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By Prop. David Kaufmann. 

The Jews of Italy cultivated the knowledge of the secular literature 
of the people among whom they dwelt, and felt its influence, before 
those of any other country. Ever since the days of Immanuel b. 
Solomon their Hebrew poetry shows the effects the national poetry 
had upon them. Unlike other countries, the light of culture had 
not forced itself in their Ghetto all of a sudden. Their connexion 
with their time, with the living surroundings, was never interrupted. 

Nevertheless, traces of struggles were not absent, even amongst 
them, against the admission of that which was alien, evidences of 
the profound excitement with which the adoption of that which was 
imported from abroad was refused and rejected. As everywhere, here 
also it was the sermon, this most sensitive of all gaugers of culture, in 
which above all the alien elements of the mind commenced to ferment 
and to act, and to challenge the contradiction of the zealots of the 

We owe the preservation of such a dispute, of which the history of 
our culture has left no other traces, called forth by the Jewish sermon, 
to Abraham Joseph Solomon Graziano of Modena, an industrious com- 
piler imbued with the spirit of historical research. I have in my 
library a volume of his compilation, in which he reluctantly— and 
therefore with the greater credit to his scientific spirit — has preserved 
two letters which open for us a clear insight into those memorable 

It was in the spring of the year 1598 that Israel Sforno in Modena 
felt himself called upon to conjure up a castigating storm of the 
greatest Rabbis of his time over David del Bene of Mantua. Elieser 
David Mehatob, or, as his surname was in Italian, del Bene, had 
already drawn the notice of the public of his native town Mantua 
upon himself by his talents as preacher, in spite of his youth. His 
addresses in the synagogue had collected round him an assembly of 
enthusiastic friends and followers. There was a novel element in 
these sermons which dazzled and fascinated the audience, the quota- 
tions from Italian authors and from national poets. Mythological 
names, as they never before had been heard in the synagogue, 
goddesses and gods of the heathens appeared in these sermons. It 
happened even that the orator forgot himself so far as to speak of the 
holy Diana, quella santa Diana. Just as once before in the syna- 
gogues of the Provence the abstractions of the Aristotelian philosophy 


commenced to spiritualize the historical figures of Holy Writ and to 
sublimate Abraham and Sarah into Matter and Form, till Solomon Ibn 
Adret's decree drove the shadows out of the house of God, thus here 
also a new allegory seemed to make its entrance into the Jewish sermon. 
The gods of the Greeks and the Romans were to explain the dicta of 
the Agada. And as on the former occasion Abbamare of Lunel 1 had 
undertaken the part of zealot, it was now, in Mantua, Nissim Sforno 
who felt himself compelled to destroy the new, heretical mode of 
preaching. His brother Israel, of Modena, to whom he opened his heart 
in a letter, was to call forth the storm against the youthful innovator. 
Two of Israel Sforno's three sons, namely, Obadiah and Abraham, 
had taken up their abode in Reggio Emilia ; the third, Chananel, 
lived in Constantinople. Israel Sforno, indignant and determined 
to carry on the struggle to the end, made first a representation to 
Obadiah, who at a later period left several monuments on the pages 
of Jewish literature 2 . R. Menachem Azariah di Fano was at that 
time at the head of the Rabbinate at Reggio Emilia. He was esteemed 
and famous for his undisputable mastery both of the Talmud and the 
Cabbala, and was the centre of a considerable circle of disciples. 
Chiskiah b. Isaac Foa 3 , a novice in the office of Rabbi, and, like 
Obadiah, an assistant of the Rabbinate, co-operated with him. These 
men were to proceed against the preacher of Mantua, and should 
unhesitatingly hurl against him the excommunication to which he 
had made himself liable according to the old decision of Ibn Adret. 
However great and far-reaching Menachem Azariah 's authority was, 
Israel Sforno was not satisfied with his sentence only. He was rather 
determined to appeal against the innovator to the other authorities 
of his country, Samuel Archevolti, the celebrated Rabbi of Padua, 
and the Rabbinate of Venice, with Judah Loeb Saraval and Isaac 
Gerson at their head. Israel Sforno had a brother David in Saloniehi, 
and a son Chananel in Constantinople, who were to assist him in 
summoning the , Rabbis of Turkey and the Holy Land to the holy 
strife against the thoughtless preacher of Mantua. 

