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study of the gospels. There are several places where many New Testa- 
ment scholars would question his conclusions. For instance, the oldest 
sources do not seem to warrant his supposition that the same group 
hailed Jesus as a hero upon his arrival in Jerusalem and a few days later 
applauded his crucifixion. 

It is a historical fact that the personality of Jesus has been the 
channel through which a unique abundance of morally redemptive 
power from the unseen world has poured into the Uves of multitudes in 
many nations. Dr. Enelow's book contributes something to the explana- 
tion of this fact, but it is nevertheless chiefly valuable as a fresh challenge 
to Jewish and Christian scholars to prosecute the inquiry still further 
and state the results in terms of modern thought. 

Edward I. Bosworth 
Oberun Graduate School op Reugion 


ReUgions flourish and die; reUgion remains and changes, for religion 
is a fimction of life. As a vital relationship of sympathy and co-operation 
with those cosmic realities in which man feels his life and destiny to be 
involved, religion must grow and change with the developing life of 
man. During the last fifty years there has been a rapid enlargement 
of human vision. The technique and method of science, the evolutionary 
world-view, the social ideal of democracy, the dream of economic freedom, 
the hope of international co-operation — these are the sources of the new 
reUgious ideaUsm. Within the boundaries of the old religious institutions 
and theologies it is no longer possible to embody this new life of the 
spirit. Yet the established reUgions are conservative, resisting change, 
even while Ufe flows on and away from them and this attitude seems 
to the fervent champion of the new vision of life to be a betrayal of 
truth — the great refusal. He finds it difficult to be tolerant of a too 
tenacious past. Three recent publications' attempt to present the new 
meaning of religion, yet with patient appreciation of the past. 

Edward Carpenter reads our human story as a slow development of 
consciousness from the non-self-conscious life of the prehistoric group, 
through the tragic stage of self-consciousness which created our modern 

^ Pagan and Christian Creeds. By Edward Carpenter. New York: Harcourt, 
Brace and Howe, 1920. 319 pages. The Social Evolution of Religion. By George 
Willis Cooke. Boston: The Stratford Press, 1920. xxiv-l-416 pages. $3.50. 
Some Religious Implications of Pragmatism. By Joseph Roy Geiger. Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1919. 54 pages. $0,50. 


civilization to a more complete stage in which the individual, while not 
losing his consciousness of self, will sink self in the consciousness of 
unity with the universal cosmic life. The light of this new day is now 
at hand. With a wealth of material drawn from the history of religions 
and carefully selected he shows the one human Ufe creating its similar 
forms the world over. With evident joy he reduces the dogmatic 
arrogance and secure supematuraUsm of Christianity and sets it in the 
milieu of historic human reUgions. The dawn of self-consciousness, 
when fear entered, was the sign of sorrow for'man and, while necessary, 
it nevertheless gave rise to all the evils of civilization — selfishness, lust, 
greed, tjnranny, pride, ambition, and desire for property. Yet, through 
it all, religion kept some symbols of the old unity of Ufe. The hope of 
our age is that we shall be able to pass to the third stage of solidarity, 
co-operation and love in which the individual will find his satisfactions 
in the common good and his spiritual glory in conscious unity with 
universal life. There are many suggestions for the psychologist in the 
book. The stamp of Vedantism is upon Carpenter. He still trusts too 
implicitly the ultimate goodness of cosmic life. It is probable that the 
disillusioned modern thinker will hesitate to surrender to even this 
rechris^ened Absolute and will prefer rather to ground his hope for the 
future upon the creative, intelligent direction of cosmic life by man. 
Its title interprets Mr. Cooke's book. Religion has significance only 
as it expresses the meaning of life for a group. In a survey of the history 
of religions he traces the enlarging of the human group, co-ordinate with 
the enlarging of the meaning of the world. Man is an earth-child and 
his reUgion has been tribal, feudal, national, international, and now 
must be universal or cosmic. This is the heart of his prophecy. We 
have outgrown the old gods, the old loyalties and traditions, the need 
of the sanction of immortality — to find our real satisfaction in a religion 
as wide as the new ideal of humanity. " These masterful ideas, of beauty 
in the individual life, of a spirit of loyalty and devotion, of brotherhood 
and fellowship throughout the world of humanity, of peace among all 
nations, of world unity and a parliament of man, of freedom and oppor- 
tunity" — ^are the creative forces in the new religion of human, social 

While Dr. Geiger approaches the problem from the standpoint of 
philosophy, being a pragmatist, his results are similar. The sources of 
religious satisfaction are to be found in empirical, practical social values. 
Vital, life-giving activities are at the basis of religion and modern life 
has grown marvelously with new elements. The pragmatist insists 
that religious reaUties are empirical, the immediately experienced 


meanings and values of social life. It is inevitable, therefore, that 
modern religion should express the new relationship to social, democratic 
values. God must be democratic. "The most effectively divine power 
in the world today is the social consciousness of a genuinely democratic 
community." The task of modern reUgious leadership is to create a 
new form, a new creed, a new mode of expression for the devotion to 
social and shared values ever growing through co-operative human 
effort, to use science to compel the external world to come to terms 
with human ideals in the interest of the good life for all men. 

These three books are signs of a larger appreciation of the growing 
unity of ideal and of the vital significance of religion in the life of modem 
man. They point to a new Humanism. 

A. Eustace Haydon 

Univeesity op Chicago 

Note. — For review of The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology, 
by Hastings Rashdall (New York: Macmillan, 1919, xx+502 pages, 
$5.50), see article, '"The Functional Value of Doctrines of the Atone- 
ment," by Shailer Mathews, page 146 of this issue.