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JEHUDAH HADASSIS " ESHKOL HAKKOFER 431 



INEDITED CHAPTERS OF JEHUDAH HADASSI'S 
"ESHKOL HAKKOFER." 



The editors of the Esklcol Hakhofer (Goslow, 1835) 
entirely omitted the chapters (Alph. 98 partly, 99, and 100 
partly) directed against Christianity. The detailed table of 
contents by Kaleb Afendopolo, heading the book, also fails 
to mention the chapters in question, and says instead, with 
significant brevity (p. 30), noaij {jDinj 'pi t3"s Nnn Nsi'N. 
The Vienna manuscript of the Eshkql Hakkofer offers 
a possibility of supplementing the deficiency in this im- 
portant work ; and the passages fully deserve to be 
published. They are an interesting specimen of contro- 
versial literature, and fittingly complement analogous 
passages in Qirqis&nl's Sketch of the Jewish Sects, recently 
edited by Dr. Harkavy^. I content myself with repro- 
ducing here the text according to the Vienna manuscript, 
adding only a few explanations and indications of 
sources. 

The editors of the Eshkol Hakkofer commenced their 
omissions already at the second half of the 98th alphabet, 
which contains the commencement of the controversy 
against Christianity. (See my note, Monatsschrift, 40. Jhrg., 
p. 123, where n must be con-ected into 3). That which 
in the edited copy now forms the conclusion of the 98th 
alphabet, is in reality the conclusion of the looth. The 
second half of the 98th alphabet runs as follows (Vienna 
MS. 64 a): 

' Soe Jewish Quarterly Review, VII, 704. 



432 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

• 13121 'nrn ovn ny o^jny pi 
I'mnaenn "bytv n'ni'N du "niin nd3 man IK'S onyun anr m nwis3 
ton 3Nni K'npn nni pi 3x Nin ^a "n»Ni • inx 'n Nint? vmi'nni 
enpn nni Dnxn '33 nma ibs rah pn Nin naii nm^Nnip'-y ij^Jia 
'3 D^Tn ij>n ntai • nrxa nni QnB>i'B> iinm 1^33 ntoxn moan N''n 
nin''''3 in3m * inaai dibn nyhni n»-i n^nai ira e>3^ imni n3n 
•imin '3nj> d''J!B'id ^anrnN nayi'r • in* D^Dias nn3n irni^N 
D^ya DnN3i • iThj pji^si nv dh-id mi'N '•a nii'Dai niansjai nyin ivy"" 
♦ nw p 'N-inaa p yir^i* onnana tibm • n''ni Dp niyi annji "ii>n 
31X133 ni>N3 i''i'y pN • ^^"n nwi iTinn lor tnpn"' tnun ni33i> bx 
*'iJi wtxf 3311 piB" i'N3 r-N 311131 ^hyo HBi ysTiD bt6 rh''bn 

,^irh2 pN "'3 'na mp pN ain3i 

o 

D''''n D^^^N nan laoni ♦ -ya'ovb lyoni ♦ To^n D''nii>B'n o^bn n3i wyia 
DHO niB'3 tivh '•IN DJ '•3 tijin^ "'jir^ 'n DW Qni? 1-1D01 • nmino 
x^r pr 'n by D'Nsnoi' "-in • -1^3 &J? cni'Nn '3 prni* »Dno n'ra 
sneon rxi ijy neon rsi ijy ^Nir* innB'''i n^Jo im • in-iin3 
Qiani • i't3sm:3 xi'tj' '*n3yi>i> eario D''3Binn 'in 3i^sn pin Toyn^ 
npn b« nmi minn nii>o i3sn -^ma • "^yn oni? onoDi ni'N3 i3Qn 
N^JN pDN npn bi< "i3i5''N3 mn n^jn -nn npn i^K '^'dhn Ni>N dhin 

' So far the edition, p. 42 a, line 20. 

' Ps. xciv. ao. ' See Jewish Qxtabtekly Review, V, 143. 

' Job xxxiv. 10. ' Deut. xxxiiL 20. ' I Sam. ii. a. 

' Ps. ex. I. Comp. Ev. Matt. xxvi. 63 ; Acta Apostolorum, li. 34. 

" Hosea ix. 12. The Christian interpretation of the verse mentioned 
here read 'ntoa "my flesh," and saw in it an allusion to the incarnation 
of the deity. 

' Gen. xlvii.31. The Septuagint reads msgn instead of reman, and the 
Christian apologists had early based the worship of the cross on 
this reading, according to which Jacob inclines himself before the cross- 
shaped staff. Compare Siegfried, Festrede zwr akademiscJien PreisverilieUung, 
am 15 Juni, 1895, Jena, p. 13 sq. 

'" Amos V. 7. 

" Hadassi explains here, that the exegetical method of the Christian 
commentators, as shown by the passages he cites, is on a par with the 
exegetical methods of the teachers of tradition ("thy Shepherds"), who, 
by means of the formula npn ha, interpret words of the text according 
to a reading different from the Masoretic. 

" Bab. Talm., Rosch Haschana, 24 a. " Sukka, 35 b. 



