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Seeberg believes that this his greatest work will remain for some 
time the latest attempt at covering the entire field of the history of 
dogma. He holds that prior to attempting another synthesis it will be 
necessary to promote many special monographs which either cover the 
more distant regions, persons, and periods, or follow single concepts 
down through the entire length of their development. These researches, 
he believes, will confirm and render more evident the fundamental lines 
which he and others have already discovered; but they will probably 
also show hitherto unsuspected eddies in the main currents of thought. 
As instances of the type of investigation which is desirable he mentions 
the works of Grabmann (Die scholastiche Methode, etc.) and those of 
Clemens Baumker and of his school in the history of medieval philosophy 
and theology. Among Protestant studies he specifies Karl Heim's Das 
Gewissheits problem in der systematischen Theologie bis zu Schleiermacher 
(191 1) and Hirsch's monograph on Osiander. Let us hope that these 
suggestions may bear fruit in England and America, in spite of the fact 
that Seeberg, to judge from his bibliographies and footnotes, is almost 
entirely unaffected by the many excellent English and American con- 
tributions to the history of Christian thought. 

William Walker Rockwell 
Union Theological Seminary 


Students of the history of Christian missions who have had occasion 
to peruse earlier volumes by this author, viz., The History of Missions in 
India (English transl., 1908) and A History of Protestant Missions in the 
Near East (English transl., 1910) will not need the added evidence fur- 
nished by this informing and stimulating work that in the field of the 
science and history of missions Dr. Richter occupies a pre-eminent posi- 
tion in present-day German Protestant scholarship. The qualities 
which have rendered his earlier volumes invaluable to the student of 
the subject, breadth of learning, lucidity of thought, mastery and organ- 
ization of material, catholicity of spirit, and balance of judgment are 
found again in this voluminous work. Intellectual honesty and the 
spirit of fairness dominate its pages. We of Anglo-Saxon heritage can 
well forgive this rugged Teuton if at times his soul flames out in protest 
at the practical embargo placed upon German missionary agencies within 

1 Evangelische Missionskunde. By Julius Richter. Leipzig: A. Deichert, 1920. 
463 pages. 


British dominions, particularly in African territories formerly held by 
Germany, but now parceled out among the Allies. It does seem, as 
Dr. Richter says, that agents of the heavenly Kingdom ought to have 
been immune from expropriation and internment. Perhaps they might 
have been, had all been utterly and patently above political intrigue. 

Apart from a brief introduction in which reference is made to the 
output of missionary literature of the informational sort which is basic 
for any science and history of missions, the work falls into four main 
divisions, the biblical basis of missions, the theory of missions, mission- 
ary apologetic, and the history of missions, the latter theme, as we might 
expect, constituting the major part of the work. The missionary idea 
is traced through the prophetic literature of the Old Testament, assumed 
(in contradistinction to Harnack) in the universalism implied in the 
teaching of Jesus, and is found incarnate in the life and work of Paul. 

The theory of missions involves a consideration of the task, viz., 
the enlistment of the non-Christian world, both heathen and Mohamme- 
dan, in the Christian movement; the agencies to be employed as regards 
both organization and material equipment; and the methods to be used, 
including mastery of the languages of non-Christian peoples and their 
use in preaching and the production of a Christian literature, the develop- 
ment of Christian education, catechetical instruction, the founding and 
nurture of the native church, the creation and development of native 
leadership, and finally the attitude of the Christian constituency to 
ingrained heathen social institutions, such as ancestor-worship, caste, 
polygamy, and slavery. The theory of missions further takes into 
account the fact that the missionary movement is determined by three 
factors varying in intensity in different communions: New Testament 
standards, ideas and practices of the church in the homeland, and the 
specific need of the field itself. It also takes into consideration the press- 
ing question of the relation of the mission to the native church, together 
with the problem of denominational competition and co-operation. In 
a word, the theory of missions is ever growing and unfolding out of 
the practical experience of those engaged in the missionary undertaking. 

Missionary apologetic deals with the relation of Christianity to the 
non-Christian religions. It is imperative both from the standpoint of 
the church in the homeland, if it would understand the problem and the 
opportunity of world-evangelization, and also from that of the missionary 
who seeks to win the non-Christian world. It involves the understand- 
ing of the psychology, philosophy, and history of religion. On the one 
hand it deals with the animistic religions of primitive peoples, and on 
the other hand with the far more difficult problems involved in the highly 
developed religions of Eastern Asia — Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucian- 


ism, Taoism, Shintoism, and Islam. In both instances the method is 
essentially the same: the analysis of the religious inheritance, the dis- 
covery of basic ideas, and the relating of these, as far as possible, with 
universal religious needs and aspirations of mankind and the fundamental 
spirit and teaching of Christianity. This study involves, in the case of 
the oriental religions, consideration of the literatures of India, China, 
and Islam, the philosophical, ethical, and religious implications of the 
same, together with some appreciation of the personalities of their 
founders. Here our author shows fine discrimination, not alone in his 
analysis and criticism of these great faiths of the Orient and the contrast 
they present, but also in his appreciation of the points of contact which 
they offer to Christianity. 

In his outline of the history of missions, Catholic and Protestant, 
Dr. Richter has compassed a difficult task in the most satisfying manner 
conceivable in 250 pages packed full of information. The author passes 
rapidly from the causes of the dearth of missionary interest in the Refor- 
mation period to the beginnings of modern Protestant missions as seen 
in Pietism, Moravianism, and the movement inaugurated by William 
Carey, ushering in the nineteenth century with its complex of missionary 
agencies, and the mobilizing of the forces of the church in Europe and 
America for the conquest of the world. In kaleidoscopic fashion there 
pass in review before the reader the various political units of Africa, 
Asia, Australia, Oceania, and America, wherever Christian missions have 
made impact with the non-Christian world. Account is taken of the 
land and its people, its languages and religions, its peculiar problems, the 
history of the Christian movement both Catholic and Protestant, 
together with the most recent available statistics. The volume is well 
supplied with footnotes introducing the reader to a comprehensive 
missionary bibliography, including available literature in various modern 
tongues. Unfortunately as a result, no doubt, of unavoidable circum- 
stances existing in Germany just now, this very valuable volume is 
printed on atrociously poor paper. 

Henry H. Walker 
Chicago Theological Seminary 


In these confused times, when searching questions are being raised 
regarding both art and religion, it may be that at least a part of these 
inquiries will be answered, not by a study of either subject separately, 
but by an analysis of their mutual relations. We find points of remark- 

' Art and Religion. By Von Ogden Vogt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 
1921. ix+257 pages. $5.00.