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Bibliography, 1890-1. 307 


Biblical Commentaries. 

LECTOR M. FRIEDMANN, who is well-known to the readers 
of this Quarterly, has brought out a commentary on 
Judges, which although written in Rabbinical Hebrew, is not 
altogether Midrashic. He says at the end of his short intro- 
duction that the book was written for the glorification of the 
house of David, and naturally for blaming the tribe of 
Ephraim. The title of the commentary (dedicated to Dr. 
Jellinek) is D'DBW 1BD bit JW "VKO (Vienna, 1891). Dr. 
Sebastian Euringer, in his valuable book with the title " Der 
Masorahtext des Koheleth kritisch untersucht " (Leipzig, 
1890), investigates the old translations of Ecclesiastes in con- 
nection with the Masoretic text. At the end he gives the 
variations to be found in the Talmudic quotations of this 
book. These have, in our opinion, little value, since many 
of them are given from memory, and others are corruptions 
by scribes. Herr M. L. Bamberger has published from a 
Munich MS. the commentary on the Book of Esther, by 
Joseph Nahmias (Frankfort a/M., 1891). The author was a 
pupil of R. Asher ben Jehiel, at Toledo. This commentary, 
although quoting the Agadah, is more rational than 
Midrashic. The editor gives a good sketch of Joseph 
Nahmias's works, according to the documents at his disposal. 
Besides Nahmias's commentaries on Biblical books we have 
his commentaries on some A bodahs, and on the PirqeAboth; 
and the Bodleian Library possesses a MS. of his astronomical 
treatise, to which Dr. Steinschneider has lately drawn our 
attention. A short notice of the last will find its place in 
the appendix to the catalogue of the Bodleian Hebrew MSS. 
M. J. Derenbourg continues vigorously (in the Revue des 
E. J., xxii., pp. 47 and 190) the Arabic notes on Isaiah by 
the famous Judah ben Balam. As to Dr. Ginsburger's disser- 

308 The Jewish Quarterly Bevieic. 

tation on the anthropomorphisms in the Targum, we refer 
to our notice in this QUARTERLY, IV., p. 323. 

Talmud, Midrash, and Halakhah. 

The Vance Lectiones to the Babylonian Talmud, by the 
lamented R. Rabbinowitsch, are still waiting continuation. 
Meanwhile a young student of Columbia College, New York, 
Dr.. Max L. Margolis, A.M., has in his dissertation, entitled, 
Commentarius Isaacidis quatenus ad textum Talmudis 
investigandum adhiberi possit Tractatu 'Erubin osten- 
ditur (New York, 1891) shows what can be done for the 
Talmud text through the quotations in Rashi's commentary 
on the Tractate Erubin. We hope that he will continue the 
investigation of other Tractates. For the translation of the 
treatise Hagigah, by the Rev. A. W. Streane, we refer to the 
extended notice in this QUARTERLY, III., p. 537. As to the 
critical history of the Talmud we have to mention Professor 
Bacher's remarkable work with the title of Die Agadah der 
Palestinischen Amoraer, vol. I., which will be duly noticed 
in this QUARTERLY. For completeness' sake we mention 
the undignified pamphlet in Hebrew, by Rabbin (sic) 
Friedlander, with the title of D^JU "it?p (privately printed), 
which is directed against Dr. Schwartz's excellent work on 
the Thosephtha. The orthodox, so-called, rabbin has a perfect 
right to defend the Textus Receptus of the Thosephtha ; 
but that ought only to be done calmly, and not with invec- 
tives worthy of a street boy, and his pamphlet contains 
nothing else. Of post-Talmudical works we mention the 
continuation and the end of the Halakhoth Gedoloth, ably 
edited by Dr. Hildesheimer, in the publication of the Meqitse 
Nirdamim, as well as the continuation of M. J. Deren- 
bourg's edition of Maimonides' Arabic commentary on the 
Mishnah Ordo Tohoroth. Here is the place to record Dr. 
Solomon Bamberger's edition of the same commentary on 
the Tractate Kilayim (Frankfort a/M., 1891) and Dr. Joseph 
Zivi's edition of the Tractate of Demai (ibidem). All three 
editors give an amended Hebrew translation, and add critical 
notes. We have also to mention the continuation of the so- 
called Mahazor Vitry. A new edition of Isaac Canpanton's 

