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322 THE JOURNAL OF RELIGION 

sweep of our material civilization. In the lecture entitled "The 
Unmeasured Gulf" he shows that nature is essentially cruel and alien 
to man, that the great need of our time is a God distinct from nature, 
and able to deliver man from what Huxley called the " infinite wicked- 
ness of the human story." With wealth of allusion and in glowing 
language he dissects the whole modern tendency and calls for a return 
to the proclamation of the "Almighty and Everlasting God" who alone 
can remove the dualism created by sin and give man real deliverance 
from sorrow. 

Dr. Fitch's description of modern church activities is both humorous 
and searching. The morning service is often "a decorous sort of sociable 
with an intellectual fillip thrown in." "Our Protestant ecclesiastical 
buildings are all empty. They are meeting-houses, not temples; 
assembly-rooms, not shrines." Then follows a moving plea for worship, 
for a realization of the Presence, for penitence and self-surrender before 
the ineffable and infinite. Here surely is both challenge and summons 
to think and to act. 

W. H. P. Fatjnce 
Brown University 



DID EZEKIEL USE TYRE AS A PSEUDONYM 
FOR BABYLON? 1 

It has long been noticed that Ezekiel says nothing derogatory of 
Babylon and, while announcing disaster for other peoples, never 
threatens Babylon. It has generally been supposed that this silence 
was due to the wise discretion of Ezekiel who thought himself of much 
more value to his people alive than dead and therefore did not invite an 
untimely end by threatening his masters. On the other hand, Ezekiel 
devotes three long chapters (26-28) to a description of Tyre and her 
commerce and a prediction of her approaching downfall. Other peoples 
of similar insignificance like Moab, Ammon, and Philistia are disposed 
of in summary fashion in a few verses. Equally surprising is it that so 
great power and influence are ascribed to the "prince of Tyre"; at least, 
he is represented as thinking of himself in terms of an estimate out of all 
proportion to the actual historical place of Tyre in the world of Ezekiel's 
day. Further, he is associated with "Eden, the garden of God," which 
was thought of as having been located in Babylonia, and he is spoken 
of as "king," a term elsewhere applied by Ezekiel only to the rulers of 

1 The Ship Tyre. A symbol of the fate of conquerors as prophesied by Isaiah, 
Ezekiel, and John and fulfilled at Nineveh, Babylon, and Rome, a study in the com- 
merce of the Bible. By W. H. Schroff. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 
1920. 56 pages. $2 . 00. 



BOOK REVIEWS 323 

Babylon and Egypt. Mr. Schroff would explain all these things by the 
theory that Ezekiel is in reality talking of Babylon all the time and using 
Tyre as a camouflage of his real theme. Tyre commercially represented 
Babylon, but Babylon found herself without a satisfactory share of the 
profits, which she was resolved to possess for herself alone. This will 
explain the readiness with which Ezekiel used the symbol of the good 
ship "Tyre" as representing the whole commercial structure of the 
Babylonians, and how, in prophesying from his residence upon the 
Chebar waterway the obviously impending doom of the city of Tyre, 
he was able at the same time to prophesy the approaching doom of 
Babylon herself." 

In support of this interpretation Mr. Schroff cites the fact that the 
picture of the commerce of Tyre contains imports, but no exports and 
that the list of imports is only partial and coincides with the materials 
that went into the making of the temple and its equipment. "The 
ship 'Tyre' is a symbol of Chaldea: her cargo is a symbol of the 
institutions of the priesthood and princedom of Judea which Babylon 
had profaned; and her doom is the doom of Babylon herself." 

This interpretation, which is certainly ingenious and supported by 

a good deal of research into the details of the ship's cargo is wrecked, as 

it seems to me, upon the great jutting rock represented in the fact that 

the downfall of Tyre is predicted by Ezekiel as coming at the hands of 

Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon. If Tyre is Babylon, it is surely strange 

that Babylon should deliberately set out to overthrow herself. 

The allegorical method of interpretation has always been alluring to 

Jewish minds but it is full of dangers. Mr. Schroff's treatment of 

algum wood, apes, and peacocks would gain much by reference to an 

article by Prof. Walter E. Clark in the American Journal of Semitic 

Languages and Literatures for January, 1920, which appeared too late to 

be used in this book. 

J. M. Powis Smjth 
University of Chicago 



THE CHARACTER OF EARLY JUDAISM 1 

The study of Hebrew thought during the period extending from the 
latter part of the Exile to the close of the Persian period is of prime 
significance for the understanding of Judaism because this period saw 
the formation and development of the distinctively Judaistic type of 
religion. A new book upon this period is more than welcome. The 
new sources of information found during recent years and the various 

1 Early Judaism. By Lawrence E. Browne. Cambridge: The University Press, 
1920. xiv+234 pages.