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24 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 



EGYPTIAN FRAGMENTS. II 1 . 

A. 

This fragment, containing the last twenty verses, had 
altogether seventy-six verses, as we see at the end. It 
is a kind of holy r6a», provided with vowel-points and 
accents in red, analogous to the scroll of the Hasmoneans 
(see Harkavy, in his D\JiB*r6 |1"DT, Part V, p. 207, and 
J. Q. R. IV, 493)- 

It seems that the first sixty-one contained the religious 
preamble without historical data. Verses 62-70 relate the 
following historical fact : " And it was in the days of the 
king, who is called our master, Hadan b e Omer-El, who 
ruled over the land of Egypt, and in all the corners of the 
earth, west and east, north and south. His kingdom was 
exalted and strengthened, and his throne was higher than 
the throne of his fathers and forefathers. Thirteen years 
old was he when he began to reign, and he carried on his 
government with largeness of heart and a good understand- 
ing, and needed neither minister nor counsellor. Many 
plots were made against him, and many enemies rose up 
against him, but God made them to fall under the soles 
of his feet : because he loved righteousness and hated 
iniquity, and set up judges in the land and commanded 
them to judge and decide in equity and truth. He took 
away the violent men and removed the foolish : he rejected 
them that pervert their way and are corrupt in their doings. 
But he loved men of understanding, and to establish judg- 
ment and the way of goodness." The sense of the subsequent 
lines is not clear. Perhaps it means that Hakim created 
1 See The Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. VIII, p. 541. 



EGYPTIAN FRAGMENTS 25 

prisons and workhouses, and that he had the Nile regulated 
by dams. 

ViT 1 jDWtan dwaan lpviyn ntswa waai Jim nnro iy w ma 1 
tpvy ba flb nooi nni> ban maW matron dvnya cnta dy 
mjn Disatw nui nra n dyi> wan bto nta bai : dnan $>xi 
* i>t« D1W31 d-npa ini -in ^aai : d«n py idid dnar i>y nit6m 
hddw D^na dwa Dnb n^s ,, 'i cstb^o [pn]b dV dm[no> , ni>K 
nni3N nna |yoi> :^oi ita $>a ^ya tavern dni> fn^ d^oa an 
{Dnnsty nnan Tibbi Dawn ton -«?n lrnin jyoh 
cnso psa "jhcn ta-wtfsa fin wans tnpan i^on wa w 
ptnm iniata naani c^ai pava rntei aiym pan maas ^woni 
nae> mcy n^ p :vnuN niaw vnias nd3»d inds dt ,, i pwni 2 
Twzb T>va sh be aitaai 3^ anna nataon b na awi 13^3 n<n 
d^nta d^i vby i»p d^np noai v6y wp dneip noa :j>yv6 n^ 
pN3 d^Daic noyi yen sam pTi 3ns ^ ;yD^ :v6a"> niaa nnn 
id ,| 'i Don'^ax ns pTm :noN dbe>d taistph pns p pi> dw 
^ac tid ns antw :^ya?a naai i"n 'aboo na ayn^i jin tio ns 
dny 3^1 pnv^ inan« ann w :aion -pi nsi oa^on arc? nxi 
"jta ba zb by nby t6 "itw rM '•omwh mWah imai? d^acsa 
: matpei v^a din Dn^yo 3 [p]s '•a i>ai> jnvi : pt&p 5>a ma imp n^i 
■'ay <"vdn nmna «js on-nwo dSd 11 -ib>k bno wn nnina da 
ba xa uijr iwity iva bo wns nnyi : d!?n3 >nn3 yna 1 " nsyx l>rai 
inpi nmn 3^ n3^i iyaan da^am ^y daa3^ ww wnnN *nb« * 
dn ,, a3i' da ,, a3i da ,, a3i' nnadi d^a^a^y naa mctJi dnt •nar :idid 
yn in-'Dn iann iam n^ntm nmn la^nfi] uib> :nriN ->iii» dn ,, a3i? 
i^n [i>a] "6i»an ^>a inancn i>si da^^yoi da^am u^nfi] ^yon 
-iDi wn^N w ' iaa nN ^s* ^D''' , iK>to 13 nnon siiai voma tataa 
\yftbi d^aiCNi nna tyio^i nias nna jyoh ide> }yo^ layE^M lams 
naityoi T«ao la'nbx , " da> nt :n^a nicy ^a nxr da pjni nnoan 
vnit6[D3] ifx DTwa nvah cohy vahyh onn "vn^ d^iy nyi nyn 
lmDDn lninaty ini^n jiddd 4 levy manai nT>aa ia^s vma^noi 
© jiTi^n d/iyb ^ nDNi non ia^y naa ^ 

piDa Vy iTplDB d13D 
] Fol. i, recto. 2 Fol. i, verso. 3 Fol. 2, recto. 4 Fol. 4, verso. 