Bibliography, 1890-1. 309 

rules of methodology on the Talmud (Hi-ttMn »3Yl) has been 
issued with notes by the well-known lector, Isaac Weiss. It 
is dedicated to Dr. Jellinek, on the occasion of his seventieth 

Dr. Joel Miiller is indefatigable in dealing with the literature 
of Besponsa. He has dedicated to M. J. Derenbourg a mono- 
graph containing those of R. Qalonymos of Luca (Berlin, 
1891), which is preceded by biographical notes, in which he 
comes to the conclusion that after the Qalonymos family had 
been brought by the German Emperor Charles (the Bald) to 
Mayence, some members of it settled in Lorraine. In the 
magazine, npinn, Dr. Miiller published a letter addressed to 
Herr Halberstam, concerning his publication of the " Halak- 
hoth of the Geonim," and there is an extensive review in the 
same periodical by the late Dr. Hayyim Oppenheim of Dr. 
Muller's introduction to the Halakhoth of the Geonim (see 
Jewish Quarterly Review, III., p. 325). The editor of 
the "ipinn, Herr Salamon Fuchs, gives a Hebrew translation 
of R. Saadiah Gaon's Arabic book (from a MS. of the 
Bodleian Library) on the law of inheritance. We hope that 
this excellent periodical will continue, and bring to light 
the whole translation of this treatise. At present it has 
reached only three fasciculi. 

In Midrash publication Herr S. Buber holds his ground 
firmly with his edition of the Midrash Thillim, and the 
commentary of Jedaiah of Beziers (see JEWISH QUARTERLY 
Review, III., p. 769 ; IV., p. 169). Professor Wiinsche has 
already begun with a first fasciculus of his German transla- 
tion of this Midrash (Trier, 1891), which contains the first 
ten Psalms. 

Here we have to range the collection of Agadic sayings by 
Judah di Cologna (not Cologne as we have suggested). On 
»J'D as a family name of Judah, meaning Seni, as Dr. Berliner 
suggests in the preface to the edition, and for the value of 
this collection we refer to Dr. Steinschneider's notice in the 
Central-Anzeiger fur Judische Literatur, I., p. 105 (see 
below, p. 317). Herr Epstein's monographs on Moses had- 
Darshan and the Midrash Rabbathi, as well as on the author- 
ship of the Yalqut Shimeoni, have been already noticed in 


310 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

this Quarterly (IV., p. 157). In the monthly of -ipinn 
Herr Buber writes on the Midrash WJ"in, and Herr Epstein 
(ibidem,) says rightly that the WJ"in, as well as the Mi- 
drash HMTJ 13?, are merely Pesikatoth which were edited 
separately (see also Revue des Etudes Juives, t. xiv., 110). 
He also proves (ibidem) that Joseph Qara is not the author 
of the commentary (attributed to Rashi) on the Bereshith 
Rabba. This scholar has now finished his interesting essay 
on the book of Jubilee, Philo and the Midrash TadsJie 
(Revue des Etudes Juives, t. xxii. p. 1 sqq). 

Lexicography, Grammar, and Massorah. 

Dr. Alex. Kohut's seventh volume of the AruTch has ap- 
peared, and with one other volume the work will be com- 
pleted. The fourth fasciculus of Dr. Jastrow's Dictionary of 
the Targumim, the Talmuds, and the Midrashim is an- 
nounced. Dr. M. Jastrow has dedicated to M. J. Deren- 
bourg an interesting small pamphlet On Transposed Stems 
in Talmudic Hebrew and Chaldaic (sic), Leipzig, 1891. 
Such are, for instance, WW and iViS, 1D5D and DDDD, etc. 
The writer of this bibliographical sketch has issued an 
an Arabic text of an anonymous grammar with the title of 
Petite Orammaire Provenant de Yemen (Leipzig, 1891), which 
he believes to be the original on which M. J. Derenbourg's 
edition of the Hebrew text is based. It is dedicated to this 
scholar on the occasion of the eightieth anniversary of his 
birth. It will perhaps be useful to those who are interested in 
mediaeval Hebrew grammar to know what M. Derenbourg 
says about the Petite Grammaire in a letter addressed to the 
editor of it. He writes (amongst other remarks) as follows : — 
" The dependence of this small grammar upon the Manuel 
du Lecteur or vice versa cannot be doubted, unless these two 
made use of the same third source. The Arabic text is still 
more impersonal than the Hebrew, where at least one book 
is quoted. There are special expressions, one of which, 
as far as my knowledge goes, is only used by Saadiah." 
Speaking of Saadiah, we may perhaps record here that the 
venerable Senior Sachs has a contribution in the "lpinn con- 

