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the most important references. No question is more often raised than 
that of the best books on a given subject. These lists have been care- 
fully prepared. They are not so long as to confuse, and they should 
be of great aid to the student. 

In the fields of theology, ethics, comparative religions, psychology 
and philosophy of religion, missions and church history, this dictionary 
gives authoritative information in compact and yet readable form. It 
will be of interest to the special student, and of large value to the pastor 
and the increasing number of laymen who are inquiring as to these 

Harris Franklin Rall 

Garrett Biblical Institute 


Everyone must heartily welcome a new English version of the Bible 
under Roman Catholic auspices. Surely no one can use the antiquated 
and defective Douay version, even in such revisions as Challoner's or 
Kenrick's, with satisfaction. The Protestant world may join with all 
Catholics in the gratification which this admirable work must bring. 
We may expect to see the other three New Testament volumes shortly, 
and the Old Testament will follow as soon as may be. The names of 
the general editors are a guaranty of adequate scholarship, and it is 
good to be assured that the enterprise has " the approval of the English 
hierarchy and the co-operation of many distinguished Scripture Scholars 
in England, Ireland and America." Without this, indeed, the work could 
not have seen the light, but the plain statement of it is pleasant. 

The present volume sets a high standard for its successors. The 
contributors include, besides the general editors, Fr. Rickaby, Fr. 
Keogh, and Archbishop Goodier, all English Jesuits. The work is first 
and foremost a translation. There are brief introductions to the several 
epistles, and four brief appendixes on special points, in addition to foot- 
notes on each page. But these serve primarily to clarify or justify the 
translation. They reveal competent scholarship of the modern type, 
scholarship positive, constructive, reverent. It is, of course, scholar- 
ship within bounds. Thus we read that the primitive church in 
Thessalonica "was one in faith and government, bound to the other 

1 The Westminster Version of the Sacred Scriptures. General Editors: The Rev. 
Cuthbert Lattey, S.J., and the Rev. Joseph Keating, S.J. The New Testament, 
Vol. Ill: St. Paxil's Epistles to the Churches. London and New York: Longmans, 
Green & Co., 1921. briii+ 258 pages. $2.50. 


similar Christian churches by a bond of common submission to St. Paul 
and the other apostles, among whom it is clear from the New Testament 
as a whole that St. Peter ranked as chief. There is a local governing 
body, probably a college of priests, but St. Paul and his immediate 
followers and delegates — in all of whom it is natural to suppose episcopal 
powers — are over the local clergy." On the other hand, Fr. Lattey 
writes plainly of the Vulgate reading in I Cor. 15:51, "It is little more 
than a bold paraphrase, and has no serious claim to be regarded as the 

genuine reading But it is well known, and has always been 

recognized, that the Vulgate contains wrong readings The 

Vulgate was adopted as the official version, not because it had no mis- 
taken readings, but because it had never been convicted of heresy." 
And indeed, this mistaken Vulgate reading "is capable of orthodox 
explanation," which is duly given, but with the comment, "It is true 
that this interpretation of the reading does not suit the context; still, 
any other interpretation would be equally out of harmony with St. 
Paul's doctrine here and elsewhere, and with New Testament teaching 
generally, and the creeds." It is in such language that we feel the differ- 
ence between Catholic exegesis and that of practically any Protestant 

As for the translation itself, it is most admirably done, striking a 
very happy medium between the familiar seventeenth-century "biblical" 
style and that of the modern vernacular. It is primarily, of course, a 
translation of the Vulgate, but the Greek text is constantly consulted, 
and the various English versions have been taken account of throughout. 
Moffatt, for example, is followed in placing Rom. 2:16 before 2:14. 
Occasionally a Rheims phrasing is left unrevised, where revision would 
have helped the modern reader, as in the benediction of II Corinthians, 
"The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the charity of God and the 
fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all." But on the whole the 
rendering is admirable; terse, vigorous, clear, dignified, a worthy vehicle 
of its great content. Let two passages, taken at random, illustrate it: 

I am become foolish! It is ye who have compelled me! I should have 
been commended by you! For in naught have I fallen short of the most 
eminent apostles, even though I am naught! Indeed, the signs of the aposto- 
late were wrought among you in all patience, in signs and wonders and mighty 
works. In what, pray, were ye put to a disadvantage compared to the rest of 
the churches — unless it were that I myself was no burden to you? Pardon 
me this injustice! 

Now if what I do is contrary to my wish, I am admitting that the Law is 
excellent. In fact, it is no longer I that act, but sin dwelling within me. 


For I know that there dwelleth not in me, that is, in my flesh, what is good; 
to wish is within my reach, but to accomplish what is excellent, no. I do not 
the good that I wish; but the evil that I do not wish, that I perform. Now 
if I do what I wish not, it is no longer I that act, but sin dwelling within me. 
I find, then, this law when I wish to do what is excellent, namely, that what 

is evil lieth to my hand So then, one and the same self, with my mind 

I serve the law of God, but with my flesh the law of sin. 

There seems an inadvertence in the introduction to the Corinthian 
epistles. The "sorrowful visit," which on pages xxxi and xxxiii is said 
to be occasioned by a crisis which arose after I Corinthians was written, 
a crisis out of which arose also the "sorrowful letter," is dismissed on 
page xxviii as follows: "Most probably this visit was paid long before 
the writing of I Corinthians, and was dealt with in the previous epistle 
[the letter referred to in I Cor. 5:9], so that it did not call for mention 
in the one before us" (I Cor.). A very slight slip is "Epistles to Phile- 
mon " on page lxi. Clayton R. Bowen 

Meadville Theological School 


Whoever would enter into the richest and most original religious and 
philosophical thought of the present day must take large account of the 
writings of Baron von Hiigel. His volume The Mystical Element in 
Religion has for some time been recognized as the most profound modern 
study of mysticism, and his article on the Fourth Gospel in the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica is an example of his ripe and judicious scholarship. 

The present volume 1 deepens the impression of the insight, breadth, 
and discrimination of his mind. Here is a Catholic indeed (incidentally 
a Roman Catholic) in whom is no guile. He is also a modernist of the 
modernists. One wonders that a church that dealt as it did with Father 
Tyrrell should tolerate this untrammeled modernist even though he is 
a layman. The volume deals chiefly with three issues: the nature of 
religion, the essence of Christianity, and the need and value of the church. 

It would be difficult to find a more penetrative analysis of the modern 
mind and its attitude toward religion than is here made under the cap- 
tion: "Concerning Religion in General and Theism." It is an incom- 
parable discussion of the place of religion among human interests — a 
place conceived as supreme, but one which cannot be fully realized 
except as science, art, philosophy has each its own acknowledged place 

1 Essays and Addresses on the Philosophy of Religion. By Baron Friedrich von 
Hiigel, LL.D., D.D. London and Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons; New York: E. P. 
Dutton & Co., 1921. 298 pages. $6.00.