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CURRENT EVENTS AND DISCUSSIONS 



The Church League for Industrial Democracy. — To establish the 
principle of co-operation and the spirit of brotherhood in the realm 
of industry is the general object of this new organization consisting 
at present of sixteen bishops and about four hundred members of the 
Protestant church. Its president is the Rt. Rev. Charles D. Williams, 
D.D., Bishop of Michigan, and its executive secretary is Rev. Richard 
W. Hogue, D.D., of Philadelphia. 

The League's objective and present lines of activity are indicated by 
the following extracts from its Statement of Principles: 

We face a world in revolution. Some regret the fact; some thank God 
for it. Regret and gratitude are in a sense equally irrelevant; the Church is 
called to act, and the contemporary situation furnishes her with a challenge 
and an opportunity unsurpassed since Pentecost. 

The purpose of this organization is to unite, for intercession and labor, 
those within the Episcopal Church who believe that it is an essential part of 
the Church's function to make justice and love the controlling motives in all 
social change, and who wish, as Christians, to promote all sound movements 
looking toward the democratization of industry and the socialization of life. 

We affirm our belief that only that social order can properly be called 
Christian which substitutes fraternal co-operation for mastership in industry 
and life. 

We believe that for us as Christiansthe proper procedure is not to formulate 
a social policy and then seek to justify it from our religion, but rather to start 
with our Lord's revealed will and to deduce from it our social program, with no 
equivocation or evasion. 

In case of teachers and preachers in our own communion whose positions 
are endangered by reason of their social radicalism we promise to make investi- 
gation and if necessary to publish the facts; and to the limit of our ability we 
intend to give moral and practical support to those who shall clearly be seen 
to have incurred persecution through advocacy of social change. 

Recognizing the earnest endeavor under difficulties of those working in 
our theological seminaries to train our coming Clergy for useful labors in the 
new age, we intend to work for such changes in management and curriculum 
as shall enable theological students to know, preach and practice the Social 
Gospel. 

We pledge ourselves to investigate social and industrial programs as they 
may arise, to make contact with their leaders and authors and to spread accurate 
knowledge of them among our Church people. 

310 



CURRENT EVENTS AND DISCUSSIONS 311 

How to Spend Sunday. — Recent discussion on the problem of keep- 
ing Sunday has led the Independent to ask its readers for an expression 
of opinion. A number of representative leaders of various religious 
groups responded with a variety of interesting suggestions, and these 
have been presented in the form of a symposium in the issue of Janu- 
ary 1, 1921. 

There is general agreement that Sunday is at present not what it 
ought to be; commercialism and worldliness have seriously interfered 
with the cultural and spiritual possibilities of the day; and that the 
development of religious life is very closely connected with Sunday. 
But there is much difference of opinion as to the type of Sunday we 
should have and the method of getting it. The answers may be divided 
roughly into three divisions though they overlap. 

r. The Sunday of the legalistic religionists. Here is a strong 
negative emphasis. The whole day should be given to serving God 
and meditating upon the work of Christ for our salvation. The Sabbath 
is said by this group to be the foundation of the church and of all that 
is good in Anglo-Saxon life. Europe is immoral and wicked because it 
has abandoned Sabbath observance. This group believes in the enact- 
ment of severely righteous Sabbath laws. 

2. The second group represents what may be described as modified 
Puritanism. Those in this group believe that narrow laws would make 
religion offensive to many. Sunday should be not a day of gloom and 
unnatural repression, but a day of decorum and restraint. Commer- 
cialized amusements should be forbidden and all noisy and exuberant 
recreation should be disallowed. It should be a workless day to the 
very limit of possibility, a day when the family together quietly seek 
intellectual and spiritual refreshment. It is the duty of the state to 
enact the kind of legislation that will make such a Sunday possible. 

3. The third group represents a socially constructive point of view. 
Sunday should not be monopolized by the church by using the police 
authorities to close up rival attractions. A healthy church does not 
require such a policy. The day should be saved from pharisaism on the 
one hand and from commercial exploitation and unwholesome recrea- 
tion on the other. As far as possible there should be a holiday which 
men may turn into a holy day if they will. This group would make a 
careful study of the complex situation that underlies the keeping of the 
modern Sunday. What is the need for such a day and what has been 
its history? What intellectual, ethical, spiritual, restful, constructive 
program can be made for the day in our common life ? It is essential 
to co-operate with the community in providing on Sunday and other 



3 i2 THE JOURNAL OF RELIGION 

days wholesome and unobjectionable forms of rest through recreation. 
This means a varied cultural and recreational program indoors and out 
of doors. Open libraries, art museums, symphony concerts, musical 
recitals, high-class plays and lectures, forum meetings, and athletic 
games may well form part of a Sunday program that will meet modern 
needs. Religious worship will be a vital feature of the Sunday program, 
but the churches must provide preachers who are better trained, more 
attractive music, more varied and rewarding forms of church activity, 
so that the churches may have a far more compelling magnetism than 
they now possess. This group desires the minimum of legislative regula- 
tion necessary to carry out such a program. The test of these laws will be 
what they provide rather than what they forbid. 