JEHUDAH HADASSl's " ESHKOL HAKKOPER " 433 

by m Toyn^ na yby )ppn icn na by2& niina n^xa D^am 'ioin 
PN 'ppn o'lppinn •'in • ^n1i'J na D^xm nm ns wpn D''"'xn • ybr\p: 
IND Diannn 'd^iid n^j D^n * toov^i 1^ "n^i *i3n3 ^oi? D^anaoi 
-ipB' t6n -\K)i6 'Dnui' i'''3B'nD Dn'j'j; niNiD ntai • T-J^yi? nan njn 

'nij pN '•a D10N3 • Dnnana nnyun oy ^n'^nsx^N '•33 dj nowi nan 
iniN''V»"i inija^i myn^ • Dnnoto nniw ya-isn ^iwyo "Dniso 
Oioa Binna dn '■a wsjij li^ d'-nisd do-'N "invni 
nanensi fii'nnoi Ennnon i^a '•a • niyno a-rinBiD onnn i^ita nan nxt 
I'sm nisy eiiisn ona rrrr ntJ'i'B' in Qijtj' ow cai^-'ni mxnpD li) r- 
niry; «!> -\m ppni moi pini ♦ niytynh niajij p oya p oya nynn 
ij^na n^ay Niaxoai aina abn) • niynni>i niyni> ^b D"'B^a-iai o-'j-'^jpa 
i^nnay no rr<b idn^i iTTa Nnc n wn xh NyiN nNm n-'de' 

•loi'iya 
^DN••E' ^D Dna b^ '■a die'd • pjB'.T sii^n by noN onioa "D^DinDijN pT 

' Genesis Rabba, ch. i. ' Isa. x. i. ' Ezek. xx. 25. 

* Isa. xliv. 18. ° Isa. xliv. ao. 

° Alsifatija. The followers of the doctrine of the divine attributes. 
Hadassi follows here the Karaite philosopher of religion, Joseph Al-Basir, 
who connects this doctrine of the attributes with the Christian doctrine 
of the persons in the deity. See P. F. Frankl, Ein mutaeUitischer KaXdm 
aus dem 10 Jahrhundert (Vienna, 1872). Comp. Kaufmann, Geschichte der 
Attributerdehre, p. 37. 

' oniDD (= Arab. rwDS, F|«31m), attributes. See Frankl, 1. c, p. 54, line 3 : 
11DD Kfim nos. 

' ITOSD. An Arabism for irjr (contents), frequently used by Hadassi. 

' About the four essential attributes, see especially, Maimuni, More 
Nebuchim, I, c. 53, 56. 

" Dan. iv. 32. 

" This passage is particularly difficult ; so are the following sections 
that belong to it, and the abbreviations at the end of section n. At all 
events c"DiaD')>« must be read instead of D"Dino')H, as Dr. Schreiner of 
Berlin rightly conjectured, the Magii, the followers of the Zend 
religion ; and •pvxj is only a false punctuation of the word which is 
corrupted from jtticn. ]tx}n is the devil, the Angramainyus (Ahriman) 
of the Magii. Hadassi himself speaks at the end of the 95th alphabet 
(p. 40 b, 1. 10 from below) of D'"Cljn')« m 'M and their fc«) . In Albaslr's 
Muhtawi there is a chapter which deals with Christians and Sifatites, 
as also of Manichees and the followers of the Gnostic Bardes&ni ; it 
contains also a chapter about the Magii, commencing with the words 



434 THE JEWISH QUAETEELY EEVIEW 

-ityN Q'B'PD an jiiB'ni • ])im enina aba poip Nin pxi pionp Nin ^a 

pi • niN3vn Nnijsa jn lan waon icw trinn Ni» ponpn }«b' njn nTI 
nn"aj; iny^o ♦ niNiu nt5>iy {/'n"" u\n^N i>j? niB'aj? ona d''VB' 'd 

.yrhm b v"n n"yD hn"si' 

DNniB' -inN ■IDN''B' ^IDI • ms* IXITl DJDN D'aSDI m'' B'CB' HiSt TIT 

ba • Diiy ba DJina oljiya niB'yi' nbuNni nsyn oirb a'E'n Niian 

• l^iN nni'ini niNipo 
T-a niij; nin • nrn D1^^ nj? mn n D''T'Dyoi oniDi o^p^noi d'-b^j; la Dl! 
mina marj ira .tni px '•a • nnni nuj b nana nynni nyni 'iiaE' 
n'i'ia"'i Q'syiNT on 'a o'^nj i^n '•a * nra iB'n noam nyni oyta in 

• IN-IU DV 

o 

on '•a N^N miayn onij a'^no ^l^^ n^j * ^n^xa D'-Ninn on dn '•a nnU 
' y:sh Q'NSCJ dbnd on *a Niun ni'ia'-a ni'ia'' Dnis pNi D'^Nna 
^Ni'D '•Nna Nia '•a idnb' "lo pi ♦ laai? noana ^an nnnaii 

.inp ^ 
iB'N SIN • n^B'coni n^yn vba y&n ohya nnx mix 'Nina iN^tD ^i^b^ 
imayij innaiT'i mx '•jao NinB* Ninaa p yit^ Nini onxun onois 
♦T-n^K Dy nvitn nei^B' o'ciyE' • ni^na oniyn 