The want of documents prevents us from judging of the effects of the 
campaign called forth by this zealot. But the fact that there was no 
want of authorities ready to excommunicate del Bene is attested by 
the letter of Nathaniel Trabotto, the Rabbi of Modena 4 , who was at 
that time thirty-two years of age. He summoned the Rabbis and 

1 H. Gross in Revue des Mudes Juives, IV, 192 sqq. 

2 M. Mortara, h^ms'm 'iMn rrora, p. 61. 3 Nepi, rmiV pnx -ni, p. 113. 
* D. Kaufmann, in Monalsschrift, 39, 353, n. 3, where read, " 1653," and 

"in the eighty-fifth year." According to 31a nils, in Berliner's Magazin, 
14, p. 12, Trabotto was in his eighty -seventh year when he died. 


scholars of that city to the struggle against their fellow-citizen, who 
had so prematurely achieved fame. He was led to do so by the 
pressure brought to bear upon him by the reports from Mantua about 
del Bene's sermons. That which had been done by del Bene appears 
to him much more criminal than anything which had come to the 
knowledge of Ibn Adret about the preachers of the Provence, for he 
had repeatedly promulgated his impudent allegories in the synagogue 
before the congregation. His name is therefore in peculiar contrast 
with his actions. At the same spot where his objectionable profanations 
had been heard, he should solemnly recant. 

It seems that the next consequence of this measure was, that del 
Bene retired from the pulpit, discontinued his offensive sermons, and 
resolved again to begin his schooling and to acquire, under the 
direction of a recognized master, in the customary way, the undis- 
puted qualification of a Rabbi. He was still a young man, and it was 
not difficult to find a master of approved authority. R. Menachem 
Azariah of Pano, who was to have been his judge, became his teacher. 
His youthful imprudence was soon forgotten, and David del Bene 
became a man to whom the distinguished congregation of Ferrara 
did not hesitate to confide the office of Rabbi. He had the privilege 
of filling that post for thirty-six years 1 , and of sending forth responses 
to difficult questions addressed to him from all parts of Italy. His 
fellow-disciples, who had sat with him at the feet of the great master 
of Reggio Emilia, all highly praised and acknowledged del Bene's 
conduct and piety. They included men of ascetic piety, such as 
Aron Berachja, of Modena, the author of Maabor Yabok, who died 
July 28, 1639 2 ; the two Isaac Berachja, the one the son of 
Menachem Azariah, the other his son-in-law, afterwards Rabbi of 
Lugo; Elieser Nachman Foa, who used to sign himself Anion 3 ; 
David Diena, the grandson of the great Rabbi of Sabbioneta, Azriel 
Diena, the opponent of David Reubeni * ; Isaac b. Mardochai, of Poland, 
later the friend of Menachem Azariah, and editor of his responses. 
Graziano quotes also in testimony of del Bene's piety Mordechai b. 
Ismael Cuarossi and Isaac Rabenu, both of Reggio, with whom he had 
been personally acquainted 6 . 

1 in mS nisca. Preface: na -ior«J vn imna cam V'2. 

3 Zunz, Literaturgeschiohte der synagogalen Poesie, p. 424 sq., and Monatstage, 
P- 42. 

3 M. Mortara, I.e., p. 23. 

* Kaufmann, Revue des Eludes Juives, XXX, 304 sqq., and XXXI, 65 sqq. ; 
and LOwenstein, ibid., 120 sqq. 

5 Graziano asked in 1658 through Isaac Rabenu, whom he calls T;nn 
baifon, rraon po', as he says at the beginning of the manuscript. 


It was these events, perhaps, to which David's son, Jehudah Asael 
del Bene, alluded in his Thrones of the House of David, a book 
dedicated to the memory of his father, when he combats the exclusive 
study of the language and literature of the country. He sees ia the 
neglect of Hebrew and the preference of Italian by the men an 
offence against which he had vowed to write his book 1 , but he con- 
siders the instruction of girls in the Italian national literature 
altogether as a danger to morality, because female youth became 
corrupted and poisoned by a premature awakening of impure thoughts 
and the excitation of love 2 . 

From information given by Jehudah Asael we know that it was 
the influence of the great preacher, philosopher, and grammarian 
Judah Moscato, a man thoroughly acquainted with the whole cyclus 
of the civilization of his time, which manifested itself in the sermons 
of David del Bene, and which gave offence by being pushed to the 
extreme 3 . The profound philosophy, although borrowed from Greek, 
Roman, and Italian thinkers, exhibited in the sermons of the master, 
never denied or offended Jewish consciousness, and was, therefore, 
admired and imitated. But in the method of the followers that which 
was imported from without had not been converted into flesh and 
blood, but was applied in its crude alien garb, and met, therefore, with 
opposition and gave offence. But Moscato remained also the son's 
master. Jehudah Asael admits that it was owing to Moscato's writings 
that he had acquired his skill and mastery in the use of Hebrew, and 
a portion of the elegant sayings and facetiae 4 which he had introduced 
into the Hebrew, in order to make that language compete successfully 
with the Italian. 

