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with the characters of the Cosmos and of God. But when woman too 
was fashioned, he recognized a kindred form, and she on her side 
saw no other animal more like herself, and modestly welcomed his 
approach, and so they were hrought together like the separated parts 
of a single animal. How the keen discoverer of contradiction can 
think this the same as the opinion of Aristophanes passes my com- 

Thus it appears to me that Schiirer's arguments break down one 
after another, as soon as they are subjected to a little of that criticism 
which is so apt to be applied to ancient books, and not to modern 
hypotheses. Mr. Conybeare's arguments, of which I have only given 
the broad outlines, remain with undiminished force. To see them in 
all their details the reader must have recourse to the volume itself, 
where he will find a wealth of material, a width of scholarship, and 
careful editing, which are a credit both to the author himself and to 
the University Press. 

James Drummond. 

Documents de Paleographie Hebratque et Arabe publies avec sept planches 
2)hoto-lithogmphiques par Adalbert Merx. (Leyde, E. J. Brill, 1 894.) 

Attempts at reproducing facsimiles were made as early as 
1702 (see Prof. M. Steinschneider's essay, headed, Zur Literatur der 
hebrSischen Palaeogmphie in the Centralblatt ftir Bibliothehwesen, IV, 
pp. 155-165, edited by Dr.O. Hartvrig). Naturally, as facsimiles they 
are more or less successful, but they cannot give an accurate idea of 
the shape of letters. This could only be completed by the process 
of photography, an invention which is comparatively recent. We must 
therefore date photographic reproductions of Hebrew MSS. from the 
publication of Facsimiles of Manuscripts and Inscriptions (Oriental 
Series), by Dr. W. Wright (The Palaeographical Society, 1875-1883). 
Here a choice was made of early MSS., found in various libraries, 
beginning with 1073. 

These facsimiles are not classified according to the characters 
employed by Jewish scribes in various countries; moreover, this 
collection does not pretend to offer specimens of Hebrew writing 
after the fifteenth century. 

An attempt was made to represent the different kinds of Hebrew 
scripts in the Facsimiles of Hebrew Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library 
illustrating the various forms of Rabbinical Characters with Transcriptions 


(Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1886), which is arranged according to the 
various countries where the Jews gradually brought about the trans- 
formation of the original square characters into cursive writings. The 
following is the classification : — Square, Cursive, and Rabbinic written 
in Syriac, Arabic, Yemen, Qaraitic, Persian, Greek, Italian, Spanish, 
Provenfal, French, German countries, without regard to dated MSS. 
This collection represents MSS. in the Bodleian Library which are not 
always dated. Professor Merx has chosen, in his present publication, 
to represent Jewish writing in Egypt, of legal documents, by publishing 
facsimiles, together with transcriptions and French translations, dated 
1095, 1115, 1116, 1124, and 1164, acquired during his travels in the 
East. This publication will be welcomed by specialists in palaeo- 
graphy, also for its legal phraseology in Rabbinic language, as well 
as for the historical data of the parties, witnesses, and the judges. 
Prof. Merx does not mention another document in the same 
writing published by Professors D. Kaufmann and D. H. Muller in the 
Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus des Erzherzog Eainer, 
Fiinfter Band, p. 127 (Wien, 1892). 

The forms of the characters in these Egyptian documents are the 
same as those given in the Oxford Facsimiles as Rabbinic in Syria, 
and the continuation of the Bodleian catalogue will reproduce 
documents recently acquired in Egypt, both dated and undated. 
The same will be the case with the Persian Rabbinic characters. 
The Oxford publication does not claim to be a manual of Hebrew 
palaeography in general, but only as far as concerns MSS. possessed 
by the Bodleian Library, with one exception. It is, indeed, diificult 
to assign dates to Hebrew MSS., more especially to those written in 
square characters, a fact which Professor Merx proves in the second 
chapter, when he refers to a Bible in the Cambridge Library, and 
which is dated 856 A.d. in the printed catalogue, whilst Kennicott 
and Zunz refer it to the end of the twelfth century. Professor Merx 
has forgotten to mention that a facsimile of the page in which the 
date is found is given in the Studia Biblica, where the date assigned 
to this MS. is ftiUy discussed. The same is the case with the MSS. 
of the Bible in Cairo and Aleppo. The third chapter contains Hebrew 
epitaphs found in Egypt, dated the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, and he observes that surely older and perhaps very -old 
epitaphs may be found in Egypt for the benefit of Hebrew palaeo- 
graphy. The words TU ""D^IN remain a riddle if rightly read. The 
fifth chapter of Professor Merx's book seeks to show that the Arabs 
have in some degree accepted the Roman Law as used in the East, 
with which they became acquainted through the medium of the 
Jews. Chapters six to eleven are devoted to the four Hebraico- 


Arabic documents already mentioned. Here also some expressions are 
translated in a doubtful way, being technical terms often used in the 
Talmud, and many post-Talmudic, which are known only to specialists. 
But these inaccuracies do not lessen the general value of Professor 
Merx's publication, viz. for Hebrew palaeography. The eleventh 
chapter gives tomb-inscriptions of the ninth to fourteenth centuries, 
to be found at Worms and Mayence. To complete his task of 
Hebrew palaeography. Professor Merx gives a document written at 
Spires in the fourteenth century. The last chapter treats of a fragment 
of an Arabic document on a papyrus, dated 691 A. D., which is at 
present the oldest specimen of its kind. 