The 99th alphabet runs as follows : 

onanoi onnx D\nijN D'i'''D3i nnix O'-i'jDi D^o^pcE' iiy nntj'a pi^ 
»n rmn oy nnix enno wn enn b '•a '•in-i psi • bn isi* oy 

•pi'iya • ^a myo 

o 

n^ani yp nnnNi tt'B'n-i li* b»i ♦ bo ^niNipD 1^5 c'' Knn b dj my irl 
•'^Nir' 101K' itr-'' t<h Dir vh njn aina laai • ^an niT'^i nnhna 

/lia^ 'n Nin nn« ainai 

• DN''a3 ^NH n^^B* 'a CIDINI ♦ DT ^Ni> Dnn"D D^i'NyDE''' m ^o^i 

wn^Ki 5>»3C')« pwb jsTO'icSx j« anbyp JOD cijoSn no>»d. The observation 
about the Muhtawi I also owe to Dr. Schreiner. He may perhaps succeed 
in elucidating the other diiBculties of the whole passage. 

' Prov. xxvi. 9. 

* »ipa= rnp9' accident. Comp. previous alphabet, end of section i. 

^ Ps. cxxi. 4. * Nell. ix. 6. 

' The controversy against Islam commences here, turned chiefly 



JEHUDAH HADASSIS " ESHKOL HAKKOFEB 435 

nii:K ^B' u-iDU at^v D«u: N^N ni^N i3*N DntsiK ^^{ ci'NyttB^n nta 
.yrhta H'SJ nyn nt^c vjsh i^Ntstfa j)ib'''1 

o 

n^'3Ni m''3j)i ni3t ^ai niinriK'nb nn^ ids d^d^s bi nii^vi niniDT 

' o 

min «\^m 'dj? mini s'-aj '•jn iiDsa ♦ wa^ no^ai ntna pu Nin 
nani ainai 'ny^ moiy n-iino ^n nsT' aina • ^iir-a jdn: inii'B'i 'n 

• ID^y^ "Dip'' wni'N 
i'NyDB''' ':a "styjN ynia j''a"iynt3i ♦ van oy van jvan )iinb n^ ^dhT 

."v^^b 'la^nn'' natyna wa'' xh lyT- ab ' wna onsi 
)ib B''' '3 noNn' ♦ 'naT" ara nnN }n!?B' ?yi nn'' d'-hdc'i D'di!''i D''DDit 
niMH ^N nnniDDni D'Knpnon on on * i"n3'' nicnn nnini a''n\b^ 
DW IBID'' nn'' ■i33yni j^perii T'tnn ■ib'3 '•biN iin3 nns -inN 

against the assumption, that God had changed through Muhammed the 
law formerly given to Israel (Abrogation). 

* This passage is meant by Steinschneider, Polemische und apologetische 
Litteraiur, p. 308. 

' Moses (Num. xii. 7). ' Ps. xix. 10. * Isa. xl. 8. 

'^ In this passage and the following the controversy is directed at 
the same time against Islam and Christianity. 

* Dan. ii. 42. ' Ps. Ixxxii. 5. * Dan. xi. 37. 

' Isaiah Ixvi. 17. Hadassi sees in this verse an allusion to Christians 
and Muhammedans, as does also the anonymous author from whose 
work a rather lengthy fragment is given by Pinsker {Likkute Kadmonijoth, 
II, 95-97), including the following explanation : (i)t:n''\d on D'WipnrDn 
Dnn' D'oro 'n imLb cm lajx Tcnino ds an annicnm nsnicn 'on -jV-b luinp 
Dn'')jii. Thus the word o'lcnpnon is taken to allude to the sanctity of 
baptism, and cincon to the five daily purifications of the Muhammedans. 
Kespecting this, see Steinschneider, Polemische und apologetische Litteraiur, 
p. 330, note 45. Steinschneider incorrectly takes the words oib: I23"np nox'tt) 
nsoTEri 'rn to refer to "Christian saints." The words mean rather 
that the Christians say: N.N. (whosoever is baptized) becomes holy 
by the water of baptism. Steinschneider refers also to this section of 
Hadassi's Eshkol Hakkofer, but quotes incorrectly loi instead of 99 
(also p. 308, 1. 33). He also says incorrectly that Hadassi takes the 
two expressions (nnnicarn o'lanpnon) to refer to the Ishniaelites. But 
the context shows that he also means Christians and Muhammedans. 



