Skip to main content

Full text of "Current Events and Discussions"

See other formats


Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World 

This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in 
the world by JSTOR. 

Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other 
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the 
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. 

We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this 
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial 

Read more about Early Journal Content at 
journal-content . 

JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people 
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching 
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit 
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please 


The Mystical Aspect of Religion. — Under the caption "The Meaning 
of 'Religion' and the Place of Mysticism in Religious Life" {Journal of 
Philosophy, XVIII, Feb. 3, 1921) James H. Leuba protests against 
recent tendencies to enlarge the conception of religion so much as to 
make it practically synonymous with all endeavors which aim at social 
welfare. There are "devoted agnostic or atheistic social workers" whose 
psychological attitude is quite different from that found among adherents 
to organized religion. To be sure, social practices and ceremonies have 
frequently been the beginnings of religious practices and ceremonies, 
and paved the way for belief in superhuman agents; but religion has 
stepped in at "the birth of some conception, however vague, of super- 
human personal power or powers, whose existence is felt to be a matter 
of moment." This is the historical connotation of the word "religion," 
and we still need it, or some word, to denote "those forms of behavior 
that involve belief in and relation with superhuman, anthropopathic 

This historical belief in the invisible superhuman gives the author 
a bridge over which he passes into a consideration of mysticism. In a 
"mystical" experience the self senses an immediate touch or union 
"with a larger-than-self, be it called the spirit world, God, or the Abso- 
lute." This "union of will and feeling with other selves" is encouraged 
by (1) the feeling of weariness of the self in its strife with other selves 
or objects, as it desires union and peace with these instead of contention 
and conquest; (2) the natural tendency of thought to rest itself in 
generalization, inducing the construction of an all-inclusive principle 
which may guarantee a unified and coherent world. 

To locate the real place and value of mysticism in religion the follow- 
ing steps are taken: 

1. The classification into two kinds of religious worship — 'the worship 
for defensive purposes, where God and men are kept apart, like buyer 
and seller; the objective kind of religion, "the worship prompted by the 
tendencies to association, co-operation, union"; this latter characterizes 
the mystical worship. 

2. The discovery of the danger of mystical tendencies, if these become 
dominant, as it leads to an overemphasis on an individualism which 
regards its center as the holder of ultimate truth. 



3. The recognition of the church as hospitable toward the rudi- 
mentary forms of mysticism. "Intercourse between sympathetic people 
constantly tends to pass from externality to the intimacy of united will 
and feeling." With a loving God as religious object the individual easily 
glides into the attitude of trust, self-surrender, repose which constitutes 
the first step toward complete mystical union. Thus, organized Christi- 
anity is both objective and mystical, with the objective dominant. 
"Held in subjection though it is, the mystical impulse performs in Chris- 
tianity a vivifying function, the value of which can hardly be overesti- 
mated; for it represents the action of tendencies in which humanity 
sees its salvation, the tendencies to universal co-operation and love- 
union." "The non-mystical and mystical tendencies together make a 
complete man and a complete religion." 

The Religion of a First-Century Jew. — In an article on "The Religion 
of Flavius Josephus" {Jewish Quarterly Renewal [Jan., 1921], 277-306), 
James A. Montgomery speaks of Josephus as the only representative 
personality left to us from first-century Judaism. A trimmer in politics, 
he was loyal to his religion; a Pharisee by choice, with a leaning toward 
the Essenes, and a willingness to criticize his own party. He dwelt on 
divine providence, while recognizing chance as an important factor in 
experience. Making much of omens and miracles, he recognized fully 
such spiritual elements in religion as faith and prayer. He stood for 
one God, one law, one temple, one people, and one history. 

Was the Worship of Ashur Monotheistic? — Writing on "Mono- 
theisme in Assyrie" (Nieuw Theologisch Tijdschrift, X, No. 1, 36-45) 
A. H. Edelkoort denies that there was any monotheism in Assyria, such 
as a recently published tablet seems to indicate. As in the case of 
Marduk, so with Ashur, the characteristic qualities of various gods are 
ascribed to him, but without denying their existence. A systematized 
polytheism was as far as even the theologians went. 