David del Bene's family had been long settled in Italy. Jehudah 
Asael carries his pedigree back for eight generations, in which learning 
and the dignity of Rabbi had descended from father to son 5 . It must 
be left to further research to trace and identify that string of 
scholars. But even now, in connexion with our event in the house 
of del Bene, at least two names of that family may be mentioned, 
of which, thus far, traces can be found only in certain letters con- 
tained in Italian manuscript compilations, with which I became 

1 in rva 1 ; nwoa, f. 24 b. 2 Ibid., f. 26 b. 

3 Ibid., f. 34 b, an -rc>*o '3 . . . V' 1 ^ TEspmo ji*on nan sasn rrvran ton 
nan odd NaiTunai nyxpxo. awihaa rrrnn rrorft -naa *oS aw> vnu«?i vo* 
yte n©rai ns'ten «Eam ji«An mns max 'na nz»n'? -ton ns'tori rrronn 
c-n Vru. 

1 Ibid., rvpo'yyi nvoraw. 

5 Ibid., preface, ai vinroo opt j'taiDon v-ha rraann vt rvniN tea 'Jimp naai» 
-m ito im c« 'do «w» nvm mo®. 


acquainted from the manuscripts of Marco Mortara, the last Rabbi of 
Mantua, which have come into my possession. 

Jacob del Bene, of Bologna, to whose memory an unknown poet 
composed an elegy in the form of a letter of consolation to his wife 
and children, cannot yet be further identified 1 . But all that we read 
in his praise shows that he had stood at the head of the congregation 
of Bologna, probably as its president, and that his life had been 
devoted to the promotion of the peace of the community and the 
solution of all disputes. He must certainly have enjoyed great esteem 
among large circles, and his memory has been preserved in this faint 

Abraham del Bene, to whom the two letters of Salomo di Modena 
are addressed 2 , and whom we find to have had intercourse with the 
brothers Elchanan and Ismael di Riete 3 , seems to have been a dis- 
tinguished merchant, whom we can assume to have lived about the 
half of the sixteenth century. Salomo di Modena was commissioned 
to cash in Siena and other places money due to Abraham, but did not 
succeed in spite of his exertions. These business letters are written 
in so remarkable a Hebrew style, that they are also of value for 
literary history. 

Sources : 

The Letter of Israel Sforno to his son Obadja in Reggio Emilia. 

-n"nico bts y'vr uiisd i>tOB* Y'-iY'ioa oann am ik'n rrutwi Daiu 

roiaon • y"j mono in Y'-»no Y'y • vn tjd m ?"x? utibd toiaiy 

K31B3D p"p3 D»313 CTUl flVl Wiri3 n^nn3B> 03» • ryta W3 b"n 

wmaD '•"iniD 'nac no ^sb nnw pern oninn nan (man nspoa) 
iniDD n"-imo ep3D nni (vmannb ''•ycwn nui? -myb ^ini) ^"jn 
pton bi< nr i>y "uts? b"n ^"vr ijiisd Nnaiy Y'-irro 1330 • !>"jn ^"xr 
!>« oai * r>n3 lnbyo D3 3b>v fin jnsj> ^"piw ukbd snry dtoo Y'-i.nioa 
in Y'nmob 'nnto iw DfpnibyoB> no • y"3 nSiFlopfn Y'-imea 
* 'nnx 'nan ^y 'niron nx rroini> Nin jvub> ioa * b"jn !?"*? aicno 
pp$> pw - vrwm an.n "pnn rw> Kin D3B>i nnnan nirm nonce 

1 In Cod. Mortara, 58, as K. 244 of the fragment of a collection of 
Hebrew letters. 
8 In Cod. Mortara, 18, as N. 102-104. 
3 D. Kaufmann in fieeue des Eludes Juives, XXVI, 90 sq. 


nt n"y naeh natya ioiEaD "varb 3n3t? maxn n« * nt -mat? wn ?p3 
- • •anpi i"» y'xr tamta baan: n""iniD3 hian ^nh 

