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The Conception of Relativity as a Guide of Life. — With a few clean- 
cut, well-directed strokes Ellwood Hendrick has applied the conception 
of relativity to human life in general. ("Relativity and Life," The 
North American Review, CCXIII, May, 1921.) Relativity teaches the 

1. There is no absolute freedom. Freedom is relative, always 
circumscribed. Each man is bound in his relation to some other. To 
move away is only to move into another such relationship. 

2. There is need of greater precision in thinking. No single shib- 
boleth suffices as a guide. Not only should the rights and privileges 
be emphasized, but also our obligations. The world would be better 
if the consequences of our actions were thought out more accurately. 

3. Ignorance in action is an offense against the general welfare, 
since understanding is one phase, "dimension," of conduct. In the 
choice of political candidates mere numbers of uninformed voters do 
not promote wisdom. The vote of people is democratic. But since 
they may know too little about the qualifications of a given candi- 
date to guide their vote, and since some official may be better qualified 
to make the appointment, such appointment may secure a more repre- 
sentative official, hence be more democratic. The exercise of the 
franchise should be considered relatively in order to spell progress. 

4. Character is a phase, "dimension," of ability. In industry one 
may exploit and ruin another today, but himself be laid waste tomorrow. 
We can never know the complete and ultimate effects of our every act. 
But there is need of a greater consciousness of their consequences. 

5. When human "rights" are considered in their genetic relation- 
ships, they are found to be conditioned by obligations; they emerge 
out of service rendered. The rights of a child are really the obligations 
of its parents. 

It would be interesting to apply the foregoing in the realm of religious 
life. Might it not be discovered that this doctrine of relativity would 
work out into something like the Christian attitude of love for others ? 

What Did Judas Betray? — Did Jesus announce himself to his friends 
as Messiah? Or were the disciples, when they thought they could 
forsake him and flee, surprised to find they could not thus put him by ? 



Professor B. W. Bacon, of Yale, thinks Jesus did set himself forth as 
Messiah and as a contribution to the solution of the problem of Jesus' 
self-consciousness he seeks to show, in the Hibbert Journal for April, 
1921, that what Judas betrayed was some event in the course of Jesus' 
life which was capable of messianic interpretation on the part of the 
Roman officials, ever watchful of usurpers. That event Professor 
Bacon finds in the anointing at Bethany. The narrative of the anoint- 
ing is imbedded in the Markan account of Judas' betrayal. To the 
friends of Jesus, his anointing meant "Vive le Roil" This is what 
Judas betrayed. 

If the incident of the anointing was actually so crucial in determining 
the fate of Jesus, it seems strange that the account of it given by the 
evangelist should not furnish some direct hint of this significance. 

Is Supernaturalistic Belief Essential in a Definition of Religion? — 

Upon examination of such definitions as attempt to exclude the super- 
natural element, W. R. Wells answers in the affirmative (the Journal 
of Philosophy, May 12, 1921). Religion involves a twofold belief — in 
the existence of a supernatural order of reality and in the need of human 
adjustment to this order. These objects may or may not exist; but 
religion depends for its existence upon the belief in them. The super- 
natural order is the sphere transcending the natural order as we know it. 
It has its philosophical basis in Plato's celestial world and Kant's nou- 
menal world. In its pre animistic form it was the unseen "power," 
while in its modern form, as conceived by men like William James, it is 
an unseen order. It is the external divine source of religious experience, 
as contrasted with that immanent source of which alone a naturalistic 
view can have knowledge. That is, a naturalistic view of the world 
cannot define religion. 

