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Bibliography, 1890-1. 307
LECTOR M. FRIEDMANN, who is well-known to the readers
of this Quarterly, has brought out a commentary on
Judges, which although written in Rabbinical Hebrew, is not
altogether Midrashic. He says at the end of his short intro-
duction that the book was written for the glorification of the
house of David, and naturally for blaming the tribe of
Ephraim. The title of the commentary (dedicated to Dr.
Jellinek) is D'DBW 1BD bit JW "VKO (Vienna, 1891). Dr.
Sebastian Euringer, in his valuable book with the title " Der
Masorahtext des Koheleth kritisch untersucht " (Leipzig,
1890), investigates the old translations of Ecclesiastes in con-
nection with the Masoretic text. At the end he gives the
variations to be found in the Talmudic quotations of this
book. These have, in our opinion, little value, since many
of them are given from memory, and others are corruptions
by scribes. Herr M. L. Bamberger has published from a
Munich MS. the commentary on the Book of Esther, by
Joseph Nahmias (Frankfort a/M., 1891). The author was a
pupil of R. Asher ben Jehiel, at Toledo. This commentary,
although quoting the Agadah, is more rational than
Midrashic. The editor gives a good sketch of Joseph
Nahmias's works, according to the documents at his disposal.
Besides Nahmias's commentaries on Biblical books we have
his commentaries on some A bodahs, and on the PirqeAboth;
and the Bodleian Library possesses a MS. of his astronomical
treatise, to which Dr. Steinschneider has lately drawn our
attention. A short notice of the last will find its place in
the appendix to the catalogue of the Bodleian Hebrew MSS.
M. J. Derenbourg continues vigorously (in the Revue des
E. J., xxii., pp. 47 and 190) the Arabic notes on Isaiah by
the famous Judah ben Balam. As to Dr. Ginsburger's disser-
308 The Jewish Quarterly Bevieic.
tation on the anthropomorphisms in the Targum, we refer
to our notice in this QUARTERLY, IV., p. 323.
Talmud, Midrash, and Halakhah.
The Vance Lectiones to the Babylonian Talmud, by the
lamented R. Rabbinowitsch, are still waiting continuation.
Meanwhile a young student of Columbia College, New York,
Dr.. Max L. Margolis, A.M., has in his dissertation, entitled,
Commentarius Isaacidis quatenus ad textum Talmudis
investigandum adhiberi possit Tractatu 'Erubin osten-
ditur (New York, 1891) shows what can be done for the
Talmud text through the quotations in Rashi's commentary
on the Tractate Erubin. We hope that he will continue the
investigation of other Tractates. For the translation of the
treatise Hagigah, by the Rev. A. W. Streane, we refer to the
extended notice in this QUARTERLY, III., p. 537. As to the
critical history of the Talmud we have to mention Professor
Bacher's remarkable work with the title of Die Agadah der
Palestinischen Amoraer, vol. I., which will be duly noticed
in this QUARTERLY. For completeness' sake we mention
the undignified pamphlet in Hebrew, by Rabbin (sic)
Friedlander, with the title of D^JU "it?p (privately printed),
which is directed against Dr. Schwartz's excellent work on
the Thosephtha. The orthodox, so-called, rabbin has a perfect
right to defend the Textus Receptus of the Thosephtha ;
but that ought only to be done calmly, and not with invec-
tives worthy of a street boy, and his pamphlet contains
nothing else. Of post-Talmudical works we mention the
continuation and the end of the Halakhoth Gedoloth, ably
edited by Dr. Hildesheimer, in the publication of the Meqitse
Nirdamim, as well as the continuation of M. J. Deren-
bourg's edition of Maimonides' Arabic commentary on the
Mishnah Ordo Tohoroth. Here is the place to record Dr.
