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Post-Biblical Bibliography, 1888-9. 191 



POST-BIBLICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1888-9. 



The bibliography of post-biblical literature, which we are going to give, 
is a first attempt, which cannot pretend to be complete. In the first 
instance, we were obliged to make omissions, since it is difficult to get 
hold of all publications printed in the various countries where Jewish 
learning is cultivated. The East, Russia, and Poland have no regular 
book market, and moreover, the publishers do not advertise their books. 
Secondly, we have purposely omitted modern commentaries on the Bible, 
the Talmud, and the Halakhah, as well as modern poetry and philosophy. 
Finally, the periodical literature is so vast, that we could only take 
notice of those magazines which are purely devoted to literature, and 
even here many notices had to be overlooked, some being insignificant, 
and others too short. Reviews of books, which have often some original 
suggestions, we have excluded for want of space and time. 



Targum and Rabbinical Commentaries. 

The learned R. Simon Baruch Schefftel of Posen, who was not a pro- 
fessional writer, after having retired from business, devoted his leisure 
time to the study of the Targum of Onkelos. And in order to be able 
to consult MiSS., he went to Munich, where the Rabbi, Dr. J. Perles, 
his son-in-law, introduced him to the library authorities. The famous 
Sabionetta edition of this Targum, reproduced some years ago by Dr. 
Berliner, was his constant companion. His notes, which form nearly a 
concordance of this Targum, and which contain grammatical and lexico- 
graphical remarks, based upon readings of MSS., were carried through 
the press by his well-known son-in-law, and published with the title of 
Biure Onkelos, Scholien zuin Targum Onkelos (Munchen, 1888). 

Mr. Harry 8. Lewis, B.A., late Miss Amy Fry and Tyrwhitt scholar at 
Cambridge, has made a laudable attempt towards supplying a commen- 
tary on the Targum of the Prophets, which is much needed, by giving 
that on Isaiah i. to v. (Triibner, 1889). The Targum is not provided 
with vowel points, which is a drawback for a beginner ; moreover, his 
commentary is written in Rabbinical Hebrew, which makes the use of it 
difficult, except for those who are acquainted with this idiom. Why 
Mr. Lewis did not write his commentary in English, and why he did 
not utilise the excellent MSS. which are to be found in the three great 
English libraries for fixing the text, and for putting the vowel points, 
we cannot understand. Perhaps experience will teach him to continue 
in a more practical way. The Targum, with vowel-points, and with the 
addition of an English translation, and a short commentary (for the 
greater part of the Targum is quite clear, being only a translation of 
the Hebrew), is wanted. Such a book will do great service to students, 
advanced as well as beginners. For Mr. Lewis's Hebrew, good as it is, 

N2 



192 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

contains many plays upon words, which a trained Rabbinical scholar 
will understand, but not those who know only Biblical Hebrew. The 
young and talented author does not shrink from stating that he does not 
know the derivation and explanation of many a word in the Targum. 
We were, therefore, astonished not to find the same statement for "iri^X 
in V. 18. He rightly explains the word by " a small quantity," or " a 
minimum," but without giving its etymology, and without saying that he 
does not know it. Professor Noldeke has long ago explained the word 
in question in his grammar of the neo-Syriac language (Leipzig, 1868, 
p. 270, note 2), as irQ'S. This is the right spelling, found in the Ecan- 
f/clium Hicrosolomitanum, in Syriac characters, as well as in the Targum 
(in MSS.), and in the Talmud composed in Palestine, for it is a true 
Aramaico-Palestinian word. Professor Noldeke's explanation was 
quoted by the late Professor Fleischer in the Additameuta (p. 574) to 
Dr. J. Levy's dictionary on the Targum, which appeared soon after 
Professor Noldeke's grammar. In the body of the dictionary, Dr. Levy 
writes "IPQX, but in his dictionary to the Talmud (Leipzig, 1882), he 
definitely adopts the right spelling of ini^, a word composed of ^X, 
" a fibre," "a thread" (so explained in the Talmud by Din), and "one 
fibre or thread is equivalent to our " one straw," to be compared with the 
Latin Jloccus. The lately proposed solution of irQ'S as in + IS 
("any quantity you like, however small," one), where Noldeke and Levy 
are ignored, is, in our opinion, inadmissible, for "like one" is not an 
equivalent for " a little " ; and, besides, the right spelling is not 3X (for 
*3S ?), but 2'S. Anyhow, Mr. Lewis ought to have consulted here Dr. 
Levy's dictionary, as he did in many other instances. If we have 
devoted this space to Mr. Lewis's work, it is chiefly because it is the 
only production on post-biblical researches worth noticing by an Eng- 
lishman, who, we hope, will continue to cultivate Rabbinical studies, 
for which he is so well prepared. For a future work, we may advise 
him to employ a printing office where corrections are attended to ; in 
the present publication typographical mistakes are unfortunately so 
abundant as to disfigure the book. 