Propagandists for Yahweh. — According to T. J. Meek in his article, 
"Some Religious Origins of the Hebrews ( American Journal of Semitic 
Languages and Literatures, XXXVII [Jan., 1921], 101-31), Yahweh was 
originally the tribal god of Judah, his power increasing with the political 
supremacy of Judah. The Levites were a tribe who had worshiped a 
serpent god, and later attached themselves to Judah, becoming priests 
and propagandists of Yahweh so as to share in Judah's glory. The 
prophets developed among the priests as a protest against their pro- 
fessionalism, just as the new prophecy of the eighth century was a 


reaction from a similar tendency within prophetism. Bull-worship was 
prevalent in the north, having been introduced probably by the tribe 
of Ephraim, and revived after the kingdom was divided. Only under 
Jehu did Yahweh become god of the northern tribes, so that there were 
two nations serving the same god. 

The Samaritan Pentateuch. — In the Bibliotheca Sacra (LXXVIII 
[Jan., 1921], 1-22), Dr. W.E. Barton tells of "The War and the Samaritan 
Colony," commenting on the diminishing population and the unsettled 
priesthood. The chief interest of the article is in its account of the 
photographing of the Samaritan Pentateuch; arrangements have been 
made for purchasing the photographs from the American Colony at 
Jerusalem, without restrictions as to purchase or publication. 

When Did Old Testament Religion Begin? — In the Expositor for 
February, 192 1 (pp. 81-106), Ed. Konig contributes the first of a series 
of articles dealing with the origins of the Hebrew religion. "The 
Burning Problem of the Hour in Old Testament Religious History" is 
whether that history began with Abraham. He contends that those 
who deny it on the basis of late and untrustworthy records are really 
biased in favor of evolutionary explanations, laying chief emphasis upon 
environmental influences. 

Shall Industrial Needs Justify Slavery? — This question is raised by 
G. H. Wilson in an article, "The Labour Problem in Nyasaland" {The 
East and The West, XIX [1921], pp. 27-38). In these days of turmoil 
and strife in every land, the missionary is forced to have an interest as 
broad as life itself. Africa, like other countries, has her labor problems. 
During the critical shortage of plantation help in British East Africa, 
a system of enforced labor is being imposed upon the African people, not 
for public improvements, but for private British enterprises. Some of 
the missionaries have given assent to this as a temporary expedient. A 
similar crisis exists in Nyasaland, a British Protectorate, and the author 
fears that a like solution will be offered. This he vigorously opposes as 
autocratic, unworthy of true Englishmen, un-Christian, and detrimental 
to mission progress. The problem is a vital and pressing one, and its 
results upon missionary work may be far-reaching. 

Where Western Traditions Thwart Oriental Ideals. — Many mission- 
aries today are becoming restless under the old restraints imposed upon 
them by the strict denominational lines of the home churches. They 
see tragic social and moral results follow this strict adherence to sectarian 


practices. Its unbrotherly exclusiveness is fatal to Christian progress. 
Indian Christians find a Western church forcing upon them a system 
that divides, demoralizes, and tends to denationalize them. Garfield 
Williams in an article, "Liberty to Experiment" {The East and The 
West, XIX, pp. 65-72.), revolts against an ancient theory that so 
flagrantly disregards the religious needs of living Christians. He pleads 
for a greater liberty for the missionary that will enable him to face facts 
as he finds them, and launch out on a practical plan of co-operation with 
other Christian bodies. His suggestions are timely and wholesome, and 
represent the attitude of many missionaries. Undoubtedly, tangible 
results will follow such demands when the church comes to appreciate 
the actual situation. 

Is Islam Better Adapted to Africa than Christianity? — The old problem 
of the relation of a Christian government toward Christian missions in 
a Moslem country is now acute in parts of Africa. In some sections the 
government excludes Christian workers from territories occupied by 
Moslems, and in other ways shows a decided favoritism toward the 
followers of the Prophet. It is alleged that in such areas Christian 
missions are a menace to peace and quiet, that Islam is better adapted 
to the African than is Christianity, and that Christian schools and other 
agencies "generally exercise a denationalizing influence on the native 
and 'destroy racial identity.' " These charges are stoutly denied by the 
missionaries, as represented in Du Plessis' article, "Government and 
Islam in Africa," The Moslem World, XI, pp. 2-23. The problem is 
one on which a careful study should reveal many important but hitherto 
unknown facts. It would be of great value in determining the type of 
work that would prove most effective in dealing with Moslem territories. 