Solomon Bamberger's edition of the same commentary on
the Tractate Kilayim (Frankfort a/M., 1891) and Dr. Joseph
Zivi's edition of the Tractate of Demai (ibidem). All three
editors give an amended Hebrew translation, and add critical
notes. We have also to mention the continuation of the so-
called Mahazor Vitry. A new edition of Isaac Canpanton's
Bibliography, 1890-1. 309
rules of methodology on the Talmud (Hi-ttMn »3Yl) has been
issued with notes by the well-known lector, Isaac Weiss. It
is dedicated to Dr. Jellinek, on the occasion of his seventieth
Dr. Joel Miiller is indefatigable in dealing with the literature
of Besponsa. He has dedicated to M. J. Derenbourg a mono-
graph containing those of R. Qalonymos of Luca (Berlin,
1891), which is preceded by biographical notes, in which he
comes to the conclusion that after the Qalonymos family had
been brought by the German Emperor Charles (the Bald) to
Mayence, some members of it settled in Lorraine. In the
magazine, npinn, Dr. Miiller published a letter addressed to
Herr Halberstam, concerning his publication of the " Halak-
hoth of the Geonim," and there is an extensive review in the
same periodical by the late Dr. Hayyim Oppenheim of Dr.
Muller's introduction to the Halakhoth of the Geonim (see
Jewish Quarterly Review, III., p. 325). The editor of
the "ipinn, Herr Salamon Fuchs, gives a Hebrew translation
of R. Saadiah Gaon's Arabic book (from a MS. of the
Bodleian Library) on the law of inheritance. We hope that
this excellent periodical will continue, and bring to light
the whole translation of this treatise. At present it has
reached only three fasciculi.
In Midrash publication Herr S. Buber holds his ground
firmly with his edition of the Midrash Thillim, and the
commentary of Jedaiah of Beziers (see JEWISH QUARTERLY
Review, III., p. 769 ; IV., p. 169). Professor Wiinsche has
already begun with a first fasciculus of his German transla-
tion of this Midrash (Trier, 1891), which contains the first
Here we have to range the collection of Agadic sayings by
Judah di Cologna (not Cologne as we have suggested). On
»J'D as a family name of Judah, meaning Seni, as Dr. Berliner
suggests in the preface to the edition, and for the value of
this collection we refer to Dr. Steinschneider's notice in the
Central-Anzeiger fur Judische Literatur, I., p. 105 (see
below, p. 317). Herr Epstein's monographs on Moses had-
Darshan and the Midrash Rabbathi, as well as on the author-
ship of the Yalqut Shimeoni, have been already noticed in
VOL. IV. X
310 The Jewish Quarterly Review.
this Quarterly (IV., p. 157). In the monthly of -ipinn
Herr Buber writes on the Midrash WJ"in, and Herr Epstein
(ibidem,) says rightly that the WJ"in, as well as the Mi-
drash HMTJ 13?, are merely Pesikatoth which were edited
separately (see also Revue des Etudes Juives, t. xiv., 110).
He also proves (ibidem) that Joseph Qara is not the author
of the commentary (attributed to Rashi) on the Bereshith
Rabba. This scholar has now finished his interesting essay
on the book of Jubilee, Philo and the Midrash TadsJie
(Revue des Etudes Juives, t. xxii. p. 1 sqq).
Lexicography, Grammar, and Massorah.
Dr. Alex. Kohut's seventh volume of the AruTch has ap-
peared, and with one other volume the work will be com-
pleted. The fourth fasciculus of Dr. Jastrow's Dictionary of
the Targumim, the Talmuds, and the Midrashim is an-
nounced. Dr. M. Jastrow has dedicated to M. J. Deren-
bourg an interesting small pamphlet On Transposed Stems
in Talmudic Hebrew and Chaldaic (sic), Leipzig, 1891.
Such are, for instance, WW and iViS, 1D5D and DDDD, etc.
The writer of this bibliographical sketch has issued an
an Arabic text of an anonymous grammar with the title of
Petite Orammaire Provenant de Yemen (Leipzig, 1891), which
he believes to be the original on which M. J. Derenbourg's
edition of the Hebrew text is based. It is dedicated to this
scholar on the occasion of the eightieth anniversary of his
birth. It will perhaps be useful to those who are interested in
mediaeval Hebrew grammar to know what M. Derenbourg
says about the Petite Grammaire in a letter addressed to the
editor of it. He writes (amongst other remarks) as follows : —
" The dependence of this small grammar upon the Manuel
du Lecteur or vice versa cannot be doubted, unless these two
made use of the same third source. The Arabic text is still
more impersonal than the Hebrew, where at least one book
is quoted. There are special expressions, one of which,
as far as my knowledge goes, is only used by Saadiah."