In conclusion: "Though supernatural belief of some sort occurs in 
all religious experiences properly so called and in all accurate definitions 
of religion, it might be claimed, nevertheless, that those persons ought 
to be called religious whose reactions to the universe as a whole, to the 
cosmic drift of things, were serious and reverent, even though their 
philosophical view were naturalistic. The majority of scientists would 
probably be included in this class. The man of high moral ideals and 
serious purposes, especially if his life is touched with deep emotion at 
the thought of the total cosmic situation, ought hardly to be called 
irreligious, perhaps, even though he lacked all the usual religious beliefs. 
Such a man is certainly not irreverent; but it would be more accurate, 
however, to call such a man, not religious, but moral merely, with 


esthetic emotions coloring his morality. Regard for correct usage of 
the term requires that religion be defined in such a way as to include 
supernaturalistic belief." 

In the interest of clearness, it would be desirable to discuss the 
foregoing question from a different angle. It is generally agreed that 
religion is not primarily a matter of belief, but rather one of practical atti- 
tudes, of cult, of worship, of propitiation of gods. The term "super- 
naturalistic belief" turns the discussion to a debate over a definitely 
formulated dualistic philosophy embodied in Christian theology, and 
thus distracts attention from the real question — which is whether 
religion is not essentially a means of enriching life through relationship 
to a more-than-human environment. 

How to Commend Christianity to Non-Christian Peoples. — An 

interesting narration of his recent trip to the Near East was given by 
Sherwood Eddy in an article entitled "The Christian Approach in 
the Near East" {International Review of Missions, April, 1921). He 
spent five weeks in Egypt and one month in Turkey. Though the 
audience was composed of Turks, Armenians, Greeks, Catholics, and 
Protestants, yet he found no difficulty, however, in presenting his 
Christian message. The significant fact was that "the large majority 
of Turkish students, by the very process of modern education, have lost 
their old faith and are almost without vital religion." 

From his experience in dealing with such complex audiences, Mr. 
Eddy has been convinced that irenic method of approach is far more 
effective than polemic. The moment a Christian speaker tries to 
contrast Christianity and Islam, Christ and Mohammed, he will imme- 
diately arouse and call into conflict against him all their prejudice, their 
patriotism, and everything that they hold dear. "It was a tug of war." 
If the speaker won the argument, he would lose the audience. But if 
instead of tearing down what the people have, the speaker tries to give 
them something better; instead of attacking or criticizing their religion, 
he gives them a glimpse of richer life; instead of reflecting upon Moham- 
med, he presents Jesus; he is the more certain to appeal to their heart. 
In other words, the Christian missionary has to speak as man to man 
rather than as Christian to Mohammedan. 

The Problem of the Christian Leader in China. — Two papers on the 
same subject, "The Training of the Future Leaders of the Chinese 
Church," were read at Peking Missionary Association not long ago. The 
author of one paper is Dr. C. H. Fenn who has been in China twenty-two 


years while that of the other is Professor T. T. Lew, of Peking University. 
Dr. Fenn's paper is valuable because he speaks authoritatively from 
his rich experience. He feels very strongly that the church should 
train both clergy and laity. Besides the improvement of seminaries 
and Bible institutes, there is a necessity of having correspondence 
schools and summer schools for Christian leaders. Doubtless there are 
many potential leaders among the laity but they have failed simply 
because it is a custom of the church not to give any further religious 
education after they have been received into the church. 

Professor Liu (Chinese Recorder, LII, No. 3, 158-77) looks at the 
problem from an entirely different angle. His viewpoint is worth care- 
ful consideration, for he is the spokesman of many a Chinese Chris- 
tian leader. The missionaries have undoubtedly educated and trained 
many young men and women, but they have also turned away many 
capable leaders, because the latter, who sooner or later have found it 
difficult to co-operate with missionaries, are not given the necessary 
opportunity for practicing leadership. They have been discharged when 
they tried to extend their service beyond the mission compound, or 
have not been allowed to specialize their training according to their 
ability. The church cannot afford to have such a waste. This leakage 
must be stopped at once. 

The "Religious Renaissance" in China. — The most significant 
development in new China is the New Thought or New Culture move- 
ment. Its influence on the religious life of the Chinese is well described 
by Lewis Hodous in an article, " China Revisited" (Christian China, Vol. 
VII, No. 6, 292). The new movement is at present, at least on the part 
of its advocates, hostile to religion. It not only opposes superstitious 
beliefs and customs, but also considers religion itself as superstitious. 