Is the Church Condoning Ignorance? — A stirring challenge is raised 
by President McGiffert in an article, "The Teaching Church," in 
Religious Education, February, 192 1. Is present-day Protestantism 
unconsciously obscuring religious issues and leaving the great mass of men 
ignorant of and detached from a Christianity with a real meaning for 
today? The British and American reports of the religious life of the 
men who took part in the Great War answer yes in a decided manner. 
Four-fifths of the young manhood of Great Britain had little or no vital 
connection with the churches, and the small fraction who did have an 
interest in religion misunderstood it atrociously. This detached and 
confused attitude toward Christianity was also widely manifest in the 
young men of America. The great lack today is a teaching church. The 
warring sects of Protestantism were interested in doctrinal peculiarities, 


and, in the zealous pursuit of these, human faith and duty got scant 
attention. From the wreck of this old sectarianism there has come no 
adequate appreciation of what Christianity is, if not Anglicanism, 
Presbyterianism, or Methodism. The great evangelical revival, like the 
old novels which ended with the marriage of the hero and the heroine, 
stopped with conversion. The absorption in winning men left small 
strength and time for the guidance of those already won. The simple 
theology and code of ethics was narrowed to a belief in the atonement and 
deity of Christ, and Christian character was denoted by the refusal to 
participate in a few definite and widely popular pleasures. Following 
this program the church has largely lost its teaching function. What is 
urgently needed is a church that will be in a real sense a life-long school 
in which teacher and taught thresh it out in democratic fashion. This 
does not mean the repetition of lessons learned long ago. The young 
men of the army have accused the church of reiterating ancient formulas 
that have little or no place in the life of today. This is no day for the 
acceptance of ready-made opinions. We respect those who refuse to 
be docile spoon-feds. We believe that the church needs teachers with 
a fitting modesty — those who attempt to convince by a message that 
gets to the heart of things and who invite the students to test this 
message, improve it, or reject it. This is the only kind of teaching that 
can enlist a permanent interest. The burning problems thrust on the 
minds of men by the war must be adequately related to present-day 
religious thinking. Men want to be taught their moral and religious 
obligations that they may play a man's part in Christianizing the world 
rather than skim through life on the surface of glassy and meaningless 
platitudes. If we can get the kind of teaching that will challenge 
intelligent students, we shall not want for leaders in the church. 

Toward a More Scientific Theology. — In the article, "Santayana 
and Modern Liberal Protestantism" (The Journal of Philosophy, 
Vol. XVIII, No. 1, Jan. 6, 192 1), George P. Conger makes the following 
appropriate suggestions. Modern theologians will be stronger when 
they more thoroughly consider the problem afforded by the material 
universe. Although it is adopted into their system, they have yet 
failed to examine it closely and to try out the constructive possibilities 
of materialism. The thought that the structure of the universe of our 
sciences is like the structure of our bodies, or our brains, or our societies, 
may prove fruitful in greatly unifying the world-process. 

To these timely suggestions the remark may be made that the more 
advanced religious thinkers of our day are endeavoring to do just this. 


But no reproach should fall upon the theologian because he does not 
"head off" the philosopher in the solution of a problem more character- 
istically native to the domain of the latter. 

The "Soul" and Immanence, from an Evolutionistic Viewpoint. — 

In an article on "Immanence, Stoic and Christian" {Harvard Theological 
Review, Vol. XIV, No. i, Jan., 1921) Gerald H. Rendall, finding the 
"soul" beset with difficulties from all speculative standpoints, feels 
more helpfulness and attractiveness in the following interpretation. 
The soul is not an entity, nor created, nor transmitted. It is a "center 
or nucleus of potential capacities," itself a part of the great current of 
cosmic life, like the swirling vortex of the river. Though a part of the 
cosmic stream, this nucleus enjoys a certain independence. This 
independence consists of its peculiar behavior of reaction and response. 
And the behavior constitutes its very existence, depending on its ability 
to unify with itself the elements within its scope of behavior. Thus the 
soul is a self-determined whole, as it forms itself on the strength of 
existent capacities and exists as long as it can master the environing 
factors by its will-to-live and its will-to-love. But on the other hand it 
is only a part of the vast cosmic sweep of life, its potentialities are those 
of the cosmic order, its principle of life is that of the universe. The 
achievements of the individual soul are not lost when the soul disappears; 
the sensitiveness to stimuli and the feel of responses accumulate in the 
existence of each soul and are carried along in the ever-widening 
evolutionary life-process. 