Speaking of Saadiah, we may perhaps record here that the
venerable Senior Sachs has a contribution in the "lpinn con-
Bibliography, 1890-1. 311
cerning Saadiah's Agron, which is anyhow a lexicographical
work. Unfortunately this scholar, who lives in complete
retirement, was not aware of recent publications. Dr.
Harkavy replies shortly, not wishing to repeat in the "ipinn
what he will give elsewhere. Indeed, we have seen (Jewish
QUARTERLY Review, IV., p. 162) that Dr. Harkavy has
published all that exists of the Agron, with some other
pieces by Saadiah, and many more details and notes will be
contained in his forthcoming essay in Hebrew, written for
the publication of the Meqitse Nirdamim. Here we have
to record that Dr. J. Fiirst's Glossarium Grceco-Hebraicum
has been noticed (Jewish Quarterly Review, IV., p. 9,
sqq.). Professor Bacher also has a review of it in the last
number of the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen
Oesellschaft (t. xlv., p. 505).
M. Mayer Lambert dedicates to M. Derenbourg a mono-
graph with the title, Une Serie de Qere Ketib : Mude Gram-
maticale (Paris, 1891). The essence of M. Lambert's
interesting investigation is that the ketib with a final n
instead of 1 in n3BB> (Deut. xxi. 7), nvn for I'm (Num. xxiv.
4 ; Joshua xv. 4, xviii. 12, 14, and 19), and in some other
passages, shows that originally there was a feminine form
in the plural of the past in Hebrew as there is in the
cognate languages, and as is the case in Hebrew in the
future. This has been already stated by Professor Th. Nol-
deke (Ztschr. der Deutschen Morgl. Gesellschaft, t. xxxviii.,
p. 411), and by others in the Hebraica (iii., p. Ill ;
v., p. 190). If M. Lambert has hit on the right explanation
of the above-mentioned Massoretic qere, it would be certain
that the Massorites found old forms in the MSS. of which
they made use, and consequently the grammar must have
passed through many modifications before it was fixed as
it is now in our texts. The question arises, at what time
these modifications took place — before or after the closure
of the canon ? Another monograph on a Massoretical matter
by Professor L. Blau has been noticed in this QUARTERLY,
III., p. 540.
312 The Jewish Quarterly Review.
History and Literary Histori.
The lamented Professor Graetz has brought out the third
edition of the ninth volume of his History of the Jews,
which contains many valuable additions taken from docu-
ments made known recently, more especially on the first
settlement of the Jews in Holland. The first two volumes of
the English translation of his history, under his supervision,
have also appeared. Professor Wiinsche and Dr. J. Winter
issue in fasciculi a kind of an anthology of Jewish history,
i.e., they reproduce from various authors, pages or chapters,
which, in chronological order, will make a history of the
Jews. The first fasciculus which we have before us, which
treats of a part of Hellenistic-targumistic writings, is not
sufficient to enable us to form an opinion about the value of
such a strange anthological history. Special attention has
been paid to the state of the Jews under the Papacy, by M.
Emmanuel Rodocanachi in his book with the title of Le
Saint-Siege et les Juifs: Le Ghetto a Rome (Paris, 1891).
The author treats his subject impartially, and new matter is
given from manuscript documents. Our author has also
written a monograph on the Ghetto, with the title of Mono-
graphic du Ghetto de Rome : Lecture faite a VAcademie des
Inscriptions et Belle-Lettres (Amiens, 1890). We have al-
ready mentioned Dr. Berliner's monograph on the censure
and confiscation of Hebrew books (JEWISH QUARTERLY
REVIEW, III., p. 771). He could not, however, find the lists
of the confiscated books at Carpentras in 1753-54. This is
now supplied by the indefatigable M. Isidore Loeb from
leaves discovered by him in the museum of that town. It
is published, with a short introduction, in the Annuaire by
H. Prague, for 5652 (1891), p. 30, with the following title :
line confiscation de livres hcbreux d Carpentras en 1754.
