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Notes on Hebrew MS8. at Cambridge. 245 



MS. Add. 434, small quarto, vellum and paper, 230 pages, 
Spanish Rabbinic characters, in different hands. After 
pp. 65 and 73 one or two pages are wanting. From p. 1746 
onwards some headings of the paragraphs are written in 
red ink. The MS. contains (A) the Commentary to the 
Prayers and Benedictions by R. Judah ben Jakar, pp. 
1-219 ; (B) The Commentary to the Haggadah for Pass- 
over Evening by the same author, pp. 220-229. 

This unique MS., only quoted by a few authors, 1 begins 
with the words asnn nan rim nvpi n^n bs rn^sn bwb 
V'i V 13 mw '\ Then follows the Preface by the author, 
which is unfortunately illegible in some places. The fol- 
lowing lines will suffice to give an idea of his style: — 

w\ ijhm "iBDpn roTD a-ipui tinKO wVs wtton vjbo 

'up^oa ob 1N3M ra-im nn^Dn -npo *3 J"ni3 wot nitra 

VDipi vtnpa n^ann !?nx ns ram nso nn nso nt Dip^ 1 ? d^3B> 

(read u 1 ?) *6 muMn mi3»n iip» wtro w wwo IHIDtfl 

»B33 hpbj d*pki »nptnnn p nns wi loipo mu *6i ditid 

tton -iipo ansa p3»i ini> 3^> b nrb btrw* >rbt< hx >n!?!?Bnro 
no ^»i imon vj*ik no ton ^nxn nto>oi ioipo moto onwn 

1 Those are : (a) D"rt mmK, 11<?, 41a, 64c, which correspond with our 
MS. 10ft, 14a and 63a. The passage quoted by Graetz (Monatsschrift, 1869, 
p. 151, note 3), is to be found in our MS. 151a ; (J) Paragraph 184, in the 
D'JH D'Dn (comp. Zunz, Die Synagogale Poesie des Mittelalters, p. 150), 
occurs in our MS. on the pp. 18 and 19 ; (c) The tT3Cnn WW, pp. 11& 
and 15a, where this Commentary is quoted as COJ pj?0, corresponds with 
our MS. 206a and 154a. For quotations by Nachmanides and other Cab- 
balists, see below, notes 4 and 6. 


246 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

tfrtt »3» nnx orinma pan^> jim nn *B3 'n jrvi • i*?oi> imoir 
nan Doors'? mSam >3 navsi imi ^D3 31113 ^ni >ta -oti 

D»riE>0 DWsSl -|ETI N-IU1 11N "l¥V 103 n«XD3 TBtO n«13Jn n3T 
103 niKUJ e6e>0 D*D»B^ Ssn HN &0131 DlSt? HEW 103 T11K133 

niemn nsn Ms wie6 runs iinm p« wwa d» u>nisiB3i 
ntfv ^n nntf nsixni owwin onaD3i iio^ra nntiaon nnjNni 
♦-p ipwn -it?** nnsnn n!?si nw (25). 

On account of our sins we were exiled from our land, and the altar 

that atoned for us was destroyed And it came to pass, when 

the men of the Great Synagogue saw that the fountain of forgiveness 
was dried up, then they began all to gather gleanings (passages), and 

erected the tent of prayer with all its pillars But when I saw 

the source of the Service left to us stopped up and its place not known, 
I tried to find it, and I prayed to the God of Israel to give me an 
understanding heart that might perceive the worth of the fountain that 
was stopped up, so that I might realise the importance of the Tent 
and upon what its foundations are fixed, and on what its pillars were 
based. And God gave me the proper spirit, so that I could at least 
understand a thousandth part of these things, and I saw that the 
prayers were compiled of the words of the prophets, sometimes 
copying the whole verse, at other times combining various parts of 

different verses And in the elegance of their language they 

have also made use of the words of the Homilies and Aggadoth 
which are scattered over the Talmud and in the external books 
(mystical works and Midrashic literature ?).... And these are the 
things which my hands have copied. 