What Else Must Be Done to Make This a More Livable World?— 
Having considered the year of freedom from the three main causes of 
misery — unemployment, low wages, and drink — Justice Brandeis asks 
in the Survey of January i, 192 1, pages 498-506, what else must be 
done to make this a more livable world. The Survey obtained 
answers to this question from publishers, teachers, judges, labor 
investigators, social scientists, poets, authors, religious leaders, 
artists, philosophers, and other representatives of various phases of 
American life. These answers cover the following interests: 

1. The checking of reactionary tendencies. — Apparently we have 
forgotten what the war has taught about naval rivalries, trade imperial- 
ism, and the mental preparation for war. Since reaction is in control 
today both in politics and in the sphere of public opinion, we cannot do 
much more than retain the gains achieved. However we must fight 
reaction in legislation and industry. The relation between employer and 
employee must be so determined that workers may have an interest 
in their work. The big purpose of industry should be that of placing 
more solid economic foundations underneath the homes of the people. 

2. Scientific social research. — The increase of knowledge of human 
behavior is one of the prime requirements of our time. With the coming 
of knowledge is the demand for expert practitioners. The function of 
philosophy is exceedingly vital. It is even claimed by some that our 
technique is in advance of our philosophy. 

3. Public interest in health. — All the conditions necessary for the 
breeding of disease are present in great masses of huddled and unsanitary 
homes, and it is a tribute to the watchfulness of parents that so many 
children from such homes grow into decent manhood and womanhood. 
Interrelated with the problem of better housing is the matter of regular 



CURRENT EVENTS AND DISCUSSIONS 313 

work. The re-establishment of the federal employment service on a 
scientific basis would contribute to the solution of this problem quite 
as well the operation of barring or admitting a large number of immigrants. 

4. Emphasis on education. — There is a firm belief that human nature 
can be changed — within limits of course — by the instrument of educa- 
tion. Two generations of education in a sane sense of proportion would 
cure most of the economic ills of society. Some go so far as to hold that 
a new economic code based on social welfare can be developed in five 
or ten years by the right use of press, pulpit, educational classes, colleges, 
and conferences in industrial communities. 

5. A sense of beauty and a sense of humor are vital factors in the 
development of a more livable world. It is indeed joyous to be able to 
appreciate the wonderful and the beautiful, and there is a real demand in 
human nature for such a satisfaction. It is a narrow program either in 
city and state development or in education that leaves out the aesthetic 
and a warped human nature is the result. 

6. We need to discriminate between our ideals and our illusions. — 
These ideals should be based on remorseless research. Only on such a 
quest for facts can we construct the ideals that can release the forces in 
individuals for their full contribution to society. It is knowledge and 
not speculation that can make feeling regenerative in action and creative 
in effect. 

The Future of Religion in China. — What is to be the outcome of 
the conflict of religions in the Chinese Republic? Paul Hutchinson 
suggests an answer in the Atlantic Monthly for January, 1021. The 
chief religious forces in China are Confucianism, Buddhism, Tao- 
ism, Mohammedanism, and Christianity. Buddhism is losing its hold 
on Chinese life because of the indolence, greed, and immorality of 
the priests, who retain their position only through playing upon the 
fears of the people. Taoism as a form of worship is very rapidly 
disappearing, though the belief in evil spirits which it fosters is 
bound to persist for generations. Islam, although numerically four 
times as strong as Christianity, has never touched the real life of China, 
for it has isolated its followers to a great extent. 

The two remaining faiths, Confucianism and Christianity, must 
form the basis of the religious life of the new China. Of these, Confu- 
cianism will rightly continue to furnish the distinctive Chinese attitude 
toward life and the general moral basis of Chinese thought. This will 
be supplemented by the distinctive Christian ideals, which will be the 
natural fulfilment of the teachings of the Chinese Sage. Such elements 



314 THE JOURNAL OF RELIGION 

of Chinese life as veneration for ancestors will have a due place in the 
new religion. Moreover the Chinese church of the future will realize 
her greatest possibilities only under Chinese leadership. When the 
missionary has completely vindicated his civilization his task will be 
finished. Then China, under her own leadership, will continue to develop 
her own type of Christianity as modified by her heritage and her social 
mind. 