Dr. Kracauer gives (Revue des Etudes Juives, t. xxii., p. 124)
the history of the confiscation of Hebrew books at Frankfort
a/M. by Pfefferkorn. M. Israel Levi has dedicated to M.
Derenbourg a monograph with the title of Les Juifs et
VInquisilion dans la France meridionale (Paris, 1891) —
Extracts from the Practica of Bernard Gui, which is still in
Bibliography, 1890-1. 313
manuscript. TMb manual became the model of the Spanish
inquisitors. Professor Henri Cordier dedicated to the same
a pamphlet with the title Les Jui/s en Chine (Paris, 1891),
in which only known facts are repeated with some irregu-
larities, e.g., in the description of their Pentateuch MS.
Lector Isaac Weiss has concluded his work on Rabbinical
literature with the fifth volume, which extends to the exile
from Portugal. The last volume will be useful as far as the
Talmudic study goes, for here the author's information is
that of a thorough master ; in other branches of the literature
of the period treated of he is not so well at home, in
spite of the help given to him by Professor D. Kauf-
mann, which our author candidly acknowledges. We were
hoping that this volume would contain an index for all the five
volumes, which is unfortunately not the case. Amongst
larger monographs on literature are the following, as far as
we are informed : — Die Schrifterklarung des Bachja hen
Ascher ibn Chalwd und ihre Quellen, by Dr. Bela Bernstein,
in the Magazin fur die Wissenschaft des Judenthums. This
is an exhaustive essay on Bahya ; the question, however,
arises whether this rabbi is worth the trouble. He has
nothing original in his exegesis or in his ethics, and not
even in his Kabbalistic conceptions ; and, above all, his
quotations from authors are not very instructive. There is
also in the Magazin the first part of two other dissertations,
the account of which can only be given when they are
finished. The Zeitschrift fur die Geschichte der Juden in
Deutschland just vegetates ; most of the contributions refer
to late dates. Professor D. Kaufmann gives in the Seminary
programme of the Rabbinical school of Buda-pest documents
concerning the life of Samson Wertheimer (Buda-pest, 1891).
They are very valuable for the history of the Jews in Austria
towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th
century. Dr. Giidemann has collected documents concerning
education amongst the German Jews from 1050 to the time of
Mendelssohn (see Jewish Quarterly Review, IV., 319).
Herr Isaac Graeber has issued the seventh part of the
letters of the late S. D. Luzzatto. Although the greater part
of the contents of these letters, as well as of those left by Ra-
314 The Jewish Quarterly Review.
poport, Zunz, and other eminent scholars who are no more
with us, is already known, they will always be of importance,
be it only for the history of the progress in Rabbinical litera-
ture. The Monatsschrift fur die Literatur uhd Wissenschaft
des Judenthums, by Arthur S. "Weissmann, seems to slacken ;
we have received nothing since the August number. The
essay by Dr. Griinwald on the influence of the Psalms on
Christian liturgies is worth reading. It is to be regretted
that the editor's Hebrew essay on the history of the Second
Temple has stopped at p. 120 in the middle of a sentence ;
for although sometimes wild ideas are brought forward, there
are some ingenious suggestions. Another monthly, with the
title of Monatsblatter fur Vergangenheit und Qegenwart
des Judenthums, edited by B. Konigsberger, broke down with
the fourth fasciculus. The contributions here were not impor-
tant, although written by well-known scholars. There are two
articles referring to Jewish political history in the B. E.
Juives, xxii., viz., documents on the Jews in Montpellier, by
S. Kahn, and notes on the history of the Jews in Spain, by
M. Loeb. Of biographies we record in the same periodical
the following : — On Joseph Levi Ashkenaz, first Rabbi of
Metz (16th century), by Professor D. Kaufmann ; on Judah
Leo of Modena, and Sabbetai Donnolo, by the writer of this
bibliography. It is impossible for us to take notice of
literary communications in weekly Jewish papers ; they are,
in the first instance, too numerous, and, moreover, the
articles with but few exceptions consist of reviews of books.
