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164 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW
case with Ben Balaam's commentaries on Biblical books in Arabic,
of which Dr. Harkavy gives also a Hebrew translation. There are
many additions and corrections in the Karaitic later works, additions
to the bibliography of Abraham ben Ezra, and many other additions.
This fasciculus is dedicated to the memory of Joseph Derenbourg in
Paris, and of Joel Muller in Berlin. I conclude with two essays in
5. An extract from the Proceedings of the Society nPaKTt UIO
(St. Petersburg, Dec. 37, 1894) on the printing of Hebrew books in
Russia and Poland. In the latter half of the sixteenth century, the
Polish Jews had their presses at Lublin and Cracow. A great blow was
dealt by the rebellion of Bogdan Chmelnicki and the troubles of Little
Russia in the seventeenth century. The many presses established
towards the end of the last and the beginning of the present century
tended to spread Hassidism. A list of places with the date of the first
book printed at each is given at the end of the essay, pp. 105-107.
The first book printed was, at Lublin (Poland) in 1 556, the Pentateuch,
6. Extract from the Memoirs of the Imperial Archaeological Society
of St. Petersburg, on the origins of Islam, in which Dr. Harkavy
expresses a hope that the time is approaching when these sources
will be thoroughly known. Sprenger has shown that at first Mo-
hammed approximated more to Judaism and Christianity. This he
afterwards repudiated as he became more successful. But in the
Koran and other works connected with Islam, there are many correct
references to the Bible. Some, however, are incorrect, and in many
cases these have arisen from carelessness more than design. Dr. Har-
kavy disagrees with RSsch, in thinking that the passage to which
Mohammed referred in the Old Testament as containing his name
is to be found in Haggai, Daniel, or the Psalms. It is well known
that the allusion is to the 17th chapter of Genesis (verse 20), where
there is a prophecy about Ishmael— "I will increase him greatly"
(IND ^ND3). If we take the letters as numerals IND INM and
^D^D are both equivalent to 92.
Abraham ben Elijah Wilna's Dvys 3"i.
Here Szimon Chones published in 1894 a posthumous study on
Midrashim, by the R. Abraham son of the celebrated Gaon R. Elijah
of Wilna, with the title of DvyS 31 in Hebrew (Warsaw). It is
a posthumous work, for the author died the 25th day of the month of
Kislew 568 (=1808 A.D.), thus it is a forerunner of a part of Zunz's
epoch-making work, Die gottesdienstliche-n Vortrdge der Juden, historisch
SHORT NOTICES 165
entmchelt, which appeared for the first time in the year 1833. The
editor, mth good taste, dedicated it on the occasion of Zunz's hun-
dredth birthday. After recommendatory letters from various Rabbis,
and a preface by the late author, we find the description of various
minor Midrashim in alphabetical order, beginning with T'Das 'o,
ending with D''S'T10S1 D''N3n ">"ID ; of many of them we have only the
names, quoted by authorities. The descriptions of many pieces are not
yet antiquated, others are more or less so. The editor tries to supply
notes and additions, with regard to modern criticism. He gives
entirely the pieces of the Talkut, which are marked by T'SON ; the
same he does for the pieces extant of the Midrash nSDN (Numbers
xi. 16), from the Yalkut and Bahya's commentary on the Pentateuch.
Then he gives in fall the 1VD''1 Kmo, according to the text to be
found in Jellinek'stmon nU, III, i, and the majN Tb\< (ibid. II, 64),
taken from an old MS. ; Herr Chones does not mention where the MS.
is now. The editor was not so fortunate as to be near a modern
Library, and has omitted a great number of bibliographical notices,
which are supplied by the well-known scholar in this branch of
learning, Herr Salomon Buber, with the title of nOTC niy'T' (Canticles
i. 5; Warsaw, 1896). These omissions he communicated with great
courtesy to Herr Chones, who had the opportunity of rectifying many
inaccuracies and supplying many additions. Before Herr Buber's
additions and rectifications, Prof. D. Kaufmann of Budapest supplied
many references in the Monthly of which he is the editor, the
Monatsschrift fur (Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenfhums, vol.
TXXXIX (New Series, III), p. 136 sqq., which is reprinted with great
tact verbatim. Thus the Bibliography is put pretty fully, although
inconveniently for the student, who has to look out in three places
at least, in order to be sure of accurate data. The editor takes the
opportunity to reprint (on p. 41) the n''2'K13 7\mtn Nn''''n3 from a MS.
in possession of E. Abraham (the author of the dvj?a 21), which is
unedited in its entirety. Herr Chones adds that it is not the
autograph of E. Abraham. We recommend Midrash students to
possess the two monographs described here, as they are full of
information concerning Midrash literature. Unfortunately there is
not a ghost of an index, by which the student could be guided in
finding matter which he needs for his investigations.
M. Friedmann's "Onkelos and Akylas."
In his monograph, with the title of "Onkelos and Akylas"
(111. Jahresbericht der israditisch-theologischen Lehranstalt in Wien,
1895-1896), Lector M. Friedmann opens again the question about