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314 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 



JEWISH LITERATURE IN 1890. 

THOSE who have read recent accounts of the literary 
products of Continental nations, and have seen — notwith- 
standing the famous Universities, the rich libraries, and 
other large endowments which are at their disposal for the 
advancement of learning — how few of the books written 
during the past year are destined to make a mark in 
the progress of human intellect, will certainly not expect 
to meet with signs of any extraordinary advance in the field 
of rabbinic literature, the study of which is more or less 
confined to Jews, whose evil fortune it is to be still labour- 
ing, in many countries, under difficulties depriving them 
of both the means and the leisure necessary for the production 
of great and lasting works. We must, then, be satisfied with 
the little we have. But even of this little, my account can 
make no claim to completeness, partly owing to the fact 
that most of the books which are published in the East were 
quite inaccessible to me, and partly because even many of 
those that have reached me belong, in spite of the modern date 
which their title pages bear, to a class of books which was 
already obsolete at the beginning of the century. They do 
not increase our stock of information on a single point, and 
serve only as a warning example of the uselessness of 
learning that does not submit to the control of a sound 
scientific method. 

A great dearth is to be noticed this year in the region 
of Grammar and Lexicography, and, except the essay 
of Dr. Barth, to which I shall again have occasion to 
refer, I have to notice here only the sixth volume of 
Dr. Kohut's Aruch Completum, 1 containing the letters 

1 Aruch completum, D?Cn "|1"5J> . . . auctore Nathan Alio Jechielis 
edit. Dr. Alexander Kohut. Tomus Sextus. Viennse : 1890. 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 315 

D, V, and a part of a, the philological merits of which, 
and its usefulness for the student of rabbinic, are now 
established facts, and need no further recommendation. 
In the face of this magnificent work, the "|nj?n mrun 
(notes on the Aruch), forming a part of the book Beth 
Aharon, 1 by R. Aaron Fuld, become almost superfluous, 
as the author made no use of MSS., the only means of 
correcting old texts. The merits, however, of R. Aaron in 
the field of Jewish literature (best known from his additions 
to the Shem Haggedolim), his devotion to study and philan- 
thropy fully justified his friends in saving for the world 
everything that issued from his pen. Dr. M. Horovitz's bio- 
graphical sketch, with which the book is prefaced, gives 
us many interesting details of this noble life. One could 
have wished that the writer had not been so petty as to 
bereave R. Zacharias Frankel of the ?"t with which he 
honours those who belong to his own party. One could 
also wish that Dr. Horovitz would strive after more 
correctness in his Hebrew style ; as it is, we have in it a 
strange mixture of rabbinical and biblical Hebrew full 
of all sorts of Germanisms, only to be understood by a 
German. 

A similar scarcity appears in the matter of Commentaries 
on the Bible, of which I have to mention here the fol- 
lowing publications. First, the essay of Dr. Neubauer on 
" The Authorship and the Titles of the Psalms according to 
early Jewish Authorities," 2 for which every Biblical student 
will feel deeply grateful. For by the term " Jewish Authori- 
ties " the learned author not only understands the Rabbis, 
but also the earlier translators of the Bible, whose versions 
" must be counted as Jewish documents," as well as the com- 
paratively later Rabbinic and Karaite commentators. The 
latter wrote mostly in Arabic, and the majority of their com- 
positions are only extant in MSS., so that Dr. Neubauer had 
not only to collect the materials, but also to edit unknown 

1 Beth Aharon pPIX JV3 It. Aharoni Fuld Mesponsa atque adnotationes 
inplerusque Talmud Babykmici, Aruch, Tisehbi Meturgeman, etc. Edi- 
derunt filii auctoris. Frankfurt a. M. : 1890. 

* Published in the second volume of the Studia Bibliea. Oxford : 1890. 



316 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

texts, and to translate them into English. And as "the 
subject has as yet made inconsiderable progress," the views 
of these earlier authorities can still be consulted with great 
profit. This is especially the case, I think, with the head- 
ings of the single chapters. Compare, for instance, the most 
recent commentary (Delitzsch) on the heading of Ps. ix. with 
the opinions given by Dr. Neubauer in page 40, and it will 
hardly be found that modern researches have advanced 
much further in this respect. I have next to note the book 
Mayan Gannim, 1 a commentary on Job, by R. Samuel 
ben Nissim Masnuth, edited from a Bodleian MS., by Herr 
Salomon Buber. The worth of Herr Buber's editions of 
rabbinical works is well known. I would call attention to 
the fact that the author often mentions the Targum to Job, 
of which he sometimes gives readings differing from ours 
(e.g., pp. 7, 9, 15, 48, 72, and elsewhere). It is hardly necessary 
to remind the readers of this REVIEW that Herr Buber's 
results as to the date and country of the author have been 
contested by Dr. Neubauer. R. Saadiah's Arabic Translation of 
Isaiah, which M. Derenbourg has been giving in a new edition 
in Stade's Zeitschrift, 2 was also brought to an end this year. 
In the same periodical we have the first part of an excellent 
essay by Dr. Bacher on R. Solomon Ibn Parchon's Hebrew 
dictionary "}1"iyn IVOnD. The second part will, as it seems, 
contain variations from MSS. of this dictionary. Of Dr. 
H. Berger's dissertation on R. Benjamin b. Jehuda, and 
his commentary to Ezra and Nehemiah, 3 it is premature 
to speak before the text of this commentary has ap- 
peared, which he promises soon to edit from various MSS. 
But it may already be recommended for the sketch that 
Dr. Berger gives of the exegetical school in Italy. Dr. 
Josephsohn's pamphlet on the legends relating to the 
"Wars of the Maccabees has some bearing on the Apocry- 

1 D^3 yW, edited by Solomon Buber, under the auspices of the Jewish 
Literary Society D WO WpQ. Berlin : 1889. 

2 Zeitschrift fur die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, herausgegeben von 
D. Bernhard Stade. 1890. 

3 R. Benjamin J. Jehuda, sein Commentar zu Ezra und Nehemia, by Dr. 
Heinrich Berger. Breslau : 1889. 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 317 

pha of the Old Testament. 1 The suggestion of the author 
to supply the gap in 2 Maccabees i. 18 by the parallels 
in Midrashim (p. 17) is worth considering, whilst less satis- 
factory are the reasons by which he tries to account for the 
confusion of the feast of Chanukah with that of Tabernacles. 
Here Geiger's hypothesis (see p. 19), will probably remain the 
best solution of the problem (cp. also Rapoport's ingenious 
theory on the naiam mwn JV3 nnDB> in the Hashachar, 
iv. p. 432 seq.) Herr Weissmann's treatise on "Judith," 2 
is not devoid of some good suggestions towards restoring 
the lost Hebrew text (p. 18 seq.). Whether, however, it 
is necessary to alter the text (of xvi. 9) in the face of 
the phrase WK b& m^piD ^onDon, by which the Eabbis 
meant something less harmless than we understand (see 
Nedarim 20a), I leave undecided. 

From late commentaries I pass to modern editions and 
commentaries on ancient Rabbinical works. Among these 
there is Dr. Schwartz's new edition of, and commentary 
on, the first order of the Tos3efta, 3 the fourth volume of R. 
Eisler's Notes on Rabbinical Language and Archaeology, 
the greatest part of which deals also with the text of the 
Tossefta, 4 and a new edition of, and commentary to, the 
third order of the same work by M. Friedlsender. 5 There 
can be no doubt that Dr. Schwartz's work is the most 
important contribution of the year. He thinks that the 
Tossefta in its present state represents nothing but a 
chaotic mass of various formations and layers dating from 

1 Die Sagen ieber die Kampfe der Mahliabaeer gegen die Syrer iiaeh 
grieeliischen und judiseh-agadischen Quellen, von Dr. Caesar Josephsohn. 

Breslau: 1889. 

2 Das JBueh Judith, Historisch-kritish beleuclitet von Arthur S. 
Weissmann. Wien : 1891. 

3 nns \vir\ enve oy mwon -no '•tb NnQDinn, or Tosi/ta juxta 

Mitohnarum Ordinem Recomposita et Commentaria Instrueta auctore 
Adolpho Schwarz Kabbino Karlsruhano. Pars I., Ordo Seraim. Vilnae : 
Typis et sumptibus viduae fratrumque Bomm, 1890. 

