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158 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Graetz. Oar author makes it evident that in all the quotations 
adduced by Rapoport in proof of his conjecture, the name of Kara 
does not occur in MSS., and even for Simeon we often read Samson. 
From the extracts of late Midrashim found in the Yalqut, e.g , the 
Jiabba on Deuteronomy and the Ablihir, Herr Epstein is right in con- 
cluding that the Yalqut was compiled, at the earliest, at the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century ; this was also the opinion of Zunz, 
but our author adduces many more proofs for his conclusion. The 
bibliography of the Yalqut in print and in MSS., partially and entirely, 
with which Herr Epstein finishes his learned monograph, is a very 
welcome addition to the essay. A. N. 

[P.S. — We are glad to find an opportunity for correcting an 
erroneous statement made in our Review on Herr Epstein's Eldad 
(Jewish Quarterly Review, III., p. 542), and to which he kindly 
drew our attention. We there stated, following a quotation in the 
Journal Asiatique, that R. Jonah, in his dictionary, speaks of Danites, 
whilst in our edition of this Arabic text we adopted the reading 
of the Rouen MS., where it ?aid : '•Jin ?3"l, the Danite, a reading 
which is al-o confirmed by Thabbon's translation, who gives K"5<n 
"OID (See Jewish Quarterly Review, I., p. 98, note 6.)] 



Thomas Aquinas and Judaism. 
Das Verh'dltniss des Thomas von Aquino zutn Judenthum und zur 
judischen Litteratur (Avicebron und Maimonides). Von Dr. 
J. Guttmann. Gottingen : 1891. 

Thomas Aquinas was no philosophical fanatic. As Dr. Guttmann 
shows, he adopted Maimonides' theory of creation, though it was 
opposed to the current and traditional theology of the Church. His 
tolerance, moreover, was extended to Jews, as well as to their doc- 
trines. He objected to any violent attempts at the conversion of the 
Jews, and maintained that the persecution of them was only lawful 
if necessary in self-defence — "Ut eos compellant ne fidem Christi 
impediant." He pronounced most emphatically against the forced 
baptism of Jewish children without the consent of their parents, 
partly on the prudential ground that the Church would suffer in 
prestige if these children subsequently relapsed to Judaism, and partly 
on the generous plea that such baptisms infringe the natural rights of 
parents — " Contra justitiam naturalem esset, si puer, antequam habeat 
usum rationis, a cura parentum subtrahatur, vel de eo aliquid 
ordinetur invitis parentibus." Jews ought to be allowed the free 
exercise of their religion and the observance of its ceremonies. 
Necessary intercourse with Jews was quite permissible to pious 



Critical Notices. 159 

Christians, provided that the latter were sufficiently firm in their 
faith to incur no danger of being shaken in it by familiarity with 
unbelievers. As to the right of Jews to possess Christian slaves, 
Thomas gives a twofold answer. Oq the one hand, no new right of 
this kiud should be granted ; but existing rights must not be set 
aside : " Jus autem divinum, quod est ex gratia, non tollit jus 
humanum, quod est ex naturali ratione." A similar distinction was 
drawn by Aquinas on the question of usury, which greatly exercised 
the Mediaeval Church. With regard to the Jewish usurers, Thomas 
points with satisfaction to the case of Italy, where the Jews did not 
practise money-lending, being permitted to engage in other enter- 
prises, and suggests that the Jews should be "compelled" (how 
•willingly would they have undergone this compulsion !) to earn their 
livelihood by industrial occupations. In bis De regimine Judteorum, 
Aquinas justifies a less tolerant policy ; but Dr. Guttmann plausibly 
urges that he was answering the questions of the Archduchess 
Margaret of Flanders in her sense rather than in his own. Aquinas 
favours the retention of the degrading Jew-badge, and bases this 
opinion, as so many other theologians have done, on the fact that the 
Mosaic law had already enjoined a distinctively Jewish dress. But 
the Mosaic fringes were no longer worn by the Jews of his time on 
their outside garments, and a voluntary uniform is quite another 
thing than a legally enforced and rather hideous yellow patch. 

Turning from Aquinas' views regarding the Jews to bis relations 
with their literature, Dr. Guttmann points out that Aquinas escaped 
one fruitful source of Jew- hatred — he was not instructed by con- 
verted Jews. Only in one solitary passage does he quote the Talmud. 
His knowledge of Judaism and of Jewish interpretations of Scripture 
was derived from Maimonides and Jerome. In his philosophy he was 
influenced from the Jewish side by the former of these, and by Ibn 
Gebirol (Avicebron), and it is to these influences that Dr. Guttmann 
devotes his main attention. The author's present brochure is terser 
and less laboured than some of his previous works. He wisely adopts 
the newer fashion of displaying in full in the foot-notes the original 
passages commented on in the text ; and, as a secondary advantage, 
Dr. Guttmann s essay will thus be quite intelligible to readers who 
can read Latin but not German. Interesting, however, as are Dr. 
Guttmann's parallels and contrasts, the interest lies rather in the fact 
that Aquinas consciously studied the works of two leading Jewish 
philosophers, and drew occasional inspiration from them, than in the 
actual points of contact themselves. Therefore I shall only briefly 
indicate what are the precise parallels elaborated by Dr. Guttmann 
with his usual breadth of philosophical knowledge and depth of critical 
insight. 