Bibliography, 1890-1. 311 

cerning Saadiah's Agron, which is anyhow a lexicographical 
work. Unfortunately this scholar, who lives in complete 
retirement, was not aware of recent publications. Dr. 
Harkavy replies shortly, not wishing to repeat in the "ipinn 
what he will give elsewhere. Indeed, we have seen (Jewish 
QUARTERLY Review, IV., p. 162) that Dr. Harkavy has 
published all that exists of the Agron, with some other 
pieces by Saadiah, and many more details and notes will be 
contained in his forthcoming essay in Hebrew, written for 
the publication of the Meqitse Nirdamim. Here we have 
to record that Dr. J. Fiirst's Glossarium Grceco-Hebraicum 
has been noticed (Jewish Quarterly Review, IV., p. 9, 
sqq.). Professor Bacher also has a review of it in the last 
number of the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Oesellschaft (t. xlv., p. 505). 

M. Mayer Lambert dedicates to M. Derenbourg a mono- 
graph with the title, Une Serie de Qere Ketib : Mude Gram- 
maticale (Paris, 1891). The essence of M. Lambert's 
interesting investigation is that the ketib with a final n 
instead of 1 in n3BB> (Deut. xxi. 7), nvn for I'm (Num. xxiv. 
4 ; Joshua xv. 4, xviii. 12, 14, and 19), and in some other 
passages, shows that originally there was a feminine form 
in the plural of the past in Hebrew as there is in the 
cognate languages, and as is the case in Hebrew in the 
future. This has been already stated by Professor Th. Nol- 
deke (Ztschr. der Deutschen Morgl. Gesellschaft, t. xxxviii., 
p. 411), and by others in the Hebraica (iii., p. Ill ; 
v., p. 190). If M. Lambert has hit on the right explanation 
of the above-mentioned Massoretic qere, it would be certain 
that the Massorites found old forms in the MSS. of which 
they made use, and consequently the grammar must have 
passed through many modifications before it was fixed as 
it is now in our texts. The question arises, at what time 
these modifications took place — before or after the closure 
of the canon ? Another monograph on a Massoretical matter 
by Professor L. Blau has been noticed in this QUARTERLY, 
III., p. 540. 

x 2 

312 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

History and Literary Histori. 

The lamented Professor Graetz has brought out the third 
edition of the ninth volume of his History of the Jews, 
which contains many valuable additions taken from docu- 
ments made known recently, more especially on the first 
settlement of the Jews in Holland. The first two volumes of 
the English translation of his history, under his supervision, 
have also appeared. Professor Wiinsche and Dr. J. Winter 
issue in fasciculi a kind of an anthology of Jewish history, 
i.e., they reproduce from various authors, pages or chapters, 
which, in chronological order, will make a history of the 
Jews. The first fasciculus which we have before us, which 
treats of a part of Hellenistic-targumistic writings, is not 
sufficient to enable us to form an opinion about the value of 
such a strange anthological history. Special attention has 
been paid to the state of the Jews under the Papacy, by M. 
Emmanuel Rodocanachi in his book with the title of Le 
Saint-Siege et les Juifs: Le Ghetto a Rome (Paris, 1891). 
The author treats his subject impartially, and new matter is 
given from manuscript documents. Our author has also 
written a monograph on the Ghetto, with the title of Mono- 
graphic du Ghetto de Rome : Lecture faite a VAcademie des 
Inscriptions et Belle-Lettres (Amiens, 1890). We have al- 
ready mentioned Dr. Berliner's monograph on the censure 
and confiscation of Hebrew books (JEWISH QUARTERLY 
REVIEW, III., p. 771). He could not, however, find the lists 
of the confiscated books at Carpentras in 1753-54. This is 
now supplied by the indefatigable M. Isidore Loeb from 
leaves discovered by him in the museum of that town. It 
is published, with a short introduction, in the Annuaire by 
H. Prague, for 5652 (1891), p. 30, with the following title : 
line confiscation de livres hcbreux d Carpentras en 1754. 
Dr. Kracauer gives (Revue des Etudes Juives, t. xxii., p. 124) 
the history of the confiscation of Hebrew books at Frankfort 
a/M. by Pfefferkorn. M. Israel Levi has dedicated to M. 
Derenbourg a monograph with the title of Les Juifs et 
VInquisilion dans la France meridionale (Paris, 1891) — 
Extracts from the Practica of Bernard Gui, which is still in 