On the other hand, some religions in China have somehow caught 
this new spirit. The Confucianists are working hard to revive Confu- 
cianism. An attempt has been made to adapt Confucian teachings to 
modern situations in China. The liberal-minded people are trying to 
start a "Reformed Confucianism." A campaign of $2,000,000 to build 
a national Confucian headquarters has been launched. Buddhism is 
rebuilding its old temples, publishing books, holding lectures, and 
establishing schools and orphanages. A recent number of the New 
Buddhism published in Ningpo was devoted to an attack on Christianity. 

Did Moses Use Cuneiform? — The theory that the Pentateuch was 
written in Akkadian, and later translated into Aramaic and then into 


Hebrew has been zealously advocated by Naville, whose views have 
been defended recently by Doumergue. This theory is sharply criti- 
cized by J. A. Maynard in the Anglican Theological Review, III (March, 
1921), 284-89, and at greater length but no less incisively by P. Humbert 
in the Revue de Thtologie et de Philosophie, IX (Jan.-Mar., 1921), 59-93. 

A Valuable Review of Old Testament Studies. — The Jewish Quar- 
terly Review, XI (April, 1921), 473-542, contains an extensive review of 
more than twenty recent books on the Old Testament, by J. 

The Death of Morris Jastrow, Jr., 1861-1921. — Morris Jastrow, Jr., 
Ph.D., LL.D., professor of Semitic languages in the University of Penn- 
sylvania, died on June 22. The American Journal of Semitic Languages 
and Literatures, of which he was associate editor from 1907 until the 
time of his death, will publish in its October issue an appreciation of the 
significance of Professor Jastrow's contribution to scholarship. 

An alumnus of the University of Pennsylvania, he began teaching 
Semitics in his Alma Mater and continued in that department until his 
death. He was a recognized authority on Semitic religions, having 
contributed to Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, the Encyclopaedia 
Biblica, the Jewish Encyclopedia, the Encyclopaedia Britannica (nth 
ed.), and Hastings' Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. His most 
significant work is Die Religion Babyloniens und Assyriens (1902-12). 
More recently he has published A Gentle Cynic (19 19) and The Book 
of Job (1920). In 1913 Professor Jastrow delivered the Haskell Lectures 
at Oberlin College ( Hebrew and Babylonian Traditions) . 

Two Noted German Scholars Honored. — Professor Adolf Harnack, 
of Berlin, and Professor Karl Budde, of Marburg, have both just passed 
their seventieth birthdays. Festival volumes in their honor have been 
published, the one dedicated to Harnack containing interesting contri- 
butions in the field of New Testament and church history, and the one 
dedicated to Budde furnishing articles in the Old Testament field. One 
wonders whether modern German scholarship is furnishing such stimulat- 
ing leaders in research as these giants of a former generation. 

The Death of a Noted Orientalist.— The death of Felix Peiser, 
founder and editor of the Orientalische Litter aturzeitung, is announced 
in the issue for May-June, 1921, just after he had handed over his 
editorial duties to Dr. Walter Wreszinski. Dr. Peiser was known as a 
scholar and a trainer of scholars. His chief interest was in Assyriology 


from the historical standpoint. Next to that, he concerned himself with 
the history of the text of the Old Testament, seeking especially to account 
for the transition from its original to its present form by his theory of 

The Latest Phases of Dr. Sanday's Thinking. — In the last years of 
Dr. Sanday's life he was led to give expression to the final resolution of 
his theological views, especially his views on two closely related matters — 
miracle and the authorship of the Fourth Gospel. Both of these ques- 
tions had been with him from the beginning of his career. As for 
miracle, he had hesitated about taking holy orders because of the 
difficulties he had felt in regard to this. 