26 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

There can be no doubt that Hadan b e Omer-El is identical 
with the King of Egypt, named Al-Hakim bi-Omr-AUah, 
who reigned from a.d. 996 to 1021. This is the opinion 
of my friends Profs. De Goeje (Leiden), Briinnow (emeritus 
Heidelberg), and D. S. Margoliouth (Oxford). The last had 
hit the right point in saying that pn is a Hebrew transla- 
tion of Al-Hakim. Ibn Al-Athir says that Al-Hakim came to 
the throne at the age of eleven years and five months, the 
Hebrew document says thirteen years. I suppose the 
Hebrew date, as by a contemporary, is here more reliable 
than the Arabic historians. The Arabic documents do not 
mention that Hakim was at one time favourable to the 
Jews, possibly this favour did not last long. Hakim, 
indeed, it is said, treated the Jews badly. 



B. 

The following document x contains a letter by R. Nissim, 
sent by R. Menahem ben Eliyahu, and is written in the form 
of a roll on both sides, damaged in some places, which we 
have marked with .... It seems to refer to the first crusade 
in which the Germans acted a special rdle (p. 27, 1. ]6), as 
well as the French (p. 27, 1. 20), who went to Salonica (p. 27, 
1. 26) and Constantinople (p. 27, 1. 21). Tobiah (p. 28, 1. 3) 
is probably Tobiah ben Eliezer, author of the aio npb mo, 
a Midrash on the Pentateuch and the scrolls, who lived at 
the time 2 . Michal Yenimts (p. 28, 1. 4) ; Ben Ahron (p. 28, 
1. 5) ; R. Nissim (p. 28, 1. 6) ; Ebjatar, chief of the school of 
Tripoli (p. 28, 1. 9), who speaks of some miracles in Salonica, 
are unknown to me. R. Eliezer hag-Gadol (p. 27, 1. 29) 
is perhaps identical with his namesake at Mayence, and 
Tobiah of Thebes (p. 28, 1. 28) perhaps not identical with 
R. Tobiah (p. 27, 1. 31 ; p. 28, 11. 2, 11). We see from this 
letter that there were Jewish congregations in Roumania 

1 MS. in the Bodleian Library. 

3 See Buber's preface to his edition of the Lekach-Tdb (on Genesis and 
Exodus), Wilna, 1880. 



EGYPTIAN FRAGMENTS 27 

(Roumelia, p. 28, 1. 26), one of which was at Salonica. The 
Black Mountains (p. 28, 1. 12) and the land of the Khozars 
(p. 27, 1. 19) are mentioned. Possibly one of our readers will 
find the clue to this mysterious oracle. The vertical lines 
mark the end of the lines in the MS. 

onmxn aan n . . . I bx nana jvvb nrbtt 

t& p'xnjn ii :" ni3B»no ij>t xi> nm | :im pxa mm sunn 
ijt£k nan | d»pro ropn nac « '•ana wnx iyn bx pun | xtaru 
orpjai arrow dj? on d^x '■abx | • ynb iddd px!> dnaacxn ixai 
I [dnjimm a^iart arte a^xm * pi:6 wn^x axapi | aai»» b ajn 
anoixi a'oijn anxyi | aarapDi aaTia annrn hd^ an^ anoixi 
I mxa lbru nnjn 1:6 aninp inn nn anac | a^rom a'aienrt na 