'ihs> ^ ■vp' 1 jan 
spwi ins ■•"my 5>y • Naioao p"p onayn nanoa nonets nyrrn hp 
vnvniK nnnn nNix va n^d -ib>k q»jb ry iw aiono in • ->ya nya 
ib>k '•an b& mem caia w6 * nrcina lyiiai i-oa mo nvniK 
naDD may6 ojn • Dhy!> nnxno law yip ynpi? a^n DrryoiK' i»a 
(tniao) D»oa Y'-in"oa hnan *n« masa tnpn ->t?to • tahyn mcit* 
nton naoo • tannaon ni>N -in* Dy *pN npnyn nhc '■as ib>n • l"*" 1 
'*ato min w 5>ai> DD-iiaoi ^a nam • vnai »anm vniam »an nsp 
an-ia e>it6 n^c? y"aa ta«nn D'oiawin tui Din e» •o an ui '•pini' 
rrcrnpn iamw nana D3iyh o^ann niw -\wrb xbw\ »an i>B> nism 
aaic t«» »a n^N nvaipoa nny yeaon in-iim n W>n nr nam • no^yan 
ntnN wn b» iya -iyai »Tn» Nine Dai • D^n d^n spah ?pn!> nns 
n3an i^> DnoiNi ta^rno D*D-iipaNi owe ps ^yia miaxi D^yio 
-ick ii wo nunc ny • imin ncwi n w naa DiToa ca^no ~\r\bw 
arim.tfb D^pnien D'yoip D»oi>to yp-93 nmaa ctraia bnpn initu 
a£nn • naa 11 $>»ob» dec ib>n W> -13*6 ny nnyo • o-pntw k!?i dtoc'di 
rovoi mm DT3 ->e>K ii ,, kt> bz ponnn ^ya imp •on maa ion* 
nnonbo icn^ni • a>nzrb Dansi mann^ D3nx ina • hntw wytn 
iprnnn • ianx n 13 innn bx\ itn»n ^n lmini ii nua^ loipi min ^c 
nnaiy 'i) '•aa nns Da • vaa^ inhyai ins natr nan ^n '•aai' vm 
n S^n ww Dipoa *3 ^ax nya ncwi ^xi • ii maa^ prnnni prn (iaiiaD 
Dip 1313 ^annn, ^n TT'VX ntn • csnb t«h T'n^ «i» 1133 p3a» j»n 
ii ns 1133^ ni33^> -vyn nt^N bi • m-iinh ii^ sapb 13m i^y Da »a 
'3ot b ^y i^ynr nsi nnis T'DN' 1 sim • D»pW> "j^ nvn^ dim rnosn 
ba }iia3 nns aa Nip • Dn';a nDan nanm n&i nsa^ T'saw psn 
n"3 Dinsi ji^yn n"3 Din3 Dinn Dinm n^ip Din nawa liB'nn 
Djn ioy3 nt^y aita xb '•a aiDno in iyai iya ban miN pnnnn 
•'T'Dm wean wapr s "y D'o^n jd lmonnm mna 133^ oyi • .i nun 
Dnnnc noo mna 13131 ioznra ntoa3 y"a3 D^n Dn ib'N lancix 
bit &nan ny3 D'aann nx D^Diao d"d • n"33 ni3i D^oya Nin nB'yi 
^aooi "po D^ani D^apri" c^nn i?Ni nw Dip nxi • ii ^l^n '•aao D^nn 


DJ0N1 ' 111333 M«n DH 031 W D*11p immi "pan* ii 1133 |y"> * in3E> 

nrao -i"-irooa) jitum spfon n^yo^> bn yum ntnnt? yotr> nan b ^>y 
itt 5>a by (iriisD) i"v d»du -i"noa tik nmtt £ ntnni • utcao (rrnty 
rona my na^o * dot wi^ s^nn new vnvwh ra ••an an 
futon ncwND ni>"mp onoiK • p"p nvpo naa lyotw ib>k mn runai 
• i3n runo yoe> t6 ""Yina"oe> pao ps »a • n^xn onana isd^ -iidkp 'iai 

B»lO U) 0W 11333 3"H Kin TOOl UOO "WV U) * C'ntin t6 yOE> 1 W 

bo d»jwj mam • -imt? onnt* unooi unoo nsy uopi inmaa 
xnta E>m uni • '131 mno^ nu tw ns b now uoj -oai • wnWa 
ri naro nt< 10^ mam va'ao $>a by ton tou ra mym • 'isi ^sno 
im5 tttreoan crosrin inb>!> n^>t*n nnatwi ntnn p 1031 • Dnnn 
ntoa n^ptn ->noa oann p 1031 • imin maaai h maaa cca^n ob m 
ma ymv noai • nnan un v^y !>ap naa m mns aiw^ mi>mnn ■b ps 
D^yoi mm 1T3 tw 'o ^3 D'a^n a"y • 'm ioci nmnn maa!> ab dk 
' no cprnon bi ton ncy 310 xta mnn mix onnnS nvui> ontw 
Pbd pro • i/N u , ni3 , '3D3 -ib>k ioy no^B^ ht?aoh npiab my n\m tth 
un * mini iob6 tupoi mix tnn ^3E>o e*n nitoi' ioy ns ii nono '•a 
n^yo bm K3HB3 ainato, • n nptv na» tor iy oipK>t< nb) max t6 
-nmo3) D3nm * i$>n3-id Dan!? ntoswisi • lo hypig ^ tooty Y'-tno3 
U3 btv\ • ' dk>o coann btt, in i"noa ms ■'"y ipui^Dai • pern (pnv 

