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Any study of the gospels, no matter how superficial, any inquiry 
into the words or teaching of Jesus, whatever its object, requires a 
comparison of parallel passages in the s)moptic gospels. This compari- 
son is very significant when made in the English; it is much more instruct- 
ive when made in Greek. A harmony of these gospels presenting 
similar passages on the same page is therefore almost the first tool a 
student should acquire. After providing such tools in Enghsh, pro- 
fessors of the University of Chicago are again to be thanked for pub- 
lishing a similar one in the original tongue. The text used is that of 
Westcott and Hort, which, though it has generally received the preference 
of English and American scholars in the forty years since its publication, 
apparently has not before been issued in the form of a harmony. Here 
it has been carefully reproduced literatim, arranged conveniently for 
parallel study, and provided with an outline, index, and other suitable 
equipment. The editors have done well to substitute quotation marks 
for the unfamiUar capitals used by the former editors to indicate quota- 
tions from the Old Testament. They might have further improved on 
their predecessors if they had supplied a textual apparatus for the 
variant readings which are noticed marginally by Hort, as they have 
done for the variants, many of them much less important, which they 
have added in another margin of their own. In this respect (as well 
as in the matter of expense) the latest edition of Huck's Synapse has 
still an advantage over this product of American home industry. 

There is not much opportunity for novel or individual theory in pre- 
paring a harmonyof the gospels, and the editors have wisely refrained from 
obtruding into the Greek text any of the special theories of the " Chicago 
School " of synoptic criticism, contenting themselves with a brief allusion 
in the Preface. There are sometimes opportunities also for differences 
of opinion in deUmiting each individual pericope. In this matter they 
seem to have followed generally Westcott and Hort. As has been said, 

» A Harmony of the Synoptic Gospels in Greek. Ernest D. Burton and Edgar J. 
Goodspeed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1920. xxx+186 pages. 
$3.00 net. 



a harmony is a tool, and the making of a tool gives little scope for creative 
work. None the less, the tool is indispensable and these accurate crafts- 
men deserve much credit for their pains. 

Henry J. Cadbury 

Andover Theological Seminary 


The long-awaited commentary on Revelation in the "International 
Critical" series has at last appeared in two substantial volxmies.' Approxi- 
mately the first two hundred pages are devoted to topics usually treated 
as introductory. The problem of authorship is the first to claim atten- 
tion. The writer of the Apocalypse is thought to have been a Jewish 
Christian of Galilee who late in life emigrated to Asia Minor and settled 
in Ephesus. He is not to be confused with John the Elder, who is 
assumed to have been the author of the Fourth Gospel and of the Johan- 
nine Epistles, nor is he to be identified with the Apostle John, who is 
thought to have suffered martyrdom at the hands of the Jews in Palestine 
some time before 70 a.d. Thus the Apocalypse was composed by a third 
John, an otherwise unknown Christian prophet, about the year 95 a.d. 
Questions regarding sources, interpolations, redactions, diction, and text 
are duly considered. Next follows the commentary proper, embracing 
I, I — ^11, 226. In content it is mainly a phrase-by-phrase study of 
John's diction, made with a view to discovering the literary origins and 
meaning of the document. The third section of the work presents a 
reconstructed Greek text with an elaborate apparatus criticus. The 
fourth and last section contains a new EngUsh translation accompanied 
by an analytical outUne of contents and numerous interpretative notes. 

Users of this monumental work will do well to follow the author's 
advice and first read the English translation, then the introduction, and 
lastly the detailed commentary. Possibly such procedure will reduce 
to a minimum the inconvenience and confusion that inevitably result 
from the author's method of treating his subject. His arrangement of 
materials is such as to involve considerable repetition, for the same topic 
comes up for discussion on various occasions in different contexts. To 
add to the reader's embarrassment, he sometimes finds that in the mean- 
time the author has undergone a radical change of opinion. For example, 
one who is curious to ascertain the author's views on the much-discussed 

' A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Revelation of St. John. R. H. 
Charles. 2 vols. New York: Scribner, 1920. cxcii+373, and viii+4g7 pages. $9.00.