We have here the programme of the author, who thinks 
that the prayers, though introduced by the Men of the 
Great Synagogue, are nevertheless based not only on the 
Scriptures, but influenced also by the Aggadoth and the 
Midrashim. And these, especially the Midrash Tehillim, the 
Tanchuma, the Pesikta Rabbathi (under mm jno NnpDB), 
and the chapters of R. Eliezer, are the authorities to which 
he appeals often in his explanations of the prayers. Of 
later Rabbinical authorities he mentions the Geonim, R. 
Amram, the Aruch, R. Judah b. Barzilaii's DWn "iBD, 
Rashi, his grandson R. Jacob, and lastly Maimonides, 
whom he quotes very often under the name of R. 
Moses. Of more importance are his quotations from 

Notes on Hebrew MSS. at Cambridge. 247 

the rvhyn ibd, and the rrw "ibd, which greatly 
contribute to giving his work that mystical or 
theological character which Zunz ascribed to it. 1 But 
it must be said that the use he makes of the mystical 
work which has just been mentioned is mostly confined 
to such passages as lend themselves to mystical explana- 
tions by their angelological contents : the nxj^ "pann and 
the nemp in the week-day liturgy or the JltN ?K in the 
Sabbath prayer, and so forth. Occasionally he sees also in 
the prayers references and hints to the Sephiroth. But 
in general his interpretation is sober and sound, founded 
on both Talmudim and the Midrashim, as may be seen from 
the following quotation :— 1D»J3fl D»»m *D»»D 3WD nDlNB> B»1 

W*» nroa tnpon ba unso n*? nnt? \n rwbn mini «»om 

vne> pn dpi^b D'om B>p3^> D'tid^i wsubth com ie>p3 D»«*ajn» 

mini? n»np n^ann ^snm unbv hbsnrb -in3e> D»TDr6 D^in 

nu^> mDNt? pbd ptfi H3^> 'rh Tbi mrr D*r6&6 nan 3in3i 

tokb>3 ^ t5na^> \tr> p^>i • i^>» D»om Kin B»pa»e> na i*6d dib^> 
ni^sm Downn nw 'din un y\m n*Dn ims 'iai dwi »Dyao 
Din to pr6 nipnn vsb (64a, cp. 124«). 

There are some writers who defend the prayer : " Ye who forward 
the prayers, bring also our prayers before God, etc." .... but all 
their apologies are weak (if by these forwarders of prayers are meant 

the angels) For we do not find in the Bible that the prophets, 

even in the time of oppression of Israel, ever invoked the angels or 
the dead to offer supplications for them. But they used to ask the 
pious men of their generation to pray for them. . . . Surely prayer 
is called worship .... and it is also written : " He who sacrificeth 
unto gods, save unto the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyed " 
(Exod. xxxiii. 19). (The word Elohim in this verse is explained by 
some Jewish commentators to mean angels.) Therefore we must 
explain that by this "prayer are meant the righteous that are still alive, 
by whose prayers and supplications for the mercy of God they protect 
their generation. 

The explanation of "PT\ »3BO TIN ?7l3 is also interesting: — 
nW> pai nv pa ^nacr *6n pirn Dipo^ rua^vi rao mb&& vh 

1 Die Bitvs, p. 23. 


248 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

p rxxh nW>m iwa ovnB»a n?^> nt pa nhaeB> pun ton nun 
*pKn }» ntsc^ ovn uwa nW?n&*ai pan (686). 

With reference to the Evening Service, in which it is said that God 
makes the light to pass away, it does not mean that he takes the sun 
and carries it to a distant place, but that God divides between day 
and night by the earth which separates them. When we have light, 
there is darkness under the earth, and when it is day there, we have 

The fact that R Judah was, as we shall see presently, 
the teacher of Nachmanides, and might thus have had 
a great share in the origin of the Cabbalah, makes it 
desirable to give one or two specimens of R. Judah's mys- 
tical interpretations : — 

p»a nwon vy rooipD b\n be? ramp n^>aai nat? b& nenp 
»db> riK iB»npro w bv iiptmi . -\e>np) tow w rampn n^nn 
rnnau be> ramp ^a« onaiD roDoa *idn »am ♦ wi»» btmtf> Bmpi 
D^Btan • memo nine not6 pn f» p« ~\e»ip} "wh "p* 6 ? jva 
nB*^B>o nempa insmp d»b6b>d nfo^na 'iron enpa niBmp b6b> 
^i; d^id pB» nt? bhpj -ioin b»i 'pp p "s& nana nwai mnoa 
nfa»na 'ina pi 'no wa irotf pempoe> QB>a w nx wsmpni db» 
idin b»i • iB»au *iin D^wn jnajB' uvo onoa dv ^>aa awe hb6b» 
nta»na iioiNi jn»ai n^>w aio db» nnai db> to '»n^K 'n *£ urn -ma 
na u*nte 'na na w-rava *d roa^ta (?) «N»i ^bw ba uataa »o 
pi iaip^ onna ran? psruD b» nnx nipoai ♦ nnna nenpa imoa 

