any work by making 
a film. Indeed the simplest. film is a lot 
more time and work than a term pa- 
per. But once they start, the fact of 
being able to see their own _ pictures 
on a screen is so exciting that they 
are willing to spend that time. One 
finds out new things: about objects and 
ideas with this medium. It’s not more 
valid, but it. would be good to have it 
included in every student’s experience 
as well as reading and writing, Beyond 
that, when it comes to who is going to 
make the media, it seems to me that 
the university is the perfect place to 
educate people who will become the 
film-makers, the television producers. 
There’s a big need for Canadian con- 
tent, and why can’t it come from. here? 

Judy Buckner teaches film history and 
production ‘in Fine Arts. The above was 
transcribed from tape. 

A student film festival will be held here 
March 24. 

A new way of teaching music to children 
is being developed at the Whitside-Taylor 
Centre, a pre-school cooperative in Baie 
d’'Urfé. Phil Cohen, head of the music 
section, Fine Arts, talks about the ex- 
periment he has nursed along since last 
October. The following was transcribed 
from tape. . 

ost music programs 
as they stand now in- 
volve either the edu- 
cation of the indivi- 
dual child, or the e- 
ducating of the child 
in a setting which is 
apart from his home. 
In the Orff method, 
the child is brought 

into the studio where he has all kinds of 

specially designed instruments (all pitch 
instruments, pentatonic scales). The as- 
sumption is that he'll learn certain 
forms more easily if he has an easier 
set-up, if he has fixed pitch instruments 
with which he can’t .make mistakes, 
where he'll blend with the other kids and 
learn how to do little rhythmic back- 
ground things and simple melodies. And 
the idea is to bring in a ritual context as 
well. Some of the children might dance, 
sing, clap hands and so on. 

The point is that there are certain for- 
mal structures that the child must learn. 
What happens is that the child very often 
becomes stuck in these same patterns 
over and over again. And the music is 
still very far apart from his home. It’s 
a matter of formalizing things he does 
quite naturally in the street which takes 
a hell of a lot of the kick out of it for the 
child, instead of giving him the opportu- 
nity to think first in terms of sound as an 
emotional expression. 

So part of our idea was to set up a so- 
mewhat less artificial sound environment. 
The first thing I felt we should do was to 
work with the parents and the teachers 
before we even approached the kids. So 
we set the classrooms up so that they 
bounce to sound, with mobiles hanging 
from the ceiling, the curtains with bells 
and other things hanging from them, the 
doorknobs jingle. 

You can’t walk more than two or three 
feet without hearing sound» Sound occurs 
spontaneously around you and you follow. 

The next thing is to help them build ins- 
truments with the child. Even if the child 
just sits and holds the string while you 
make a guitar,-even if he just holds the 
glue while you make a flute for him,-you 
have to get the child to feel that he’s part 
of making the instrument. And we sug- 
gest that parents set these things up in 
the home as well to develop spontaneous- 
/y a musical relationship with the child. 
If a child +rabs a kitchen pot and starts 
banging, the first thing most mothers “do 
is twist the arm and say, ‘Cut the racket 
out, you’re giving me a headache’. 

what our girls (mo- 
thers) are doing, quite 
simply, is that if a 
kid starts to bang on 
a pot, they start to 
dance to it or beat 
time to it. Or else 
she'll bang on the pot 
and the kid will dance. 

By the same token, if 
she feels sad, instead of sitting and mop- 
ing she can moan and groan almost a 
kind of blues-y thing. This way the child 

starts to think of his emotions and move- 
ments and sensations in terms of. Music. 
And he thinks in this way because there’s 
a constant environment with the mother 
that is musical. When the typical mother 
takes the child into the woods she will 
say ‘Listen to the birdies sing’. What we 
do is to say, ‘it’s fine to listen to the 
bird sing, but why not sing with the bird, 
why not dance with the bird, talk to the 
bird’ and get the kid to think of all nature 
as being spontaneously joyful. Everything 
becomes sound and everything can be 
expressed in terms of sound. The child 
sings with the bird and harmonizes with 
his mother. 

