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notes, written at specific junctures in the apostle's career, there will of 

course be divergence of judgment. The last word has not here been 

said. If Mr. Harrison had weighed the hypothesis of an Ephesian 

imprisonment, out of which the "prison-letters" come, he might have 

made certain more convincing combinations. But he has said much 

that is wise and suggestive at this point, and made a contribution to 

this vexed question that is of outstanding importance. The sumptuous 

appendixes, giving the statistical tables of comparative vocabulary, 

with the entire text of the Pastorals so printed as to show at a glance 

the method of its composition, make the book well-nigh perfect for 

the scholar's use. All in all, the book on its theme. 

Clayton R. Bowen 
Meadville Theological School 


Maurice Goguel, of the Protestant faculty of theology in Paris, is 
the most useful New Testament scholar in France today. Less brilliant 
and voluminous than Loisy, he is vastly sounder and more constructive. 
The primitive Christianity which he sets out to investigate is a living 
historical movement within human personalities; Loisy often seems 
to be investigating a purely documentary phenomenon. It was good 
news, therefore, that Goguel was to issue a complete manual of intro- 
duction. The work is to appear in five volumes, covering in turn the 
Synoptics, the Fourth Gospel, the Acts, the Pauline letters, the catholic 
letters and Apocalypse. Volume III is before us; Volume IV is in 
preparation; the others are to follow as soon as may be. 

M. Goguel has done well to issue the discussion of Acts first. More 
and more it is coming to be seen as the key to all the rest of the New 
Testament. If we can come to clear understanding of the apostolic 
story which it is an attempt to tell, we have the setting for the epistles 
and the background for the development of that homiletic tradition 
which finds deposit in the gospels. Goguel has in the first place mas- 
tered his material; he knows the Greek document with extraordinary 
thoroughness. Then he has mastered the critical literature, again with 
amazing thoroughness. Far more fully than most of the Germans, he 
knows the discussions in English, especially those of American scholars. 
Torrey, Bacon, Cadbury, Lake, Burkitt, Ramsay — such names are 
frequent in these pages. And the author has mastered his method, in 
contrast to those writers who are mastered by it. In a half-dozen 

1 Introduction au Nouveau Testament. Par Maurice Goguel. Tome III: Le 
Livre des Actes. Paris: Leroux, 1922. 376 pages. Fr. 6. 


preliminary chapters he disposes of the external questions — the tradi- 
tion, the history of the criticism of Acts, the text, its literary contacts 
with other writings, the style and language of the work, and its literary 
character. These chapters are models of their kind. He then comes 
to a detailed critical analysis of the document, with a view to its ultimate 
literary and historical origins. This, the heart of the whole treatment, 
occupies almost half the book's space. The closing section is a brief 
summary of conclusions. It is not the purpose of this notice to register 
the divergence of the reviewer's opinions on special points in the book. 
Such divergences would not be many or significant. It is in the critical 
analysis that Goguel makes, or fails to make, a contribution. Here 
he carries on a running Auseinandersetzung with Loisy's huge new 
commentary, and here succeeding students will have to carry on a similar 
discussion of detail with him. Many will assuredly feel that at many 
points his analysis is too detailed, too artificial, that no human document 
could survive such a process of merciless dissection. Yet the Book of 
Acts survives it, and Goguel's positive conclusions will command wide 
assent, based as they are on the most complete and unbiased examination 
of all the relevant facts. 

Goguel supposes the Book of Acts to have been written between 
80 and 90 a.d., at an unknown place, by an unknown author. The 
work was constructed on the basis of a number of sources, oral and 
written, of varying value. Chief of these was an account of Paul's 
mission, written by one of his companions, probably Luke, some- 
times, but not throughout, using the first plural pronoun. This 
source, edited by the Auctor ad Theophilum, has undergone drastic 
abridgment as well as enlargement, alteration, and revision of several 
kinds. All this editorial process reveals the attitudes and interests of 
the writer, but has not wholly eliminated the attitudes and interests of 
the sources, or of the apostles whose work they describe. The author 
in all probability meant to add a third volume to his extant two; this 
is the most probable explanation of the abrupt ending of Acts. That this 
completion of the trilogy was ever carried out there is, however, no 

Goguel has given to students of Acts an indispensable work; it is 

easily one of the half-dozen or fewer outstanding treatments of its 

subject. We look eagerly for the completion of the whole Introduction. 

A second edition of this earliest volume will soon be demanded; it is 

to be hoped that it will correct the frequent misprints now apparent, 

especially in the references. 

Clayton R. Bowen 
Meadville Theological School