The Philo literature, which has lately taken a prominent
position in philosophical studies by new fragments dis-
covered by Professor Rendall Harris, of Cambridge, Drs.
Paul Wendland and Leopold Cohen (from the last two we
have to expect a new critical edition of Philo), has produced
a dissertation by Max Freudenthal, with the title of Die
Erkenntnisslehre Philos von Alexandrien (Berlin, 1891).
As for the monographs on mediaeval philosophy, we have
only to record Dr. Neumann Sandler's dissertation in
Bibliography, 1890-1. 315
German on the problem of prophecy in the Jewish philo-
sophy of religion, from Saadiah Gaon to Maimonides, in its
historical development. It contains a very good historical
abstract of the opinion on the subject in the Talmudic
literature of Philo, Saadiah, Bahya ben Joseph, Solomon ibn
Gabirol, Judah Halevi, Joseph ibn Tsaddig, and Maimonides.
Of course the young author had to make use of his pre-
decessors, such as Munk, Graetz, M. Joel, D. Kaufmann, and
others, but he had to investigate the original documents in
order to arrive at his historical results. The history of the
literature on prophecy and inspiration is just at present
much talked of. The Review has already noticed
Dr. Loewenthal's Pseudo-Aristotle On the Soul (Jewish
Quarterly Review, III., p. 767) and Dr. Guttmann's
Thomas Aquinas, his relation to Judaism and to Jewish
Literature (Ibidem, iv., p. 152). Dr. M. Friedlander's large
work on The Jewish Religion (London, 1891) contains much
of philosophical interest. The book is noticed at length in
another part of this number. Kabbalistical studies and
editions, we mean in a critical sense, are at a standstill.
Professor Bacher's article (R. E. J. xxii., pp. 33 and 219)
on the biblical exegesis in the Zohar had better be ranged
under Kabbalah than under exegesis.
Liturgy and Poetry.
We have not much to report in the branch of Poetry.
Dr. Rosin has issued the fourth part of his edition, with
translation and notes, of Abraham Ibn Ezra's minor poems.
His Majesty Dom Pedro II. d'Alcantara had during his
winter stay in the South of France, collected some Provencal
poems, written in Hebrew characters, and composed in the
seventeenth century by Mardoche, (Ventura), which Dom
Pedro edited, with a French translation and notes, with the
title of Poesies Hebraico-Provenqales du Rituel Israelite
comtadin (Avignon, 1891). The same poems were trans-
lated by M. S. Sabatier, and published, without the Hebrew
text, at Nimes, 1874. This edition has become rare, and Dom
Pedro only came to know it when the monograph had
316 The Jewish Quarterly Review.
passed the press. Perhaps we might mention here Professor
James Darmestetter's monograph, dedicated to M. Derenbourg,
with the title of Une Priere Judeo-Persane (Paris, 1891).
He gives a French translation of a prayer addressed to
Ormuzd, which he proves to be influenced by some bene-
dictions used by the Jews in Babylonia. Every Jew
who knows the first benedictions recited in the morning
prayer will recognise them at once in the following lines of
the prayer to Ormuzd. In section 6, thanks are given to the
Creator for having made him an Iranian and of good reli-
gion ; in section 10, for having created him a free man, and
not a slave, and for having created him a man, and not a
woman. These passages must have been borrowed by the
Persians about 399 a.d. to 420, when Jews were much
honoured by the Persian kings, when Tazdegerd married the
daughter of the Rash Qelutha. The influence of Parseeism
upon Talmudic Judaism has been a long time proved by Dr.
Kohut, Schorr, and others. It is even believed in some
quarters that the exchange of ideas between Parseeism and
Judaism began in the time of Cyrus and the Second Isaiah,
i.e., during the Babylonian captivity, which is not impossible.