4 Beitragt! zur RabbinisehenSpraclh- und Alterthumshunde von Rabb. 
Leopold Eisler. II. Theil. Wien : 1870. Commissions- Verlag von Ch. D. 
Lippe, Buchhandlung, II. Praterstrasse 13. 

s Qit*>3 -no NnSDin aveo le commentaire Heschek Schlomoh. Pres- 
burg, 189D. 



318 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

different periods and schools, which, owing to such revo- 
lutionary causes as the terrible persecutions of those times 
as well as to the ignorance and carelessness of the copy- 
ists, were thrown together into one shapeles conglomerate, 
without regard to order or chronology. Dr. Schwartz be- 
lieves that our Tossef ta was completed by the younger con- 
temporaries of R. Jehudah Hannasi with the intention of 
saving from oblivion that complex of old Halachoth or 
Aggadoth, which the latter from one reason or another 
excluded from his official codex of the Mishnah. In this 
belief, then, he attempts to reconstruct the Tossefta with 
the aid of the given order of the Mishnah, on which it 
was based, and to which it was meant to be an addition (the 
literal translation of the word Tossefta). Dr. Schwartz does 
his work admirably, and the boldness which he shows in 
transposing whole sections which almost alter the face of the 
Tossefta will be envied by many a Bible critic. It is true that 
some of these transpositions admit of a difference of opinion. 
Compare, for instance, Tossefta Berachoth, c. 3 § 9 of our 
editions, which Dr. Schwartz puts after the section be- 
ginning Nin ntW, in conformity with the order in the 
Jerushalmi. But why should not the Tossefta, in this place, 
agree with the order in the Babli Berachoth, 31a, which 
— if we eliminate from it the passage given there in 
the name of R. Chiya, which is really missing in the MSS. 
(see Rabbinowitz, Varise Lectiones) — there is reason to suppose 
is pretty near to the original text. This agreement is the 
more probable as the Tossefta has in this place the readings 
of the Babli, not of the Jerushalmi, which, by the way, 
ought to be corrected after the parallel in the Aggadath She- 
muel II. But this minor point shows only how consistent 
Dr. Schwartz is in carrying out his suppositions. Certainly 
these suppositions themselves still leave room for discussion. 
One might ask, granting that the Tossefta was based on the 
Mishnah, on which Mishnah ? For though the hypothesis 
of Dr. Zuckermandel, according to which the Tossefta re- 
presents the Halachic code of the Palestinian schools, 
whilst our Mishnah was compiled at a later date in 
Babylon, did not, as far as we know, find much acceptance 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 319 

amongst scholars, it is, nevertheless, hardly to be expected 
that our Mishnah was exempt from the fate which befell 
all ancient Jewish productions. However, we had better 
postpone the discussion of this and similar points until 
Dr. Schwartz furnishes us with the treatise on the 
origin of the Tossefta, as well as the Boraithoth scat- 
tered over both the Talmuds, and their relation to the 
Mishnah, which he promises in the introduction to his 
book. Of a less ambitious character is Eisler's undertaking, 
which confines itself to verbal emendations in the text of the 
Tossefta. Though the book contains many good points, I 
am afraid that Eisler is sometimes too hasty in his emen- 
dations ; perhaps he surfers from want of books. Thus he 
would hardly have corrected the text in Tossefta Berachoth 
c. vii. 1, if he had read the remarks of A. Krochmal (Scholien, 
p. 91) and Brtill (Jahrb. vii. 113) on the same passage. M. 
Friedlaender pursues the same method as in his com- 
mentary on Seder Zeraim, and there is nothing fresh to 
add to the verdict which was pronounced on the author's 
first production. (See this Beview, II., 194.) I might 
here express a wish that the scholars who devote them- 
selves to the study of the Tossefta would make use of MS. 
Add. 27,296 in the British Museum, which contains the 
Tossefta of the whole of the second order (Moed) and 
tractate Chulin. The variations presented by this codex 
would probably prove of more critical value than those 
which are the result of mere guesswork. Considered from 
this point of view Professor Strack's edition of the Mishnah 
of the tractate Sabbath 1 deserves all praise, the editor 
having employed for his text all the MSS. and texts avail- 
able. The glossary at the end will also make it useful for 
beginners. Lector M. Friedmann's Ha?naschneh, 2 giving in 
short paragraphs the contents of all the tractates of the 
Mishnah, and his Talmud Baba Mesia, 3 containing extracts 

1 Sehabbatlb . . . herausgegeben voa Professor Hermann L. Strack. 
Leipzig : 1890. 

2 HJSJ'Dn "I2D (der Mishnah-Lehrer) von M. Friedmann. Vienna : 1890. 
» KJPXD J03 Zum Unterrichtsgebrauche von M. Friedmann. Vienna : 

1890. 

VOL. III. X 



320 The Jewish Quarterly Review 

from this tractate, are also calculated to pave the way for the 
young student who wants to be introduced to the strange 
world of the Rabbis. All Jewish teachers, I hope, will 
not be slow to avail themselves of the wide learning and long 
experience of this famous scholar. Entirely new is the 
small tractate on Mourning (miDir ninot? roDO) 1 now edited 
for the first time from MSS. by Herr HoroAvitz in the second 
and third part of his collection of Ancient Boraithoth, ex- 
tending from p. 28 to p. 40. One feels so grateful for this 
addition to the Minor Tractates that one can pardon him 
his long useless introductions and unnecessary glossaries. 
I may here add that at the head of the list of authorities Avho 
quoted this version of ninDB> has to be placed the Gaon R. 
Samuel ben Chofni, as can be seen from his commentary to 
the Pentateuch (W1 DKna), ed. J. Israelsohn, in which three 
passages are given, which are only to be found in this trac- 
tate (28 and 31). R. Joseph Ibn Caspi's quotation 1-|»&0 
D'»no onm t6i dwdd w-ni vb !?"t »*nm (see w:p\ nvv by 
Ashkenazi, p. 53), also refers to this tractate. It is to be 
regretted that Dr. Klotz, in his new critical edition of 
the tractate SemacJwth 2 (usually printed together with 
the other minor tractates), was unable to incorporate this 
small Semachoth, which would have made his work more 
complete. But the good use the editor has made of 
almost all the MSS. existing of this tractate — among them, 
also, of a very valuable MS. belonging to Dr. Adler — 
and the fulness of his references (see, for instance, p. 17, 
note 5, and p. 33, note 1), will partly compensate for 
this defect. The fourth part of Herr Horowitz's collection 
(ma Tina) forms an introduction to the text of the Boraitha 
of Niddah, to be edited in the fifth part of this collection. 
We must not anticipate our judgment before Herr 
Horovitz has fulfilled his promise. Of new editions of 
late Rabbinic works I have to mention here the first part 

1 SJlp^ny NnBDin, or Uralte Tosefta, 2 und 3. Abtheilung by Chayim 
M. Horovitz. Mainz: 1890. Ditto, i. Abcheilung. Frankfurt a. M.: 1890. 

2 Der Talmudische Traotat Ebel Mabbithi oder S'machoth, nach Hand- 
sohriften und Parallelstellen bearbeitet, ubersetzt, etc., von Dr. Moritz 
Klotz. Verlag J. Kauffmann. 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 321 

of the Machsor Vitri, 1 emanating from the school of 
Rashi, edited from a Bodleian MS. by Rabbi S. Hurwitz 
for the Society Mekize Nirdamim. The editor will pro- 
bably at the end of the work give us in an appendix a full 
description of his MS. and its relation to the other MSS. of 
the Machzor Vitri in the British Museum and Paris. Its 
authorship is also a matter which demands closer ex- 
amination (see Dr. C. Taylor's remark in a note to the 
Introduction to his Sayings of the Jewish Fathers). Dr. 
Hildesheimer, under the auspices of the same society, 
continues the Vatican Halachoth Gedoloth, 2 of which the 
second part has now appeared. A very meritorious task was 
the editing of the Arabic text of " The Letter of Consolation 
of Maimon ben Joseph" 3 (the father of Maimonides), and 
its translation into English by Mr. L. M. Simmons, of Man- 
chester. The readers of this periodical had full opportunity 
to admire the saintliness and simplicity of the author (see 
especially p. 25, where the commentary to Ps. xc. begins), as 
well as to appreciate the learning and accuracy of the editor. 
I have only to add that this letter has now appeared in 
a pamphlet by itself, with some additional notes and 
corrections by Mr. Simmons. The "varise lectiones" to 
Maimonides' Mishnah Torah, 4 according to a MS. now 
in the possession of Herr Julius Hamburger, will be 
cordially welcomed by students of this great code. We do 
not know whether the description offered of the MS. is 
trustworthy in all its parts. But even if the date given there 
(the beginning of the fourteenth century) be correct, we 
have in English libraries MSS. of this Code of an earlier date, 
especially in Oxford (see Catalogue, Neubauer, Nos. 538-614), 
and it would certainly repay the trouble of a student to 
collate them for the purpose of giving us at last a critical 
text of this classical work. Nor must I forget to notice 

1 *"1D' I 1 "lltnD, Machzor Vitri, herausgegeben von S. Hurwitz. 
Berlin: 1889. 