For the benefit of our readers who are interested in Hebrew 
palaeography we reproduce a Hebrew epitaph recently found in the 
province of Valencia in Spain, explained by the indefatigable Don 
Fidel Fita in the Boletin de la real Academia de la Historia, t. xxv, 
December, 1894 (Madrid), not generally known to our readers. The 
inscription runs as follows : — 

1 This is the tomb of R. Samuel, i'NIOB' i bn^ "I2p nt r 

2 son of R. Shealthiel the Nasi, N'tJ^Jn ^N^ni'NE' ^3 2 

3 upon whom the house fell and he died iiiQJi v^y flUn ^SJB' ^ 

4 under it, Tuesday (may he rest in the ^^ ,^i^^ ^^^ ^^.^^^ ^ 

garden of Eden !) 

5 the sixteenth day of the month of , , 

6 Elul \n the year four . 

7 thousand and 800 [years] ^^^ ™'»=^ ^'^^"^ 7 

8 and fifty seven [years ?] ^ WBI CTOHI 8 

9 of the creation. May he repose in Eden! W D^iy [nsna]^ 9 

In spite of some irregularities in this inscription (e. g. the sixteenth 
of Elul was not on a Tuesday in the year 4857 A. M., and IT'in 1. 3 is 
considered as feminine : see the note of M. Israel Levi in the Boletin, 
p. 491), it is certain that we have before us an epitaph written in 
Spain in the year 1097 A. d., three years prior to that of Leon (see 
Dr. Chwolson, Cot-pus Inscriptionum Hebrakorum, St. Petersburg, 1882, 
p. 187). 

All these photographic documents will be useful for the history of 
Hebraico-Rabbinic writings, in so far as they will complete many 
lacunae in Professor Euting's excellent table of Hebrew alphabets, 
appended to Professor Chwolson's above-mentioned work. With such 
publications as we have before us we shall soon emerge from the 
infancy of Hebrew palaeography. We hope that Professor Merx will 
continue what he has so well begun, and, moreover, that he will not 


be too much annoyed by critics, who take pleasure in finding faults, 
and pointing them out in rather passionate language. Are these 
severe critics always accurate in their own publications? we doubt 
it! Let us take as our motto "laboremus," despite these few mal- 
contents. A. N. 

AsmU'iniyya, a philosophical poem in Arabic hy MSsa b. Tubi, together 
with the Hebrew version and commentary styled Batte Hanuefel by 
Solomon b. Immanuel Dapiera, edited and translated by Haetwig 
HiESCHFELD. Abstract from the Report of the Montefiore 
College. (Luzac & Co.) 

We take great pleasure in congratulating the Montefiore College 
on the regular continuance of the yearly Program, issued by the 
Principal and Dr. Hirschfeld. After monographs on the historic 
Halakhah by the former, the latter has chosen for his subject a 
didactical poem in Aiubic with a Hebrew translation and com- 
mentary. We must not forget to mention that both authors of the 
Programs have used MSS. belonging to the Library of the College, 
and more especially of those 400 acquired within the last four years. 
The Arabic poem, composed in the Maghribine dialect, viz. the dialect 
spoken chiefly in Morocco, is, according to the superscription in the 
unique Bodleian MS., by Abu Amran Musa b. Tubi al-Israeli of 
Sevilla, i. e. by Moses b. Tobiyah of Sevilla. The Hebrew translator 
and commentator gives as author Moses b. TQbi, a Maghrebi Jew. If 
he is correct, and we have no reason to doubt his statement, Moses or 
his family emigrated from Sevilla to Maghreb : whether voluntarily or 
forced by persecution, he does not say. Moses, anyhow, composed in 
the Maghrebi- Arabic dialect, and Dr. Hirschfeld was right in publishing 
his poem in this dialect, instead of converting it into classical Arabic. 
He says judiciously, in his prefatory remarks, that " Instead of re- 
storing the classical readings and correcting mistakes in the text 
itself, I thought it more expedient to leave the latter unchanged, and 
to place my suggestions in the notes." He was also right in printing 
the Arabic text in Hebrew square characters, saying that "a tran- 
scription in Neskhi would wrongly impair its peculiarity." There was 
no occasion for the apology for the reproduction of the Hebrew, with 
which Dr. Hirschfeld begins his Prefatoiy remarks, "Although the 
following Arabic text is taken from a unique MS., the evident con- 
sistency of its orthography and grammatical forms lends sufficient