bhh tb>^ n*&»i ■£ nnna rwia* ^rnt?» nfa'na aina nw 

♦n»ona ib6b» ^ nBmp noo mon (read dp) on rbvo wen 
nock ^taB»B» i^nnrao *ma D«r6« »aa b lira mm tnoja 
Dnx'n »sa "inn ram* ^>b> iid ton ^>aB> -noa • rbvob '"i»in n»at6» 
db> Kin ^aB»n • w*n i»a kin mpoi wk mti ^obti 'man ob> ^>m 
'otn u"m D«onoa baB»n jro 'man inn noann to whs Kim nai 
nno^o nS» mDn nt baB>m noan nrai nn nnno warn n'jana 
Saa VaB>n *a baB'ni nrai nn n^k noan db» 'oik pxB> b«i • n^yo^> 
non* ^>ni • onan , 3B > nan db* NinB» baB'ni by&\ noan nipoa Dip» 

1 See Zunz, Synagogale Poeiie, p. 150. Comp. Hechaluz VIII. 162. the 
fragment of the well-known p'Dtn nBTl. See also Kerem, Chemed, IX., 

Notes on Hebrew M8S. at Cambridge. 249 

t&N panV bw bin pxt? >tb na»an p rwvto noann bn n*onon 
1« na bm mix ^>3 a^ias jon nosnro n^nn nan n*n p bn 
noma nmt? w«n rve> • nn^ nmpon na3t?on -ie>« ■?» n^aa naws? 

S>1? 'DN1 nt ^>N iTT tOpI 1^33 T ^» 3in3 pi b)li 131 Nim 

x nin3 t?npi m'33 t?npi nosns t?np am' p^y t?npns? bs? 

Again on pp. 85a-8Qa we read :— "?3E>n3l nr33 nyi3 BW 
nvi taiv pxm jppn n'is5 iis. n^ios ins? (n-w naaa) at? sins 
3313 naia non a!?ii>3 aoaia on i!?n be? e?ibdi * n^wa B'33i3 p3 

VIB3 niTSDH mBE? HtH 13HDn TIB pi D^ND pIX W13S? H33 1 ? 
JHN !?N NWS? Jl^tf BS? 1 ? )«3 TD1 B'WDn ^3 iw J11N ^>N1 TiDK n^nn 

I'na 2 Dwan b n^nn nwi a»n bsypn nn Nins? nosnn W 

is^ni m!?^N Tin nosnn p n$on na»an as? !?r a!?iy *6o mai 
B3n n*n p bn &6n jna m\-6 ^13' bin pat? jom nnn nn 
ni!?iQ3 men mso t?^>E? tibi a^nn ant?y ns 3xm ppn • n^nno 
^>s?i a^wn p n^ra St? mai i!na n^N ^ssi niais?B mew B*ns?i 
(?) nan Nine? nao!?D nyii Ssn ne>ya nrniN 3"3 »i» Si> »a ntao 
a^o Si? at? 'm3i • !?3n busib nno nn Kins? naiani nno xmi 
B3*sn nany pes appn a*ai c?an m3i mn ans ppm 3sn nm 

B^SIB 1D3 >mi miN B*331B TON 1,3^1 f\T1VO p©3 B33D nom p»3 

t?x inr n33ion B33 innai tnipn nvn by nsanon • sj"33 miN 
nvm a»ans?i bosini nusn nds n3 axm ppn as? 'm3i b^dd 

mvp »3E> |N3 TOT • 1ND3 »3s!? 11S?»D1 ni3T * mBVl »3N^01 enipn 

n^i»^>D Kin nmom inn *3 nam rbyn nn Bn iit5"oi ni3T 
moy ^an be? ^>y noio^D «m nit?»oi nnt? n»a» Niinai smsn 
pss jnn Nini aii?Di mro sin * ni33 *as^ a»omi ian • nic?*i03 

1 This is probably the passage to which R. Moses de Leon refers in his 
nD3nn S?QJ, as quoted by Graetz in his History, VII. 420. The last few- 
words, niYSD 'T 13*^1 pa3n ?3? "inNI, seem to have been altered or 
rather expanded by De Leon himself. Such liberties were also taken by 
K. Shem Tob Ibn G-aon, who quotes from our author the words : C?1p*1 

n3t?o mn naiyi b^vnh n3t?3 N3n ss?np aya nn ps?iT»p |ic?^> mix 

n3S?? (see Graetz, Hid.}. The passage in our MS. is simple enough : 

mxD3 aenps? ps?n»pi paiT-N \vth Vn "1^1x03 lasnpi (75, Cp. 

t?DE?1 11ND (Leghorn, 1K31), p. 37&). 