PN3C '•OB' >jnVD1 ^np ^N1 ' W03NOD1p3 * (iniBD) ^N33n "i"n03 

nnN D) tJiTi ^n pi> • nyut^i n^i? n\Ti nri3 mn^s -\m ny mvn 
dtobsi 1DE' ■'Njpo bv "fob f\ inco" 1 -s bin ha-'i na'yn ntw din us 
tn • iob> UMPirn ii '"NT' ^aa tnpnh tnpn nmay^ nam jnan nry^N p 
nvnh * c^a Tmj p n^ m .m^a ^Dan t6i nivon yonn n^b> nt«-> 
n ^n pnntc pi nrn yin lain b my tins ab iamb "]b'b ram n^E>n 
nionon oy niunnn ^yo cob* niana yby ysv nsiri? ^nuuon wpbx 
np^n n3B> • nmaD^ no^a ib>3^ tutn • srmo t jdn aSy iyi nnyo 

: nmyi> 

1 Marginal note in Graziano's handwriting : ^»' V'-stim cann '3 ST*) -jns 
-iTa P3W iti era csw • csan caa nicbiB i"? vn • nsin ma«n narra • V'si w>ed 
nnac '■jran rvrra 'cVcni • »": i:iirD kton I'SmoDi • iniBD wtiw Y'-inoD iyn • vn 
■jWi l^wn rrrra 'jdq ■ ]K3 'm wcaaDip i'sa in 1 )* V's^ 1:1120 ton -nmm inw Nip 


inisD btovr Tin man 
•nn i"y irnaoTFuiy Vnoa 133 lomm ipn W {b"in anan 33 by) 
TiyoB' -ik>k nt< }&o ainai? * pmyon -vyvb ^ 'in* :vn -vya niin^ 
iid!£ -|i?n nm n&>yD may nnNC i?"xr nr aiano in -i"-iniDa by 

• y'pw 13NDD Nnry dtod -i"-iniDa cnpn i>aipDn ^vn niTora mm 
toana pnx -i"-iniDa on N^n • onnx 'n^m ''awpo 'nan oy • via 
^c unn * i"afa a"nt< tjb> usao tfona pny n"-niDai tonioo 

• wni in n"-ini»ai * rwa pro -itjt^k i""«ii»ai * b"yn y"D"in rwan 
■one n"aa pnv "i"-iniD3i * b"an y"D-in h? 13a two pny Y'-imoai 
^nNip ♦ano Vinoa ^ n»K -ityto 'nnx ''Dam trofoa b^k ^"sr 
'ok>v ewoa iw • b"t wan pnv 'oa laaan tprni • ^"r tajw 'caa 
-irn • y'3n y'vr aione in Y'imo"aB> a"nN ny yotw n!?i - • p"na 
dh^^di h"n nao naio idd^i • nvarenn moanna w\ib nuitrtnn $>y 
pain db> -ie>x • tntrpa p"pD roiDK hmk a"3 iTan -\wta ' oniTm 
'w nam • \nyb aiD ennh onta piv mioij mnpta jy 'ma min 

: iT3yD1K> *3ND '"1.11 yDK>3 Vib 31B1 ' Dl^y .1W B>t01 psp3 


T/ae Letter of R. Natanael Trabotto to the Community of Mantua. 

nbyv ba • i"d • W'w ciaiD i'toro -T'lmoa ptun n^n anac mss 
naison • b''^ aiono in V'-im»a by • y"3 taiD3D S>e> twanm twnnn 
nvpo N31ID3D p"pa tnn nw i^y not* innna nwac • ^o S>"n 
aM^iiij na nr ne>y ^ini ^"rn notroa nms neny mm D^aixn 'nai 
bvrw i"iniD3 pw naai - * omob jno^b nyn pen nni> rniyh 

• y'3n aioiD oann 'y» 133 • wmo T>ya in^yn D3 3BT 1 n s nc wtisd 
Nnaiy ~i"-iniDa 133^ r\bv ib'n 3na3 • r^n en nnN!f f)i3 iinsi' 'inaa 