436 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

noN DnoiNi nmiNH inie^a nyun y)^b d'-niD 'm3jaE> u^ns wnan 
DHD moD n\T nmin ^aai • niniNn ncny n\n Bniaon ob' nuooipa 

OBHpD >3B> nu3 inunn 3"jn 

♦ ^"ii'B'331 jnn 'T'vyrh ixe'r 7d» *yiB '>33i idin ainan nya ci'>3jnt3 
nan -ib'n -iond si'-i'm DT>a iino"' ib'n ^d5> cunJD p '>a inwnn ph 
DV ly *p-iiDNi>"i poaj 65i3y^ |n ibi-ib'I? jn niDij fn cim niaya • •\b'?ii) 

o 

rnana p-'nsi dam ipino b^n jnK>^ ••a • ^onoiN tnpan ••ja min ^jni'' 

• onoji) lab n\n n^Dinui d^ns Tnoi • an^ •<:sh n\T ni^nno 

."T'pns noNr "ina nK>N» m"'in dj now 

o 

mn ■iK'Na * 1^5 i?m inunni onnaT ei^i'nio n'-n »a ^y an '•a ^aa innn3 

• "lini'^a nnaina wnnji '•naai snnB'a dnnan i^y d'-n'-aio ov^iv noa 
ei^HB' jy • "ihwa y"j ni?«n b'nt btntff^ n^b'j pyi» dj ann^ iB^ai 
^KiB^ '•yen n'a d^n^JN una xi^ • i^a«n inxi'' ana onnaTa pbm 

♦ ynison ^^lo^ wnionp nm na^n •'j^^ '•nia ni'N f»a nnnx b'?'2 
dn • ynwn b^td^ nih pyoB' ••ani tw B'i^iid Nin 5>inb> sax loy 

/jDDy^ d^QBIB' 

* These are the Rabbanites, who admit that Jesus had done miracles 
by means of the name of God, See Qirc[is4nl (ed. Harkavy), p. 305, line 5. 

' Dan. xi. 14. 

* Ezfavii.a6. QirqisS.ni (ibid., line 5) mentions the opinion of Benjamin 
Nehawendi, according to which Dan. xi. 14 {yys ■•s'ns >:ii) refers to five 
pseudo-prophets, including Jesus. See also the commentary of Saadya 
(the younger) to Daniel, 1. c, and Maimuni, Jggereth Timan, p. 19 (ed. 
Holub) ; pip, II, 5 a. 

* See Qirqisinl, ib., line 9 : >Ah J«3 sitt' jm pow onsNC J>tnpb» p Dip «D«i 
>«3n-i'5i }»i pi2 Van aVao 5*0 W33«i unW. 

' Qirqis^nl, in the short chapter on the Sadducees (p. 304), mentions 
that Christians prohibited divorce altogether. 

* This is the exposition of that which is to be read in Qirqis^ni as 
the continuation of the passage quoted : np ho3 nibnp 'nn pun^s mspD 
Dnb -jbi N'nn' d^d pr Snp «:J'« iaV£. 

' See QirqisSnJ, 306, 24 sqq. and 307 sqq. from David Ammuqammas. 
Hadassi has combined both passages in such a manner as to produce 
the curious anachronism, as if the apostles Peter and Paul had lived 
at the time of Helena, Constantino's mother. The designation "the 
leper " is also from Qirqis^ni (y-QxSK j»i£aiDDp). 



JEHUDAH HADASSl's " ESHKOL HAKKOFER " 437 

iTH e'lN'-riD ^'hi ' •N^i'yjiiN nninsn oawb D'-Nipjn nuvb nya-iK? 

dn • iT'-cnna onoy Tain I^nvi t^ijiia T^iri Nsn n''n tj^jTih 

.^T»3n on 
nE^f't? • mbn Nine' i«5" ity on'-yoi onn^oirii dnnan bi n^s DniT^ 
Nin dnciNi ♦ nii>N ins "nv an hndib nni pi as dn *p3vp'N 

.T'N''3J iiDNC natron 
diDsa m lyapi d''pn loe^ n"^vjiin nyaiN lanai nii'N }2 ib«k> d^oxO 
my 1DNJ • phy nopJD ijS3''i hi^n pb W' nn d^p'' ■•o • ynmb 
"niJiya dmnan on dm * n''K'on it?'' u^j )nJ d-'oac'Di nniD 
iiN mm ♦ mini? niiai'i ♦ maK'n^ ddnh dnns dnaoai 'drnmav^j 
"iCN d''3it3 ab dvn unai lyipi • rru'nh cTunh ?i'S3ni> imin '•Dam 

,Trh» mina n^j 

* This is the transcription of Euayy^Xia. 

^ These data are certainly also taken from QirqisSni, but the MS. from 
which Harkavy edited is defective. According to it Matthew was an 
iinrapxos (or vnapxos), Mark a fisher from the lake of Tiberias, Luke 
a physician (see Epistle to the Colossians iv. 14), and pupil of Paul ; 
nothing is said about John. 

^ p:vp'M, as designation of the three persons asstmied by Christianity 
in the doctrine of the Trinity, occurs also later in section t . 
Hadassi understands by it the expression pip'M = clvt^, fUdnov, 
image, a word frequently occurring in the Midrashic literature. (See 
Levy, Worterbwk, I, 70.) According to Frankl, I.e., p. 28, Joseph 
Albasir, Hadassi's authority, designates the three persons of the Trinity 
as (iKoves. In Albaslr's Hebrew text, communicated by Frankl, p. 53, 
we read D'jpx'jN 'd □''n2?n nai. It is this word which Frankl transcribes 
as fixSyts. But we may assume almost with certainty that the original 
Arabic text had D'3Npt<')»», i. e. the well-known and customary Arabic 
designation of the Trinity (taken from the Syriac) ; in the singular 
Di:ptrt». The translator of Joseph Albaslr's Arabic work, who knew 
Greek, read C'3p«^, and took it perhaps as dKova. This was also done 
by Hadassi, whose j>2vp>« is verbally still more like D'aKpn, v having 
been mistaken for x, and a interchanged with J. My conjecture, that 
Albasir had written d<:npkSh, is confirmed by Qirqis4ni, who (p. 305, 
1. ai) says in so many words : Srtn imn nmj nxa^N }m jiasv crtSN •\')V 
D':«pn; and then further (line 22 f.): n«s ■]')ite j»oi3p )Mncs^«i DwpimftMD 
D'JMpM nrtn. Comp. ib., 306, 8. 

