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Critical Notices. 329 

Hebrew and English Eesponses and Hymns for Use in the Synagogue. 
Collected by Rev. Dr. Strauss. (Bradford : 1891.) 

This volume contains thirty-six musical settings, in excellent type, to 
various congregational phrases and hymns. Many of them are well- 
known as being in use in most of the synagogues in England and on 
the Continent. A few of them are old melodies, such as the Yigdal 
belonging to the Sephardic Jews ; others are taken from recent com- 
pilations. The novel feature of this collection is, that it includes 
English verses under such headings as "The Opening Year," "Yom 
Kippur," " The Way to Peace," " The Law of God," " Charity," 
" Universal Love," " Springtide," etc. This last-named is set to a well- 
known tune from the Hymns Ancient and Modern. Other musical selec- 
tions from that splendid collection are also introduced. The concep- 
tion of this publication is essentially good, as congregational singing 
has not hitherto been cultivated in reformed synagogues. It may be 
regretted that the authorship of the particular verses which are not 
part of the Hebrew liturgy is concealed, and it is a disadvantage that 
the composers' names have not been appended to the musical render- 
ings. A more careful revision of the musical arrangements would 
have been satisfactory. Crotchets are sometimes confused with 
quavers. This, however, may be a misprint. The perfect model for 
hymn-books (we do not refer to the literary, but only to the musical 
department) is the Hymns Ancient and Modern ; and it would be well 
if more slender productions were constructed in a like fashion. This 
is distinctly a fresh step in a right direction, so far as concerns the 
popularising of congregational singing. 

O. J. Simon. 



Comparative Grammar of the Semitio Languages. 
By the late Dr. W. Wright. (Cambridge, 1890.) 
Students of the Semitic languages may congratulate themselves 
upon the assistance which will be given to them in their studies by 
the publication of the lectures of the late Professor of Arabic in 
the University of Cambridge ; and although many of the results were 
well known to German students, most of them were scattered in 
articles published in the various learned journals, and were not so 
easily accessible as they will be now. I think that it may be safely 
said that for the study of Semitic philology the work will be indis- 
pensable. 
One of the most interesting inquiries in ethnology is as to the