E»X1 aJIE^ Dn^D 13X I pxi 1DDD px nj) d^HlXI fflOlX WXTI ^13 

I a^xa urux rum aaann^ iab ub ncxi | aaino xy nnx 

nai i3\-6x a^p *"ma an»[ix] | ijxi a^xai d^bto urate nt Sn 
anaapxri «^e> | nypai annxn a^a^n ^x &i\n inna | npxh 
px na ^im nap wn^x nox* tx pun | vbom ^xnty pxa a^ia 
aipon (?) pa mpnxai | niuyna • » bx »bm wu m^npn bi | '« 
pxi anayn nano ^x mSnp npy runt? | noxeo la^m mnra^x 
2 n:wE> jtwna pxo | an '^ dx a^acn ay niniru dx a^ynv | ux 
3ina3 I ainaco imaru x!> pxnjn muDDipDx^xa | a^ana dj; rr6e> 
niSnp rwDJDDipfob 3inp[e>] | pros aip»a rwtMDDipi'xa am aa^x 
in^x 3 ixa lctan | "" nrna ua nnion trx i>xun nana | rap nuap 
xh ux x^ oubv t6i ii &y npy I T"> a uai nana wb rtai 
no aanua yai> tm bax | • aunui • auonnn t6x rwtMDDip | ^np 
a^ra^n I a^njn amm a^uaax lxac cnnpn bnpa | n^p^i^a mnaty 
nanni D'-Dnvo dwx ^y | di^na xh ^aa ^irf in^x n^wt? na'Di 
nty^x i ^y n^Ji Dmrpm'* D^nyn dnuoty dc itn | Dmarai ninix 
1^ jru D«JDaxn | •ncxi ni^xai hnan ntji^x i p nnvT | i bw ua 
DDin ••ai' I d^njjn itjih n^pui^a vrnty dTiaion | nnua bx ntao 
iT>ai I nnx nno^ri 5 n?;2' n^aiD wan da | nax^o i?ao dnin^n i^oana 

1 MS. rt. 2 So MS. 3 So MS. wii? 

4 Verso, in margin ; headed ntra. 

5 Text Ti'ttW ; the end of note headed ntPC. 



28 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

irm woipoo nim dt? nvn | cnwib .'WDJODipbx bx nmna rrwx 
nirox | ia ainai maio wan -ww anan ntni | min nn ia 
mn»n m n^n iai i^bx | rbu innx oai woipoa vn qvibioi 
wan anaa nx"iE> ctap^v. ^ ,D iw | (two words crossed out) 
!TW I rrpviibtya nw ">ann pnx in bx^o nrbe> frya | rraic 
bxa^o nn win jni" 1 D'd^ i cm | wya ntni npanai wy wa -my; 
Dnjpo | wti ub xno ff.n dxs? anan pcna npb xbi | matya ntpy 
an na^ cxi w 13 -inna ub | maru niyi nana wexnt? ca'bx 
deb 1m I fWtMDDip bnp '•bx Dbaxno jo cniao ana | pan nnnx 
ub ixut iwn xb ibw d3i bny.n | ffib nn nw anan »ni cbok n 
nnio n fo | onna bap3K> dmpo «s nypm dma dn 13 | n pens 
n^p^bea nw bmn wn by | cnoin tixt? nianpn mbnpn joi 
i Dnix I ynv ncxa npn pxb ny dninn nx d^bnyn | d*xw iw 
wib^ nnntw nn xb "jbob | yocwi bn> naioi dj i"?.n xb dx&' d^Di 
d^eoyi I nbubu xba bna noaa onw dn nyeni l cbai nw " 

■ T ■ ' 

I d^iipD dn no otiv urate pxi d'tenj? | wx naxboi nin^boa awvi 
loxy pob^n nyen bax | uwon dnaa nann nba* xbe> dnnano uxi 
inao I n^puibcn nrn nob onw ^x obia dnoix | bnan poaxm 
dnxi onb jwb dnx bar xbi dnb nny | ncp "jboni da'DMi da'na nx 
naen Dabc? | n^on x^ 13 mob nnna 13 dnbin dnx px | pny 
nawna « bs «3K> lorox dj bxb | naen dnnano wn px bxb 
d^pih I '•^oni' y^ dnnxi dv baa coix naini | nipnvai nwyna 
n^p'oib^b^ nyioc^n uyotw J onipi dn^nuiiya n^nm dnnnoi nipbo 
rvyybw by \ d^ynv wn xbi d^nyn dji dnini nioibn | d'-xn vn 
nnx nxnt? ny dna dnyu w«n xbx | dnnanb d^oxo u^n xbi diba 
vtspm I n«3on ni^np ba 13 yoe>; xb"^ diip 101b na | ;na niiT 
xac? ny n^i « , X3ib' dn "3 wnoxi | u oiyai iixx 1 ; dtsnsi nw^ibtra 
n^p^ib^a I DTteioi ninix mm nn an3 xnm Da"n jo | n^aio 
no ban dsb n^i de>b n^aio xni | mm 00 d^vapno nib'np nnnxi 
oaaiD' 1 '' | dx irnx nnyi jnan mmn nxit^ dibnn xxji | nxii yotfty 
ynvi yocc no d-yiv wnoxt? | ntnn mitrai nyiot? daoy w dx bxn 
n^oj I woy #yn dxi d^yivi dnyoci> dnx dJ na^n | tfxn o^nx 