2 IT)?nJ TTD?n Halaoholh Gedoloth, naoli dem Texte der Sandschrift 
der Vaticana. Herausgegebea von Dr. Hildesheimer. Berlin : 1889. 

3 Reprinted from the Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. II. 

4 mm fUB>» -\Stib niXD-m nisriDU »m? Frankfurt a. M.: 1. 1889. 

x 2 



322 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

here the following contributions to the Rabbinic litera- 
ture, though they do not exactly fall under the heading of 
commentaries or editions. Thus Dr. Giidemann has de- 
voted a whole monograph to the verses in Matt. v. 43, 1 
and parallels in other parts of the New Testament as 
well as in the Rabbinic literature. It is, indeed, one 
of the best things written on the subject. (See Dr. 
L. Lazarus, Zur Charakteristik der Talmudischen Ethik, 
p. 10, where the literature is fairly put together, to which 
must be added The Teaching of the Tivelve Apostles, by Dr. 
C. Taylor, p. 8, seq.) It will have to be carefully read, both 
by students of the Old Testament and the New Testament. 
I can only hope to see it soon translated into English. 
Professor Bloch has given us a new compendium of the 
Mosaic-Talmudic Laws of Inheritance. 2 The author confines 
himself mostly to Jewish sources (see, however, p. 10 and 
p. 49, note 32), in which he is a complete master, and he 
rectifies Michaelis in some places (see pp. 7 and 8). Dr. 
Koningsberger's pamphlet on the sources of the Halacha 3 is 
also worth mentioning on account of the few quotations he 
gives there from the Midrash Hagadol and other MSS. 
Whether, however, these MSS. or any MS. still to be dis- 
covered can prove the divinity of the Oral Law, and that 
it is coeval with the Torah itself, against the opinion of the 
" majority of the modern Jewish historians," is a question 
which the author would have done better to leave untouched. 
Such useless polemics — for surely the views of these his- 
torians are entirely independent of the existence or non- 
existence of a Mechilta more or less — ought to be avoided in 
any work which pretends to scientific treatment. Not un- 
fitly I may mention here the Rev. S. Singer's English version 
of the prayer-book, 4 not merely because the Jewish liturgy 

1 Nachstenliebe, ein Seitrag zur ErMarung des Mathaus-Evangeliums 
von Dr. M. Giidemann. Wien : 1890. 

2 Das Mosaisch-Talmudisehe Erbrecht, von Prof. Moses Bloch, pub- 
lished in the B. Programm of the Eabbinical Seminary in Buda-pest, 1890. 

3 Die Quellen der Halaehah, von Dr. Konigsberger. Berlin: Verlag H. 
Engel, 1890. 

4 The authorised Daily Prayer-booh, with a new translation by the Rev. 
S. Singer. London : 1890. 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 323 

is in the main a rabbinical production, but also on account 
of its containing a new translation of the Pirke Aboth. It 
requires only to take a glance at the older translations of the 
Sidur in this country to see the excellence of Mr. Singer's 
•work, and I can only hope that a second edition will 
appear soon and meet with the same merited success as the 
first. Perhaps Mr. Singer will also use the opportunity to 
correct such trifles as, for instance, to leave out the note to 
§ 15 in Aboth ch. ii. (p. 189). As may be seen from the 
parallels put together in the Massecheth Aboth, etc., by 
Noah Chayim, of Kabrin (32a), this passage has nothing to 
do with abusing one's higher gifts. Possibly Mr. Singer 
will justify his interpretation by a reference to the famous 
simile in Jerushalmi Chagigah (76c), where the Torah is also 
compared with fire, but in quite another sense. A most in- 
genious piece of work is the treatise of Dr. Rosenthal on 
the composition of the Mishnah, 1 whose method strongly 
recalls that with which we are familiar from the works of 
modern Bible critics (see, for instance, pp. 36, 87, and 89). 
By this method he thinks to discover in the Mishnah parts 
dating from before Hillel, which were composed with an 
anti-Sadducean tendency. As the author bases his hypothesis 
on the assumption that Geiger's and Wellhausen's theories 
on the origin of this sect are mistaken, it still remains to be 
seen how he will refute them as lie promises to do in the 
second part. 

I will now glance at Bibliography and Biography, 
whereby we shall gain some insight into what might still be 
done in the line of editing. I notice, first, Dr. Kayserling's 
Bibliographical Dictionary of works concerning Judaism 
written by Jewish authors in Spanish or Portuguese, 2 in- 
cluding Ladino, a sort of Jewish jargon of these languages. 
The book is prefaced by an excellent essay on the history 
and importance of this literature, and the appendix gives a 
collection of Spanish and Jewish proverbs. The pedigrees 

1 TJeber den Zusammenhang der Mischna .... von Dr. Ludwig A. 
Rosenthal. Strassburg : Verlag von K. J. Trubner, 1890. 

2 Biblioteea Espanola - Portugueza - Judaiea. Par M. Kayserling. 
Strasbourg, Charles J. Trubner : 1890. 



324 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

of various Jewish families scattered throughout the book 
■will be found interesting by genealogists, -whilst the Cata- 
logue (page 114) of the controversial -works by Jewish 
converts will probably prove useful both to the biblio- 
grapher and the historian. However, it could hardly 
be said that this literature equals either in quantity or 
quality the Judaica written in the German language (or 
in Jiidisch-Deutsch) by Jewish authors. Indeed, among 
the books published during this century I cannot discover 
in Dr. Kayserling's list a single production of great value, 
except perhaps the W 05?D. Of far greater importance is the 
Catalogue of the MSS. in Herr Halberstam's Library. 1 
The name of Halberstam is known far and wide. There 
is hardly any Jewish scholar of the younger generation who 
is not under obligations to Herr Halberstam, not merely 
for his suggestions, but also for the liberality with which he 
puts his collection of MSS. at the disposal of students. But 
no one had an adequate idea of the riches of this collection 
until the appearance of this Catalogue, compiled by Herr 
Halberstam himself. It is, in truth, the greatest Jewish 
private library in the world, comprising 411 MSS. Every- 
thing which has occupied the Jewish mind — Targum, 
grammar, Halacha, Hagada, liturgy, philosophy, Kabbalah, 
poetry, astronomy, history, and medicine — is represented 
there. From this Catalogue the student can see how much 
is still left for us to do. Herr Halberstam's collection 
contains many a treasure still waiting for the explorer to 
bring to light. Let the reader only glance over the 
liturgical part, which contains many Piyutim which re- 
mained unknown even to the great master Zunz, or at the 
description of MS. 345, which contains almost more references 
to the English Eabbis of the pre-expulsion period than all 
the other sources put together. The Commentaries to the 
Talmud, some of which are unique, would alone suffice to 
make this Library famous. However, greatly as I admire 
Herr Halberstam, who has so far made such excellent use 
of his collection, I cannot refrain from asking, What will 

1 nOTl? rpnp Catalog fiebraischer Handschriften, von S. J. Halberstam 
in Bielibz. Vienna : 1890. 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 325 

become of all these treasures ? Experience has taught us 
that the fate of all private libraries is to be scattered after a 
generation or two, and at such dispersions many valuable 
MSS. are lost for ever. May I not express the hope that 
in this country, which has hitherto shown itself so generous 
to Jewish literature, which has saved the libraries of Oppen- 
heim, Michael, and Almanzi from dispersion — that in this 
country also the Halberstam collection will find a saviour 
who will preserve it to posterity. I do not in the least 
grudge Halberstam his treasures, but I think that he will 
agree with me that the cause of Jewish literature, which he 
has so much at heart, will be best served when his MSS. 
follow the way of all the great Jewish collections, which 
have found their last home in England. Dr. Miiller's 
Introduction to the Eesponsa of the Geonim l might, on 
account of the bibliographical account it gives of the 
various collections of these Responsa, also be placed here. 
It is an admirable piece of work. Indeed, it pre- 
viously seemed as if every newly discovered collection 
only added to the difficulties of the student of the 
period of the Geonim. For these collections, made at 
different ages, in various countries, without the least 
regard to each other, and even without much needed 
discretion, often repeat themselves, and are full of inter- 
polations, in which the Mystics had also their share. 
On the other hand, there are many Responsa with- 
out headings ; others, again, bear false ascriptions. It is 
by this work of Dr. Miiller that we shall be able to 
examine critically the productions of the Geonim, which 
consist mostly in ritual decisions. It not only contains a 
detailed account of every collection, where every heading 
is closely investigated, but also a complete index of the 
Responsa (including those which are scattered over the 
works of the earlier authorities, Rishonim) of each 
Gaon, from R. Mari down to R. Hai, the last of the 
Geonim. And what is more is that this index is quite 
readable, giving the essence of all the Responsa attributed 