I began as a theologian by deliberately putting it aside. I decided that 

my best course was to hold it in suspense I began by taking up a 

neutral position on the subject of miracle. The sort of general conclusion 
at which I arrived might be called conservative or liberal-conservative. 

To this — from his last public utterances as Lady Margaret Professor — 
he adds, with pathos: 

Then the theological world was pleased with me and it still reminds me of 
those better days. 

All his mature studies had been sketches preparatory to the main 
work of all his aim, The Life of Christ. Professor W. Lock, in the 
Journal of Theological Studies (January, 192 1), writes: 

But it was becoming clear that that aim would never be achieved. Time 
was slipping by very rapidly, and there was another reason: it was necessary 
to make up his mind more decidedly as to his attitude to the gospel miracles. 
This had always been an anxious problem with him: he had tried to hold 
the balance between the traditional view and the claims of a rather rigid 
theory of the uniformity of Nature, but by 191 2 the balance had gone against 
the traditional view. He could no longer accept, though he hesitated to say 
that he rejected, the Virgin Birth, the literal Resurrection and Ascension of 
the Lord and the Nature Miracles. 

In 1912 and 1913 men were saying: "Sanday has gone over to the 
Modernists." This left its mark on his sensitive soul: "I do not dis- 
claim the name of Modernist," he writes at the end of his life. The 
occasion which brought forth the clearest expression of his attitude 
to miracle was the controversy which called forth his open letter to the 
bishop of Oxford (Bishop Gore's Challenge to Criticism, 1914). There 
Dr. Sanday distinguishes between miracles that are supra naturam and 
miracles that are contra naturam. With the former he can live; the 
latter class, which includes the Feeding of the Five Thousand, the 


Walking on the Water, the Virgin Birth, and the bodily Resurrection — 
all of which "seemed to involve real violation of the order of nature" — 
he thought were not "strictly historical." "I should be inclined to seek 
a solution under the general heading that the element of the abnormal 
came in, not so much in the facts as in the telling." 

As with the question of miracle, so with the problem of the author- 
ship of the Fourth Gospel — throughout his long, active life he never 
got very far away from it. His first publication, in 1872, was entitled 
The Authorship and Historical Character of the Fourth Gospel. He came 
to be regarded quite generally as the ablest defender of the apostolic 
authorship, and his name more than any other gave weight to the tra- 
ditional opinion. This intimate biographical note, also from Dr. Lock, 
is of more than passing interest: 

There synchronized with this change about miracle, partly induced by it, 
a change in his view of the authorship of the Fourth Gospel. He was partly 
affected in this by Mr. E. F. Scott's book on the Gospel, which seemed to him 
to picture an adequate situation out of which the Gospel could have arisen, 
but the deciding influence came from the article in the eleventh edition of the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica by Baron von Hiigel. 

At the last Dr. Sanday wrote: "I'm afraid there is one important point 
on which I was probably wrong — the Fourth Gospel." 

How the Versailles Treaty Injures Missionary Work. — One of the 

darkest pages of recent events is that which tells the story of the treat- 
ment of German missionaries by the governments and missionary 
societies of the Allied countries. It has been a heavy blow to missionary 
progress and international good will. The story of this un-Christian 
attitude toward our German fellow- Christians is told in the message 
from the German Students' Christian Alliance to the Glasgow Con- 
ference ( Young Men of India, June, 192 1). Since 19 14 about 1,400 
missionaries have been withdrawn from German mission fields in many 
parts of the world. The sections where the results have been most 
disastrous are parts of British India, Egypt, Togoland, and German 
East Africa. In many places the results of from forty to eighty years 
of faithful work have been practically lost through the complete with- 
drawal of all forces. Churches are disintegrating, mission property 
is falling to ruin, schools are without teachers, and the native peoples 
are beginning to lose faith in the value of Christianity. While the 
host of missionaries wait in Germany for the opportunity to return, the 
other countries cannot supply the workers for the needy fields. Even 
if they were available, they would be untrained and ignorant of the 


language. Moreover, the missionary activities of the church in Germany 
are being paralyzed by such conditions. With the demands so urgent 
for every available worker in spreading the gospel of good will and 
brotherhood, such a procedure is surely a crime against humanity. 
May the church speedily rise to a higher plane of international brother- 
hood and co-operation. 