In this cosmic situation Immanence is not an intrusion from without, 
"an interference with individuality and an invasion of the soul's preroga- 
tive," but is that sensitiveness and capacity which belong to the life of 
the universe and in the case of the soul are attracted into its nucleus. 
The life, the power, the response of the soul is all in and a part of the 
universe, of the evolutionary process, and represents but the nucleating 
center of which this process is capable and which it has a tendency to 
invite and stimulate. Every aspect of the soul is the universe particu- 
larized, and every soul as a whole is the sensitivity, capacity, and principle 
of the cosmic life in epitome. The soul and the universe are one. 

On these views it may be remarked that since the native soil of 
the "soul" is "entity philosophy" and "faculty psychology," modern 
evolutionary thinkers have substituted the "self" which connotes more 
faithfully the above-suggested interpretation. 

Implications of an Open Moral Order. — The modern world is 
increasingly suspicious of any and every assertion of a fixed system, 


closed order, static world, or "block universe." Flux, movement, 
development, relativity supplant the older conceptions. In recognition 
of this fact, William James Mutch discusses "An Open Moral Order" 
(Homiletic Review, LXXXI, 2, Feb., 1921), pointing out the following 

1. The open moral order is one of growth. Successive stages grow 
out of their preceding ones. Each situation has its own growth. 

2. The "whole moral aspect of life is completely rooted in nature, 
and cannot be separated .... into a category of the supernatural." 

3. This order is progressive, not perfect from its beginning. Herein 
lies the hope for future betterment. 

4. The moral standard is inner, not external, yet open to influences 
of experience, judgment, culture, etc. "For any person there can be 
no such thing as goodness, until it takes the form of an ideal of the inner 

No universal goal or single motive has long held sway before new 
definitions, emphases, theories, have won recognition. Each new 
prescription or definition has been an additional contribution to the 
ever broadening and deepening stream of complex ethical consideration. 
Such new attempt only urges a more real analysis of the moral order 
and results in a fuller realization of the diversity of factors involved. 
"The inner attitude toward the community as a whole, the habitual 
control of one's natural tendencies in the interest of that whole, and 
the openness of mind toward new considerations, better habitual adjust- 
ments, and truer judgments, are the fundamentals of the moral order, 
and they are all open. They are all in danger of deterioration, and they 
are all in need of progressive improvement." 

A New Journal of Religion. — This year witnesses the beginning of 
the Revue d'Histoire et de Philosophic religeuse, published bimonthly by 
the Protestant theological faculty of Strasbourg, including P. Lobstein, 
E. Ehrhardt, G. Baldensperger, F. Men6goz, A. Causse, and C. Hauter, 
with the assistance of M. Goguel and other professors from outside. In 
the first issue (pp. 45-60), A. Causse has an article on the "Wisdom 
Literature of the Old Testament," which he exhibits as the product of 
an age extraordinarily rich in religious development, with its legalistic, 
pietistic, and apocalyptic movements, and as having a popular appeal 
like that of pietism, with which it is otherwise in marked contrast. 

P. Humbert contributes to the second issue (pp. 97-118) a study 
of the prophet Hosea, whom he characterizes as a Bedouin, explaining his 
religious and political enthusiasms and antipathies alike on that basis. 


Messianic Expectations in the Sixth Century, B.C. — This subject is 
discussed by W. R. Aytoun in the Journal of Biblical Literature, DC 
(Nos. i and 2, 1920), 24-43. The hope was a product of the Exile, but 
rested also on a prediction, current before that time, of the perpetuity 
of the Davidic dynasty, a faith akin to that in the inviolability of Jeru- 
salem, both of them vigorously opposed by the great prophets. Accord- 
ingly there are numerous insertions in Jeremiah and Ezekiel in which 
Ezekiel's "prince" is a deliverer, of Hebrew stock and blood royal, a 
new David, Yahweh's representative, and an ideal king. After such 
an expectation centering in Zerubbabel was disappointed, the hope was 
spiritualized and transcendentalized, as, much later, in the prophecies 
of Isaiah, chapters 9 and n. Strictly speaking, there is no messianic 
hope prior to the Exile, or even during the Exile. 