1 D\H&m T)2Wn? nnSO, Einleitung in die, Responsen BabylonUcher 
Geonim, von Joel Miiller. H. Engel. Berlin : 1891. 



326 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

to each. Gaon, arranged in subjects, mostly after the 
system accepted by Maimonides in the Mishnah Torah. 
To this are added the Miscellanea, containing many in- 
teresting historical and philological items (see pp. 72, 92, 100, 
103, 168, 205, 254, 265) which would be worthy of being 
collected and edited by themselves. I may remark here 
that the list of the MSS. of the British Museum has also 
a collection of the nwturi miKTl (Add. 27,181, compare 
Halberstam, Introduction to the Sefer Yetsirah, p. xxi.), 
which might now, with the help of this introduction, 
easily be examined, so as to ascertain whether it contains 
inedited matter. 

Bibliography and Biography bring us to History. In 
this country we have Dr. Neubauer's contribution, Notes on 
the Jews in Oxford, 1 which, in spite of its modest title, ex- 
hausts the subject in all its parts, there being no document 
or important note relating to the history of the Jews in this 
University town which Dr. Neubauer does not print or 
allude to. Especially grateful the student will feel for the 
new edition of the eighth volume of Professor Graetz's 
History 2 with corrections and additions in which the latest 
discoveries of Spanish scholars, of Dr. Neubauer, Halberstam, 
M . Lob, and others, have been utilised . One feels the more 
grateful for it as this part of Graetz's work deals with the 
period in which the great expulsions of the Jews from 
Spain, Portugal, and many cities in Germany, took place. 
Of books dealing with the earlier history of the Jews I 
have to mention here : Dr. Kaminka's Studies on the 
History of Galilee. 3 A critical history of the Jews in 
Galilee would, indeed, be an object of interest to the Jewish 
as well as to the Christian student. But Dr. Kaminka is 
certainly not the man to do it, as far as I can judge from 

1 Published in the Collectanea, vol. ii. of the Oxford Historical Society, 
1890. 

2 Gesehichte der Juden, VIII. Dritte verbesserte und stark vermehrte 
Auflage. Leipzig : 1890. — I received this work at the very moment when 
this article had to be sent to press, otherwise I should have treated it with 
the fulness that a work by the father of Jewish history deserves. 

3 Studien xur Gesehichte Qalilaas, von Dr. Kaminka. Berlin : 1889. 
Verlag von Hermann Engel. 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 327 

this pamphlet. His objections to the general assumption 
that Tiberias was avoided by noble Jewish families on 
account of uncleanliness caused by the lost graves in it are 
weak, and remind one of the niB>pr6l pimV B"1 ; his emenda- 
tion (p. 24) of the word N"D* in the Jerushalmi into nil' is 
doubtful (see Levy, s.v. 13*), whilst the preference given 
by him to the Hebrew version (with regard to the 
story that R. Simon ben Jochai declared Tiberias to be 
clean) in Midrash Tehillim over the other six, because 
they are in Aramaic, is against the acknowledged critical 
rule that in such cases the claim for higher antiquity 
rests with the Aramaic versions, Aramaic having been 
the popular language in which the story was told. For 
the Hebrew version is to be regarded only as a trans- 
lation from the original, and thus belonging to a later 
date. He commits also a bad blunder in referring, in hi 
sketch of R. Simon ben Jochai, to Aboth ii. 9 (p. 50), the 
R. Simon mentioned there being ^wnj |3 C""i, the disciple of 
R. Jochanan ben Zakkai. More satisfactory is Dr. Rosen 
zweig's essay on Jerusalem and Ccesarea. 1 The author does 
not presume to advance new theories (excepting, perhaps, 
note 2, p. 16, about the genealogy of Paul), but puts to- 
gether the passages in the Rabbinic literature relating to 
the antagonism between these two cities representing Judaism 
and heathenism, or Christianity at a later period. Perhaps 
I may also record here the third volume of Mr. Luncz's 
annual Jerusalem, 2 dealing with the history of the Holy 
Land, and chiefly with that of Jerusalem in ancient and 
modern times. It contains among other excellent matter a 
bibliographical account of works on the geography of 
Palestine by Dr. Steinschneider, an essay on the topography 
of Sodom and Gomorrah, according to Rabbinical sources 
by Lector Friedmann — a series of letters written by different 
Rabbis living in Jerusalem, dating from before the end of 
the seventeenth century, and edited from MSS. by Professor 

1 Jerusalem und Ccesarea, von Dr. Rosenzweig. Berlin : Mayer and 
Muller, 1890. 

2 DOT Jerusalem Jahrbuch, III. Jahrgang. Heransgegeben von A 
M. Luncz. Jerusalem : 1889. 



328 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Kaufmann, and, lastly, etymological researches on the names 
of various cities (Jerusalem, Jericho, etc., etc.), contri- 
buted by M. Joseph Halevy, of Paris. I have no doubt 
that the number ■will be found very instructive, and 
the editor deserves special gratitude and support from 
this country, where the interest in everything touching 
the Holy Land is so great. The following two books, 
Matamim, 1 by an anonymous writer, and Telcanoth, 
etc., by Herr Schiick, 2 on Minhagim (religious usages and 
customs) ought to have some bearing on history by which 
alone Minhagim can be explained, but they have not. Of the 
former, who supplies us with 1,300 explanations of various 
Minhagim, suffice it to say that his work was suggested 
to him by passages in the i~avn 3^, and thus belongs to a 
school in which anything approaching to a knowledge of 
history (or anything worth knowing) is considered as a 
mortal sin. It requires only a glance at the book to see 
that the author remained true to the principle of his school. 
Some attempt at history is, indeed, made by Herr Schiick, 
but he still belongs to the pre-scientific era. He takes, for 
instance, infinite trouble to reconcile the legend that Joshua 
composed the prayer 13vy with another story which attri- 
butes it to R. Jochanan ben Zakkai (p. 37a), but it never 
occurs to him to question the authenticity, of these legends. 
At another place (8Z>) he tries to explain the institution of 
reading the 93rd Psalm every Friday by reason of modern dis- 
coveries in geology. Herr Schiick is rather afraid that his 
critical views will be resented by certain hyper-orthodox 
people in his country. This would be, indeed, a gross injus- 
tice. Lastly, I have to notice here Dr. Lazarus' essay on the 
Princes of the Captivity in Babylon, 3 whose history has re- 
mained rather obscure till now. The last writer on the subject 
was the late Abraham Krochmal in his Scholien, which is full 

1 n*»VI2D HDD. Anonymous. Warsaw : 1890. 

2 Tll^am ni3pn, die Kirchlichen und biirgerlichen Gesetze des Juden- 
thums vom Jahre 2449 bis 5631, etc., von Salomon Schiick. Muncacs: 1890. 

3 Die Hdupter der Vertriebenen, etc. Von Dr. Felix Lazarus, pub- 
lished in volume x. of Dr. Brtill's Jahrbiicher, occupying the whole of 
this number. 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 329 

of the deepest researches and most ingenious remarks on 
this point, and to which Dr. Lazarus owes, I am inclined 
to think, a great deal. But Dr. Lazarus has the advantage 
of having made use of various MSS. of the text of the 
Small Chronicle (Seder Olam Zuta), the chief source for the 
succession of those princes, but previously known only in a 
very corrupt form. Dr. Lazarus now gives us, in an appen- 
dix, for the first time, a critical version of this chronicle, 
after MSS. and rare editions, and this enables him to 
elucidate many obscure points in the chronology of this 
part of Jewish history. It is not the place, in a general 
review to enter into a discussion of the details, which are 
of a most complicated nature, and I shall only remark 
that the obscure formula of which Dr. Lazarus speaks 
on p. 97, will be clear enough if he had read correctly 
HJ03 (not H'n?) as the name of the daughter of Pharaoh 
(1 Chron. iv. 18), who, according to the Hagadah (Megil- 
lah, 13a, and elsewhere) saved Moses from the river, and 
brought him up, on which account he was considered as 
her son. 