: t/'y * nTy^ n"3trn n3ca * vn ^ya ^"xr wniao 
mp i&'n hn jam ^rx ny»B» '1^ • naiD3D3 ie>n nnnn mc oa^N 
wyT 1 tub) ma wdv n^ wni • pa-no rwas I'ayi id oy oanx 
'naa biW? • 13 npit3 mica nni^tj' • 1313 wyo Tino D3dn • n»a'B 
N33 ,, anDi ly xnD 'as »Kt5>n wane xh ^ wm • ^od pan '"-oan 

1 Note of Graziano. 


'ipsa ^jnan 'aa pyBe n"a N'nn Nnaiy nwhb • pane Naarcn Nniara 
e"a • nna 3"n n"n iaa nanan be Nin jnmi * irwini 'en ^n Naw 
TiyBe neN nnN a"yi * onnaDa b"i '•'pDian unae ids idik sprit? na 
'••ana enn^ ice mm pais tonn nejn ^>ya neN nN '■"jnr 'wn hbsb 
13 • t"y "6 mn -ino • 'Tiia i>e niNDp-ipi rotnotfo bv '^an nana 
"•■d naiena N"ae-in 3nae no • nam •'ymn ;nd man ba iym N^ri 

• mam ibdin "nam • *an bv rrnaN '»ennn utiin ^y • [n"Ti] (Y'b) 
nanne Dam • nanta oe ainae uaa naa ^>y ian ivai Nin wannro 
*» '•a • N3 N"ae-in hian bmsn nan nino^ n^> • man bv aw nsnna 
?rr>D ?nan Nta Ninn 3-6 ynin • n^>n • wn mcy naa iaieh va n^e 11 
iW • mine ^03 ''an ps i?3N • ^"n nan naj t6 ?|n : lanmn naa 
D»nnr£ nnse nwo^ '"n 'v^n *">an ''•aeroi • ••an bv ninan ''-emnn 

• *\"-ub i"p mob N"ae-i.n nan»i * nto hna ompiaN ^ p« *a • onnah 
ltaieaa N^>e man wp tayB . . . 2 ntoa 'n ibnb e-ne ^aea anm 
n^y • y r r ann ejvp * nrnvm noinn i>N 'nan onnn men onnasn 'bni 

• peni '^wn nani? 'ipns ?n"n ?nmyD ^ane n"na3 e"a • pane tonm 
lanns aw ieN ny * nanaa ia mya^ • naia^ ^N-ie 1 oca iex b^ ntoe 

• nra 'n nan ^a 3 p^n 'aa ntvni • niy nn«N ln»i p my *|W n^i * njnn 
onn 'naN n^d ja ibd3 'bni • jan nn pia • '•an bv nienn emnn nt 

• •anan ^ai • twvna "jm* ina n^n 'nan ma rr-Nn • nnpo^ moan 
Dna naxDe 101 • ona \»yb\ * dicn^ iidne' I^iimb 'mn "naDa c"a 
Ninn nayo^ '•ya •'N • pan nioxn 'ie>d n^ ijd '•di • jnn nx jn^ Tny udt 
Dan • ?Ninne noa 'bin ^n a"y • t'nb n nny ninna ••bj vnitnna pane 

• NByn nna n^n * p^tN n^Be nna wh • nwy aio n^ • 3ibhb Nine 
n33i • imin nw • 'n nw • tpwn ^y Nuni • /'a enie p"nnoa '^tna 
DipBa awe ny • i3iy ii? naia 11 n^> nvaa ^n i>a anpi dn '^bni • v»an 
nex ' onn 'nsannoi • lminai n"apnB ibb wii • 'nann 'Bse 

• npi^naa nani N^e • ni'N nan nxniea • u ijn ntaaiBi • onaa npa 
••a * my Nnn" 1 n^i ian sjid^ pa^e oai * bvrwm pbnonw nmwb oma 'a 
neyx ^n jn • noinpn ia-n ^y aie^ nnniD f|na jn" 1 i"n dni . . . '•a 

1 Ba5a »n., f. 84 b, comp. Josef Almoznino's BDirra nny, II, Ko. 31, f. 67 b, 
where the same story is alleged as a source of practical decision. 