2 See n03nn C?Qa T. ll, on the same prayer, which is almost verbally 
copied from our author, though his name is not mentioned. 

250 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

"jdk tfcwn ronn m-iaa pnao on ta-e>nj> «&i * mo arrc> am 
e>iDn t6 inko Horn pi awnai nonai oae>oai pixa ^ i^nensi 
♦a^> -ne>» ah) mar *6 aipo aie>a -ram «^ • ivapN a^ru awnai 
"iB>y |n i^>k nnna vh) nboa t6 pow psi nnm rboo mt ant? 

; piDa }«a -m naw niTBD 

As to the date at which our author flourished, we have 
already mentioned that he quotes Maimonides, who is in- 
deed the latest authority he knows. If on the other 
hand, the author of our commentary was, as already 
suggested hy the late Zomber, 1 identical with the same 
Judah b. Jakar whom Nachmanides quotes as his teacher, 
his date must be confined to the last decades of the 12th 
and the first decades of the 13th century. This sug- 
gestion becomes a certainty by the following quotation 
from our MS. : — nx inpb bbn Taiw a»o>n ^>ai noan b'h p-iaoi 

•pv 'wan naio ^>nn anew nn^a bbnn m -iio&i ^>nn 

p"a nstewa wo pi noa Wa hbnn m Nip r6nna -pai? 

pn -paa anim -p-oa rune pia ma-ian b -idni maiat 

woi '131 inaa ^nn»p nDan 'b'bi rbnti nn rwv -i"n 

N»n n»JE> (1745 and 175a). Compare this passage with 
Nachmanides in the nmipb (14c) to B^riDB (117) : — *ao m^ap 
hhrw V'sr ♦naixn amak na prw *i iaio ^>ape» !?"*? mirv 'n mo 
jo rr&o warn ^>nn nx -noA uenp new nana jwo a»riDB Ma 
jto ainai? tw »jkb> loa ♦otewn. The passage is quoted a 
little below in I4sd, and is the same as given in our MS. 
The 'wa"> in our MS. then would refer to amaa T'a >"-i, 
which our copyist may have omitted as unimportant. 2 

1 See Steinschneider's Catalogue Bodl., col. 1949, and Addenda, p. 
CXVIII., and also Hammazhir, VII., 76. Cf. B^Pin "I1K, by H. Michaelis, 
No. 1125. Zomber, in the Monatsschrift, 1860, p. 421 seq., identified from 
quotations this E. Judah b. Jakar with the author of the Commentary to 
the prayers. 

* See also B"n mmiK, § 80c. Compare also Op^>n hsiW, 99a (ed. 
Buber), where we read :— }*0*33 ,- 6 3*B>n VO p"IS JPD "inJP3K nfll 

V?nn by nnao rvn ^ arnax ja pns* wan hy vhv nox na »ns 
warn ^an Dia to -110:61 miyan a-np snp^> niana w btidb ^^a 

Notes on Hebrew M8S. at Cambridge. 251 

Much more difficult it is to determine the country in 
which our author lived. We must give here a few ex- 
tracts as to his ritual. In pp. 3«-116 we read: — "HD nil 

maoi noa& im dmp dnaan ':pn& manan -pao n^nna m^snn 
jiam ^KW3B>» 'm joipo inrx natw -ioiki anum mtnn nana 