* In margin, jv'jj px 'p: is® D'Enm p« pwbn m:i«a S"s V'i. 

^ Plural of p>')3 py, the transcription of Evangelium. The glossator 
interprets the writing p'';j ps from pM, i Sam. xv. 23. 



438 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 



nn nii'SB> on b^ti D^a^n mton j^n n^ani Diva '•a ira iioni mD 
nyi ET3-10 iwyo =b''D nj?i Ein''n p niDS nai b nTim • 'nmpi 
fliK''3i nut bi • nnatj' niNaoi miDN ni!'Sn nhna n^m nonai fjij; 

o 

n"y ^Nptn^ hnib' ttij? p^ja pin • 'n niina i6& Qr6 i5?ap nnyiDi d-tiV 
nnTiyn vmniN ^ai • '"j^jaa rai:^ ^jB'n n^an nihk' nay iniDB> 

• 'n I'sn "iiN''aa i6 Dn^mv^oi nn^ni'-Ba D-iiyDi m»an orb idk' 

0''J''y^ Djnjoi Dm n 
D''B'nip»n niD''i • (?) layi nr ••a o-iCNa • nayn^ nTin nms ^ai D''i'''DD 
in^atj'n nae' nivm ni)''on nna niVDi • laann^ '•i'a Djoro )Qbn 
lyap ni>^Dn nwD iiom • naaoD laiaoi E'TipD wnb* iityN-i dv iKnm 
Dntya pN nB> oy nwsi mns • ^T'enp nja nay pnt5^ jdjji D''0 
Dn iB'y njiDci niNO ^b& d''31^n • ^nJoJEn ^aiijNi nty ink'i 
.T'j''33a nhnj i^y • "nS^ n^noa ivapw E^nEa^ D'Nnpn an 
11V N^J "iB^N N''''^yjiiN \i2 D''tDBB'D ioK'1 imi npni pin lyapi n!i 
'•3'i'N p 'y-iivDn "jisDn crunjDBnp pra nm^b) naai> Dnioa d^jik'ni 

• D'-cNu on -lE'Na rFjywB ^n uota nx-u 'ai^v • nniba na^jon 
nai i>NiE'''a in nvdj 'na pea pg'i'D ye'-i nnN dn '•a Dnnana pNi 
pxa MDni D^Nn yana yano }*y |pn D''D''»nn apy^ yirij m yin^ 
Nini nii>N p w a^JVJ laa' -»aT iNVcni Dipon ira nann D''1J^ idni 
bp Bunjtanp in • D^cpn bh ib" '•j^dno i^a!? Nin E'npi inioi 
nyn^ noxh ai^va poxni) i>''nnni pnnni Ninn paan pc'i'Dn nan 
iprni iT-Dyn icn dh rhti ♦ d'^d^v^i D^ijyaij nioa nta mai ♦ Dnnx 

.n''»an riNiini nnya T-ooy^ m lyapi 

' See Qirqisau!, 305, 17 : J« pa3?v cm • TDpo ysKirtx in «a3« pbw j« Djn 
npn in sojsi MJNi «s-iD in D'S n:iWnD' n^« ftibsbxi dis^n sin. 

' Qirqisant, ib., line 18 : jMvnbs rni p')tD« ta fira ^o«ab« p N»ffi mm obi 
Vd'jx 'I'M npi'jH p. 

' Ibid., 306, 1-3. 

' Instead of ytiSy, just as n«i2icn nn (above, section n) for vi-^Ti nn. 

' The Bishops of Syria and Greece. 

• The 318 fathers of the Council of Nicaea, wniOD^N = oi hAt/xs. 
See Qirqisani, 306, 29, 33. 

' See above, section 3. 

" An interesting version of the discovery of the cross at the time of Con- 
stantino, according to which it was a machination of a Jewish apostate. 