He develops a kind of performer - parti- 
cipator attitude toward sound not just 
listening to sound on the one hand or ta- 
king piano lessons, where he’s a little 
prodigy and all the attention’s on him, 
and he constantly has to prove himself. 
So he’s taking part in something where 
mistakes are minimal. For a child to de- 
velop musically under critical ‘scrutiny 
(which is what he gets when he has to go 
for a piano lesson every week) is a de- 
vastating thing. Music is_ practically 
the most concrete expression of a life 
force; every little kid will bounce to 
music. But by the time he’s eight or nine 
he stops bouncing, he’s finished. They 
bounce with their transistors but they 
don’t really take part in it. It’s one thing 
to sit at a rock Concert and move a little 
bit and be taken in by the concert of the 
music and the setting, but it’s quite an- 
other thing if I’ve been involved in mak- 
ing music and talking to my’ performers 
back and forth; I’ve been involved in the 
making of that music at a very primary 
level that has been enriched and deve- 
loped.- It’s quite another thing if a kid, 
almost in protest of what's around him, 
has to take to rock music simply be- 
cause it’s the only contact he’s got with 
music; other music is irrelevant to him. 
But if he’s in touch with nature as music, 
the kind of thing he develops ~ perhaps 
artificially at the age of seventeen or 
eighteen if he’s in touch with it from 
birth is a very different thing. It’s not 
something he has to force, has to do, 
it's something that will come naturally 
to him. The point is not to separate any 
aspect of nature from your musical ex- 
perience. : 

The first thing we do in the classes is 
to tune ourselves up by setting up very 
natural body rhythms. Sometimes there’s 
no sound at all; just dead silence. And 
we begin to feel our own pulse, our own 
movements, and our arms move, our 
heads move and we begin to feel a tune 
coming up out of ourselves without hear- 
ing anything. 

feel no one has a 
right to mess around 
with little children 
until music has beco- 
me so much a part of 
them that they can be 

and suddenly it grabs 
them. It’s my as- 
sumption that in our 
culture this has been completely squee- 
zed out of us. We’ve never really had any 
opportunity to develop this naturally. So 
what we've done is set up artificial 
learning situations and then we invent 
these techniques to turn these artificial 
situations into something worthwhile. I 
set up music reading, which involves a 
tremendous amount of muscular control. 
It’s an artificial thing to begin with, then 

walking along the street 

“i your kid | 

bangs on a pot- 

Phil Cohen 

I have to begin techniques of reading mu- 
sic. I set up complex finger patterns, 
then I have to invent techniques to make 
it possible to play at full speed. Yet how 
is it that the jazz improviser can spon- 
taneously play the same patterns, yet not 
be able to read it? And he would have to 
spend months undeg formal conditions to 
learn it. It’s evident that there’s some- 
thing there that under certain circums- 
tances comes through. 

Because of my.own experience of being 
able to play jazz this way, I became qui- 
te convinced that music is an innate thing 
and that .the lack of music indicates that 
there’s something wrong. In simpler or 
primitive cultures, the un-musical, tone- 
deaf person doesn’t exist. But in our cul- 
ture the proficient musician is an object 
of awe. 

We're not concerned with the child with 
special talent, we’re concerned with the 
child reaching his own musical level. 

At Baie d’Urfé we don't have over-so- 
phisticated parents with too many -pre- 
conceptions. We can work with them in a 
natural: way. And we work with the child 
without manipulation or preconceptions - 
without worrying about whether what 
we're doing is right or wrong; for exam- 
ple, in a sophisticated home, if a mother 
sings a song and the kid says ‘why are you 

_ singing that’, she will respond by saying 

‘it’s good music’ or set up another pre- 
conception, instead of saying ‘it’s just a 
song I like.” And she might ask ‘would 
you like to sing it with me or dance to 
it.. And when the kid is singing the song, 
she should join in, instead of calling 

“everybody in and~saying, *look® at little 

Joey sing’ which sets singing or music 
up as something very special, and puts 
the kid on the block (on the target or on— 
the pedastel) forcing him to live up to 
something for the rest of his life. But if 
we establish music as a perfectly natu- 
ral thing and that the kid is no more of 
a genius than anybody else, he'll sing; 
and if he has anything transcendental, 
he'll develop that but from a much more 
solid base. 




