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case with Ben Balaam's commentaries on Biblical books in Arabic, 
of which Dr. Harkavy gives also a Hebrew translation. There are 
many additions and corrections in the Karaitic later works, additions 
to the bibliography of Abraham ben Ezra, and many other additions. 
This fasciculus is dedicated to the memory of Joseph Derenbourg in 
Paris, and of Joel Muller in Berlin. I conclude with two essays in 
Russian. . 

5. An extract from the Proceedings of the Society nPaKTt UIO 
(St. Petersburg, Dec. 37, 1894) on the printing of Hebrew books in 
Russia and Poland. In the latter half of the sixteenth century, the 
Polish Jews had their presses at Lublin and Cracow. A great blow was 
dealt by the rebellion of Bogdan Chmelnicki and the troubles of Little 
Russia in the seventeenth century. The many presses established 
towards the end of the last and the beginning of the present century 
tended to spread Hassidism. A list of places with the date of the first 
book printed at each is given at the end of the essay, pp. 105-107. 
The first book printed was, at Lublin (Poland) in 1 556, the Pentateuch, 

6. Extract from the Memoirs of the Imperial Archaeological Society 
of St. Petersburg, on the origins of Islam, in which Dr. Harkavy 
expresses a hope that the time is approaching when these sources 
will be thoroughly known. Sprenger has shown that at first Mo- 
hammed approximated more to Judaism and Christianity. This he 
afterwards repudiated as he became more successful. But in the 
Koran and other works connected with Islam, there are many correct 
references to the Bible. Some, however, are incorrect, and in many 
cases these have arisen from carelessness more than design. Dr. Har- 
kavy disagrees with RSsch, in thinking that the passage to which 
Mohammed referred in the Old Testament as containing his name 
is to be found in Haggai, Daniel, or the Psalms. It is well known 
that the allusion is to the 17th chapter of Genesis (verse 20), where 
there is a prophecy about Ishmael— "I will increase him greatly" 
(IND ^ND3). If we take the letters as numerals IND INM and 
^D^D are both equivalent to 92. 

Abraham ben Elijah Wilna's Dvys 3"i. 

Here Szimon Chones published in 1894 a posthumous study on 
Midrashim, by the R. Abraham son of the celebrated Gaon R. Elijah 
of Wilna, with the title of DvyS 31 in Hebrew (Warsaw). It is 
a posthumous work, for the author died the 25th day of the month of 
Kislew 568 (=1808 A.D.), thus it is a forerunner of a part of Zunz's 
epoch-making work, Die gottesdienstliche-n Vortrdge der Juden, historisch 


entmchelt, which appeared for the first time in the year 1833. The 
editor, mth good taste, dedicated it on the occasion of Zunz's hun- 
dredth birthday. After recommendatory letters from various Rabbis, 
and a preface by the late author, we find the description of various 
minor Midrashim in alphabetical order, beginning with T'Das 'o, 
ending with D''S'T10S1 D''N3n ">"ID ; of many of them we have only the 
names, quoted by authorities. The descriptions of many pieces are not 
yet antiquated, others are more or less so. The editor tries to supply 
notes and additions, with regard to modern criticism. He gives 
entirely the pieces of the Talkut, which are marked by T'SON ; the 
same he does for the pieces extant of the Midrash nSDN (Numbers 
xi. 16), from the Yalkut and Bahya's commentary on the Pentateuch. 
Then he gives in fall the 1VD''1 Kmo, according to the text to be 
found in Jellinek'stmon nU, III, i, and the majN Tb\< (ibid. II, 64), 
taken from an old MS. ; Herr Chones does not mention where the MS. 
is now. The editor was not so fortunate as to be near a modern 
Library, and has omitted a great number of bibliographical notices, 
which are supplied by the well-known scholar in this branch of 
learning, Herr Salomon Buber, with the title of nOTC niy'T' (Canticles 
i. 5; Warsaw, 1896). These omissions he communicated with great 
courtesy to Herr Chones, who had the opportunity of rectifying many 
inaccuracies and supplying many additions. Before Herr Buber's 
additions and rectifications, Prof. D. Kaufmann of Budapest supplied 
many references in the Monthly of which he is the editor, the 
Monatsschrift fur (Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenfhums, vol. 
TXXXIX (New Series, III), p. 136 sqq., which is reprinted with great 
tact verbatim. Thus the Bibliography is put pretty fully, although 
inconveniently for the student, who has to look out in three places 
at least, in order to be sure of accurate data. The editor takes the 
opportunity to reprint (on p. 41) the n''2'K13 7\mtn Nn''''n3 from a MS. 
in possession of E. Abraham (the author of the dvj?a 21), which is 
unedited in its entirety. Herr Chones adds that it is not the 
autograph of E. Abraham. We recommend Midrash students to 
possess the two monographs described here, as they are full of 
information concerning Midrash literature. Unfortunately there is 
not a ghost of an index, by which the student could be guided in 
finding matter which he needs for his investigations. 

M. Friedmann's "Onkelos and Akylas." 

In his monograph, with the title of "Onkelos and Akylas" 
(111. Jahresbericht der israditisch-theologischen Lehranstalt in Wien, 
1895-1896), Lector M. Friedmann opens again the question about