'n nnt< nna cbxon *-ai& d-np aw nnx -idik a"nto d^wn 

D^wn mm next? nna now a"n&o mtj t,ob> nx enpo 

anon DmDjn dntoron dnike> i^na -par nn n^ai spaa toM 

-ID1N a"r mm nana duibti dnioton ^>a tjKi nnoxon n-wvb 

nwa an»B> mew man nuno -ixe'i » nsn "ni to":o^>ki n"a-is ^>aa 
in ma*i p-inxm 'n^> imn Nine* B*o*n nana ar»e>N-in wi& "in 
2-w }1E^3 mwV moro -ioiki * 'rb nin -int< |n ^>k d»i>xdn n:ioe>i 
1D1N1 naeo mix 'now jwi anions "we>o nm» nana m>e>ai 
'iji 'n maa \m a"nNi • mw now mm jaip ^a b *a nwiaeo 
n« »B>aa *^>n a"nxi • new a"nxi * dn annao B'piDa 'a moto uw 
'n^> i-ve> a"nNi • a*oe>n jo 'n nx Mn a"nxi • mot aio »a a"nto * 'n 

mm ioini * in -pa*i mDa 1 ?! lenpa ha hhn a"nt<i • enn *w 

rone* pa^Dioi mini) "iioto anew \>m nacai * ^n hw \n i^>k 
• dnado a*oe>n jn i^>ki 'n 1 ? nw -iowe> -inx nae>n maa 1 ? amoto 
'rh mm 4 'n nna anowi * dina \mi * nen^> n^an • wueo m-6 
me> mom now a"nxi nine> i^n nn 'na a^pns «ni * aio *a 

\w nnoNom runt? d*bd« nae> maa^ *a to-6 nae>n ai^> 

ann anae> ioa me»n Neman xm -jai rrw dn ionb' m*ia 

aio *iaE> d^o ina mis soaoi n^a« *i»a»o ^*ia idnb> ne>o »<n 

ann ana vh nnat? n^i nSr t6 i*aaV pw Nin nna wn^ 

duinan miw if?N ^n em»an Nin nai lot? mnai xm ina 

nna nnx in nw dmoto mev noi^> dwtnn nan mina 

rnro no^j (in ma*i nnt<) iB>ar anw «ttdb> ioa ion^ 

ioinb> »a^> ninanna ^ino ^na ^o nan^a d»»D^ nam dmoto 

13 n nempi nvi* nnxi tin nsva nnia a"nN'i vintf t^np 

manan ^>a dnn p^b-ijt maiai xop p-is ^o^riTO man!? nwn 

n^N3 nn mOT n amn. See also Or Zarua, I., § 43. 

1 See Prof. Kaufmann in this Review, vol. IV., pp. 22, 23, in the notes. 
I find in my note book a reference to MS. Harl., 5516, in the British Mu- 
seum, where the same passage is to be found as given by Prof. Kaufmann 
in note 1. 

252 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

'oik wkB> n»i e>"p ^ ni3i3 v\v D'oan upnt? na-i ranx '-i » 1 k 

on ^>ip3 |tnn 3^1 nok idik 3"nxi "?k-ie» vv& pta i*?» *?k 

nie>p3 -iokb> -inxi n^snV rbm yson nViios Dinmi 

nt nw »now tiiwui uop uroto d»dob> nx3D^>i new e»npi 
*oi ...... jv^ joi inx tpvb iioto upni ^>ku p^> *u»eo 

l»w» n3e6 M^r -ioik p|iD3^i n<n» pa nnnca win -i»ikb> 

)H3D 3"l»3 jn* 1 ? i6k Wk n"?^3 eiDN 1 ? "IIDtD 101 1 ? »*? B» TO1 

"ins ens'? WN3 "ni?i * \hi rb^i inik idin pk nwNn m-oi -ipsn 
imi kin ti-d -idikb> nioipon 3m mix -idinb> no ^i? -idnb> 
V3Q^> pxe> kin ira '-ioin pxi • n^Bk t31?d iro noik pki wms» 

nnx idb>i inx 'n hd-£> (b>"31 n"3) mik Dnoik ijjo rfcw t6 

nrcso vuh ji3n3e> d»ob6 mix p3B>im 

It is hardly necessary to say that these extracts dis- 
play features characteristic of the Spanish as well as of 
the French ritual, and are therefore not decisive as to 
the country of our author. But matters become still 
more complicated by passages like the following. Thus, 
p. 94a, with regard to the Mussaph prayer on Sabbath : — 

tdt *ro in bv mv ne>D^> it n"?Bn ne>D 'in ^nnn me> roan 

njpn 'din n n pi *p iranjD pa p 13 ynxrh win ah) "t\W) 
pnrrn }pni pk db» hv sj"ip3 mix psnisi na-is pk *?33 n3B> 