ae ee ee 

estern culture has o- 
ver the last few hun- 
dred years discoura- 
2) ged natural biological 
) expression, which is 
essentially rhythmic. 
It’s discouraged learn- 
ing music at the pri- 
mary level of experi- 
ence, and it still tea- 
ches music in reverse, beginning at the 
intellectual level and assuming that after 
a while it will become natural. The last 
few months have confirmed in my mind 
that the reverse is overwhelmingly true. 
For example, | had my classes, both at 
Baie d’Urfé and at Sir. George listen to 
some Jamaican cult music which invol- 
ves hyperventilation to achieve posses- 
sion of the gods. Then I had them work 
up a body rhythm to this, internalize it 
as much as possible. Then we had every- 
body hyperventilate, over-breathe until a 
tremendous high was achieved. Sponta- 
neously, I asked everyone to. sing every 
fourth beat, and what do you think hap- 
pened? Without me asking anything they 
harmonized. Then we began to do more 
complicated things, spirituals and so on, 
and again the harmony was Spontaneous. 
This was because we had worked up a 
tremendous body rhythm and I would 
constantly ~throw music against it. It’s 
more important to feel some music co- 
ming out of yourself, being spontaneous- 
ly composed than it is to remember 
precisely the tune that you’ve heard. 

We've found that it’s almost impossible 
this way for a person not to come up 
with music. If you listen to music and 
it’s become ‘part of you, there’s a kind 
of “‘after-image”, after the sound has 

Rock around | 
the Bach 

Harvey Stenson wants spontaneity and in- 
formality in music. And as a harpsichord- 
ist, he seems to have found a way to 
achieve both. Spontaneity because six- 
teenth-century .and Baroque composers, 
wh& produced the great bulk of harp- 
sichord literature, emphasize the im- 
portance of the performer’s. ability to 

Stenson feels quite>at home playing this 
music, as he proved in his recitals in 
Gallery I this week. He sees his ‘“‘dis- 
covery” of the harpsichord, at a fairly 
recent point in his musical career, as a 
kind of blessed relief after a progression 
through piano and organ, studying in the 
United States. 

His “private” theory of the surge in 
interest in Baroque music (and the harp- 
sichord) in recent years is this: ‘‘Late 
Baroque music .(Vivaldi, Bach) drives 
along with a constant beat which is very 
close to rock. You feel like dancing, you 
want to get into a mechanical thing, just 

as you might with the drummer, who’s— 

driving away. This may have brought 
people to Bach, and from there they went 
on to other things.” 

Local interest. in Baroque, he says, has 
been inspired to a large extent because of 
his teacher Kenneth Gilbert, whom he 
rates as one of the best harpsicordists in 
the world. “There are something like 
twenty-five people in the class, and 
twenty-five harpsichordists in Montreal 
is quite something’. As far as activity in 
music of this early period goes, Stenson 

by Ginny Jones 

thinks Montreal is in good shape and com- 
pares more than favorably to a city like 
Chicago as far as good locally produced 
music is concerned. He feels no need to 
return to the United States. 

The history of music interests Stenson. as 
much as does performing, and he points 
out parallels between the age he lives in 
and the Baroque era. “In the seventeenth 
century composers wrote for performers, 
assuming they had a sufficient amount of 
knowledge and taste to take music and do 
what they wanted with it. 

“As time went on and people from 
the middle and lower classes learned to 
play, without the time that the dilettante’ 
had, composers felt they had to tell people 
exactly what to do. This increased up 
through Bartok and Mahler, but we're get- 
ting away from it now with experimental 
music. The harpsichord music I play 
obliges the performer to change things, 
to create.” 

This spontaneity is Stenson’s strongest 
argument against replacement of concert- 
hall music by stereo equipment. “A re- 
cord is the same every time, and you get 
into a rut. There’s no mystery; whereas 
at a performance, the performer might 
collapse in the next measure, the piano 
might fall apart: you don’t know what’s 
going to happen. Everything is different 
and fresh and spontaneous,” he says. But 
he confesses that he would just as soon 
stay home and listen to a record as be 
subjected to society-minded and program- 
rattling concert-goers. 