The study of Jewish Philosophy is represented this year 
by the following works : First, Dr. Spiegler's History 
of the Philosophy of Judaism. 1 But in spite of this 
promising title,, I need not dwell long on it. Its worth- 
lessness will be sufficiently indicated when I point out 
the fact that the greatest part of the work is taken up 
with the Zohar, which Dr. Spiegler thinks was composed by 
R. Simon ben Jochai and his school (p. 135). The golden 
age of the Cabbalah falls, according to the author, in the 
first century A.C., and R. Jochanan ben Zakkai and his school, 
especially R. Eliezer ben Hyrkanos, the author of the Pirke 
drahi Eliezer (sic), and Akilas, the author of our Targum 
Onkelos, are its greatest representatives (p. 140). The de- 
scription the author gives us of Maimonides' philosophy, 
does not show any sign that he ever studied Prof. Kauf mann's 
Attrihutenlehre, or his work could not be so utterly empty 
and superficial. Of quite another stamp is Dr. Hoenig's 

1 Gesehichte der Pliilosophie de$ Judenthums. Von Dr. Julius Spiegler. 
Leipzig : "Verlag von Wilhelm Friedrich, 1890. 



330 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

treatise on the Ophites 1 , in -which he tries to prove that 
Gnosticism is a Jewish production, and that this and the 
Ophites, the first Gnostic sect, represent accordingly a Jewish 
heresy. There are many ingenious points in this brochure, 
and the identification of the obscure term I1V31BBK in 
Midrash Koheleth i. 8 with the Greek 'O^/rijc (p. 79) is 
worth noticing. But, on the other hand, the author has 
brought forward little evidence to establish the early origin 
of the Gnosis among the Jews, which is the chief point in his 
book. All the passages he quotes from Eabbinic literature 
were used by Graetz, Krochmal and others to prove that 
during the second century Gnostic views found their way 
into Judaism. Nor will many agree with the author, that 
the theory of the Demiurge could only arise among the Jews 
(p. 68). It is true that the old question, Unde Malum, forces 
itself on every mind, but it does not follow that the Jews 
would have answered it through the manufacture of a 
demi-god. Untouched by foreign influence, the answer of 
the Jewish mind, with its quick transitions from reason to 
emotion, and its commutations of both, would probably 
have resulted in a fervid prayer or in entire resignation to the 
will of God like the Hebrew prophets and psalmists of old, 
when they complained of the sufferings of the righteous. 
The quotations the author gives from the chapter of R. 
Eliezer are especially unfortunate, as this book dates from a 
very late period, and contains already Christian elements, as 
has only recently been proved by M. Israel Levi (see Revue 
des Etudes Juives). By the way, has Dr. Hcenig seen the 
late Bishop Lightfoot's " Essay on the Colossian Heresy," in 
his Commentary to the Epistles of St. Paul (Volume 
III., page 73, seq.) ? Dr. Goitein's pamphlet on Optimism 
and Pessimism in the Philosophy of Judaism^ is also worth 
reading. The various Theodicies, from the oldest times up 
to Maimonides, which the author puts together, deserve 
careful study, though the conclusion of the author with 

1 Die Ophiten, Em Beitrag zur Geschichte des jiidischen Gnosticismus, 
von Dr. Adolf Honig. Berlin : Mayer and Miiller. 1889. 

2 Der Optimismus und der Pessimismus in der judisehen Religions- 
philosopMe, von Dr. H. Croitein. Berlin : Mayer and Miiller. 1890. 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 331 

regard to the final influence of these two conflicting views 
on Judaism may be contested. A lecture by Dr. Schwein- 
burg on "Jewish Pessimists" 1 may be regarded as a sup- 
plement to the preceding work. "Whether every Jewish 
scholar who had a fit of depression and wrote in a pessi- 
mistic vein must be looked upon as a predecessor of 
Schopenhauer, is a question not permitting of closer ex- 
amination in the presence of the fact that the latter philo- 
sopher is now the most fashionable thinker in Germany. 
Of a rather theosophic character is the lately edited cor- 
respondence of R. Jonathan Eibeschiitz, from a MS. in the 
library of Dr. Jellinek. 3 The attempts of R. Jonathan to 
rationalise the Cabbalah, and to reconcile it with philosophy 
(p. 88), are not uninteresting. The old dispute among the 
Cabbalists, whether the Sephiroth are to be regarded 
as an integral part of the Deity, or only as an emanation, 
turns up here again. Perhaps this correspondence, when 
entirely published, will throw some light on the well-known 
controversy between the author and R. Jacob Emden. 
I may also in this section include Dr. L. Grossmann's book 
on Judaism and the Science of Religion? which is written in 
a style worthy of the subject, and indicates an honest desire 
on the part of the author to be just to all. I am only 
afraid that he is too hasty in his application of general 
theories, or he would scarcely detect in such passages as 
" the Fathers are the Merkabah " a reminiscence of sun 
worship (p. 174). What Dr. Grossmann means by the 
reference to Tossefta Yoma, II. b, I am unable to under- 
stand. Are we really to suppose that every ancient Jew 
who looked at a sun-dial to see the time of day, or basked in 
the sunshine, is to be suspected of sun-worship ? The well- 
known passage, " The Law is like two paths," etc., which, as 
it would seem, he attributes (in p. 176) to R. Akiba, is known 
to me only as anonymous. (Cp. Jerushalmi Chagigah, ii. 1, 

1 Jiidische Pessimisten, von S. Schweinburg. Verlag D. Lowy (Vienna). 

J ivrrtN rrvpra yts^n^x jrw -h nnitj>ni ni-wx bhn tbw db\ 

Wien : 1891. 

3 Some Chapters on Judaism and the Science of Religion, by Rabbi Luis 
Grossmann. New York and London : Putnam's. 1889. 



332 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

and parallels on the margin.) Of a more satisfactory 
character in my judgment is Dr. Grossmann's Lecture 
on Maimonides, 1 which is a very fair and sympathetic 
appreciation of this great Jewish thinker. 

In the region of General Literature I have only to record 
two books, both excellently done. Of Mr. Joseph Jacobs' 
admirable Introduction to the Fables of JEsop, 2 the results, 
as regards the part played by Judaism in preserving these 
fables, have been already noticed in this REVIEW. The 
second part of Herr Philipp's classical edition of Jewish 
Poetry in the Middle Ages 3 fully bears out the high repu- 
tation the author has acquired by his previous productions. 
From a prospectus I have lately received from Herr 
Philipp, I learn that he intends to continue editing the 
Divan of R. Jehudah Hallevi, and other poetical pieces which 
he copied last summer in the Bodleian in Oxford. It is to 
be hoped that he may succeed in this important under- 
taking. I may also express the wish that Herr Philipp 
will be a little more concise in his notes. There is hardly 
any need, for instance, to illustrate the sayings of the Gaon 
by passages in the Sanscrit literature. Dr. Rubin brings us 
this year a treatise on the origin of arts and sciences in the 
prehistoric ages, 4 which, like most of his other works, will 
prove very useful to those who are incapable of reading 
any other language except Hebrew. Of Dr. Maybaum's 
masterly treatise on Jewish Homiletics, 5 it is only necessary 
here to mention the title, as its merits have already been 
ably brought before the readers of this Review. 

The want of special works might, perhaps, be compensated 
for by the various Miscellanea, of which we have a great 
abundance. Paramount among them is the Jubelschrift, 6 



1 Maimonides : a Paper. By Rabbi L. Grrossmann. Putnam, 1890. 

2 The Fables of JEsoy, now again edited by and induced by Joseph 
Jacobs. London: 1889. (D. Nutt.) 

3 nto *sn an »tb> b &w • xn rrvnan rva, Krakau : 1889. 

* njnn yy, Dr. S. Eubin. Wien : 1891. 