Bibliography, 1890-1. 313 

manuscript. TMb manual became the model of the Spanish 
inquisitors. Professor Henri Cordier dedicated to the same 
a pamphlet with the title Les Jui/s en Chine (Paris, 1891), 
in which only known facts are repeated with some irregu- 
larities, e.g., in the description of their Pentateuch MS. 

Lector Isaac Weiss has concluded his work on Rabbinical 
literature with the fifth volume, which extends to the exile 
from Portugal. The last volume will be useful as far as the 
Talmudic study goes, for here the author's information is 
that of a thorough master ; in other branches of the literature 
of the period treated of he is not so well at home, in 
spite of the help given to him by Professor D. Kauf- 
mann, which our author candidly acknowledges. We were 
hoping that this volume would contain an index for all the five 
volumes, which is unfortunately not the case. Amongst 
larger monographs on literature are the following, as far as 
we are informed : — Die Schrifterklarung des Bachja hen 
Ascher ibn Chalwd und ihre Quellen, by Dr. Bela Bernstein, 
in the Magazin fur die Wissenschaft des Judenthums. This 
is an exhaustive essay on Bahya ; the question, however, 
arises whether this rabbi is worth the trouble. He has 
nothing original in his exegesis or in his ethics, and not 
even in his Kabbalistic conceptions ; and, above all, his 
quotations from authors are not very instructive. There is 
also in the Magazin the first part of two other dissertations, 
the account of which can only be given when they are 
finished. The Zeitschrift fur die Geschichte der Juden in 
Deutschland just vegetates ; most of the contributions refer 
to late dates. Professor D. Kaufmann gives in the Seminary 
programme of the Rabbinical school of Buda-pest documents 
concerning the life of Samson Wertheimer (Buda-pest, 1891). 
They are very valuable for the history of the Jews in Austria 
towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th 
century. Dr. Giidemann has collected documents concerning 
education amongst the German Jews from 1050 to the time of 
Mendelssohn (see Jewish Quarterly Review, IV., 319). 

Herr Isaac Graeber has issued the seventh part of the 
letters of the late S. D. Luzzatto. Although the greater part 
of the contents of these letters, as well as of those left by Ra- 

314 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

poport, Zunz, and other eminent scholars who are no more 
with us, is already known, they will always be of importance, 
be it only for the history of the progress in Rabbinical litera- 
ture. The Monatsschrift fur die Literatur uhd Wissenschaft 
des Judenthums, by Arthur S. "Weissmann, seems to slacken ; 
we have received nothing since the August number. The 
essay by Dr. Griinwald on the influence of the Psalms on 
Christian liturgies is worth reading. It is to be regretted 
that the editor's Hebrew essay on the history of the Second 
Temple has stopped at p. 120 in the middle of a sentence ; 
for although sometimes wild ideas are brought forward, there 
are some ingenious suggestions. Another monthly, with the 
title of Monatsblatter fur Vergangenheit und Qegenwart 
des Judenthums, edited by B. Konigsberger, broke down with 
the fourth fasciculus. The contributions here were not impor- 
tant, although written by well-known scholars. There are two 
articles referring to Jewish political history in the B. E. 
Juives, xxii., viz., documents on the Jews in Montpellier, by 
S. Kahn, and notes on the history of the Jews in Spain, by 
M. Loeb. Of biographies we record in the same periodical 
the following : — On Joseph Levi Ashkenaz, first Rabbi of 
Metz (16th century), by Professor D. Kaufmann ; on Judah 
Leo of Modena, and Sabbetai Donnolo, by the writer of this 
bibliography. It is impossible for us to take notice of 
literary communications in weekly Jewish papers ; they are, 
in the first instance, too numerous, and, moreover, the 
articles with but few exceptions consist of reviews of books. 