He is particularly pleased with the 
recital-discussion format that he took 
part in at Sir George this week. “It was 
informal, and I'd like it to be even more 
so. I'd like to get away from the idea that 
music is an aristocratic entertainment. 
Someone came into the gallery while | was 
practising and I didn’t even notice him 
until he started doing a kind of Hare 
Krishna thing, but it was really good that 
he did. It’s a completely different thing 
from isolating yourself on a stage.” 




Lowering the flag 

I note with interest Professor Gnarow- 
ski’s article promoting the development 
of a sense of Canadian identity through 
protecting Canadian publishing from the 
naughty Americans whose novels are 
overshadowing those of such Canadian au- 
thors as Frederick Phillip Grove or Mor- 
decai Richler. According to Professor 
Gnarowski, our collective psyches have 
been bombarded by the propaganda of our 
villainous neighbor and just may be ir- 
reparably damaged. 

Although it is true that Canadians are the 
victims of an American culture that has a 
strong influence on our subconscious and 
conscious desires, I do not view the de- 
velopment of a nationalistic literature as 
the answer. Possibly, we must experience 
a strong sense of Canadian identity so that 
we shall realize just what it is that so 
many of our American brothers are trying 
very hard to lose. 

The reasoning that reading Canadian no- 
vels is a moral obligation above and be- 
yond that of reading those from other 
national heritages (I say national, for our 
cultural heritage is somewhat akin to that 
of an American) is similar to the reason- 
ing of the CRTC who maintain that we, 
by being deluged with mediocre Canadian 
programs, will gain a sense of Canadian 

instead of American identity. All that we _ 

will gain is a sense of boredom that will 
eat cancerously into any national identity 
that we do possess right now. Further- 
more, reading novels such as ‘*Portnoy’s 
Complaint” has nothing to do with being 
a traitor to Canadian literary talents. 

I submit that it is about time that we quit 
trying to “keep up with the Joneses” (our 
American friends, for they have gained 
little from their intense patriotic pos- 
tures). It is ironic that we, as Canadians, 

are trying to find ourselves at a time 
when disillusioned Americans are seeking 

- Let us make our peace with Uncle Sam. 

Can’t we just wish for a sense of interna- 

tional identity as one race of intelligent. 

homo sapiens or are we to continue in the 
ludicrous battle of finding or préserving 
identities that have in the past led to wars 
and unhappiness in the world? As we all 
live in the same world.where our pro- 
blems are similar (namely pollution, alie- 
nation with its corresponding increased 
use of adonynes to dispel despair, po- 

verty, warring ideologies, war and a 
sense of moral chaos in the upheaval of 
traditional values and lifestyles) let us 
begin to amalgamate into one unit seeking 
a dissolution of this age of despair over 
lost or confused identities. Let us choose 
from the best of all possible worlds. 

Elizabeth F. Bruker 
Arts Ill, Eng. Lit. Major 

-Board of Governors 

The Board of Governors yesterday appro- 
ved. the introduction on June | of the re- 
gulations relating to the rights .and res- 
ponsibilities of members of the Universi- 
ty and to the University ombudsman offi- 

It also approved the insertion as para- 
graph 9 of the regulations relating to the 
ombudsman office of the following: ‘*Any 
application to the ombudsman office, and 
any subsequer’ enquiries or recommenda- 
tions, shall be treated as confidential un- 
less all the parties involved expressly. a- 
gree that the information be made public.” 

On June 1, the present procedures for 
dealing with complaints against faculty 
members and the socio-academic section 
of the Code of Student Behaviour will be 
repealed. The other sections of the Code 
will be repealed after the new regulations 
relating to academic re-evaluation, pro- 
per conduct during examinations, and pla- 
giarism have been approved by the Board 
of Governors. 