Dr. M. Schreiner (R. E. J., t. xxii.) has finished his analysis
of the Ars Poetica of Moses ben Ezra. Hebrew poetry is still
cultivated in our time. Specimens appear occasionally in
monthly periodicals and in yearly magazines. Some go so
far as to publish them separately. There is no need to take
up space with them ; poets belong to the future.
Bibliography and Paleography.
The D"*nn "YIN (Frankfort a/M., 1891), a bibliographical and
literary-historical dictionary of the Rabbinic writing, in
Hebrew, by the late Hermann Joseph Michael (whose MS.
collection was bought by the Bodleian Library and that of
printed books by the British Museum), is arranged alpha-
betically according to the authors. Although somewhat anti-
quated (it was composed about fifty years ago), it was worth
publishing by his sons, not only out of pious feelings, but
also for the book itself. In many articles there is no addi-
Bibliography, 1890-1. 317
tion to make, and in others, since the Hebrew literature has
advanced by investigation of manuscript collections in
private as well as public libraries, Dr. Berlin has added some
additions and corrections. Herr William Zeithin's ^D tVlp
Bibliotheca Hebraica post-Mendelssohniana (Leipzig, 1891),
of which the first part is out (up to M.), seems to contain a
full list of books written in Hebrew up to the present date,
and in many items is more correct than Fiirst and Benjacob.
The premature death of Dr. N. Briill deprives us of the
continuation of his Central Anzeiger, which was only begun
last year. His able additions and emendations to Dr. Laza-
rus' monograph on the Princes of the Captivity (Jahrbticher,
t. xi.) is the last the deceased wrote for his bi-monthly. Dr.
Steinschneider, out of piety for his deceased friend, under-
took to fill out the last number of the first year. This
eminent bibliographer has also published an extensive
essay (in Virchow's Archiv fur Pathologische Anatomie,
Vol. CXXIV.), on Greek physicians in Arabic translation,
which bears equally in some respects on Jewish translators
from the Arabic.
A catalogue of some Hebrew MSS., acquired at Haverford
College, was issued (in the Abstract from Haverford College)
by Professor R. W. Rogers. There is no MS. of great im-
portance, but still it is a good beginning.
In the Studia Biblica, III. 1, the writer of this biblio-
graphy gives an account of the earliest Bible manuscripts,
and to illustrate his subject a few photographic facsimiles
are added, two from the famous Cairo MS. of the Prophets,
and two of the MS., No. 12, in the Cambridge University
Library, to which the date of 856 A.D. is erroneously assigned.
The conclusion which he draws is that the oldest Hebrew
MS. in existence is the Codex Babylonicus at St. Petersburg,
which is dated 916. In the last months, however, the
British Museum has acquired a MS. containing the Penta-
teuch with vowel points, accents and both massorahs ; un-
fortunately the beginning and the end are supplied by a
later hand, and thus the date of the copy and the place
where it was copied are missing, if they ever were in. To
judge from paleographical indications this MS. seems to
318 The Jewish Quarterly Review.
be much older than the Codex Babylonicus (the two MSS.
seem to be of the same school of copyists), perhaps a century
older. Indeed Dr. Ginsburg thinks that it may even be two
hundred years older, and since he proposes to give a detailed
description of this precious MS., we had better wait for his
reasons in assigning such an early date to the newly ac-
quired MS. before we state our own impression.
From this brief sketch of this year's Rabbinical literature
it will be seen that, with few exceptions, the harvest is not
brilliant ; we hope that the next year will give more satis-
factory accounts, as some first-rate works by scholars as
well as by societies are announced to appear. Let us also
record the great losses to Jewish literature sustained by
the deaths of Professor Graetz and Dr. Nehemiah Briill,
the first in the ripeness of age, and the latter, although
past seventy, still more vigorous in many respects than the
youngest. "We lament also the deaths of Leopold Dukes,
who it is true, has ceased since 1870 to publish anything,
and of Dr. Phillipson, who was a brilliant journalist and a
true champion for the Jews and Judaism, but less active,
at least directly, in Rabbinical literature.