160 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Aquinas devotes a special treatise, De substanliis sepamtis, to a full 
criticism of Ibn Gebirol's characteristic doctrines ('' quem," says 
Thomas, " multi sequuntur ") regarding the distribution into matter 
and form of substantia separata (angels, spiritual beings lower than 
the divine grade), and Ibn Gebirol's theory that the same identical 
substance is the underlying basis of material and spiritual beings. 
Aquinas and the Thomists after him reject these doctrines, but they 
continued to exercise an influence, since they formed one of the battle- 
grounds between the Thomists and their opponents the Scotists. 
Aquinas, however, owed much more toMaimonides than to Avicebron ; 
and Dr. Guttmann occupies two thirds of his brochure (pp. 31-92) with 
this topic. It is not merely in the adoption of isolated philosophical 
doctrines that Aquinas shows his indebtedness to Maimonides, for, as 
Dr. Guttmann shows, the whole theology of the Christian sc plastic 
was tinged and moulded by that of his Jewish predecessor. To the 
Patristic school Plato had been the guiding light, and the teachings 
of the Church had gradually been brought into harmony with the 
Platonic system. In the 13th century, however, Aristotle regained 
the supremacy, but the more pronounced that the predominance of 
Aristotle became, the more difficult grew the task of reconciling 
philosophy with religion, the Bible having been proved to agree with 
Plato and not with Aristotle. Moses Maimonides in his Guide to the 
Perplexed had largely solved this urgent problem by elaborating a 
harmony between Aristotle and the Scriptures. Maimonides' work 
was translated into Latin at the beginning of the 13th century, and 
gave a strong impulse to scholastic movements in the same direction. 
In this tendency, Saadiah, Judah Halevi and Abraham ibn Daud had 
led the way, but their works, says Dr. Guttmann, were inaccessible to 
Aquinas, who was, however, well acquainted with the Guide of 
Maimonides. This is no doubt true, but Thomas, it seems to me, if 
under no direct obligation to Saadiah, shows a remarkable coincidence 
with Saadiah's method. In the Summa Theologica Aquinas always 
comes forward with a text, and then proceeds to prove his case by 
arguments based on reason. This, occasionally in the reverse order, is 
Saadiah's invariable course ; it is certainly not that of Maimonides. 
Dr. Guttmann takes the points of contact between Maimonides and 
Aquinas in the following order : — Reason and Revelation, Knowledge 
of God, God and his Attributes, The Doctrine of Creation, Angels 
and Prophecy, on many of which subjects Dr. Guttmann shows that 
Aquinas adopted the conclusions of Maimonides. The third part of 
the Guide is occupied with a more or less rationalistic explanation of 
the Mosaic ordinances, which are thus forcibly wrenched into accord 
with the Maimonist philosophy. Aquinas adopts a large part of this 
section of Maimonides' work. He fully accepts the Jewish philosopher's 



Critical Notices. 161 

doctrine that all the Pentateuchal laws had a rational justification, 
and were intended to promote a reasonable worship of God. Aquinas 
accepts Maimonides' well-known theory of the sacrifices, but adds to 
it in place of the Jewish philosopher's rational exposition a mystical 
reference to types. He utilises Maimonides' views on many other 
rites and ordinances ; but for a detailed account of these points of 
agreement I must refer the reader to Dr. Guttmann. His essay is a 
distinct contribution to the history of the influence of Jewish on 
general philosophy, and forms a worthy continuation of Jellinek's 
publications regarding Aquinas, and of Joel's able inquiry into the 
relation of Albertus Magnus to Maimonides. 

I. Abrahams. 



D'"!,. ErVduterungen der Psalmen-Haggada von R. Jedaja Penini 
Bedarschi, lebte im 14. Jahrhundert. Heravsgegeben und mit einer 
Einleitung versehen. Von Salomon Bubee, Krakau, 1891 (in 
Hebrew). 

We have lately mentioned this author's indefatigable zeal for the 
Midrashic literature (Jewjsh Quarterly Review, III., p. 769). 
The present edition of Jedaiah's commentary on a part of the 
Midrash on the Psalms, issued in honour of Dr. Jellinek's seventieth 
birthday, will be welcomed by scholars, since the old edition of 1559 
is not to be easily obtained. Of course, Jedaiah's philosophical com- 
mentary on chapters i. — xxxvii., and cix., will not give us a better 
understanding of this Midrash, but the work belongs to the better class 
of rabbinic literature, and the author of it is well known by his ethical 
work in rhymed prose, called Behviath Olam, or " Examination of the 
World." Herr Buber follows here his usual method in giving a 
preface on the life and the writings of the author whose work he 
edits. He enumerates first the MSS. in which this commentary is to 
be found, continuing with the commentator's biography, and the 
enumeration of his works. The editor was well prepared for his task, 
having derived his information from libraries and from various 
catalogues, and, above all, he had the advantage of being able to make 
use of the advanced sheets of the Histoire litteraire de la France, x., 
xxxi., not yet published, a work which will contain a very detailed 
article concerning the poet and philosopher of Beziers, the son of the 
poet Abraham of Beziers, based upon the latest researches. 

A. Neobauer. 



VOL. IV.