dnyot^i ffjnv dnx no wb una nnDn 



EGYPTIAN FRAGMENTS 29 

onnano «k pni | wik yoc itan i^ax "a ofa nnsn iw (verso) 
d^ tail naitpna v^np bs ipm^ | Miiaa htso ana sia 11 dni 
orao "on ijwi I ta^na npah " Dima mjr6 larni aio -tat? | Dai> 
■ow I ai-6 my 13 nvja^xn ni^"nn Wfcm | rwn in onc^ ni3nb> 
jox wnyai | cia^a I?. 11 bun) ioe'a'' rax ynv 
2 b 6 I pD^ ail no ^naion inn ^vko anan it 
m I p dd orao ain wan -ww anan n (verso, in margin) 

yi in^s 



The following document was copied by my learned 
friend, Mr. Schechter, from a MS. in roll form, preserved 
in the University Library of Cambridge. It contains data 
concerning the Nagid Meborakh (J. Q.R. VIII, 555) who was 
greatly favoured by Al-Afdal 3 , King of Egypt (p. 35, 1. 12 
from below), who lived in the years A. D. 1096-1121. The 
MS. is much damaged, and it is doubtful whether the order 
of the document is rightly given by us. The missive is 
full of poetical pieces and biblical verses, so that the real 
document is short. But we see by this the style of such 
documents coming from Egypt. It will perhaps show the 
political relation between Egypt and Constantinople, which 
was represented by a Patriarch (p. 35, 1. 2 from below). 

Recto. 

...... nn , n'> nmax 

nima onja ci-ov cma yva 

mnnaa ysm *pn epn f>rn 

mncn mna Dip did dt apo 

ninina vb mans many niaiai 

ni»\3B>» nio*3» nioroi 

niniaj msntpi ni^nsi moa 
nimoi^ ind Tiaf^ -naai nini 

1 MS. pinion. 2 Crossed out in the MS. 

3 According to Arabic sources, Afdal had the principal management of 
the kingdom under Abu-1-Kasim Ahmad. 



30 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

ninptsa ... 0) mx nii'po awia 
nin^D pDipa niswni nienpi 
nw6n ,jn nin» i>y " nnai 

(t) nnnu nwi 

.... myiT pnna 

roniN3i trnawa niDoa 

nwatw csj b!> tpaui cain nn^ 

nmacai D'tnrui mina 

nuviy . . . i>inc6i i>ina •bz hmi» ^nai 

ninwo i^at? n^y i^mnS* 

. . . niohy nrwi mxo b6b> 

(?)mn*»y t^ urns!* i»rani> -ioins 

ninma mna . . . pnah p"\~\zb 

ronine> mne> nrrn? 1123 . . . 

mnoa . . . ano mxa nnsp *ra 

ninvun naiy ninioi »nhs T31 

rums onniN iw -ib>n 

ninem Tin b nwo uisn 

mrooo rocN imp* s6i ita 

(?)nmmn nwa lya* sh u^ 

roma rw DrvnunK iw iaiy 

ninjy rroy Ttpynh -wani> 

ronvjm nam dtix^ dtih^ 

mman mnW nutwn nxs ny^> 

nmie> nywn '•j^yoo fitwa cd 

ninaio m!>ta arts tdt!> 

ninuya mx ^ana tomb 

aaccx tnx ^ana ncxa 

nans ninuya 

nniDN Diiito ie'n tsnipn ni^np ^n 
nna a^n car woo onios 
nnyu "woi ca^DD on» ona 
nna n^> ibtoi c'nab onyu 