The Philo literature, which has lately taken a prominent 
position in philosophical studies by new fragments dis- 
covered by Professor Rendall Harris, of Cambridge, Drs. 
Paul Wendland and Leopold Cohen (from the last two we 
have to expect a new critical edition of Philo), has produced 
a dissertation by Max Freudenthal, with the title of Die 
Erkenntnisslehre Philos von Alexandrien (Berlin, 1891). 
As for the monographs on mediaeval philosophy, we have 
only to record Dr. Neumann Sandler's dissertation in 

Bibliography, 1890-1. 315 

German on the problem of prophecy in the Jewish philo- 
sophy of religion, from Saadiah Gaon to Maimonides, in its 
historical development. It contains a very good historical 
abstract of the opinion on the subject in the Talmudic 
literature of Philo, Saadiah, Bahya ben Joseph, Solomon ibn 
Gabirol, Judah Halevi, Joseph ibn Tsaddig, and Maimonides. 
Of course the young author had to make use of his pre- 
decessors, such as Munk, Graetz, M. Joel, D. Kaufmann, and 
others, but he had to investigate the original documents in 
order to arrive at his historical results. The history of the 
literature on prophecy and inspiration is just at present 
much talked of. The Review has already noticed 
Dr. Loewenthal's Pseudo-Aristotle On the Soul (Jewish 
Quarterly Review, III., p. 767) and Dr. Guttmann's 
Thomas Aquinas, his relation to Judaism and to Jewish 
Literature (Ibidem, iv., p. 152). Dr. M. Friedlander's large 
work on The Jewish Religion (London, 1891) contains much 
of philosophical interest. The book is noticed at length in 
another part of this number. Kabbalistical studies and 
editions, we mean in a critical sense, are at a standstill. 
Professor Bacher's article (R. E. J. xxii., pp. 33 and 219) 
on the biblical exegesis in the Zohar had better be ranged 
under Kabbalah than under exegesis. 

Liturgy and Poetry. 

We have not much to report in the branch of Poetry. 
Dr. Rosin has issued the fourth part of his edition, with 
translation and notes, of Abraham Ibn Ezra's minor poems. 
His Majesty Dom Pedro II. d'Alcantara had during his 
winter stay in the South of France, collected some Provencal 
poems, written in Hebrew characters, and composed in the 
seventeenth century by Mardoche, (Ventura), which Dom 
Pedro edited, with a French translation and notes, with the 
title of Poesies Hebraico-Provenqales du Rituel Israelite 
comtadin (Avignon, 1891). The same poems were trans- 
lated by M. S. Sabatier, and published, without the Hebrew 
text, at Nimes, 1874. This edition has become rare, and Dom 
Pedro only came to know it when the monograph had 

316 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

passed the press. Perhaps we might mention here Professor 
James Darmestetter's monograph, dedicated to M. Derenbourg, 
with the title of Une Priere Judeo-Persane (Paris, 1891). 
He gives a French translation of a prayer addressed to 
Ormuzd, which he proves to be influenced by some bene- 
dictions used by the Jews in Babylonia. Every Jew 
who knows the first benedictions recited in the morning 
prayer will recognise them at once in the following lines of 
the prayer to Ormuzd. In section 6, thanks are given to the 
Creator for having made him an Iranian and of good reli- 
gion ; in section 10, for having created him a free man, and 
not a slave, and for having created him a man, and not a 
woman. These passages must have been borrowed by the 
Persians about 399 a.d. to 420, when Jews were much 
honoured by the Persian kings, when Tazdegerd married the 
daughter of the Rash Qelutha. The influence of Parseeism 
upon Talmudic Judaism has been a long time proved by Dr. 
Kohut, Schorr, and others. It is even believed in some 
quarters that the exchange of ideas between Parseeism and 
Judaism began in the time of Cyrus and the Second Isaiah, 
i.e., during the Babylonian captivity, which is not impossible. 
Dr. M. Schreiner (R. E. J., t. xxii.) has finished his analysis 
of the Ars Poetica of Moses ben Ezra. Hebrew poetry is still 
cultivated in our time. Specimens appear occasionally in 
monthly periodicals and in yearly magazines. Some go so 
far as to publish them separately. There is no need to take 
up space with them ; poets belong to the future. 