5 Jildisohe Homiletili. Berlin : 1890. 

6 Jubelschrift zum siebzigsten Geburtstag,dea Dr. Hildesheimer. Berlin: 
H. Engel, 1890. 



Jetcish Literature in 1890. 333 

containing a collection of essays by various scholars, 
dedicated to Dr. J. Hildesheimer on the occasion of his 
seventieth birthday. It opens with an exegetical study of 
Isaiah lxvi., by Dr. Feilchenfeld, Chief Eabbi of Posen, well 
known for many excellent essays on the Bible. I am 
afraid, however, that in this particular matter he has not 
been quite happy in his hypothesis. According to the 
author, Isaiah lxvi. forms a protest against a certain 
Jewish rationalistic sect, who, in their universalistic 
notions of the Jewish religion, for which they thought 
they found support in the older prophecies, refused to re- 
turn to Jerusalem, pleaded for amalgamation with their 
heathen surroundings as a means of facilitating their 
missionary work to the Gentile world, and as the result of 
borrowing certain enlightened views from the Medo-Persic 
religion, protested against sacrificial worship. This view is 
in the main not entirely new (see Dillmann's Isaiah, p. 535). 
Considering that Isaiah lxvi., according to the opinions of 
most modern commentators, dates from about the end of 
the sixth century, it is not altogether impossible that the 
prophet's words were directed against a certain section of 
the Jews, who, lacking in patriotism, did not care much for 
the restoration of Jerusalem, preferring to have the temple 
built in Babylon. On the other hand, the views which Dr. 
Feilchenfeld attributes to this Bection are too rational for 
the time, and strongly recall the doctrines of Jewish sects at 
a very late period, whilst his exegesis is far-fetched. (See, 
for instance, hiB explanation of the word rtNn, " Ib it not, in- 
deed ? ") But what makes matters worse is that Dr. Feilchen- 
feld assures us that hiB exposition is entirely independent 
of the question with regard to the age of the prophet (p. 9, 
note 1). Dr. Feilchenfeld is very successful in his explanation 
of the obscure passage in Tractate Sabbath, 67& (p. 23). Quite 
worthy of his position and his fame is the article contributed 
by Dr. Rosenthal, Rabbi at Breslau, on the Institutions nupn 
of R. Gershon, the light of the Exile, the most important 
of which is the ordinance forbidding polygamy. As with 
everything coming to us from this remote period (the tenth 
century), the documents of these Tekanoth are in a most 



334 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

corrupt state, and exist in different versions. Dr. Rosenthal 
tries to restore the original text, as well as to establish its 
authenticity by the use of MSS. and quotations in various 
Rabbinical words. Secular history, so far as it has any 
relation to these institutions, is also laid under con- 
tribution by the learned author. To judge from the 
heading of this essay, Einiges iiber die, etc., it would 
seem that Dr. Rosenthal intends to publish one day a 
larger treatise on this interesting subject. Perhaps he 
might then be able also to employ the MSS. in the British 
Museum, Or. 1989 (p. 916. seq.), and Or. 1083 (266), both of 
them containing versions of the tWiJ m nupn, the former 
of which would, we think, prove of special value (see 
Monatsschri/t, 1855, p. 104 about this MS.) The Machsor 
Vitri in the same library (Add. 27,200, page 1526) con- 
tains also a paragraph ^npn ni3pn, which might, I believe, 
throw some light on the subject. The group of TeJca- 
notli, beginning with HO»n yx, has also been published 
by Dr. Neubauer, from various MSS. in the Revue des Etudes 
Juives, No. XXXIII., p. 69 seq. Dr. M. Horovitz, one 
of the Rabbis in Frankfurt-on-the-Main, contributes a 
Responsurn as to the validity of marriage in a certain given 
case. There is nothing fresh about it, either as regards 
method or line of argument. The only new feature is, 
perhaps, the fact that it is written in German, whilst any 
Polish or Russian Rabbi would have answered in Hebrew. 
I cannot deny that I prefer n"lU> in Hebrew, when written 
in a good rabbinical style. Dr. Munk, of Marburg, gives a 
very interesting essay on the constitution of the Jews in 
the Principality of Hesse, in Germany, as well as the Text 
of their Tekanofh. The excommunication pronounced there 
against dealing in false coin is worth noticing, showing that 
it was not only ritual matters over -which the synagogue 
kept spiritual watch. Dr. Hofmann adorns the volume by 
an essay on the existence of a Mechilta dWalibi Ishmael on 
Deuteronomy, fragments of which he discovers in the Mi- 
drash Raggadol. As the present writer is preparing an edi- 
tion of this Midrash, he will soon find occasion to enlarge 
on the results of this admirable and thorough piece of work. 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 335 

Dr. Olitzki's essay treats of the symbolical significance 
given by E. Abraham ben Ezra to certain numbers. 
The relation pointed out by the author between the 
symbolism of Aben Ezra and those of certain Greek as 
well as Jewish mystical schools, is not without interest. 
Dr. Friedlander and Dr. Bennet contribute new Hebrew 
translations from certain parts of Maimonides' Commentary 
to the Mishnah; the former, of the third chapter of the tractate 
Rosh Hashanah, the latter, of the first chapter of the Sayings 
of the Fathers. Dr. Lowenstein publishes, from a Merzbach 
MS., seven Jewish songs, composed by various German 
rabbis during the fifteenth century. They are mostly of a 
serious character, and the fact that they were adapted to airs 
of Gentile songs, which do not seem to have always been of a 
very edifying character, would prove that John Wesley was 
not the first who urged the principle that the best tunes should 
not be left to the devil. The song against games of chance 
(p. 138), deserves the special attention of the student of the 
history of morals in the Middle Ages. Professor Barth's 
researches on the Passive Qual and its Participles will 
undoubtedly be found very instructive by specialists, 
whilst Dr. Berliner's excellent essay From Sad Times 
forms a most interesting contribution to the history of the 
Jews in Italy. For the mwn MtO bv Win 1 ? Clin, edited 
there by Herr Halberstam, from his own library, the student 
of Jewish theology will be very grateful, showing, as it does, 
the divergent opinions of the Jewish schools with regard to 
the position of rationalism in religion. Dr. Lerner's and 
Herr Hurwitz's Notes on some difficult Talmudical passages 
represent again in its best method that side of Jewish learn- 
ing which was current a century ago. 

Not less interesting, both for variety of matter and wide 
scholarship, are the collected essays and articles of the late Dr. 
Low, 1 as well as those of the late M. Arsene Darmestetter. 2 
The former may fairly be regarded as the greatest Talmudi- 
cal scholar of the modern school. Though very liberally 

1 Gesammelte Schriften von Leopold Low. Two vols. Szegedin : 1890. 
Verlag von Alexander Baba. 

2 Beliqnes Scient/Jiques. Paris : 1890. 2 vols. 
VOL III. Y 



336 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

inclined and highly accomplished in every branch of secular 
learning, he shows an acquaintance with the Possekin litera- 
ture which would have been admired even in a Rabbi of the 
seventeenth century. This may be seen from his works 
" Lebensalter," "Die Jiidische Graphic," and in the first 
volume of this collection, where nothing escapes him 
which has the remotest reference to his subject even in the 
most obscure Responsum or Halachic Compendium. The 
present volume, however, is mainly taken up with historical 
studies, the most important being, in my judgment, the 
biography of the well-known R. Aaron Chorin, which 
deserves to be carefully read. It is certainly written 
in a partial spirit, as Low was the disciple and friend 
of Chorin. But this man has already suffered so much 
from the prejudice of the opposite side that there will 
be no harm done if Low's verdict should incline us to 
a more favourable judgment. The mere fact that Zunz 
received his nNTin mnn, Rabbinical diploma, from him 
would serve to prove that Chorin was held in high estima- 
tion by his contemporaries. Of a more strictly scientific 
nature is the work of M. Darmestetter, the first volume 
of which is almost entirely taken up with Jewish studies. 
The essay, Le Talmud, is perhaps one of the best of the kind, 
whilst the Etudes Judeo-Francaises contains an inexhaustible 
mine of philological and historical material, for which the 
scholarly world will feel the more grateful, seeing that the 
number of those who are equally familiar with the two 
languages is extremely small. 