The Holiness Code and Josiah's Reforms. — Critical scholarship 
has been practically unanimous in identifying the code of laws found 
during Josiah's reign with the code of Deuteronomy, but G. R. Berry, 
in the Journal of Biblical Literature, XXXK (Nos. 1 and 2, 1920), 44-51, 
holds that the Laws of Holiness, contained in Leviticus, chapters 17-26, 
meet the requirements even better, agreeing in general with the Deu- 
teronomic provisions, and corresponding more closely in details with 
the measures of reform described as introduced under Josiah; while 
Deuteronomy contains much that belongs to a later time and, in fact, 
agrees with the laws promulgated in Nehemiah, chapters 8-10, better 
than does the Priest Code. In the Laws of Holiness, all slaughter is 
still sacrificial, and the threats are more specific. 

An Assyrian Parallel to the Code of Hammurabi. — In the Journal 
of the American Oriental Society, XLI (Feb., 192 1) 1-59, M. Jastrow, 
Jr., tells of an important discovery at the site of Assur, consisting of 
two large tablets and seven fragments which contain Assyrian laws 
dating perhaps from 1500 B.C., so far as may be judged from the char- 
acter of the writing and the language. These laws are in some respects 
cruder than those of the Babylonian code: there are no class distinctions 
other than those of master and slave; the authority of husband, father, 
and master is more absolute; there are more "cruel and unusual" 
punishments, without logical relation to the offense; and there is less 
indication of judicial procedure. More space is given to sexual immo- 
rality. Among the penalties found here and not in the southern code is 
that of forced labor. As the remains are so fragmentary, little stress 
can be placed on certain general differences, and on the whole there is 
fairly close agreement. 


A New Non-Christian Bible for China. — It is significant that when 
the Western world is considering the question of a "modern Bible," 
a similar suggestion is made with regard to the non-Christian literature 
of China. Professor Harlan P. Beach shows the value of such a collec- 
tion, in an article entitled " Christian Missionaries and China's Canonical 
Writings" {International Review of Missions, X [1921], 236-48). He 
tells of the prevailing ignorance of the Chinese with regard to their 
religious and ethical literature as the reason for the new book. The 
proposal is that a select committee of Chinese scholars — Christian, 
Buddhist, and Taoist — make a careful compilation of the best of the 
ethical teachings of the Confucian, Buddhist, and Taoist faiths, to be 
used as a textbook on Chinese ethics in the schools. Additional selec- 
tions could be used for advanced training in colleges and seminaries. 
The execution of some such plan would aid greatly in the education of 
Christian workers by giving them a fuller appreciation of the religious 
mind of China and a more comprehensive point of view in facing re- 
ligious problems. 

Presenting the Gospel in Indian Lyrical Form. — One of the great 
objections offered to the work of Christian missions in India is that 
they are a denationalizing influence. Even the Indian Christians often 
feel that they are but abridged editions of American or English Chris- 
tians. Hence a vital problem is that of making Christianity indigenous 
to India. A solution of one phase of this problem is suggested by H. A. 
Popley in the International Review of Missions for April, 192 1 (pp. 
223-35). He declares that the appeal to the Indian by means of doc- 
trine and argument is fundamentally wrong. It is the story, and par- 
ticularly the story in lyrical form with musical accompaniment, that 
appeals to the Indian mind. For centuries the Hindu-Bagavatars have 
used this method. Accompanied by an orchestra of drum, violin, and 
cymbals the singer presents the sacred Hindu truths in lyrical form. 
He holds his audience in eager appreciation for three or four hours by 
the old familiar tales of the heroes of the great epics. 

The same method is now being used with great success by Christians. 
The Bible story in lyrical form provides the basis of the presentation. 
With this are interwoven quotations from the great devotional litera- 
ture of India and illustrations from the lives of her revered heroes, 
sages, and prophets. The amount of such contributory materials is 
very extensive, while both its poetical and ethical qualities are high. 
By a careful selection and use of this material and a presentation of the 
Christian message in these terms, India can receive the gospel in its 


most welcome form, and, on the other hand, the meaning of Christianity 
will be greatly enriched by this use of India's national literary and 
musical heritage. 