The Church and World-Fellowship. — What is the church's responsi- 
bility to the modern task of education for world-fellowship? In his 
presidential address at the eighteenth annual convention of the Religious 
Education Association, at Rochester, New York, March 10-13, Presi- 
dent Arthur C. McGiffert defined world-fellowship as meaning: 

First — the absence of distrust and jealousy and hostility between peoples 
and nations. Second — universal and mutual good-will, leading men every- 
where to help each other, wherever help is needed, as we here in America have 
been aiding the Chinese famine sufferers and the starving children of the 
Central Powers, though they are personally quite unknown to us. 

Third — world-fellowship must mean world-wide co-operation in common 
tasks. Where there is international hatred and enmity, of course there cannot 
be world-fellowship. But the thing itself comes to reality only when there is 
world-wide co-operation for worthy ends. 

The fitness of the Christian church to further world-co-operation 
rests upon its doctrine of universal brotherhood, upon its interest in 
spiritual rather than material values, and upon its service in providing 
a laboratory of experience for the practice of efficient co-operation in 
unselfish enterprises. It is a high calling to which the church is sum- 
moned by Dr. McGiffert. The address is printed in Religious Educa- 
tion for June, 192 1. 

The Milwaukee Conference. — The forty-eighth annual meeting 
of the National Conference of Social Work, held at Milwaukee, June 
22-29, was attended by some 3,000 people. The aim of the conference 
was the examination of the present status of social work in America, 
and a study of ways and means for increasing the efficiency of the 
agencies for social betterment. President Allen T. Burns, director of 
methods of Americanization of the Carnegie Corporation, struck the 
note for the conference in his presidential address on the theme: "Does 
Social Work Promote Social Progress?" The address, in the main, 
was an argument for the intelligent study of values in social work, 
indicating the need of scientific research and attention to the organic 
relationships of social laws in any efficient scheme of social progress. 


The program of the conference represented a wide scope of interests, 
including contributions from social workers of many types, psychiatrists, 
physicians, government workers, criminologists, sociologists, and econo- 
mists. Labor conditions were discussed by Sidney Hillman, president 
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, "Prohibition — 
What Is Its Effect?" by J. L. Gillin, professor of sociology in the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin; and "Immigrant Heritages and How to Deal with 
Them" by R. E. Park, of the University of Chicago. The conference 
will meet in Providence in 1922. 

As One Having Authority. — The boy in Nazareth had his schooling 
in a carpenter's shop, in the village street, and out on the hills of Galilee. 
Lincoln learned from the same books— work with his hands, elemental 
people, and the lonely backwoods of Kentucky. This was education 
for individuality, for creativity, for leadership. "But what child nowa- 
days has such teaching?" asks Dallas Lore Sharp in "Teaching for 
Authority" in the Atlantic Monthly for July. "A child cannot be educated 
for authority on lesser books, with sophisticated people, with pointless play 
instead of work, with ordered lessons in school in place of the dear dis- 
order of nature and her companionship and his own soul's." The task 
of American school education is "the mighty making of the democratic 
mind" — the average mind. It is education in the interests of leveling 
life's extremes, averaging up and averaging down, to produce a com- 
mon, democratic, uniform level of life. But where is the education for 
poetry, for prophecy, for genius, to find its place? The challenge of the 
article is not to the schools, but to the parents of today. It is they 
who must provide for the education for authority. 