EGYPTIAN FRAGMENTS 3 1 

ancia npb *3 jiDvn 310 tax 11 ana 

ansn iWm a-nm p3Tnb an»ia 

ann mD3 !?x mi» a^aicK amn 

anyn insoo Tia 'o 10b yrv am 

annroi d^bo arvKaiK* *asi (?)Snp anyn 

anai b^k b5>b6 nn^a annwi 

(?)an? D3 . . . ibdd p&6 mh anai 

(Oanoit wi lysts^ am isjn* ant 

amn "03 t« wi a^ix anon 

anenn nywn yjjoo D*B3i anin 

anio e>toe »3 nuio nmtn anew 

amno nnb annsn biikd amo 

anv Dy a^pi? amtj'x a^piT anino 

antr -inaco -\k>n^ a^n anr 

Dnoi3 jro anntn 3in ^ amr 

am *jibb& nuicn penao an»i3 

anoint anyt? -v iyv anma ana 

anani> nmv pw ^pn^> ^3 anoint 

antapo tryD3 D'piu maws anani> 

annara anix na bi itrv (?) aws anapo 

amya mnx rmni> ansaata 

ansia urwn , t i i»y amis aniya 

an'-yc rmpm nnao^ ttai^p anvia 

amo «h nioi>V3 nmn ••am an^yc 

amy nny an axi ib-w nw anno 

any rowa y3^i np3i jnvd amy 

anas w an^pini await? any 

Dnena anan av iDp 11 anas 

anas -iNa^> iW>nrp nvcnp anpis 

anx a"avv3 anaiai aniyta anas 

an3p na a^swi a'avyn arta ans 

anp traa ^y a*»3 iaa-n inns' 1 an3p 

ann nin^ns a^yani* nix^n anp 



32 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

anye> wo cpiu car ann 

anxin a*aa '•a insc anye> 

anan wn "fa o^aiDD ^aan anxin 

'31 D^aiDO 1JB1$>N DN3 

• am pxa annn • win trip nu ya • mmpn mfopn ncn 
(?)nain ana ae> isioa ie>x tunaoinp ntopan naitan i*y mm 

• naaai narrn ' naan^i a^a^ w • naitan yob "110556 • nanso a^iy 

• naiN^na nrvn * naw r\)b:b) * nawn ~\Dnb • na^ani? iw ^o ama^o 
nnionp^ • rnpai> dk» tjmra • ruo-ine a*n»x3 • naayno avno 
caa noan * naitann poNnni * naipy bio * name rviwnb * na^n^ 
nmenn • na^pa "^ooa • naitwim nbmm * namno manna • naw 
rntoi ' naaai naovi * naa^ n&oinm • nawii> ni^pm • namni? 
nnn ik^di • nawn bph * nana ansa * raws msrb • na-iyoi 
'oina • nany^ miff nnaoi • naroi naf npnb • nsyrfan "ob • (?)na^aa 

'^ nanyi 
• 'ai mvp nnao 

nionya nwoi . nvo ^araa roeita 
moa i>y Tpnb . nioinn naoo 

metn nniD'o . mown y&nb 
room na ta» . meiriD niavmi 
iron ^an^> . mon mmi 

nionpn itnnrvi . niopaa yaw 

mohan maa^ . nionam nmoni 
moi>y n»B>a . niocNn aipoi 

niop-6 tavi . nioaip io«pm 

moip ninaaa . niiobiv niaain 

moixyr6 nx^nani . nio 1 ^ nyiwii 
'ai nj&ren m Tion 'oik a"pi> 
'ai 'k>031 a6t5> niaa 'oy a^i 
aniw anna aipo * am a^o naiy * ntj>yo w aariK ^nyacn 
at5>n daix JV3X cciyn • nooi • n^yo niNasa int? *o an" 1 >am 
aa->yi> (?)iata a^oan iyot5> • an6y niDa^ may jnin$> niw bna 
bjik wan '•awn »mo« aa^ao nae>n «^ * naia nayaa (?) m a^n«D3 