*|"33 iniN P3ri13 TTBD31 n3B> 1 ? 31TJJ Jpn no 1 ?^ This passage 

then would favour the view that he was a Frenchman, 
but on p. 1075 (after the prayers for the conclusion of the 
Sabbath) we have another passage proving that he did not 
belong to that country :— *0 133^03 ♦» 13M11N3 ♦» 13>n!?K3 »D 
'33 nin»3» DKB> n3t?3 nXB>3B> n!?33 N\T n3B> DVB' ^S 1 ? 131?WD3 

p-nietDi d^o pks -p^i b>b3 now n!? nw n3B> »nxid namn 

me» nx^oi '31 wn!?K3 »» '-ioik mk id!?i n3B> ♦nxio n»3B^> 

mi3 -pxi wrkvb mi3 id^i i3»n^N3 px wi I3^n^k3 ♦» 'di 1 ? ton 

i3»n!?N Nin nnk 1DN3 3"nxi wrhx -\)~n vhnn m»3n33 i^> 

nnon noiN 13 ♦"wj> ehbdi I3»n^k3 p« n*?nn "p idin nsnxsi 

* wn 1 ?^ 1 ? mi3 * i3»n!?X3 ♦» * wn'pfco p« jos 13 tdi3e> 'd 1 ? ntn 
w^n'jNS »o 3"nxi wn'pto p« n'pnn noi 1 ? nt3 ns^on pxB> »"bi?ni 
«»n^>k 'n3 >o wnvi»3 »d i3»n"?N3 *d -p now ni"?3»n3i • ns •nib pxi. 

This order (as it was in the ritual of the author) is the right one ; 

Notes on Hebrew M8S. at Cambridge. 253 

viz., Who is like our God? .... Certainly There is none like our God 
.... and therefore We will give thanks unto our God, namely, by 
saying : Blessed be our God, concluding with Thou art our God .... 
but in France they begin this hymn with, There is none like our God, 
etc." (see Rev. 8. Singer's Translation, p. 167).' 

Still more decisive are the words : — Ntobe> Nrv nat^a tO\» D31 
b&ae» babi lib i»in mnxn ba3 -jx but?* ba bin ia*b» Nan (585). 
On the other hand the following passage decides against 
Spain being the author's country :— WVat? rhw nban rtD 
Dwiab r jnu nnN ama u-noa baa ne>D "in -no a"y (208a), 
which is against Minhag Sepharad. The uncertainty with 
which he speaks of the benediction before the lighting of 
the Sabbath candles — nap bw na p*b"inb nat? am; pa-iao e>n 
(144a) — would also prove against Spain. 2 Maimonides gives 

1 This is perhaps the fullest passage we have on the composition of 
this hymn, which, as appears from the context, was said at the conclusion 
of the Sabbath. Comp. Zunz, Literaturgeschichte der Syn. Poesie, p. 14, 
n. 9. The fact that R. Aaron of Lunel is, perhaps, the only author who has 
the same order which our author gives, would prove that this is Minhag Pro- 
vence. See also the Manhig (ed. Warsaw), p. 12 :— nDlb 13iW HSISa *rVK"> 

»»a ia*nbx Nin nrtN laTibx ira la^nbxa pa nbann inx nt by 

anaon mb p|ajn tnt? p«t? 'nyn *abi nnx ina toikgp, from which 

we may also conclude that he had another order which made this acros- 
tic impossible. The first who speaks of the n/IN 1113 JDK is Rashi (see 
Dpbn 'baE*, pp. la and 51a, also npl"), § S19). Dr. C. Taylor has a MS. 
Machzor (G-erman ritual) in which the acrostic is given twice, N3 JDK. 
See his Teachings of the Twelve Apostles, p. 78. The K3 is probably 
only an abbreviation of nriS "pl3. The parallel in the mba*n (see 
Jellinek, Beth Hammidrash, III. 86 and II. 47), however, leaves little 
doubt that the original order was as given by our R. Judah ben Jakar. 
In the Siddur Rashi MS., also belonging to Dr. C. Taylor, of which I hope 
soon to give a full description, we read : J1K3 D1DJJ 3T "1103 TIKSD 
DV bD3 ia*nbs3 *D IDlb. This ought to be decisive for the real read- 
ing in R. Amram, but the parallel in the Machzor Vitry, p. 4, has pN 
UTlbKa. I must also notice that in MS. Add. 19,667, in the British 
Museum, this hymn and the mOpP 01133 form a part of the service for 
the conclusion of the Sabbath, which agrees with the arrangement of our 
MS. The mtSpn D1t33 then was originally a sort of introduction to the 
Benediction over the spices in the Habdalah service. 