In prior discussion, Paul Zimmerman 
stated that faculty members and adminis- 
trators should be given information and 
guidelines regarding the nature and extent 
of their right to exercise their authority, 
as Stated in paragraph 1.5 of the regula- 
tions..-The Principal agreed that this 
should be done; there was now a grey area 
and a tendency to “see who could charge 

who with what” rather than to take ac- 
tion. Professor Calvin Potter pointed out 
that what was described as a “right” in 
this regard was in fact a duty to exercise 
delegated authority. Professor David Mc 
Keen emphasised the need for flexibility 
in interpretation. Ensuring the continuing 
order of the course could include the pro- 
fessor walking out of a particular unruly 

Wayne Vibert drew attention to the fact 
that no provision was made for a student 
to be'appointed one of the ombudsmen. 

At the beginning of the meeting, Alec 
Duff, the Chairman, expressed apprecia- 
tion on behalf of the Board of the coopera- 
tion of staff, faculty and students in main- 
taining services for people caught down- 
town during the recent snowstorm. 

Dr. O’Brien reported’ that the ad hoc 
committee set up to review proposed a- 
mendements to the Students’ Association 
constitution had approved the general pur- 
pose of the amendments but felt that cer- 
tain aspects should be subject to legal 
opinion. Notably, such opinion should be 
obtained regarding the proposal that the 
student ombudsman function as chairman 
of the SLC. 

Revisions to the fee structure for gradu- 
ate studies, as presented by the Board of 
Graduate Studies, were approved. 

Sa ae ee ee ee eee 
Academic awards 

Award list is compiled by the GUIDAN- 
of Financial Aid are posted on the 4th 
floor bulletin boards in the Hall Buil- 
ding. Faculty notices will also be pos- 
ted on the notice board outside the Fa- 
culty Club. For more information and 
application forms if available see Gui- 
dance. Information Centre, H-440-1. The- 
se announcements are only for awards 
with deadlines up to April 15. 


Internship program for ‘research in - 
terns (Economics. & Social Sci.). No 
specified deadline. 

SION. Fellowships in Transportation, 
Masters and Ph. D. levels.. Deadline: 
Mar. 15 

Seagram Business Fellowhips (for Ist 
yr. M.B.A.). Deadline: Mar. 15. 

fellowships ~ tenable outside Canada. 
Deadline: Mar. 15. 

lowships for postgrad. studies in Wild- 
life Mgt. Deadline: Mar. 15. 

GOVT. OF FINLAND. Postgrad. scho- 
larships for Canadians. Deadline: Mar. 
15. : 

HIBITION. OF 1851. Research — scholar- 
ships in pure and applied sci. for o- 
verseas student. Deadline: Mar. 21. | 
DATION. Scholarships for study and 
research in Scandinavia. Deadline: Mar. 
23, t 

oRY BOARD. Doctoral Fellowships.” 
Deadline: Mar. 20. . 

Fellowship award in geology, geophy- 
sics, petroleum engineering. Deadline: 
Mar. 31. 

verbrook Scholarship in Law. Deadline: 
Mar. 31. 

DALHOUSIE U. Sir James Dunn Scho- 
larship in Law. Deadline: MAr. 31. 


NA - CHAMPAIGN. Staff Assistant - 
ships in University Residence Halls. No 
specified deadline. 

TANTS. Business Fellowships (Master’ 
s & Doctoral), Deadline: April 1. 
studentships. Deadline: April 1. 
COLL. Grad. studentships. -Applications 
must be in England by April 1. 
COLL. Research studentships.. Applica- 

tions must be in England by April 1. 
Tenable in Ghana. Deadline: April 2. 
oTION. Seagram_ Business Fellowship 
(2nd. yr. M.B.A. or Doctoral). Deadli- 
ne: April 10. 

HOUSING. Grad. Fellowship in Urban & 
Regional Affairs for study outside Ca- 
nada> Deadline: April 15. 

MISSION. Fellowships in Transporta - 
tion (Master’s and Doctoral). Deadline: 
April 15. 

teopathic Scholarship. Deadline: April 15. 
nal Parks and Outdoor Recreation Scho- 
larships. Deadline : April 15. 

ship in Soil Mechanics. Deadline: April 

Sir Arthur Sims Scholarship. Tenable 
in Gt. Britain. Deadline: April 16. 
EDUCATION ASSOC. Tuition Scholar- 
ship for Summer School in Peace Re- 
search. Contact P. J. Arnopoulos, H- 
660-2 before April 30. 


postdoctoral Fellowship program. No 
specified deadline. 

tership program for visiting scholars. 
No specified deadline. - Eee 
THE ROYAL SOCIETY. Commonwealth — 
Bursaries Scheme in the Natural and 
Applied Science. Application forms must 
be in London, England before Mar. 15. 
GOVT. OF FINLAND. Postdoctoral 
scholarships for Canadians. Deadline: 
Mar. 15. : - 
DIES. Postdoctoral research  fellow- 
ships. Deadline : Mar. 27. 