Saadiah (more correctly Seadyah) Gaon, who is called the head 
of the exegetists, is best represented for the current year. The octo- 
genarian member of the French Institute, M. J. Derenbourg, is giving us 
a new edition, according to lately discovered MSS. of Saadiah's Arabic 
translation of Isaiah, with copious notes (ZeitschriJ't fur alt-testament- 
liche Studien, edited by Professor Stade, 1889). Dr. Jonas Bondi gives 
in his doctor-dissertation (Halle, 1888), extracts fiom Saadiah's com- 
mentary on Proverbs, from the unique Bodleian MS. Dr. John Cohn, 
of Altona, has just brought out Saadiah's Arabic translation and com- 
mentary (Altona, 188 ( J) on Job. The edition is made in an arbitrary 
way, according to the unique Bodleian MS., which has, besides the 
translation and the commentary of Saadiah, also those of Moses Jiqa- 
tilia, and of an anonymous author. To distinguish one from the other 
is often difficult, and the right method would have been to reproduce the 
MS. as it is, and not pick out Saadiah only. Has Dr. Cobn always been 
sure which passages are by Saadiah ? We doubt it. But the edition as 
it is will be of use until the entire MS. is published. — M. J. Deren- 
bourg has taken up another commentary on Isaiah, viz., that of the 
sober and bold Judah Ben Balam (who lived about 1020), whose Arabic 
interpretation of this prophetical book is in course of publication, with a 
French translation, and notes in the Hemic des Etudes Juives (1888-9). — 
R. Tanhum, of Jerusalem (who lived in the thirteenth century), is the 
next best commentator to Judah Ben Balam. The late Dr. Cureton 



Post-Biblical Bibliography, 1888-9. 193 

thought it important enough to edit his commentary on the Lamentations. 
Dr. Simon Eppenstein has chosen Tanhum's commentary on Ecclesiastes 
i.-vi. as the subject of his doctor-dissertation at the University of Leipzig. 
— We have to record one Karaitic publication, viz., the Arabic translation 
and commentary on Daniel by Jephet ben Eli (who lived towards the 
end of the tenth century), very ably edited from MSS. in the Bodleian 
and the Imperial Library of St. Petersburg, and correctly translated 
into English by Professor D. S. Margoliouth, of Oxford (Anecdota 
Oxoniensia, Semitic Series, Vol. I., part III., 1889). This commentary 
is important for the history of Karaitic exegesis, as well as for the 
opinions concerning the time of the arrival of the Messiah. The 
Judaico-A rabic vocabulary will be enriched by the glossary, which Pro- 
fessor Margoliouth has done well to give at the end of his translation. 
The preface contains a concise sketch of Jephet according to the latest 
authorities. — The commentary in Hebrew on the Pentateuch by Jacob 
of Vienna, edited by R. Menasse Grossberg, from a unique MS. at the 
Royal Library of Munich (Mainz, 1888), offers not much that is new, 
but the author represents the exegesis of a school not much known. — 
The Biblical commentaries by the famous mathematician, astronomer, 
philosopher, and exegetist, Levi ben Gersom (or Leo Hebrseus in the 
Latin translation of his astronomical work), were all printed except 
those on Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles. They are now edited by 
the chief Rabbi of Mantua, Cavaliere Marco Mortara, in the second 
volume of the annuary, and published by Herr E. Graeber. We shall 
mention later on (p. 201) Levi's biography by Dr. Steinschneider. 