JEHUDAH HADASSl's " ESHKOL HAKKOFEr" 439 

QmaQcaDi QiT-isdo onji noljnj dhd ^\if^ ■•a ♦ onxo mn am niB'p 

o 

nnx na-Tin om • Nin pavp''^ ne'i^B' na^pn ••a ^^ niiN oa o'-B'nn 
is'-a'' .Tn N^ 1^ DTip '•3 • imyTii tfixn ■'ia^ iet' 1J^''^1^^ • ^?^n mo nn 

.T^m nj?ia 
"lujjai DNn^N 11N }D nnx naTin ms Nini wdd ihi ax ^t? laa ^^V 
hjnJi icaa nh''i ono paa nixa dmji cdot |o iy ):rh^n 

♦nnhya 

• lapJi ipj;jB>a op ''B'"'l'B'n avai • nap3i n»i a^vj umajjai unnn iicn 

.='T''^^K i''3N ro''3 ac^i a<ti^b rhv> 

The 1 00th alphabet runs as follows : 

TiD nvnni)i o^Jijin DiBcij Nia'' Nin '■a ♦ anoiN it nax^D^ ps JT'^aH 

♦ cohy^ 'no Nin ''iNna msn onnana p dni ♦ crnnao in oSyn 

o 

niB^^n nbni }*p i^ e^ sin • nvna nms enno s'h xma wn Bnn btl7 

.T-D npTina -lapji n pi ai^sj nt iiyi ♦ nvm njT'Di miaji 

cnpiDi c^Npih mo'ai n^na • vm^n vdi^n nano nnv niy n^Ni 

' Hadassi commits here a sad blunder. The contents of this section 
refer to QirqisSnl, who reports (after David Almukammas) : hond 

«n3Ni j"3Sib« y'tncb nnisirn sn^s'j «nn«n5« n^s on nn:«i tiio 'te V«id« 

pa«S^>-«. The translation of this is : "The newer Christian philosophers 
assert that the laws of the Thorah had been given to the children of 
Israel in wrath. They were pleased with the laws, because they were 
similar to those of the Sabians. This had its origin in the fact that 
the Israelites had adopted the tenets of the Egyptians, because they 
lived among them. But the doctrines of the Egyptians are a variety 
of those of the Sabians." Hadassi misunderstood in this way, as if 
Jesus had taken his doctrines from the Egyptians, which were based 
upon those of the Sabians. And this he amalgamates with the notion 
of the magical knowledge of Jesus, already before mentioned by him 
and referred to a Talmudic source. 

' These last two sections contain an exposition of the Christian dogmas 
of the redeemer. 



440 THE JEWISH QUAKTERLY REVIEW 

Ooyo Nine* innsB« b::) vni-nsi 
omsN Tj? QTND ISO cyiNTi o ' iDiH '"' ni5?nio nuvi'jn yaiN n^np 

DIN nj? V3NflDV }D 1Din''i IST K^pi^) bsii ' IDIH'''' 1DN !» 1111 mi.TI 

'3 D^DiN !j3n on'' N^ HUN n^sm N^ FiSv Kin Njmii enpio n^nS 
•■a Dnpinon •'b^b' n^ -idni btp irx ixisDn naia maj? Bnpn rm 

• mayrij ^Ni>o^ laio •'3 •'Ini wn onnai npix • ^i^vina ^D5? 'n 
riKUD w IN • mnvnrh hb^n «idv nN-inD m&i cinnain ndb' bs 
13DD1 ranon'rinxj Dipoa njin N^jn ni^j? Nsri yBnn pinuh iniN 

• SmnnDD Dipra 13 di3N3 i^on onnin pra ib« noa -r^ji • mayni 

• °min noiriai crnvo noana db* harui cnns anc onvoa nTii 
ita nnpyn ba unsd n^ '■a • mayriJ '■a pn^ n^ b'''K xb bin 

-iB'N • T03n» iiT'B'Nii m TDpnij nijNn Qi^ipn ^b noiya na isD 
3?ii3 iTn ^'N1 yapj Bnnoi lyiao B'yeci nin it pmb vbv iT-yn 
nn nijni ^an uiatnB' ninan i^ijai mn n la's • ^B^y mn ^ai? Nin 
Djaj maa t^* ^« * cina duii 'b^^jbi ^^b* Niian oy onano "la Dn 
nn-oni pniD^n bspi 'nay cnai iB'a B^aiji onnaia fjJiODn oma 
niyi HE'y'' mb^ fOB'n nx cnaai* jyoi? bp ni>N b dneiNi • onnoNa 
D''Donni niynn nny iy 'a nib B^aa Ni> naai ♦ arvn-ab nnoB* lohya 
arai ipB* ^ai nrrm r|iN''3i niite jtaB'n oni bi niaMni nibnn pBiyni 
D-'DB'n aina n^jh iiy sh • tin'-iu oSya ciin nia''3ni 2b riNDitai 
■•a oniD Dm • oni) '•in oma b)y rvn iw ^inii>ai>a'' ab ccE'n •'db'i 

^ See Qirqisani, 307, 6ff. Comp. Matt. i. 1-16; Luke iii. 23-38. 

' Neither in Mark nor in John occurs such a manifestation of the 
angel to Mary; these gospels do not contain the history of Jesus' 
nativity. 

' Nazareth. Kalir (ra.v «•>« in the Ritual of the 9th of Ab) has 
also ms:. In the New Testament the reading vacillates betvireen 
Va^ap^T and Nafapdr. 

♦ Luke ii. 7. 

' Hadassi combines here the narrative of the New Testament about 
the flight to Egypt (Matt. ii. 13") with the afore-mentioned assumption 
that Jesus had been a disciple of Egyptian wisdom. 

• See Job vii. 5. ' t Kings viii. 37. 