RY BOARD. _— Doctoral Fellowships. 
Deadline: Mar. 30, 

doctoral Fellowhips. Deadline: April 15. 
Commonwealth FeHowships Applica- 
tions must be in England by April 15, 
DUCATION ASSOC. Tuition Scholarship 
for Summer School in Peace Research. 
Contact P.J. Arnopoulos, H-660-2  be- 
fore April 30. 


Jack Bordan, Vice-Principal (Academic) 
announces the following appointments: 

Jack Ufford is appointed Dean, Faculty of 
Science, for a five-year term, through 
May 31, 1976. His change of title, from 
Acting Dean, is effective immediately. 

Gunther Brink has accepted an extension 
of his appointment as Dean, Faculty of 
Commerce and Administration, through 
May 31, 1972, while declining candidacy 
for a second full term as Dean. Professor‘ 
Brink will-have served five full years, ex- 
clusive of leave-of-absence, from which 
he returns July 1, 1971. 

Andrew Berczi is appointed Dean, Faculty 
of Commerce and Administration, for a 
five-year term, effective June 1, 1972. 
He will be on leave-of-absence from June 
1, 1971 through May 31, 1972. 

e e 
To allay any fears that we are trying to 
do in the English language, we apologize 
for English professor Michael Gnarow- 
ski's three possessive “it’s and for 
other proofing errors in last. week’s 

Issues & Events. CHC, in last week’s 
page one article, should have read CBC. 

T-Groups in education 


X) /\ 


ms Hy 


‘ : ; ‘ XX x 



The field of human relations training, of 
which T-groups, sensitivity training, and 
encounter groups are a part, has changed 
more in the past five years than in the 
preceeding fifteen years. In 1951, human 
relations training was little known in 
Canada and now there are over one hun- 
dred organizations offering programs. 
There is a National Council on Human 
Relations with regional groups from 
Vancouver to Newfoundland. And _ the 
media has provided dozens of exposures 
to sensitivity training in everything from 
Time and Life, through “Bob and Carol, 
Ted and Alice’ to ‘“‘The Most Dangerous 
Game” and “Sargent Mayberry”. 

Where is human relations training going 
in Canada? It is clear to me that the two 
major innovations in education in this 
decade will be the full use of computer 
learning methods and small, self-directed 
groups. Many of the innovations in us- 
ing small groups have come from the af- 
fective education focus of sensitivity train- 
ing. While T-groups will revolutionize 
teacher preparation, educational plann- 
ing, and administrative practices, even 
greater changes will take place in what 
is now called the “classroom”. Learn- 
ing will include sensory and emotional 
development as attention shifts to achiev- 
ing meaningful interpersonal _relation- 
ships so that people do not become alien- 
ated from themselves and others.. The 
group rather than the individual will be- 
come the focus of learning and it will 
become basically self-directed. This is 
not to suggest that education will become 
a series of T-groups — far from it. Ra- 
ther, education and teacher training will 
be influenced by continual innovations in 
the sensitivity training field. These 
changes have already started but chiefly 
outside traditional educational organiz- 

Other serving professions will likewise 
be affected, not so much because of the 

_ priority given to sensitivity training, but 

again related to the change in ways of 
working with people that will evolve from 

people who are in touch with their own | 

feelings and can relate to the feelings of 
others. Church. programs will be mo- 
dified rather gradually along with the 
medical profession. 

The treatment of emotional problems will 
continue to reflect a focus on the group 
as the medium of change (both the therapy 
group and the family or work group). 
And, the “here and now” approaches us- 


j A ODA J : 

ing affective and cognative components 
with the counselor taking on an active 
and fully functioning person role in con- 
fronting and supporting the client will 
continue to be more widely used. 