Mr. Wells and Religion. — We are unanimous in our interest in the 
mental processes of Mr. Wells. Groping ineffectually for an under- 
standing of his mental daring and his prolific power, as manifested by 
his literary output in recent years, we welcome any examination of the 
operation and the results of his thinking. Many who shrink slightly 
from the controversial examination of the History by Mr. Wells and 
Mr. Gomme in the Fortnightly Review and the Yale Review will welcome 
with interest the expository article by Mr. A. E. Baker in The Living 
Age for July 16 (reprinted from the Church Quarterly Review for April), 
on "The Religious Development of Mr. Wells." Between the earlier 
stages of Mr. Wells's religious thinking, which Mr. Baker characterizes 
as "reluctant agnosticism," and the later fervent apostleship of God the 
Invisible King, four main influences are recognized: (1) Mr. Wells's 


interest in Utopias, or ideal states; (2) the realization of the solidarity 
of the human race; (3) the belief in a supranational authority: and 
(4) the sense, quickened by the war, of God as an immediate helper 
and savior of mankind. The dominant interest of the resultant religious 
consciousness is suggested in the lines quoted from Mr. Wells: "Man- 
kind will awake and the dreams of nationalities and strange loyalties 
will fade away, and there will be no nationality in all the world, and no 
king, nor emperor, nor leader but the one God of mankind." Pre- 
dominantly sociological rather than theological or ethical, such a con- 
cept of religion asks of course for supplement from other fields. Mr. 
Baker very rightly suggests its failure to bear comparison with the ideal of 
Jesus, who stated the rights and duties of individuals in concretely ethical 
terms, and defined the nature of the God-King in the warm, vital symbols 
of human personality and fatherhood. 

Remnants of a Jewish Sect in China. — An interesting survey of 
Jews in China has been given by Mr. W. C. White in the June number of 
the Church Missionary Review. The Jews came over to China as 
early as the third century a.d. and settled in many important cities. 
But at present the only Jewish community left in China is that in 
Kaifeng, Honan. There are about two hundred families at that locality. 
They have sold all their Hebrew scriptures partly because they are poor 
and partly because they are no longer able to read them. They have 
given up circumcision because they no longer understand the reason and 
tradition concerning it. Their synagogue buildings have been com- 
pletely destroyed. As a religious entity they are quite disintegrated 
and their clan relationships are almost non-existent. Furthermore, 
many have intermarried with the Chinese. While many have followed 
Chinese customs and beliefs, there are others who come to Christian 
churches on Sunday. 

Was the God of Jesus the God of the Jews?— It is infrequent indeed 
that scholarship, and particularly scholarship in the field of religion, is 
criticized for its neutrality. Perhaps Mr. Edmond Holmes, in his 
article "Does Contemporary Scholarship Do Justice to Jesus?" in the 
July issue of The Nineteenth Century and After, is right in his contention 
that complete impartiality in the sphere of religious sentiment is beyond 
the grasp of human thought. In any event, Mr. Holmes has presented 
an interesting challenge to the position of Dr. Foakes- Jackson and 
Dr. Lake, in their first volume of The Beginnings of Christianity, that 
the God of Jesus was the God of the Jews. Their attempt to be fair 


to Judaism, and to free themselves from any taint of partisanship, has, 
Mr. Holmes maintains, withheld them from a just estimate of the 
originality of the thought of Jesus and the revolutionary character of his 
teaching about God. Mr. Holmes is assuredly right in his position 
that there is other evidence to be considered in such a question than the 
specific utterances upon the theme in question. The general outlook 
on life and attitude toward its practical problems furnish criteria, both 
legitimate and decisive, for scientific criticism. Out of this larger field 
of evidence, Mr. Holmes brings his testimony. He shows that there 
was implicit in Jesus' attitude toward the Jewish law a conception of 
God less limited and less legalistic than the conception which Jewish 
theology had produced, and he suggests that in Jesus' attack upon other, 
similar problems of the day there is abundant evidence of the originality 
and unorthodoxy of his thought about God. 