Talmud, Halakhah and Commentaries. 

The premature death of Rabbi R. N. Rabbinowitz will retard the 
continuation of his Varies lectiones (DnD1D 'pHpl), of which fifteen 
parts have already appeared. Some attention has been paid lately to the 
minor tractates of the Talmud.— Dr. M. Goldberg has edited, as a 
doctor's dissertation, a critical edition of the first four chapters of the 
ethical tractate called rm pK "]VI, with a literary introduction, in 
which he discusses the authorship of it. — Kritih der sdmmtUcheii Bucher 
"Abuth"in der althebr'disclien Literahir (s. L, 1888), is the title of Dr. 
Moritz Jung's doctor-dissertation, which iorms the introduction to some 
future greater work of his. The author gives detailed accounts of the 
Mishnah Aboth, as well as of many small treatises, chiefly post-talmudical. 
It is only natural that the Aboth de R. Nathan should here find its place. 
Dr. Jung seems not to know Mr. Schechter's edition of this tractate, and 
in general, we regret to say, Dr. Jung is not well acquainted with 
modern writings or the vast field of literature he tries to embrace. We 
have been told lately that in this country someone possesses a " sacred 
deposit " concerning the Aboth de R. Nathan, which was handed over to 
him by one of his teachers as far back as 1836. It is strange that itshould 
have been kept back more than half a century. The deposit will show, ac- 
cording to the happy possessor of it, that the modern editors of the Aboth 
de R. Nathan, viz., the late S. Taussig as well as Mr. Schechter, " have 
not found out the riddle " of this book. However, it is certain that in 
183G the rabbi in question had no MSS. at his disposal, and had no idea of 
the existence of a second text of this tractate, and we do not think that 
the " sacred deposit " will harm Mr. Schechter's edition. But we shall 
see when it will be published. At present we can only say that, in any 
case, Mr. Schechter's edition is and will remain the standard edition of 