EGYPTIAN FRAGMENTS 33 

vb Tttoai • '■np'u vb ^na jn ippity ipEH3»i V^ ''P 360 ,3 ^ 
masi nB> ^a."& tyio "by Nip ' * t '•a nwp '•a *iixd "6 ts • ynap 
rohat^n i^D3 • co |ye>D 5>ai on^> jytpo b nsytwi tyro *a»o -vorb 
Dijaa roy-6 scan ruinj& \ja^ tv nn • ni^D ^>y -raiaa -pn atsm 
Tiann 'o • bx '•b ^y i^sm • cosm oniaa nvao bo • cstiw eip^i 
o • natn Tijnt new nyo^ nam * nanxn ^ax own irT 1 • twitm 
ibis no '•jin 13 • jnw baiN nam ma nbrvro yn sai wp aio 
jvsa dn ntiiT m nriDso dnd.t • voix vtb sniy 'w nan new nns 
new jNsn Dyo ne>D3 ns $>yi * tono i3i> jw wan jnno t^ nby: 
13 • atrn -loiK p«i nam ^vo jw tab vn i»w *6i jtnrr p3ip 
n\jN i&wn * D^Na n^ nowi nrb tirb ormv in*" 1 nyn !>n njn» 
hna rva ba npyrn na^pn '•a ^n »ws onT itreo t6i • Dn3B> 10a ai» 

Verso. 
'31 bai virr mini i 331 ^^ vq owy ^ n »N [ ] 
"3i jyob nan nx am y>-\ \a& niN3v « prn tban 
cpipy b^ qiqbb'di « nip-nt rwy 
'31 Q^pitfyb Daw n»»y 
'31 cam !?y i*?an "ie>na -ib>k!> inv oniDt6 ids!? 
■anta miy nt?3^> tiik « ncc "o jy ^y d^n * nn 
'31 nnn dw ntrt* ovitpyn ba nx nxnxi 'on Ton 
D^u^i? anp^ ab natwb danl> 
nip npa onioxh mm 
'31 ^ }in n3^ Nllp^ 
nwiaa oniDN k*»o nn^a o^rv awe d^n^N 
Nb rrao TDN i3D»D N^ni? nmy ao'y mpa^ 
'31 ^y *t>dk nioSvi yvr\ *aw 
* 13 )>n qio ii3D in'DN ""nn^ inns ona nx D3 

1^ 3*B>N TWO Tito DVn D3 HipnH n">DN \VWlb U1B> 

'31 T3a Tmiyi anas insSo ntrp mini ^ ^a^ i 3 
'31 jyo^ jdti Tniay mm 
'31 3py T>nx Dono 
'31 ntfN 11 ibiw noN 1 ' '31 3py ..." ma 'a 

VOL. IX. D 



34 



THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 



'ai fDTi wai jibv niy '31 'NO QX3pN [ ] 

'ai nspa "jma mm d« '31 'vih '•on paxb new 

'31 122b nx *• tai '31 yrbx « -jsnm 

'31 IDE' ri1N35f * W^MU 'ai f>3 DN T""^* " f™1 
'31 TIB3 '•O 5>NnB» mnE>x 

'31 >f? naaE> ayn ■new 

'31 '•KIP t33K>e 'HOIt? n{5»N 

i>y '•jnir Danew 

'31 nynn 'jnv dyn ntsw 
nyici nanna tnn6 d^anei 
nyin nana oy d^enbi 
njn tbvk ana Nsen &6 '•a 
nyioE> aiaa anon d"wi 
njwi nh«3 dmoa cwi 
'31 njn arrbt* nawn t6 
'31 'b6 orb nw vas^e H a 

Dan'' 1BT i?N iptn BHN1 

aanhya^ nac »* *a 
a^men b daaa^ pexn iptn 

da^rsa TiinKi v^o yicK* iyefc> 
'31 inii wan Tn naiy b ca^N t6 



nyic?n nan ?ip arnica nrx 

nyen ny ba mm* dnain 

njn nya icw $b 

nym nean d^pao dm 

nyma qidb' noi3 aW 

♦ nyiD nyoD anetyi 



vwwan *b niv npa '•a 

viuai *33 "hw pnnm 

• lining B*enm 

• iniSTii myi 

♦ Tiiiw itavyi 
♦ *nince» myi 

• viro lawi 



Tllta 13*31 

T»n3N nanni 
wb ntai 



*ninmx m3i 

"ni^an anDi 

tudd mm 

Vines leom 
viyiss" v£k ^n '•a • vimh in3aai 
vnexya ctn rbv dnee 
'31 svn* *e d^yno dy ^ dip* na 