How to Christianize the Chinese Family. — Shanghai College has a 
new idea of solving this difficult problem. The college has founded 
a "Christian Home Club" with the purpose of bringing wholesome 
ideals definitely before the students through addresses, exhibits, and 
personal contact with Christian homes of the faculty. Both Chris- 
tian and non-Christian students are allowed to become members on 
an equal basis. The club is too young yet to ascertain the full results 
of this experiment, but valuable testimony from students shows how 
the seed has already been sown. Here are typical comments: "I owe 
so much to the C. H. C." "The things 1 learned there I am trying to 
work out in my home." "I am starting a C. H. C. here in the school 
where I am teaching." "But now I know that my home can be made 
sanitary and attractive, that my wife and I can be companions, and 
that our Christian home may be a blessing to many others." 

Recognizing the Social Background for Mission Education. — Pro- 
fessor Paul Monroe points out in his article entitled "Mission Education 
and National Policy" (International Review of Missions, Vol. X, No. 39, 
pp. 321-50) that there are at least four distinct types of culture in the 
foreign fields: (1) that of tribal life; (2) that of people who are highly 
cultured, but are in the period of transition; (3) that of people who have 
adopted definite procedures for realizing their national aims; (4) that of 
people who are under foreign mandates. Each type has its own dis- 
tinctive problems. Mission education should take the total environ- 
mental conditions into consideration and adapt itself in such a way as to 
aid the natives for whom it labors. 


What's Wrong with the Catholic Missions in China? — This inter- 
esting question has been raised by George M. Stenz, a Catholic priest 
in the July number of the Ecclesiastical Review. He has keenly felt 
that the Catholic missions have failed to reach the upper ranks of 
Chinese life. This is largely due to the fact that the Catholic school 
situation in China is still in a most deplorable condition and the consensus 
of Catholic opinion has not awakened to the importance and the actual 
necessity of producing books treating of other subjects than those 
referring directly or exclusively to religion. He also hopes that the 
Catholic benefactors in America will furnish funds not merely for the 
erection of chapels, but also for the support of the Catholic schools and 
the Catholic press and of some capable converts to complete their 
education in America. 

Co-education and Mission Schools in China. — The time for co- 
education has at last come to China. The National Educational 
Conference of 1919 in Shansi voted co-education for China. The same 
conference meeting in Shanghai the following year discussed ways and 
means of encouraging co-education. The Peking Government Uni- 
versity has opened its doors to girls and has now more than ten co-eds. 
The Nanking Teachers' College, starting co-education during the 
summer session of 1920, has more than one hundred girl students. 

Among missions schools, the opinions are still divergent. Some 
entirely ignore the problem, others have decided to start co-education, 
and still others stick to their traditional policy. Mr. Chang, in his 
article on "Students' Social Problems" (The Chinese Recorder, Vol. LII, 
No. 5, pp. 329-35), points out that mission schools should not only 
have definite policies toward co-education, but also be active and careful 
in directing the social intercourse between young men and women. 
This is especially important now, for the old ethical standards have 
been discarded, while the new ones have not yet crystallized. 

History for Everybody.— Few serious books have awakened more 
popular interest and called forth more scholarly criticism than Mr. 
H. G. Wells's The Outline of History. In the Yale Review for July, 
Mr. Wells answers his critics at length in delightful, rollicking spirit, 
driving home his reply with the announcement of the preparation of a 
new edition. 

To Mr. Wells this was a serious task, to set forth the sweep of events. 

It was written to help oust such teaching of history as one still finds going 
on in England, — of the history of England from 1066 to the death of Queen 


Anne, for example, without reference to any remoter past, or to the present, 
or to any exterior world, — forever from the schools. 