The new Hebrew annual, Kenesseth Haggedolah, edited 
by Herr Suvalski, 1 which is intended to become a kind of 
impartial periodical representing the view of all the different 
parties among the Jews in Russia, does not come up to the 
standard of such journals. I must say that I do not much 
care for this mixed multitude. There is much talk in it of 
nationality, of the importance of a national literature, of 
quarrels about Shochetim and similar topics, but very 
little of scientific value. The only articles worth reading 

1 rb)~lin DD33. Warsaw: 1890. 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 337 

are the few notes by Reifmann, and the review by the editor 
himself of various books. Rather interesting is the pedi- 
gree Herr Friedstein gives ns there (I., 103), — from a 
MS. bearing the signature of R. David, the son of the 
well-known author of the n?3pn T\?&b& — of the Yachya 
family, beginning with Adam and going down to this R. 
David. As the Yachya family believed itself to be descended 
from David, and this pedigree thus includes also the enu- 
meration of the princes of the captivity, Herr Friedstein's 
discovery gains especial importance for the historian. En- 
tirely new is the statement that there was a N"n TVM CN"i, the 
first Jewish exile who emigrated to Poland. It would be 
desirable if Herr Friedstein would give a fuller description 
of the MS. to which we are indebted for this information, 
there being indeed many reasons for suspecting this 
document (see the above-mentioned work by his father, 
pp. 29a, 53&). Much better is the Haasif, of which 
we now have the fifth volume, 1 containing historical 
articles by Weiss on Nachmanides, by Kaufmann on R. 
Sabbathai, Sopher of Premiszel, and by Oppenheim on the 
Tendency of the Aggadoth. 

That indefatigable critic, Schorr, is still working. There 
is, indeed, much in the last number of his Hechalnz 2 which 
comes too late — a review of R. Z. Frankel's Mebo Hayeru- 
shalmi, which appeared in 1870 ; but he gives also fresh matter 
on works published lately, as the Halachoth Oedolothand the 
Besponsa of the Geonim, whilst the lamentation on p. 109, 
which he publishes from a MS., offers a new document on 
the sad history of the auto-da-fes through which the Talmud 
has had to pass. Some important pieces will also be found 
in the last volume of the Ozar Hassifruth, edited by Herr 
Graber. 3 For the republication of the D*PSJ1 1SD, by R. 
Yedayah of Bedres, with supplements by Herr Halberstam, 
a work which was as rare as a manuscript, the editor deserves 

1 f)*DNn, by N. Sokolow. Warsaw: 1887. Weiss' article originally 
appeared in this Review (I. 289 seq.'). 

2 p^rtn, XIII., by H. Osias Scborr. Wien : 1889. 

3 nnsDn -raw, in. ; i889-90. 

Y 2 



338 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

the special gratitude of the literary world. I understand 
that the next volume of the Rabbins Francais, now passing 
through the press, will also treat of R. Yedayah's life and 
his works, and give a full description of the Pardes in its 
different versions. Professor Kaufmann again continues the 
publication of the minute-books in many Jewish com- 
munities, which render very valuable materials to Jewish 
history. This is also the case with the D'llSn plV, an 
account by an eye-witness of the Chmelnizki persecution, 
which was prepared for the new edition by the late Dr. 
Gurland. And lastly I recommend Dr. Oppenheim's Essay 
on Jewish Apostasy and its Causes to the attention of all 
Jewish ministers. They cannot fail to profit by reading it. 

S. SCHECHTER. 



POSTSCRIPT. 

SINCE the foregoing was written the fifth part of Herr 
Horovitz's collection NnpTiJ? KnSDin has appeared, contain- 
ing the m3 D3DD1 KIVO from a MS. in the library of Herr 
Halberstam. It is to be noticed that it is only a fragment, for 
the end of the Boraitha breaks off in the middle of a sentence. 
Now, I have already alluded to the fourth part of this col- 
lection n*0 *nns, which forms an introduction to the part which 
has now followed. But we miss there the name of Schorr, the 
editor of the Hechaluz, who was the first, I think, to draw 
the attention of students to the quotation from this Boraitha, 
as well as to throw some light on its exotic nature. Indeed, 
with all his diligence, Herr Horovitz was hardly able to add a 
single name to the list of the authorities who really saw this 
Boraitha, as given by Schorr in the Hechaluz, vol. VIII. , 
page 50 (see also p. 160, the quotations from Nachmanides' 
Derashah), and Briill in his Jahrbmher II., page 12G. All 
the other writers we meet in Herr Horovitz's notes knew 
it only at second and third hand. I am also inclined to 
agree with Schorr, who, when the first chapter of this 
Boraitha was published in 1882 by Herr Horovitz, in his 
collection ni33 TV3, etc. (II., p. 24), declared it to be D'EOlB'O 
D^NDl (Hechaluz XII., p. 100) corrupt and forged. A 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 339 

similar verdict was given by Briill (ib. 159). It is true that 
it contains certain passages with regard to the isolation of the 
Niddah which might have some claim to a higher antiquity 
when authorities were still more stringent in this respect 
(see Sabbath, 645), but on the whole it makes the impression 
of a manufactured imitation of the Tossephta about the 
Geonaic period, when so many other pieces were forged. The 
attribution of the first Halachah to 'NOB* shows the desire 
of the author to imitate the existing tractate " Niddah," which 
begins with the words "H31K <XDE\ In the name of K. 
Eleazar ben Arach various Halachoth are given, whilst, except 
the saying in Abotk II. 12, and the fact that he was the 
disciple of E. Jochanan ben Zakkai,and afterwards neglected 
his study, the older Eabbinic literature knows nothing about 
him, and neither the Talmud nor the Midrashim contain a 
single sentence from him. It is only on the pseudo-epi- 
graphic chapters of E. Eliezer that his name appears again. 
E. Chanina ben Dossa, who is more known as a saint than as 
a Halachic teacher, we also meet in this Boraitha (p. 11) ; 
but it is a bad anachronism to represent him putting a 
question to E. Chiya, who lived more than a century later. 
This reminds one of the anachronism in the before-mentioned 
chapters of E. Eliezer, in which Ben Azai gives an account 
of the life of E. Simon ben Lakish (ch. xliii.). The story on 
p. 6 about the death of the son of E. Abuha has about it an 
air of solemn mockery, which one meets occasionally in 
the Zohar. E. Nechunyah ben Hakanah, of whom a long 
story is given on p. 86, is also the hero of later forgeries as 
the Bahir. The denominative mJJW, or the verb 1B»p 
(p. 27) are strange to the Talmudic literature, which ha3 
instead of the former DT riDX"), and of the latter \?tW, except, 
perhaps, once in Genesis Eabba xxxv. § 3, in the way of a pun. 

The passage hm D»n D*n!?K nm iVni ibx • • • mew hip na nns» 
c"3 nana na^n looks like a parody of the story in Erubin 
13b. But the preference given to the school of Shammai 
strengthens the suspicion of its Karaitic tendency, which also 
other passages suggest. 

However, even if this Boraitha dates only from the 
Geonaic period, it is still old enough to be regarded as an 



340 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

important contribution to'ancient Jewish literature. Then, 
too, its very exotic nature makes it interesting enough to 
deserve a thorough study. Herr Horovitz himself felt that 
he was not always successful in his commentary. Indeed, 
it would seem that the sources of this Boraitha have 
rather to be sought in Karaitic and Samaritan writers 
than among the Eabbis. The following few extracts from 
MSS. might, however, prove not to be altogether useless to 
the student. I give first an extract from a MS. in the 
British Museum, Add. 27,129 (p. 131&), which bears the 
heading mj pna containing the greater part of rD^n 'N pis 
y ni 'a % and T roi?n 3 pis, but offers some different readings. 
On this follow the m3 nia!?n as they are to be found in the 
s"urb DTfin 'Dip!?, and the *6in mw p, concluding with the 