■'nun iyw 
vnao N^am 
viiovy naci 
wp n3nm 
vnme awm 
vwaa inaen 
Tiiaia imyai 



EGYPTIAN FRAGMENTS 35 

'ji "b nmry « "kb 
'ai Ti3 awn " vw 

• Tiipiva nDno • Tin^ rnry • TVtfvyi> aatw 

• Tiiyon nnnii • Tiiaien nm • ti13ie>d ndt 1 
* Tvon anii ♦ 'rnyie* ptvi • tw ywi 

♦ tibp nx nna*i * Tii3a> m aw • thdpj aipn 

' wimn -onh • vnnio -iBDi> 

vnm: tta&i * vnmn niT\nb 

-iiDsn nana 
■£ d^n ni^ya "jnu wax 
•n-u 
•6 1x3 ^b 1311 tibe> rea new 
deoi mm rar rarx •£ 

'ji to mm q^k ty tu 

'at » rvo nmna 

rnra naea -onto • Nips d^k aa^x 

nimh tan rnrya ♦ rmi npixo yiobo 

rnriD D3^y vc ♦ muj ny icy icw 

inpn n3D3n i>njn pixn anno ibob rrw> wn »a tab toni 
naio niB>y!> 12b jdm top jtid*i 3iD3 ithc np tw ^hbk b« 
vproi v6aN0i rarai myi iTinen iTinyiN by tun jnsi • voy ay 
»r>tyM may »a iNJpn • nxd n^> 13 )iyi mro wb^ tvvii • vnatai 
^y mi* a^ixm cj^en ith ♦ wei> ion hdh ^yi . vnora t6k 
• nmpan '•d' 1 ik3 its** iy • an» yoe" n s n xh BTjya noa anra 
TiincNi nayi ^arro Tjoa "nwii «m»ip» wool • htJ eoiya »jw3M 
tinv any 101x1 rrnyi any winboi yioo bi twji • y«j»p bi 
has k^ jyo^ ns'ss iaia Tina nr b nx not? aiew anyi *ok |D3d 
yiNtwii vaata "^on wij n^> nxr bsi 13 i&ym • *3*ik ova 
r6xn anain nnxi • Don Mien * pro spn nDn "]bo Kin ^a inii' , e>3 
$>n ansoD n^n ie>N , >5iK' i "ioa!ii3 tin njhi i»iy b«s nrn ibvn b"U 
nsyi ancn i>yo it nx at^i l^on n^e> ay n-ayw njtf3 whjodip 

D 2 



36 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

D^anh onvrn h n« pmni> nrn hyn t^tm yya ao^ * itan 
Kani T»Dm p'H* nay b»n nrn hun ^cn "oa^ m5> n^ni • niatan td 
D'ntjn ib> i»e> Ofc*i pi "piao lean VTiyjD n\n iW> pym nam 
nTn yikd^ ~iy inann* nvii imaboa -ib>n ^job* ya i>y -it? injnai 
anai • ijnr hi> oita nam i»j£ aita tnn nnrca n»ina i>joe* h> 
Tiaa nb imoai ow yaen }pt nvi •o * voy ^n tnnueS> epto wnwiy 
ikbo ah i>tnB»» iiaa h* xmn ova n»m ua D«pn3i • ^bntyo 
• iniDa niaho 
nonji pBTu h nno eph 
ioboi yu -ie*t piY h 
ioi> &6 bin * "by nnn pa-ito 
nhro jva ■'nyao 

D'hyn nwa njn^yni twiB^a nua njnopm yi nth ne>n no -itswai 
dtw.-6 ixyn ,, i iid on^y ionjn bsmo w^i bats* !>y D'awn iprravi 
• Ninn ova "ik»^> iv ba,w hi 'ui no d^naai iab pok • Diat& 
Ta aim 'm ioya 'n v\x nm ona D"pn3i on^y trhyn t laani 
mnao d^bon nyaix i»p fa nnsi • dt nnn uuai on^aw cwnh nu 
yn sai nan xm nai nM onwi> hnai 31bti mx b»n nnDi ^-ib" 
Dity &6i irnah woo ottbi hyn tytwi b nryni' Dnyais wni 
'ao aina ana ik»di • noxa lmtop k$> n ijtiidb'n ana vby &rbx 
pjnaNn $>k mana Nin '•a 1001 njn ia b» &6i m una ntn hyn 
mi) * 'Dijn crnana -ib>k onvo ih> -naya* d^Brvai }y:a pxa -ib>k 
, nN' , »DiiDB'''K T'ya taaic ts«K nua ma^^'i 1a ^ ^oa n^c t> by mis 
Daityn nua anan na -pbm ts^sn ih Qnsoi> na*,»Dn imaa ^n 
B«Nn b can' 1 ') n^na min Tin anan taawn hni icNai 



D. 