For the work of some American historians he has warm words of com- 
mendation, e.g., for Professor Breasted, but severe words for the British 
universities with their exaltation of the classical studies — "a world-wide 
nuisance, and as a patriot, a parent and a schoolmaster I have raged 
against them." He talks of wishing to take some younger critic "across 
his knee and establishing a truer relationship in the simple way boys 
have." But withal the new Outline will benefit by the criticisms, he 

What Are the Real Relations between Christianity and Judaism? — 

"Back to the study of Jewish sources" is the answer to the present stress 
on Hellenistic influences in the effort to recover the story of the rise of 
Christianity. To that end Professor G. F. Moore, in "Christian Writers 
on Judaism" {Harvard Theological Review, July, 192 1), has this to say 
of Emil Schtirer's History of the Jewish People: 

Schiirer's volumes are an indispensable repertory for all sorts of things 
about the Jews [He] did what he set out to do, and made an immeasur- 
ably useful handbook. But the reader must take it for what it is, not for 
what its author, notwithstanding the title, never intended it to be, — history. 
.... To Schiirer Judaism was synonymous with legalism and legalism was 

his most cherished religious antipathy The problem of the origin 

of Christianity historically conceived demands, however, an investigation of 
every other phase of Judaism at the beginning of our era, and the endeavor 
to define what Christianity took over from Judaism as well as what was new 
in it. 

Wundt's Conception of Religion. — "Wilhelm Wundt's Significance 
for Theology" is considered by K. Thieme in the Zeitschrift fur Theologie 
und Kirche (May- June, 192 1), pp. 213-38. Wundt regarded theology 
as the science of religion and religion as consisting of historical phe- 
nomena. As an exponent of collectivism, he looked upon the relation 
of the community to individual existence as the problem of problems. 
His last work, Erlebles und Erkanntes, published shortly before his 
death, shows that he synthesized experience and knowledge into a 
world-view. For him, religion was the feeling that the world of sense 
belongs to an ideal, supersensuous world; so he counteracted the natural- 
ism of Haeckel and Ostwald, partly on the basis of a mystic experience in 
his youth. He held to the unity of the religious and the philosophical 
treatment of the world, the rights of religion side by side with science, 
and experiences of worth as conditioning a world-view. 


On Translating. — For the person who uses the Bible only in English 
it is often real service of emancipation for someone to remind him that 
his New Testament is a translation and that the art of translating has a 
history. Frederick Harrison in the Forum for June has gathered together 
some "brief notes on translation" which must impress the student of 
general literature with the advance our age has made in this art. "The 
laws of translation," he says, "are three: — one, exact rendering of the 
full meaning; two, some echo of the original form; three, clarity, 
grace, vigor in the translation." He proceeds: 

All through the eighteenth century almost down to living memory in the 
nineteenth century, famous translations were produced in defiance of the 
first two canons of translation, aiming only at clarity, grace and vigor in 
literary English, neglecting the meaning of their author and substituting a 
totally different rhythm of their own. The most brilliant example of this 
was Pope's Iliad. 

And he shows how something of fidelity to the original, something of the 
"feel" of the original which the first readers had, has come into the new 
versions to take the place of that elegance of style which the litterateurs 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries made the desideratum. 
But his dictum on the English Bible provokes a word: 

Take the supreme case of the Bible, of which the Authorized Version 
formed the master-type of the English language. To the millions the power 
of the Old Testament is due to the sublime eif ect of a unique translation from 
the Hebrew: and to me the New Testament in English is grander than in 
the Greek, — itself being largely a translation of other tongues. 

The 161 1 Version is one of the enduring monuments of Elizabethan 
English: it has left its stamp indelibly upon all our literature since and 
upon the language of every day as no other influence has — and that for 
many reasons. But Greek is the original, not the secondary language 
of the New Testament; and much water has flowed under London Bridge 
since that translation, much more than since Pope's Iliad. Some 
vigorous thinking is "embalmed" for us in the King James's English. 
The new renderings, e.g., Moffatt's and Weymouth's, are pointing the 
way to a better day. The "Authorized" Version will remain a classic, 
but the New Testament writers have a right to be understood today. 
The "translation" English of the Revised Version will yield to idiomatic, 
stately English with "some echo of the original form."