How Can the Missionary Prepare the Way for Political Self- 
Government? — India is facing an era of reconstruction in all phases of 
her life. As she is being given greater responsibility in her political con- 
trol, she is seeking it in other activities. How the readjustment should 
be made in the mission centers is suggested by Professor S. C. Mukerjee 
of Serampore College, in Young Men of India, XXXI (1920), 648-55. He 
analyzes the task of Christian missions as twofold : teaching the principles 
of Christianity and building thereon the social fabric of India. This is 
a task which must touch every activity of Indian life if it is to be com- 
pletely effective. But the missionary forces must be unified and cen- 
tralized in leadership and responsibility. At present there are two 
separate organizations, the Indian church organization and the Mis- 
sion organization. These must be reorganized so as to make the Indian 
church the central power around which all missionary efforts revolve. 
This will give the Indian church organization the same type of re- 
sponsible self-government as the nation is developing politically. It 
will remove all fear that Christianity attempts to denationalize India. 
The missionary will have an even greater opportunity for service, for 
he will not be considered a foreigner, as is often the case now. Pro- 
fessor Mukerjee would even go so far as to give to this organization 
many of the powers now exercised by the mission boards in the choice 
and direction of missionaries for Indian service. His plan is sure to be 
valuable in the stimulation of thought on this important problem. 

A Stone Out of Place. — Kemper Fullerton contributes to the American 
Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, XXXVII (October, 1920), 
1-50, "The Stone of the Foundation," an unusually keen and thorough- 
going examination of Isaiah 28:166, 17a. This passage has rarely been 
controverted as an authentic utterance of Isaiah, largely because it 
seems to contain his characteristic teaching of the value of faith. But 
its meaning is not clear, nor is the text certain, and there are problems 
of etymology and syntax which are only complicated when comparison 
is made with the versions. Moreover it offers a promise where a threat 
is to be expected, and in so doing interrupts not only the thought of 



CURRENT EVENTS AND DISCUSSIONS 315 

the passage but also its poetic and rhetorical form. Interpretations of 
these verses are almost as numerous as commentators, most of whom 
agree only in attributing them to Isaiah, and in rejecting any messianic 
significance. Identification of the "stone" with the Messiah as an 
object of faith is, however, most probable exegetically, though most 
improbable critically. Professor Fullerton favors an emendation by 
Ehrlich which disposes of the Isaianic doctrine of faith in this section, 
which he concludes to be a late insertion, messianic in character. It 
represents a type of symbolism found elsewhere in both the Old and 
the New Testaments, in which the stone stands for dependable personal 
leadership, and as such is a symbol of the Messiah. Indeed, there is 
evidence of what may be called a well-developed system of lithic theology 
of which only fragments are preserved in the Bible. 

Professor Fullerton is to be congratulated on the thoroughness of 
his investigation, and the convincingness of his presentation. 

The Death of an Eminent American Scholar. — Professor B. B. 
Warfield of the faculty of Princeton Theological Seminary died on 
February 17, 192 1. Professor Warfield was professor of theology in 
Princeton Theological Seminary from 1887 until his death. He has for 
a long time been one of the ablest exponents of Calvinistic theology in 
this country, and up to the time of his death he was an indefatigable 
defender of the ideals of theological orthodoxy. With his death the 
field of theological scholarship suffers a distinct loss. 

Why Not Recognize Social Responsibility in Children? — The impor- 
tant question is raised by Professor George A. Coe, in Religious Education, 
February, 1921. The child is a member of the community and takes 
that membership seriously. Why should not part of his play be given 
to the construction of his own toys from provided materials? He is 
invited to take part in world-wide missions, why should he not be given 
an increasing part in the tasks of human welfare near at home? Can 
he not participate in the selecting of his school problems, reducing the 
formal and the coercive to the minimum? Professor Coe says "Yes," 
and gives some hints as to the method to be employed. In the vital 
experience of worship, childishness can be eliminated, and developing 
ethical meanings can be incorporated under wise leadership. Why 
should there be an extended use of unappreciated formal prayers? Coe 
gives a suggestive list of the items we need to know from intelligent 
observation in regard to the religious life of the child. Give the child 
an opportunity to live and help live by the stimulation of his own real 



316 THE JOURNAL OF RELIGION 

interests through a graded participation in a well-rounded life. Realisti- 
cally, he has already entered into the responsibilities of life and does 
not have to wait to be shot into them from the mouth of an ineffectual 
pedagogical blunderbuss. 

