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BOOK REVIEWS 323 

Babylon and Egypt. Mr. Schroff would explain all these things by the 
theory that Ezekiel is in reality talking of Babylon all the time and using 
Tyre as a camouflage of his real theme. Tyre commercially represented 
Babylon, but Babylon found herself without a satisfactory share of the 
profits, which she was resolved to possess for herself alone. This will 
explain the readiness with which Ezekiel used the symbol of the good 
ship "Tyre" as representing the whole commercial structure of the 
Babylonians, and how, in prophesying from his residence upon the 
Chebar waterway the obviously impending doom of the city of Tyre, 
he was able at the same time to prophesy the approaching doom of 
Babylon herself." 

In support of this interpretation Mr. Schroff cites the fact that the 
picture of the commerce of Tyre contains imports, but no exports and 
that the list of imports is only partial and coincides with the materials 
that went into the making of the temple and its equipment. "The 
ship 'Tyre' is a symbol of Chaldea: her cargo is a symbol of the 
institutions of the priesthood and princedom of Judea which Babylon 
had profaned; and her doom is the doom of Babylon herself." 

This interpretation, which is certainly ingenious and supported by 

a good deal of research into the details of the ship's cargo is wrecked, as 

it seems to me, upon the great jutting rock represented in the fact that 

the downfall of Tyre is predicted by Ezekiel as coming at the hands of 

Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon. If Tyre is Babylon, it is surely strange 

that Babylon should deliberately set out to overthrow herself. 

The allegorical method of interpretation has always been alluring to 

Jewish minds but it is full of dangers. Mr. Schroff's treatment of 

algum wood, apes, and peacocks would gain much by reference to an 

article by Prof. Walter E. Clark in the American Journal of Semitic 

Languages and Literatures for January, 1920, which appeared too late to 

be used in this book. 

J. M. Powis Smjth 
University of Chicago 



THE CHARACTER OF EARLY JUDAISM 1 

The study of Hebrew thought during the period extending from the 
latter part of the Exile to the close of the Persian period is of prime 
significance for the understanding of Judaism because this period saw 
the formation and development of the distinctively Judaistic type of 
religion. A new book upon this period is more than welcome. The 
new sources of information found during recent years and the various 

1 Early Judaism. By Lawrence E. Browne. Cambridge: The University Press, 
1920. xiv+234 pages. 



324 THE JOURNAL OF RELIGION 

contributions of scholarship at different points have made necessary 

a new writing of the religious history of this period. Mr. Browne 

has done a good piece of critically constructive work. The identity of 

the authorship of the Servant Songs and the rest of Isaiah, chapters 

40-55, is made clear by a convincing citation of parallel passages showing 

unity of thought and identical phraseology. This is important for the 

history of religion since it puts the missionary conception of Israel's 

task as early at least as the latter part of the sixth century B.C. In 

this connection a suggestion more ingenious than convincing is made, 

that the difficulty of the servant Israel saving the nation Israel is solved 

by making the two represent the Israel of pure stock as saving the 

half-blooded Israel that had mingled itself with non-Hebrew peoples. 

It is better, however, to remove the problem entirely by a different 

translation of 49:6. Haggai's parable of the clean and unclean is made 

to refer to the participation of the Samaritans in the building of the 

temple which rendered the whole enterprise unclean. Isaiah, chapter 64, 

is interpreted as a sermon by a Samaritan prophet. In this connection, 

Mr. Browne's question as to the improbability of a Hebrew prophet 

laying the blame upon Yahweh for leading Israel astray, as is done in 

Isa. 63:17, is easily countered by a reference to Ezekiel where precisely 

that charge is made. The building of the Samaritan temple and the 

final schism between Jerusalem and Samaria are rightly brought down to 

Alexander's time. The claim that Ezra's law was Deuteronomy only 

does not quite fit the facts. It has long seemed to me that Ezra's 

reform was based upon some earlier form of the Priestly Code than 

that which we now have. 

The proofreading is good, but a few errors have crept in. It is not 

quite accurate to cite Driver as dating Daniel in 300 B.C. (p. 37); see 

Driver's Introduction (1914), page 509. On page 37, "try and find" 

should yield place to "try to find." On pages xiii and 43, Bibliothek 

is misspelled, and on page 55, ceiled. 

J. M. Powis Smith 
University of Chicago 



POPULAR INTERPRETATIONS OF OLD TESTAMENT 
THOUGHT 

Mr. Cohu has written with the distinct aim of reaching the 
general public. The title of his book 1 is a bit misleading, since it con- 
fines itself to the Old Testament. But the point of view is genuinely 
historical and the method of treatment is such as to hold the interest 

1 The Bible and Modern Thought. By J. R. Cohu. New York: Dutton, 1920. 

xii +341 pages. $6.00.