2 Baba &., f. 58 a. s Synhedrin, f. 100 b. 


• niWaa new • niam wi in 1 ' by • ^y taion Na$>»n w»mna 
n^ n^n pan tnn -xon yara t6n Ni^Da • nt^p pin nnraa iman!> 
aw • pnno a"NN ppfo pK*i • vanna £ hto &6 nny \s • 2 NmoN 
'i^esn "Qwpo nwi bhh nw nvw. . . ttio« tw W yoc*i aw 

: n"jBri n«N t"a 'ni» * pntn vinaw pnayn pmrnD^nh }mS» 
spa • ^j£ Tipnync * b"m b"w umaD n'nmoa nnjxa Tirana p»y 
mn ' ^'jn ^'st atono mn Y'nniraaB* db> '•nanae* * nr ?p nnt* • ^n 

• cana B>mm • jnu mnB' * v6y inaDB* • pawn unaee * i?ai ^ao ia 
noNO my B>ma k^h * n"x wta bw rwbv\ ^cd nan innna n^nna 

• vnwnn^ jor Dp tayo may nn« 1 W ;y * xxvai • nmv pB6a b"\n 

• wyi TDn nnpn ^ lemra jvaa • vn mya * morsa rm!' ^nnnB* 
4 D'-aiE'n onina nsc ay • b"pivr S>aip»n utoo «mj> n'nmoa pwn 
nnai nnin nna^> nar on iob> u^inr 'n w • mica • D"yimi D"Ji33 
nvnb NiNn-a p"pc nna2B> ~iy • ne-yoai p^ya wsy nx D^B-ni • aira db> 
o«po ntoi * tjnn nwh * njiw paoi • nyn mioh • on^y pspbi cxni' 

; - am aw an^B> 


A Letter on the Death of Jacob del Bene in Bologna. 

b"i airano apy 'nraa nmraa ^y nrp 
Von intJ'N^ nni^B* 
n^asa niniaai? • B'b-jk s|Boa annva a^-y psai ♦nym «i> 'ta? npn i 0-1 
my am »aa rnhp» • dtieo a'ODB'Na my nm io ay mina la^nn 11 
nra-irann id naooai ntop nn -ca^ nt* oj a^ natwa annxi' »b*b3 
'rb an '■a '•nmneri '•n^ai ^rw , »oipnn * »»y na ay ne* non ^ 
mxn by nnn E'Nna n^aiN cn mvi oyn nnaya ^NnB* 11 nn onnn ^n 
ia DB5W1 npns nna Tima Dai? nn^si iao«n proa snip TiycB* amna 

• n // ' 1 ^ nna a"py '»a nE^ in 11 «jyn on iibb* ]yvb oa^y mian nby 

• btr\wb noi>bs pnsa my iTim jyo^ tabp» tabp» wb5> npyiv cernn nai 
no^i ^din rni nnp rDB* n»j n^Dm onprna ltonj ooi^y nt^N ny 
pv^an* • nvo '•aah na^i »ra • a"py mw b naN n^i> par mn 
Tin ^n pyatt nun na naB* i>y mto rrjNn '•B'bj niainna ppB'pnB" 

1 Kethub., f. 91a. 2 Sabbath, f. no a. 

3 2\>s. Tebam., VII end. * = jon o'ibjo "iman. 


Jprn m cui bwm n^i • triox ns*o nvxa pnnN wd* t ••aixi Tia 
njN n^s hjn »pBvn uai> -ire ' d 1 - nioraa ntfrw nnra in« ncDn 
iay run »o ^ ^x ^ njax -i^x nn "ipaiT cnn pa dvn nobi nabn 
*pni nnpb ben t&i 'n onn iny }iw 13^3 "3 .-nyiD my nw * 3py 

• -iitd ft* "jnso nsrox njia win bx ihp w mryb , Dwn ton t^J» 
nob nn" 1 5>ikb> yrui "jmNsn ipnp 'n naD '•a "pa ttwip ^ *in 
nax wn $>« *enn owai d^in pn» naxa "^ann '•onn nob • '•pain 
oahp d"DB> by inb> wnrin nob -pai nxi • Tiy mpaa dx -nn ma 
nwp nunb tjna by Tnuai reina 733 wan not? uiDa dnnn bx -i»nb 

• n"jibi3 px -)b ^n • 3"py ^ *pa wj mo nby <a lb^n irn pa by 
moy xb yn T^hk by mee> «h mx ova n'-snnn ntiobi nbw 
naat? ibxs icx n"ax3n pnsn mxan ^ipo npbn ara nonbon ntypa 
ibtei baai • nianon *o*o o^ptj'n i»y »m naia sin xbn 'ibtj> nua 
baix 3npnb tw ,, nb3b *py3 nbm mjD «b tw tib^o^ aipyn jna 
T^y '•aDn • b"r pnxn e>a:i I3ip» nT '•nbsh • TniMPD niyn>a niobvi 
nxr • a"py nv nv -jx xbn dibr ne>y iny»:3 prrr na ib *» my '•xti 
•fae> obiyb nw vwoxa pnxn viyT ^3 paxns K»nnx 3"y '•ib ^n 3>e>n 
nw3v jinx vsb yqw> o^ono nih twjrroi iDna i^ an 1 " in^i ^ns 
^aan n^n ^n d'Vjn osi • runai aw p3 T>"on3i nhiJ 3nr mtaya 
da isan i>3 nns d^pnx nua mail nae*i mno >D3 nhao awn 
nustpo ^y T>nvn3 nx ^yin • ^nn ^331 nw * vb ~\o> mi3«3 d^'oi 
n^y njni naunsi mm iB'y i^ 'n p^n d^i n»sn i>3 by '•a ni3JN{y 
i^n ny , DDipn 733 nDirn ni3i»D wyn n^awn ikdd^ • nai>3 ^>y 
b"r pnxn dy n , "i33 , >naSn -\vta *aa« d« no n^ wax a"py itdn* 
dnnn • dhy ny ^Dy d«p^ ^y w V ' > w n "c b u npanh nsnN^ 
ptns main **n ni^an '•aia wn^ ">nw i3Ti ramcn niysan'i ie^d' 1 