2 See Maimonides, flat? Diabn, chs. 1 and 5. 

254 The Jewish Quarterly Eevietc. 

this as a duty. But on the other hand we have the following 
words — yon-\ *o ion* \yho\ pitn n»j bin dn'onn bv\ d»pnxn bv 
ne>o n mn ana -pi roman 6t<a -idin ts (43a), suggesting 
Spain. 1 The author must therefore be placed in some of 
the provinces, the north of Spain, or the south of France, 
the rituals of which were of a rather mixed nature. The 
order of wrbia }% wn^>N3 »D would point to the Provence, 
though there are some features not belonging to this ritual. 
But the two passages we are going to give are strongly in 
favour of North France. The first, on p. 23a : — nD1XB> B»1 
-nriD 1 ? pto wvBc? iba vme>o -ie>ni *6k ota uw mtu new 
pNi raTO new onoiN daw ens ^>a »aa mueri nSsnn nD-vj 
tita e>"^>p &n*na ioa onra dVia d»3W« d^>i3 * new toik 
(clers, mod. French=clairs). Another passage is on p. 1385 : 
ik nwi? yn w>nvth moo j»D3dk> Kin ni^jne» "ua bz -vrh w 
pipe* mo'hin in »ji^>i? rvta \n bx) norm jd pjr6 in -npn Saeo 

BWDp }mpe> ppbnn bin twiBNp (cape, chape, chapeaux?) 

(guenilles) e^jun in maw mix or6 e»e» e^NJjn in (chemises) 
vb npan jn anoin *b dN dew ^i? dniN nr6 -pri pnb> p ioa 
'jvjrxn p pit3Bi ^3 nD3n ne>N ina pnp. 

The commentary which extends over all the prayers and 
benedictions on different occasions, concludes with two 
appendices, the one a commentary on JDN, beginning 
(p. 209a) with the verses : 

nsD two w ne»N nanon nan nba dj 

nan vb&nb\ jin 1 ?^ ( nan^ c|*Din josa 

The other, beginning HWn W ^ ronnn TiD «T1D JN3 (2135), 
is mostly on such prayers as are composed by putting 
different Biblical verses together, as the 1133 W, d^>1l& 'n "|1"0 
J0N1 JDN, on certain parts of the dim Nini, etc. 

1 See Maimonides, m!?Bn TID and drmi3N. 

2 I assert this on the authority of M. Isidore Loeb, who kindly examined 
the two passages for me. He pronounces the glosses to be North French, 
but rather corrupt. The identifications in the text are his. Compare the 
Responses of R. Solomon ben Adereth, § 434, and B"n miN 11D SJD1* 7V3 
*» JD'D. 

Notes on Hebrew MS 8. at Cambridge. 255 


The commentary to the riDS ?K> min, extending over 
pages 220-229. It is now bound separately, bearing the 
press mark Add. *-§ 4 . Some pages are missing at the be- 
ginning, commencing with the words D^s t6x A few lines 
afterwards comes the quotation minn n« DVTi' lata 1^3X1, 
on which the commentary follows. The Mechilta and the 
Jerushalmi are often quoted. On p. 224a he refers to 
bis m^snn bti*b. On the same page we read the words 
D1KO iTnxxo &6i inoipoa nmb 'man vb n max itbo not* 
DlpD. On p. 230, which was originally blank, we have among 
other jottings the signature (?)?iNl!?pT tMNin f\0V nnt?N» »3»D 
D"KK p. Of other owners we have in old German cursive 
hand, on p. la, at the bottom, the signature T>"0 "Q "VKO; the 
last letter is hardly legible. At the top of the same page 
we find in a later German hand the name (?) f»3»3»3X *1D1\ 


1 See Machzor Vitry, p. 293, where this Midrash is given as a primary 
part of the Haggadah in the Provence ritual. See Zunz, Situs, 45. 
This would also prove that North Prance was the country of our author. 
Cp. Dr. Neubauer's Catalogue of the Bodleian JWSS., No. 1,097 (Machzor 
French rite) mJNil JD WK nnt? TMSO VIOK Dn»1N }'N.