Bibliography and Paleography. 

The D"*nn "YIN (Frankfort a/M., 1891), a bibliographical and 
literary-historical dictionary of the Rabbinic writing, in 
Hebrew, by the late Hermann Joseph Michael (whose MS. 
collection was bought by the Bodleian Library and that of 
printed books by the British Museum), is arranged alpha- 
betically according to the authors. Although somewhat anti- 
quated (it was composed about fifty years ago), it was worth 
publishing by his sons, not only out of pious feelings, but 
also for the book itself. In many articles there is no addi- 

Bibliography, 1890-1. 317 

tion to make, and in others, since the Hebrew literature has 
advanced by investigation of manuscript collections in 
private as well as public libraries, Dr. Berlin has added some 
additions and corrections. Herr William Zeithin's ^D tVlp 
Bibliotheca Hebraica post-Mendelssohniana (Leipzig, 1891), 
of which the first part is out (up to M.), seems to contain a 
full list of books written in Hebrew up to the present date, 
and in many items is more correct than Fiirst and Benjacob. 

The premature death of Dr. N. Briill deprives us of the 
continuation of his Central Anzeiger, which was only begun 
last year. His able additions and emendations to Dr. Laza- 
rus' monograph on the Princes of the Captivity (Jahrbticher, 
t. xi.) is the last the deceased wrote for his bi-monthly. Dr. 
Steinschneider, out of piety for his deceased friend, under- 
took to fill out the last number of the first year. This 
eminent bibliographer has also published an extensive 
essay (in Virchow's Archiv fur Pathologische Anatomie, 
Vol. CXXIV.), on Greek physicians in Arabic translation, 
which bears equally in some respects on Jewish translators 
from the Arabic. 

A catalogue of some Hebrew MSS., acquired at Haverford 
College, was issued (in the Abstract from Haverford College) 
by Professor R. W. Rogers. There is no MS. of great im- 
portance, but still it is a good beginning. 

In the Studia Biblica, III. 1, the writer of this biblio- 
graphy gives an account of the earliest Bible manuscripts, 
and to illustrate his subject a few photographic facsimiles 
are added, two from the famous Cairo MS. of the Prophets, 
and two of the MS., No. 12, in the Cambridge University 
Library, to which the date of 856 A.D. is erroneously assigned. 
The conclusion which he draws is that the oldest Hebrew 
MS. in existence is the Codex Babylonicus at St. Petersburg, 
which is dated 916. In the last months, however, the 
British Museum has acquired a MS. containing the Penta- 
teuch with vowel points, accents and both massorahs ; un- 
fortunately the beginning and the end are supplied by a 
later hand, and thus the date of the copy and the place 
where it was copied are missing, if they ever were in. To 
judge from paleographical indications this MS. seems to 

318 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

be much older than the Codex Babylonicus (the two MSS. 
seem to be of the same school of copyists), perhaps a century 
older. Indeed Dr. Ginsburg thinks that it may even be two 
hundred years older, and since he proposes to give a detailed 
description of this precious MS., we had better wait for his 
reasons in assigning such an early date to the newly ac- 
quired MS. before we state our own impression. 

From this brief sketch of this year's Rabbinical literature 
it will be seen that, with few exceptions, the harvest is not 
brilliant ; we hope that the next year will give more satis- 
factory accounts, as some first-rate works by scholars as 
well as by societies are announced to appear. Let us also 
record the great losses to Jewish literature sustained by 
the deaths of Professor Graetz and Dr. Nehemiah Briill, 
the first in the ripeness of age, and the latter, although 
past seventy, still more vigorous in many respects than the 
youngest. "We lament also the deaths of Leopold Dukes, 
who it is true, has ceased since 1870 to publish anything, 
and of Dr. Phillipson, who was a brilliant journalist and a 
true champion for the Jews and Judaism, but less active, 
at least directly, in Rabbinical literature.