JEHUDAH HADASSIS " ESHKOL HAKKOFER 44I 

{<in nriN ainai Nin '^Ento« ionb cncxa oipoa ha'- i^n niaan 

aui'isn imra t-n ir' n^n 'n niaao niaa dni • mwji ^ly^ moiyn 
{?in?innEN man onnaia nnai • manh tdot!' j"}? ijy iniirii 
j?3Di inim onxn nub ynv xh nyu'- n^ on'-jyo Vin'-wiDips 
n^JNai rhiQ naai • mu'^ lanriDi piino oni nc'a oy xh inemp 

PX «IN ♦ diT-NXXSI DIN ^J3 INCa QTI IK-'a NIH p!> It^ ^P 1E>j;3 

DniNO in» ncj'N niB'Sji' T-ny^ nopji oatwi jn pN '•a dnnma 

011 iB>3 bv T-Ni ♦ aninininE>» oi'-'S'-i nwy Nin '•a ib^^ uidnhb^ 

'n dN3 ''3N ^n 3in3 xSni vnixioa DmiDn nx n'-ni'Nn t-d nnsi> 

.ITha ncN* 'i'lXD n^» j'ni ainai ''wi i!'''y na dn p dn d\ni'N 

O 

ni''iBn >nB> ^3 cxann on -ib'n N»n id 'tJ'I"' i^'iJ^aB' i3''nN k^t-s -inD 
piD d'-n^NH TD lynti' ^*yi -nDy n"y wun dmaNi '^dhyn dn 
Tn naiaa dmax y->r» dnc nnsn 'a^n b ^a • 'd^j^n laaii diwa 
dniiNn Do^yo^i vpnxi» ^jkh ncy^ icn iTiy jni'tya Tia^ca n"yn 
nSt • dijiya vpnv nnrDca nntw i^y^i "ion wr inana iyttE>''B'a 
nean »:a^ nn nijni bn nan n^N ijai ™ni> inn ttti ihn nini? 

iniiNna nns niK>yi' 'na mo wis b nns wru vhn rhn d'-oiNi 
i»y >nD^n ^noi'ty on ia hb^hn n!? '<:Qb naina nan ainan iTni dhya 
y»B'''i 'n aB'p'"! injn ba ^ti 'n '•Nn* naij tn vpnv ^y ainai • "dp'-n 

^ That is dx'^'P'?'''"'' ' Keh. ix. 6. ' Ps. xix. 8, lo. 

* That is StnfpiSpcueros, dworavoijTos. See FrankI, Monatsschrifl, 1884, p. 517. 
' Ezek. xiv. ao. • Deut. xxxii. 39. 

' See above, p. 436, note i. 

' Hadassi alludes to the Rabbinical doctrine of the fin mo and 
Dtimn mo. In Rabbinical literature nvisn 'n© means the gnostic or 
manichaean doctrine of Dualism, and is, of course, combated by the Rabbis 
themselves. 

• See Erubin, 19 a. 

'" See Pesachim, 119 b. At the meal given by G-od to the pious in 
the world to come, the blessing is pronounced by David (after Ps. cxvi. 13). 
Jalkut to Isaiah xxvi. a (from a Midrash, cf. Elijahu zuta, c. 20) : the 
power of Amen to rescue from hell. 
" Isa. Ixv. 6. 



442 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

va-na ^''nb nnb ainai • Moty nnn^i 'n •'trcb v^sh pnat isd ana-i 
ainai • 'oSy pNmh niain^ n^Ni ohj? '••'n^ rha ainai • ^v^byo naai 
D^^''3K'Dni ainai • *'»i oa'-^-i- nias nnn isx vn^ 13 wv^n aniDj)i 
DK diDND DN13 * "lohj?^ ^D'^stta Dunn ^pnxDi ypnn nnira I'T'nT'' 
luyi' "ir-j-inp i?^ ^a in • ba moK'D iidb'j '•a yva no onnaia 

D^B'Dn TD B>a3n msn T>D bo bvJJ JDNl DN * ^Na DB* mtj'h 

inta fiN • ^Nina imini mm jnwn Nini iniVDo mvon najy • bam 
11N ainai ^ibs'- on-'bhya na 'a am 'a pnv n»N ainan ir-w inop^i 
D^{?3Nn njaa wm invi ainai 'iji 'i!? nK'jr' in^ hoj "la yn jjtn^ 
'-ica b^ IiNn vni naan s^ Dtrw niDn i6 onySn ^a n n^ynan 