A fragment of a letter against Ben Meir, perhaps from 
S e adyah Gaon (see Jewish Quarterly Review, VI, p. 493), 
beginning missing. The author heard at Aleppo that Pen 

1 These words are crossed through in the MS. 



EGYPTIAN FRAGMENTS 37 

Meir thought of proclaiming defective the months Mar- 
heshwan and Kislew. The writer of the letter warns Ben 
Meir not to proclaim his opinion, for he has made the 
calculation that the two months are complete, which 
he intends to prove. The author continues as follows: 
I returned to Bagdad in the belief that Ben Meir had 
accepted my calculation, but it was not so. The writer of 
the letter sent out letters to many congregations with the 
consent of the two heads of the schools (Sura and Pumba- 
ditha), as well as the chief of the captivity. Otherwise 
Israel would eat leavened bread on Passover, and eat, 
drink, and work on the day of Atonement. The text 
of the letter is preserved in the Bodleian Library, not 
yet classed. 

^hyi >bb nan • bv\ bx Wio meai • \)mn bx jiono Tiabi 
*r6x "i pv yy *im» run xb) a'oa -\n: xb • m&n ds-ot p 'nab 
mm by) Turcot? ana anpa woai orwa wiiton$> nWx i?y 
ttok oa^N Tianai awn w ypo >n»npn • pta nyotwn nyi»t?n 
i»js?» dsdn mawi wto bi MBTTp imty nbun two nruK "pinai 
at?in ■V'nd p "a viyot? a^na Tivna -iayt? fV n T 1 ^ ,3 03jmni> 
p rot?yi> rvn?ni> nnax noa vbx Toroi pDn iS»Dai p,t?mo ?nani> 
p»S>t? non Dyta nt '•kb ii> "ixah p»hi> nen '•a uyninh 
nNa -it?x *iy * b*p '•a ni3D titti maa tiyt>i ^n Ti3t?i 
>oan UTiia-i b i^naa nst bi port nrian ^ maaa nyiwn 
by na^na x^ onjnnn ' nan^ ohyo m n^ moa •o nia^n 
lab ••a nyiin^ nicipcn ba -it?x ^N-ity b bx iana nrrnna p 
* p niK>j£ Tibi> wmni> ip^y b npi^n wa pxi • nrn -b*ia pit? 
n^ 13 nia^a ~it?K wman b uni p-iDn Brian »a w yw «h 
una p S>yv • nabs N^>t? onyi» man^ nwa nnxia *6i nrvna 
n?to mi uvnp in-ity nhan cni »a btow nx y>*nnb nioipcn ba 
pit? cnrobm D^oann bi ttaiban bi • uaat?D DaDrr 1 d^3 • nia^ 
pis psi • npii>n uya pxi ^ea noem pob> n»n <a • nm na*ia 
dhtii-un tin cenn '•at? ppD inrbw) * wnama nms ptn ntw p«i 
ntNi DaiDj? b n»yi nsipi wapn Dsna nny viisn ima oa^N 



38 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

!?yi bsrw dy bv mini «» niDnW> ^n TONai nan^n anaja to 
ova nat6» w ja\m jtato bi * nDaa pen ibtp W» ™ r6ro 
-rcw ^aa imb$> itsnai D3t $>y nwn n^vun ropnn iTnm omasn 
wyi i>ah rani> bi^ urn dSTiiWi da^am dao^c dy ie>jjn 
pjidi r6nn nan 11 dsoi^en e»to b*k 1133a write 



POSTSCRIPT TO PAGE 29. 

Mr. Schechter informs me that amongst the Egyptian fragments 
in the possession of Mrs. Lewis, — one of which is the fragment 
identified by him as part of the original of Ecclesiasticus xxxix. 
15 to xl. 6, and since published by him with an English transla- 
tion and copious and learned notes (see the Expositor, July last), — 
lie found a contract in which Meborakh is mentioned as Nagid 
under the date of 1098 A. i>. I hope that this document will be 
published by him, together with others preserved in the University 
Library at Cambridge '. 

A. Neubauek. 



1 See p. 115 sq. below.