: 3"py »nna nn ^man * $« "\tr\p ba nn nra i? nwyi' 

Letters of Salomo di Modena to Abraham del Bene. 

aitano dm3N '"cab hjhidd hd^ 'oa *3na 
vmyo i"y 
ni>Nn dnnn uvp ^n '•nil' 1 ncs dvn }oi» n^mpn na^ ^as by p ^p 
pirno N*ani» ^yn? ^natyn ♦ an xbi ^matr wvt i^n "jmxo wiom 



* d'd^ ntan D^nriD dwkd *?i?b ~]b nsn mox -ie>x lann ^ds 
wxn bwd nam • hbom ^n inais n^ax xun jyc6 wain pm 'oaNi 
psya ntan co^n macros naaon "o nbn nuyo npaao ^>na nyno 
-abi n'a wbt? "ik>k nbnn&nn nnn ejx ana^ una n!> 'nan jnen 
*ynr 1^ vtwn TWM h» ba Tnvar nnx mvi» ibn wefo • naiox 
Tmry fjx TnvcN ab mab Tnna a^ia pen ax nana m bit winb 
inix eobi yrvm wk -\pv ybv ibn maxim maib b Tb» yonb 
naniD nmn wii iDn Tnatw poyaa -paa^ nep^pon onans nvhno 
nr »"y 'hn t^ n nhe> ^aani * '•ah wb Tfloa anaan insnx *» <aa b 
nn^ wbntwi nniDt itwu ax nxon *b nwi w bt«\ iai ia ^aion 
naeo in b pnbn m3 wytaa aipo iTn awn px '•a nny ny nna 
ovn b Ton laiaa -bx on wnn •an ik d'wan woo panao wkb> 
x>k ns Ntna nnan^ nmx bo vn non owin mo m yby ^abi> 
avn *py wry nn jc«a anwn taaB>D3i • nra naoy mryi' , "ioyo nW 

DmaN^ iDn 'ltani d"nn inx nmn wia "jtotoc dhy nanN '•a 

nb»^ ">1CN3 ny 
xniaaD wid^ nrn dvn ny Na^D nan wxa mo Tmpn d^aa by ;n 
-im ybx a^nh ixan xivo^ nyao *v& aipo ny Tipna • 'hk -pb 
TiDaaa * d' 1 ©^ nimn Vaxn nxo bpi> ii> nn mos new ibds 
»h« * xn^o kjwidn N/i in^NB' mtM? *? nxsD n^ ^3 • , nB rt anai 
^n inats nvax tmrb w.^ar ip'aan n^ '•a in-i W;an3 ia«y mras '•axb 
^n nvno w.'sr n* msp i^n ny dHDnn i?ao WJtap nan iicn ntys^n 
b 13 nyT nn« 'hn jn • ">b mn 3tan da ♦ >2b nn nt b ib^n 'hn ^n 
d^p^ dxi ♦ nn nna 'na i? rwyb waa nnb aa naoaa * 13 y«yo 
PDys N3 yaai '•aans -\vyb tyo nvnb wps 1 " n!> *a ayan ^aiy ns nxd 
TnoB» maw ^ri3 Dy3 ax n*nN jn ♦ dnnx nyi3 '•l^n [*]nb ins* 
?l^«n via i'N xa '•nc • '•ananx ax na^N nw nt^ * pa ax * s a3^ mpas 

• iS> mnne'N'i 'nx am *a niD^N^ niDi^ i"y 'a n"3 oninan '•sv 
nam * ^ iaw»3 s Q[3](n)OB> da bpvx • ^ai* naaao la^N fiN-w na iy 

:n"'3N 'l^ pnv s 3b «im • wian b dhy^ pa nnx '•a wnt Wj«» 

1 Berach., f. 28 b. ' Allusion to 1 Mos. 27, 45.