Business and industry will not be parti- 
cularly affected, as implementing tech- 
nological changes will mean the difference 
between life and death. Management 
training will become comprehensive — no 
one approach is going to meet all needs 
— and sensitivity training will find its 
appropriate place in that package. Even 
those industries that do maintain a par- 
ticipative management approach will find 
their workers seeking higher levels of 
changes as ‘“‘some change increases the 
desire for more change”. 

I am gravely concerned about enthusiast- 
ic amateurs dabbling in sensitivity train- 
ing — teachers reading about a technique 
and trying it on their class the next day, 
supervisors pulling their work team into 
a program in order to increase commu- 
nication, or people pushing their friends 
into a group because it will be good for 
them. I worry too about people who seek 
the power of a trainer role to meet their 
own needs for control, sex, or way of 
working on their own severe emotional 
problems. But I am equally as sure that 
the answer is not another professional 
group that legislates standards and di- 
rects its attention to maintaining these 
standards rather than experimenting with 
and researching innovative approaches. 
The creative minority in any professional 
area is usually just outside the accepted 
group standards and requiring them to 
conform would dull the growing edge of 
the profession. ; 

I am both curious and flabergasted with 
the multiplicity of approaches in human 
relations training and how everything 
imaginable gets dragged in as the latest 
way to do it. But I am convinced that 
good programs will drive poor programs 
out of business and fads will wither on 
the vine. Hence, we'll always be adding 
rew ways of working to test the relevance 
of present approaches and this innovative 
characteristic will be the life line of 
sensitivity training. 

On the organizational change goal vs. the 
personal growth goal, I sense a- draw. 
I expect many people will experience my 
pattern — working for organizational and 
social change and then finding it tough, 



Hedley Dimock 


.) wer 
WY) ye ee 



frustrating, and with little personal sa- 
tisfaction and swinging towards personal 
involvement and _ satisfaction, but feel- 
ing the growth ~has to be accepted and 
supported by organizations which brings 
me back to a concern with social sys- 
tems. A cognative component is,. for 
me, always a part of an affective (emo- 
tional) experience. If you can’t describe 
what you have learned you _ probably 
haven't learned it and if you can’t put it 
into some conceptual framework, you 
won't be able to transfer the learning 
to other situations. This implies atten- 
tion to the application of all lab: learn- 
ings. And when it comes to a choice, I 
favor learning how to learn over having 
a breakthrough, peak experience. 

Lastly, I'd like to highlight the difference 
in the way sensitivity training has deve- 
loped in Canada and in the States. While 
the almost exclusive stimulus has come 
from the States, we have responded to it 
rather differently than Americans. We 
have had a lot of grass roots develop- 
ment of programs. We have not been 
hampered by a professional organization 
that requires a Ph. D. for certification. 
Nor has there been a hard sell of human 
relations training. Community serving 
organizations, especially the YMCA and 
the United and Anglican Churches, have 
played an outstanding, pioneering role. 
Our National Council on Human Relations 
has opted to start as a decentralized 

organization with regional chapters as’ 

opposed to the strong central organiza- 
tional model- of the National Training 
Laboratories in the States. And, there 
has been much more integration and ac- 
ceptance of a variety of approaches in- 
corporating the best of N.T.L. and Eselen 

It has been my experience that human 
relations training reflects the skills, in- 
terests, and needs of the people giving 
leadership to the programs. Our history 
of a strong involvement of the helping 
professions suggests that our future will 
be closely related to their changing 
needs and interests. As these reflect 
the remoteness of alienated youth, the 
desperation of the poverty stricken, the 
fear of the emotionally disturbed, and the 
uncontrollable curiosity of the children, 
then sensitivity training will be molded 
to meet the challenges of these social 

Hedley Dimock is professor of Applied 
Social Science and Director of the Centre 
for Human Relations. The above is an 
excerpt from a recent article. 

friday 12 Uh 

GALLERY II : Prints by Barry Smile, through March 25. 
WEISSMAN GALLERY + GALLERY | : Fritz Brandtner retrospective through March 20. 

FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT : Four plays in the Douglass Burns Clarke Theatre at 8:30 p.m. — “Come 
and Go” by Samuel Becket, “Crawling Arnold’ by Jules Feiffer, “Yolk” by Peter Borkowicz and 
“Make Mine Brief’ by Gordon McGivern; admission free. 

NEW DEMOCRATIC YOUTH CLUB : Meeting 2 - 5 p.m. in H-820. 

CHINESE GEORGIANS : Meeting 2 - 5 p.m. in H-635. 
COMMERCE FACULTY COUNCIL : Meeting at 2 p.m. in H-769. 

saturday 13 

FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT : Four plays in the Douglass Burns Clarke Theatre at 8:30 p.m. — “Come 
and Go” by Samuel Becket, “Crawling Arnold” by Jules Feiffer, “Yolk” by Peter Borkowicz and 
“Make Mine Brief” by Gordon McGivern; admission free. 

GEORGIAN HELLENIC ASSOCIATION : Meeting 5:30 - 8:30 p.m. in H-420. 

monday 15 

BOARD OF GRADUATE STUDIES : Meeting at 2 p.m. in H-769. 

CIVILIZATION : The highly acclaimed colour series by Sir Kenneth Clark is being -presented twice 

each Tuesday; today “The Pursuit of Happiness” (Bach, Handel, Haydn and Mozart) 1 - 2 p.m. and 
8:30 - 9:30 p.m. in H-435; free. 

wednesday 17 

SGWUT : Meeting 12:30 - 2 p.m. in H-535. 
ENGINEERING FACULTY : Engineering orientation for second year collegial students 5 - 6 p.m. in 

ENGINEERING : Start of a series on “Practical Aspects of Steel Design’’ presented by the Quebec 
region of the Canadian Institute of Steel Construction with the engineering departments of Sir George 
and McGill; “Evolution in Design’ presentations on Canadian steel specifications, bridges, and 
high-rise buildings at 6:15 p.m. in room 219 of McGill's Leacock Building; $40 for the eight Wed-— 
nesday sessions running through May 5. ; 

thursday 18 

CONSERVATORY OF CINEMATOGRAPHIC ART : “Simon of the Desert’ (Luis Bunuel, 1965), with 
Claudio Brook and Silvia Pinal at 7 p.m.; “L’Age d’Or” (Luis Bunuel, 1930) at 9 p.m. in H-110. 50c¢ 
for students, 75¢ non-students. 

HISTORY DEPARTMENT : Prof. Lawrence Stone, Princeton University, speaks on “Sex, Marriage 
and Family in Early Modern England” at 4:15 p.m. in H-520. 

friday 19 

ENGINEERING FACULTY COUNCIL : Meeting at 2 p.m. in H-769. 

PHILOSOPHY COUNCIL : Meeting at 10:30 a.m. in H-769. 

FACULTY CLUB : St. Patrick's night - TGIF 6 - 7 p.m. $3 dinner 7 p.m., dancing & drinking 8 p.m. 
POETRY : Dennis Schmitz will read his poetry at 9 p.m. in H-651; free. 

STRATHCONA CREDIT UNION : Annual general meeting to be held in the Terrasse Room of the Hotel 
Martinique, Guy Street, at 6:30 p.m., followed by dinner at 7:30 p.m. 

HUMANITIES OF SCIENCE : Prof. Fred Knelman on “Population Explosion — Bomb or Dud?” at 
8 p.m. in H-937. 

ECONOMICS : Teach-in on unemployment in Canada — “Youth Unemployment” session 1:15 - 3:15 p.m. 
in H-110; “Economic Analysis of Unemployment’, 3:30 - 5:30 p.m. in H-110; “Short-Run and Long- 
Run Policies for Full Employment”, 8 - 10 p.m. in Birks Hall (see page 6 for all-star cast). 


ISSUES & EVENTS is published weekly by the In- 
formation Office of Sir George Williams Uni- 
versity. Editorial offices are located in room 
211 of the Norris Building, 1435 Drummond Street, 
Montreal 107 (879-2867). Litho by Journal Offset 
Inc., 254 Benjamin-Hudon, Ville St. Laurent. 

Joel McCormick, editor 

Michael Sheldon 

® Malcolm Stone 

Ginny Jones