Democracy in Religion on the Mission Field. — One of the problems 
that is demanding much attention in mission circles in India is that of 
compulsory Bible teaching in mission schools. In most of the schools 
a certain amount of instruction in biblical lines is required. But there 
are many who are revolting against methods which savor of autocracy 
in religion. The attitude of this group is presented by R. C. Das in 
Young Men of India for April, 1021 (pp. 170-73). Mr. Das objects to 
this compulsory religious instruction on three grounds: (1) It is funda- 
mentally in contradiction to the spirit of Christianity, as well as opposed 
to the genius of Hinduism. By compelling all to submit to such instruc- 
tion, Christianity "appears not as a gospel freely proclaimed and freely 
responded to, but as an aggressive propaganda of dogma and European 
culture." (2) Much of this instruction in the past has actually resulted 
in evil rather than good; for many of the teachers have been altogether 
inadequately prepared for their task, and the children have formed 
wholly wrong ideas with regard to Christianity. (3) Because of the 
present situation in which educated Indians are particularly sensitive 
with regard to anything approaching domination by the ruling race, 
special care should be exercised to avoid antagonism. A rash attitude 
now on the part of missionary organizations may compromise the whole 
position of Christianity and mean the loss of much that it has taken a 
century to win. 

A New Missionary Qualification. — A fundamental qualification for 
missionaries, and one that is receiving increasing recognition by mission- 
ary leaders, is the attitude of mind and will with which one undertakes 
his work. This is clearly set forth by Edward Shillito (International 
Review of Missions, X [1921], 174-82) in a plea for a quickened imagi- 
nation in our whole approach to another people. He shows how a 
missionary may easily mortgage his whole future by a failure to enter 
into a sympathetic understanding of the ideas, ideals, and social atti- 
tudes of the people in his field. He may erect an almost impassable 
barrier between himself and them, unless he goes in a spirit of open- 
mindedness, humility, and courtesy, and with a willingness to receive 
as well as to give — with a genuine eagerness to appreciate the fine racial 
loyalties which dominate their civilization. Without such a sympathetic 
imagination in these critical times, failure is almost certain; with it, a 
man's possibilities for usefulness may be multiplied tenfold. 


Gains to Faith from Criticism. — In the Methodist Review (March- 
April, i92i,pp. 280 f.), the following interesting consequences of critical 
scholarship are noted: (1) A better comprehension of truth, which 
always increases the power of the message, has been secured. (2) Since 
criticism has made the Bible more human — it has thus succeeded in 
making it more vivid. The Bible has become a new book, a book of 
life; and there is great power in the appeal to life. (3) The fresh moral 
orientation brought about by criticism has rendered unnecessary a 
defense of obsolete morality, like slavery, polygamy, despotism, etc. 
There is no need of explaining away ethical perversities and intellectual 
contradictions. The preacher need waste no energy on apologetic soph- 
istry, insincere harmonizing, and conscience-deadening casuistry. 

A discussion entitled "Authority and Inspiration" (Methodist 
Review, May- June, 1921, pp. 450 f.) has the following timely suggestions. 
If Christian preaching as a living force is to survive the present social 
and intellectual upheaval, it will be because of the new life given it by 
the free atmosphere of critical thought, whereby all dogmatism is aban- 
doned and the confessions and institutions of the past are made mobile 
and fluid. In this atmosphere authority assumes the form of persuasive 
spiritual influence. 

New Values in a New World. — In a recent address Professor Gilbert 
Murray gave a suggestive interpretation of the basic reasons for the 
spiritual perplexity of modern men. According to a report in the 
Century for May ("At Home in the Modern World"), Professor Murray, 
after describing the comfortable and comprehensible view which regarded 
this earth and man as the center of things, called attention to the bewil- 
dering consequences of the conclusions of modern natural science. In 
a universe where this earth is an insignificant speck, it seems prepos- 
terous to construct a philosophy in which man shall be the chief item. 
But applied science has so transformed conditions of life on this earth, 
and has so completely brought the peoples of the earth into a conscious- 
ness of interdependence, that we begin to dream of a world once more 
organized to promote human welfare. 

While Professor Murray does not explicitly discuss the development 
of religious ideas in connection with these changes, it is significant that 
Christianity today is thrusting ideals of social righteousness and mis- 
sionary effort into the foreground. It was difficult to integrate religious 
values in the non-human world of mechanistic science. But the smaller, 
more intimate world of social and international relationships is a fruitful 
field for religious zeal.