D''{fnatDn twn^a ira • D'-bn bn ja on ci'-n^N b^ innai miin m^tt 
no • D'-bm niopjD ^S3^ fcxa yta^" i6 dni b"n ■>i»b>^ ds • c^^'ddi 
npn^'i Mw ->E'Na wn^N 'n •'ja^ riNtn nivon b ns niB'y^ tioe>^ t:b 
nrnxn mnae'oai ni:fiNn '•Dya w n^nj nsnai ♦ d''^N bao •\:ib .Tinn 
ainai ""wi n\nn n^ n\n oami ^y n^iyni ainai • ci'-hbi niNDio ba 
Ooy "!'N">B''' b ^y 3->in3 miN "timx ie'n nay nc^D mm nar 
DE> mm n^N b ^yi • ^n->b'''3 dnh^n b" lasi '^mp '>n^N njiyo 
Niip^ 3^ n3E'3^ n3n^ ''vnirND mirr^i ^snK''' }d^n n^ "la • i;NiB«a 
N*3»n N'>3"iy wBTin xmi • ^xun "nip npa omoxh nm D^UE'i' 
imsnp'' -iK>x b^ * ^NiK' b pxn nnyi '^pa^D d^noi pa^» nyno 
amaa • ijxnN )i''33 ^yi vniD ^y nyi ohy^ ni^o'' nipi ijNjn^ nDN3 
pjiDx 3mai "oa'i^y -ji^cN naiaB* ncnai n''iD3 y'nT3i nprn T'3 n^ on 
va"na \ir>i<b nn!? amai • "i?N->B''' jVMtxff ppN pp ni^a ?iidnn 

. .''T^^J'o ''■'S31 _ 
n^pn "ID na f dni 33^ oan • '''n naj njun pxi nvy rxi noan )'>n p7 
'b CDBTi ^a nnn d^k'Ni '•jonpn '»d amai • Tha '•snjdd ^d^k^i v^n 



' Mai. iii. i6. * Jer. xxxii. 19. ' Dan. xii. 2. 

* Mai. iii. 21. " Dan. xii. 3. ' See Mai. iii. 14. 

' Isa. iii. 10. ' Isa. iii. 11. ' Isa. Ixvi. 24. 

"• Ezek. XX. 32. " Mai. iii. 22. " Deut. xxxiil. 27. 

" Jer. li. 5. " Isa. ixi. i. " Dan. ii. ai. '« Ezek. xx. 33. 

" Micah ii. 12. '■^ Jer. xxxii. 19. " Prov. xxi. 30. 

"<' Job ix. 4. 



JEHUDAH HADAS8IS " ESHKOL HAKKOPER 443 

^nynni ^man imn jre^o '•ly^aD pNi 'n lajs ••ajK ainai *Nin 
.ynba -ION 'njji jnvn ^33ni ionji • ''ny Dnsi nr aaa pxi ^npoB'm 

As already mentioned, the other letters of this alphabet, 
till the end, appear in the edited copy, appended as a con- 
clusion of the 98th alphabet. In the Vienna manuscript 
the next section, letter a, commences with the words 
IDlpDO U^ -\m E^N b:i Tini n^5r3 p. In the printed copy, 
where the omission commences at the middle of the letter 
D of the 98th alphabet, this section is given as the con- 
clusion of the section 3, with the alteration of JiND p 
into nw^, in order to make the phrase more consonant 
with the Biblical source, Job xxxvii. x. 

****** 

That which gives the controversy of Jehudah Hadassi, 
published here for the first time*, a character of its own, 
consists in the combination of his attacks upon Christianity 
with those upon Rabbinical Judaism. In an original way, 
he considers the arbitrary interpretation of the scriptures 
applied by the Christian commentators in the interest of 
their dogmas as a counterpart of the freedom of the Agadic 
interpretation of the Bible against the Masoretic reading of 
the text (alphabet 98, section d). From an Agadic legend 
about the future woiid he draws the inference, that the 
Rabbanites attribute more power to a single Amen, than 
to the fulfilment of the religious law, and that they there- 
fore are in this case in touch with Christian notions 
(alphabet J 00, sections D, 3). He goes even so far as to 
attribute to the Rabbanites a turbid notion of the unity 
of God, applying to the doctrine of the attribute of 
divine mercy and of divine justice the very expression 
used by the Rabbis in combating the gnostic doctrine 
of Dualism (see above, p. 441, note 8). Those sections 

' Job xli. 3. " Isa. xliii. 11, 12. ' Jer. xxix. 23. 

* The late P. F. Fraiikl had the intention to edit these sections 
of the Eshkol Hakkofer. See Monatsschrift, 1884, p. 517. Steinschneider, 
Pdlemische und Apologetische Litteratur, p. 352. 

VOL. VIII. G g 



444 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

also, in -which Christianity and Islam are together the 
subject of his controversy (alphabet 99, sections 1, t), claim 
special attention. But, apart from this, the polemical passage 
contains a number of interesting items, a portion of which 
only I have pointed out in my notes. Some of the former 
are not quite clear ; but on the whole, Hadassi's expositions, 
once they are dissolved from their peculiar rhymed form 
and its consequent distortions, can be followed without 
trouble. This piece of polemical literature deserves to 
occupy a place in the history of Jewish controversy 
against Christianity, both on account of the extracts it 
produces from older sources (Joseph Albasir and Qirqisani) 
and its general contents. It is remarkable that this class 
of literature owes its last great product to another Karaite, 
Isaac Troki (Chizzuk Emuna, 1594). The controversy, in 
the form as given by Hadassi, belongs to history. One 
of the editors of the Jewish Quaktekly Review has 
only recently given an example (/. Q. R., VIII, p. 1 93), 
full of candour and learning, how it is possible for 
modern Judaism to deal with Christianity without the 
unenjoyable harshness of the old controversialists. 

W. Backer. 

Budapest, January, 1896.