words nb»31 tn bvh nap ma pna im pbo. 
naipoi m*ayn |o npmo Nme> man n\-i mna ioin »nbb> nu 
Nm it»ni mno 1 ? jrmpoi riNoion pa npmo nw niy n^i pp }& 
♦ nbiDNWjon ,n ° ,N ' nosw mnto «wa nB'sn mnto 1 ? nanpon 
noan nnm dn a"?aa nwsi mm maio ams? pta nrm n -ion 
n^b> no 1 ? ni?^!?n nniNa noy B>ofc6 ni?ya^> man n!? d»ob> nxi* na b»i 
w * n*jB> ^aom iimns? ny ab 1 ? pon d.tjbi piyiao n*aa noy* 
noxy anpn n 1 ?^ no^> ntoa ay Nia^> men n^> pn niona nyaai n"?ao 
'»sni tvwhw Viatani -uonn ab k>bd da!? n*ja noy*i m*ayb 
biaoni -iimne> ny r6ya oy b>db6 ni? *iidn pNn oya nyaai mmeo 
pifc>a pabinn ab 1 ? pon \m2& on ni?N • ewm n^yn nyaai mm 
nw on na^o pDaa »1B' 1 ?1 ii?&» jptn by mi* jn!?B> pnro pbwi 
rbtn • aba nyasi mm ion maoe> nyew yi n moa Nine* £>*n 
D*aaim jna^na punao mm pioii? p*«i rata pi? mom pons? jn 
ion ni?aoK> nye»ae> yi it moa din n*Nn dni Dn*ja to n*xapn» 
P*ni piano pan *oy^> o*on Dn*jaK> |n i"?«i * mom nyjai rntn 
n^T dn na ppna'O ninam piea n*a^>no pna^oi pnoii? puna d*n3 
N**n -Tn ♦ pan oya nyaai mm ion matst? nyE'aK' yn it moa ens 
n^ann nj&'a Dma nyjai nbo ionb> ion new i-as ncxi m^K 
pio!? D*3 s aDi pyoiK> piana d»w jrn^oya o*w jna^na d*w n»33 
«inB> nix n»N"i dn • mnan by jno^ty n^n iiy s!?i nJB>oi min 
ny^at? yn mnoa pyoao inani nanoi inoip ^bb>oi vama on 
t\k nano wi^ ns tj^no «inE> ais n*xn dni DiDa nyaa ion nboB* 



Jewish Literature in 1890. 341 

t vao sw pnn n-n npmi ion ay rat? ponst? nyeot? yn v*i^> i»t 
-iiot5Ti noDi nmn rnmro nsw >o ^>a jn^yn tin nmipK' p i^>n 

^30*3 nH33 HD33 BN ' D»0» ny3B> 101N N3»py 'n nni3 *D> ^3 

tin!? nri&o bni wna nD33oi rnnn wobo H"ina nao nnN-n 
nao "iK>y nn«3 nxn bn tew nrm rnocs>oi rnnn rwipya na^aa 
nvxb nnsn 'i^n ioin war p onr pn : -its>y aw moB'o ^-nna 
n^ya 1 ? ^sson n 1 ? nm3 hn »o» niwen • a«pa nya^ rnoB»o a»o* 
n3ao n*?i b»o nperi n!?i noon dn man n^>i rnp-io vb) naiN n^>i 
n»BN «a»an 't ion : mix ^a nNooo N*ne> *3ao snn ^ao a>o 
Pndo3 n*33 in n^ys idvh noon *aa ^>y nppn kw ma ^e> pnn 
o»oa joxy tin 1^30^ ny riDJDn jvaa Djon 1 ? p-iiDNi mix ba 
noiu ma nvii n^ya riN nB>oe>on a»oan iioni msa pnnt? no!? 
&Kn ' nyixs ppi"? n*33 »33 -in anry 1 ? i^bn mm i!?rw n 1 ?^ n^ya"? 
»3b!? *6i m*n ^a 1 ? n!>i ran vsb vh lncst* nN e>ots6 »kb>i wn 
Ta n*33 iNm avn iniN3 mynn bn no!? awn 1333 : nuaian 
nr .p!? int*Ni p!? WB»ai?oi 1^> no-iu nw n^>n *iiy n"?i mx 
n^a pjid ibni laynn nob> no!? m* ^k>i • mao 1333 -man 
no 1 ? anaian ~<:tb • nan3 njml? pnan ?iidb> -ioNn I?ni pnas ppi^> 
N»nts> n 1 ?^ Tiy k^>i D3i^3 D»aW>o n*33 insm i!?m nsynn nob* 
n!?n q!?5< Nini ion »yoo nxv n^in no"?i • nm r\)pbh l"? noTi3 
nB>oK>t}> n^Nn • inN e»»n3 nscnoi rnaio nn»n nhyi n3 y33t?a 
pi* n»3o pina* n^n diu myt? *nK> iy n»an n!?i m riNTi n^ys oy 
jn^y r3»oo jnyiao o*on inx* dn nn* nx nao^o N*ni a*on Tina 
n^"?a nano yit n3oo nw qn nt?xn tin' ppt?oi p* pa*o ^ 
Pidb-k' n 1 ? pB'iy no nan n^y na3K> n^xn ont di*3 n 1 ? dni tint 
P3n»i t^Nn /o n^yo^> \ipb\m dbtd *o*di n*3"i3 *o s o rb j*N*ao mn 
Tin"? p3^oi nor n3ia!? i"? p«uo a"nNi k>n3 o^nc ny nat iain^ 
m3 N*n^D n^Nn n^xn iioni pDB3 Din n»o n^N^> idin pppoi D*on 
r\)phh 131D1 din u DWi'i pnx!? ono nnN "?ib» nob> n*3iiss pspn n!? 
-imnn n^ m3n *3b!? m3^> tidn pv n"N • msiisa pyni pnt^a 
innn nob* ni3 h& noib^a ^inb* tidni at^n ^nnsi • ion noxni 
yn • noo n»ao nwc mann i^bn ioin n*ona 'i • aipon ^nn^i 
p noa noo Kins? max nx om^i ni»3n nnx i^ 1 ? anN iidn j3nv 
: nn* ^yoo nwn^ iidni noo m3 !?cs> may 
MS. Or. 1389 (p. 76), which I have already mentioned, 
contains also a large quotation from this pia. In the passage 



342 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

ymn ay? n»en Dn»aae> i^>xi it adds a»jni» oaw tbo o^aixi 

lH? 31D P3 pan$>. In another MS. in the same library, I find 
the following quotation from Midrash (ns'in ?) which might, 
perhaps, have proved the conclusion of this Boraitha "ita nckl 
trow ptwnn dik "varm na dw nan t* napa nrnin 't mi nmi* 
mi ^ jmno m^> m or xwb> bis 1x13 naea n>ni d»d» 0?) ia 
m»x* nx xantao *aa n«tn xwb> nntso nae> dv .mw d*o* *t ins 1 ? 
Dnaa -I nan t* -inx^> xma> n"jK> nae> ny naiB»xn na^a nn*n x^> nin 
'131 '1 DV3 1X133 Dn>3£» Dn»1X D'Dan mx 1W p From Oxford 
MSS. I may, perhaps, give here a quotation from Cod. 692 
(Catalogue Neubauer), 137a, which has some relation to the 
subject. 

t/bw rnaiyo^i np^nb noD bxnn mm 'lyixpon -isd3 31m 
tnm to nnt3»*j3 feari pa» na b&zn tb "w tmn T3 iy xwn 
01^ mxi ia iW ov!? mx pin* cd* JV31 di» W? ^ nan 
n *:ni iiy n3 ainai pxa naityn 3man ■•ax ♦dksd pi ia nzHprw 
it X3n ^>x nioini niBai nun maiyo it of?iy Viaa a"Dn vb x»n 
t vnpnyn X313D onax mi ^ it n3 , -na» np:*D 

Of more importance, however, is the following extract from 
Cod. 1101 (Catalogue Neubauer), fol. 209a,. which is given in 
n"*B* }D'D npll, with some variations in the name of the 

: owton nwo 

ah i^ax nana my3^> ma newan • pxa nnyD 310 (209a. 
n!? nM* x^x nnis>i mn ja d»» naaa nb nyma ppi^> nut? nnn 
ip^i onnx ix n"?y3 \nbv idit jb n»aisx p*pn x^>i nnnv& ^a 
^>iami nias'-m ine»x ny E>atj>a K>wa iaix my p iry^x "1 • prrca 
npi!? T>ai .T-a -pn^> naniai nniT-a di np&i nx 1 ^ iaix .m"pn na 
Dian nx nixi?ai? iidxi jn^icn !?y 3Km man n!? px m*an • mm 
nnmv new nne»x xna^n 'i idk • nxoo x»nt}> >aaD 13 nnip^nS 
ncyn : X3.n cb)$ "rb inxnoi oan^a bv nana n^ya nx moswn 
inun i^nnn mtao nnx mx m iabn x^>i noK' nnx T>c6n3 
1!? 'oxi iDi^n3 va'y na'pn npa niatj' in mm ir iidxi iniaa^ 
nyaai m^a in^x nay nnx nya nx o wo muy i3y x^> fvan 
Dman iin3 -pnn inun ixn nbbi • laoo mnyn iaan id^ maaa 

: py pa d»d nia^y iin3 

s. s.