The Missionary Ideal in Terms of Social Psychology. — Following 
certain suggestions in Hocking's Human Nature and Its Re-making, 
Dr. J. H. Oldham, in The International Review of Missions, January, 1921, 
declares that all the instincts, sublimated under the aegis of the Christian 
ideal, converge in "the passion for souls." Ambition for Christianity 
is not a striving after precedence, wealth, office, public power. It seeks 
to remedy the faults of low-lying ambition, and the quest of ambition 
turns out in the end to be indistinguishable from service. It is the 
passion for the spread of the new community of giving or adding to the 
being of another. In this sense it is a passion for souls. It lays hold 
of the ideal world in such masterly fashion that it weaves its quality 
and principle into the fabric of human history. Saving one's soul as 
far as psychology can deal with the matter is the achieving of this 
passionate ambition to confer spiritual benefits upon another. Of course 
this is presumptuous, but has not Christianity ever been such? It is 
a presumption in the following terms: "Yet not I, but whatever I have 
found visibly divine in the world, worketh in me." 

The Mother's Confessional. — A fruitful suggestion for religious 
training is given by Henry S. Curtis in the International Journal of 
Ethics, February, 1921. Psycho-analysis is simply the method of 
confession to the doctor. This new psychology has put the confessional 
on a new basis. Mr. Curtis gives instances of the troubles and fears 
of childhood, many of them groundless, but they are none the less 
harmful on that account. The mother is the safe confessor of childhood 
and she should aim to fill this position as perfectly as possible. The 
time for the mother to establish this confessional is the fifteen- or twenty- 
minute period before the child goes to sleep. The events of the day 
and the plans of the morrow can be talked over that the child may have 
a peaceful sleep and greet the new day with an untroubled conscience. 
If she is to be a real mother-confessor she must cultivate from the earliest 
years the practice of intimacy and show an interest in all the little events 
in the daily lives of children. If she does not show interest or is too 
much horrified, she will not be told. To maintain an attitude of con- 
structive criticism the mother must always be in perfect sympathy with 
the child. This may solve many of the problems of delinquency and 
much of the unhappiness of childhood. 



CURRENT EVENTS AND DISCUSSIONS 317 

A Humanistic God. — "The Humanism" which is "an effort to put 
man in his rightful place in the world" has struggled on for centuries, 
and more recently finds its spirit expressed in the term Democracy — 
political, industrial, social, and religious. This is the observation made 
by L. L. Leh in his article, "The Influence of Humanism on Theism" 
(Reformed Church Review, XXIV, Oct., 1920). Though "the God 
of our Fathers" may have certain emotional value, he is in reality 
not a "lovely figure" to modern men but stands for many of those 
characteristics which they hate and which oppose Democracy. "As a 
living force he has passed away. People have lost interest in him. He 
is out of harmony with their new outlook on life." 

The war evoked a "new religious fervor." Despite "an absence of 
pious phrasing to a delightful degree .... God could be felt," not 
a mean, petty God concerned with trifles, but one who "was interested 
in big things — in freedom and justice and man's struggle for a larger life 
and a better world." 

For a long time the widely felt need has been for "a God as wide 
as life, .... large in spirit, powerful without being arbitrary, .... 
close to man and with a purpose for man which could move man to 
enthusiasm .... who would be worth while for modern man." Truly 
there is a reaction at present, not, however, to "the God of the Fathers," 
but away from God altogether, and this because "the new idea lacks 
the proper organization, leaders, and institutional backing that would 
make it effective among the masses at a time like this." 

"The modern man wants a God that he can believe in" "a God who 
is doing things." This characteristic will exclude the ornamental 
superlatives of the traditional God. Instead, the modern, humanistic 
God must console and inspire men, fight with them against evil, take 
an active interest in the life-struggle everywhere, and so far from 
condemning men must be their friend. 

The Heterodoxy of Esther.— Jacob Hoschander discusses "The 
Book of Esther in the Light of History" in the Jewish Quarterly Review, 
(XI [Jan., 1921], 307-44). Names like Mordecai and Esther show the 
influence of the civilization of Babylonia rather than of its religion, which 
the exiles strenuously opposed; they were more favorable to the Persian 
religion which was more like their own. The heterodoxy of Mordecai's 
attitude on intermarriage, on which the whole book hinges, accounts for 
the exclusion of the religious element.