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minds of many Jews, and as one after another sought to enrich the dis- 
cussions by his own contribution the book grew to its present dimensions 
and character. Finally, it was completely transformed, or at least 
sufficiently so that its original skepticism escaped the eye of the common 
reader and awaited the discovery of the modern scholar. 

The translation is very free. Emendation of the text is generously 
indulged in, most of the corrections being taken from Ehrlich's Rand- 
glossen; when the text is not changed paraphrase frequently replaces 
translation. The objection to this is that it substitutes the author's 
own private interpretation for the original text. We really have 
before us still another addition to, or revision of, the Book of Job. 
This may be seen from the treatment of the famous passage xg:2$i. 
which is rendered thus: 

Then I would know that my defender will arise, 
Even though he arise in the distant future. 
Only under my skin is this indited, 
And within my flesh do I see these [words]. 

The "would know" calls for an imperfect instead of the perfect of the 
text. "Defender" is rather weak for the text's "avenger" or "redeemer." 
"Will arise" is a very free rendering of "is alive" or "lives." "Even 
though he arise m the distant future" is very far removed indeed from 
the text's "and a later one will rise upon dust." The "only under" 
of the next line is clearly an emendation of "and after" (or perhaps, 
"and behind"). The "my" in both instances is in the text and need not 
be itaUcized. "Indited" is free conjecture for the present text which is 
untranslatable. "Within" is a very free rendering of "from"; and 
"God" has been ruthlessly eliminated to make way for "these [words]." 
Dr. Jastrow is probably right in refusing to credit the original Job with 
any hope of a future life, but his conclusion is not strengthened by such 
methods as these. 

There are many useful and illuminating suggestions in this com- 
mentary which will make it of value to scholars, but it is too subjective 
and speculative to be a safe guide for the unwary layman. 

J. M. Powis Smith 
University of Chicago 



This is the first of a series which ought to continue and grow more 

and more valuable with succeeding years. This volume contains four 

' The Annual of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem. Vol. I 
(for 1919-20). By C. C. Torrey. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1920. xiii+92 


studies by as many of the annual directors of the School in Jerusalem. 
Dr. Torrey, the first director, contributes a description and discussion 
of "A Phoenician Necropolis at Sidon" illustrated by four plates and 
other views of the anthropoid sarcophagi unearthed in the center of an 
open field by the director and his assistants in 1901. The fine photo- 
graphs and descriptions make us indorse heartily Professor Torrey's 
hope that these splendid specimens of the art of Phoenicia, which are 
still in the hands of the natives, may be made accessible to students of 
art as soon as possible. Professor H. G. Mitchell, who died last May, 
after his article had gone to press, furnishes a description of "The 
Modern Wall of Jerusalem," splendidly and lavishly illustrated by 
seventy-one plates. Professor L. B. Paton discusses and illustrates 
some "Survivals of Primitive Religion in Modern Palestine," using 
materials gathered while in the company of the late Professor Samuel 
Ives Curtiss, in the summer of 1903. The volume closes with "Glean- 
ings in Archaeology and Epigraphy" by Professor Warren J. Moulton, 
of Bangor. The "Gleanings" have to do with "cup-marks," recently 
discovered pyxes supposed to have been discovered at Beit Jibrin about 
1912, some Palestinian figurines, and a Greek inscription from the village 
of Caesarea in Palestine. 

The study of the walls of Jerusalem concerns itself chiefly with the 
tj^es of masonry represented in them. The fulness of the description 
and the numerous excellent photographs combine to make the structure 
of the walls as vivid to the mind as it can possibly be made to one who has 
not seen the walls themselves. The most interesting section of this re- 
port to the student of religion is, of course, the section on " Survivals of 
Primitive Religion." This contains a full list of all the holy places of 
ancient Canaan named in the Old Testament, classified according as 
they were springs, trees, mountains, caves, graves, or holy stones. Each 
of these types of shrine is then discussed from the point of view of the 
practice of the modern inhabitants in treating it as a sacred place. 
Mohammedans, Druses, and Christians all alike have taken over more 
or less these ancient sanctuaries and have continued down to the present 
day the religious veneration accorded them in former times by Canaan- 
ite worshipers. In each case the rites are brought into some sort of 
external conformity to the worshiper's professed religion, though in 
most cases they are in essence markedly at variance with it. Ancient 
customs die hard and ancient religious customs are almost immortal. 

J. M. Powis Smith 

University of Chicago