194 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

this tractate. — "We record the first part of an edition of the Tosefta, with 
two Hebrew commentaries, the one containing explanations of words and 
sentences, and the other that of the Halakhic matter ; they are entitled 
nOT>K> pETI, composed by the rabbi [S.] Lev Friedkender, of Mulhouse, 
(Alsace). Why the author transliterates p£5TI as Hosak S., and not Hesek 
(1 Kings ix. 1), we do not know. On the French title page he puts the 
following : " Tiree d'un grand nombre d'oeuvres et manuscrits, corrige"e f 
nouvellement classee, completement simplified et expliquee avec l'aide des 
sources Talmudiques et litt^raires." . We shall not cavil at his strange 
French, but we should like to know which are the MSS. the rabbi of 
Mulhouse has discovered, which were not at the disposal of Dr. Zucker- 
mandl for his critical edition. "We notice many valuable observations on 
the text of the Tosefta by Herr Hayyim Oppenheim in the periodical 
Beth Talmud, 1888-9. — Two important and interesting essays have 
appeared on the Melthilta attributed to R. Simeon ben Yohai, which is 
only known by extensive quotations. These monographs form the 
programme of the two rabbinical schools, viz., at Breslau, by Dr. J. 
Lewy, and the orthodox one at Berlin, by Dr. Hoffmann. The chief 
result is that the greater Midrash (?HJn Kmo), imported during the 
last ten years from Yemen, contains very large parts of this lost book. 
The publication of this Midrash being in preparation by Mr. Schechter, 
we shall say more about it when the work lies before us in its entirety. 
Mr. Schechter, with his profound knowledge of the Talmudic literature, 
his critical method and his patient investigations, which he has shown in 
his edition of the Aboth de R. Nathan, will, we are sure, point out most 
of the passages in this Midrash which were extracted from the lost Mek- 
hilta. — We are glad to find that students of rabbinical schools have been 
making the subject of their doctor-dissertations grammatical points in 
the Misbnah and the Talmud. Dr. Salomon Stein wrote on the verb in 
the language of the Mishnah (Berlin, 1888). Dr. Isaac Rosenberg had 
last year an essay on the verb in the Babylonian Talmud, and Herr Moses 
Schlesinger contributed to Dr. Berliner's Magazin (1889) an article on 
the verb in the Palestinian Talmud. The last is of importance, for if 
we have attempts on grammars for the Mishnah and the Babylonian 
Talmud, nothing of the kind for the Palestinian Talmud, -which is 
written in the Galileo- Aramaic dialect, exists as yet. — Herr Chaim M. 
Horowitz, who is already favourably known as the editor of various 
Midrashic and Halakhic treatises, has given us an introduction in Hebrew 
to the literature of the Amoraim up to 500, which forms the first 
fasciculus of a book entitled Uralte Toseftas. This book will be a 
valuable addition to that branch of literature, if the author is enabled to 
edit all he promises. We regret that his learned and instructive in- 
troduction is somewhat confused ; perhaps a detailed index to the entire 
publication will help the reader to find his way in it.— Jkl. Loeb made the 
subject of one of his lectures in the Mcole des Hautes Etudes (Paris, 1888) 
the history of tradition as found in the first chapter of the Saying of the 
Fathers (D13K rDDD). The lecture has appeared in the "Bibliotheque" 
of this institution. — Professor Bacher, whom we shall find very well 
represented in the enumeration of the grammatical literature, deserves a 
prominent place here by his second volume of the Agada dcr Tanaiten 
(Strassburg, 1890), which begins with the death of R. Aqiba, and finishes 
with the completion of the Mishnah. The two volumes of this work 
are indispensable for those who cultivate Talmudic literature in a critical 
way. The Agadic sayings of the various doctors are given in a complete 
translation, and with variations from cognate books, for instance, the 
Tosefta and the Midrashim, accompanied by ample reference to modern 



Post-Biblical Bibliography, 1888-9. 195 

■writers. The translation is clear, and, we do not need to say, accurate. 
With his previous publication, entitled " Die Agada der Babylonischen 
Amoraern " (Strassburg, 1878), the subject is nearly exhausted. These 
volumes will be also of great use to the students of folklore. — We may 
recommend, also, Dr. Adolf Blumenthal's German essay on R. Meir, 
entitled Lebert und Wirken eines jiidischen Weisen aus dem zweitcn 
nachchristlieJicn Jahrhundert, nach den Quellen dargestellt (Frankfurt- 
a.-M., 1888). — The Hebrew compilation of Talmudic and Midrashic 
sayings relating to the social life of a Jew in all practical moments, made 
by Isaac S. Suvalski (Warsaw, 1889), is very useful, inasmuch as all 
sources are indicated in foot-notes. The monograph has the title of 
tpbnn >3 bv nirvn "n -ISO.— Of post-Talmudical literature we have 
to record, in the first instance, the completion of the edition of the 
Talmudic encyclopaedia, by Isaac Lampronti, entitled pflS* "ins. It is 
published by the Hebrew Literary Society 0*DTU ^pD, under whose 
auspices also the new edition of the Halahhoth Gedoloth, by Simeon 
fcO"p (Kayyar?), according to the Vatican MS., is appearing. The 
edition was undertaken by the eminent Talmudist, Dr. E. Hildesheimer, 
director of the orthodox rabbinical school at Berlin. The first part 
has reached us. It is provided with copious critical notes. We shall 
have more to say about it when the preface, in which the differences 
between the printed text and the new edition, as well as the relation 
of it to the Halakhoth, attributed to R. Yehudai Gaon, will' be discussed. 
— Among the moi»t instructive literature for lexicography, as well as for 
history of Jewish learning, are the Itesponsa. Indeed, our knowledge of 
the Gaonim (the successors of the doctors of the Gemara) is mostly 
derived from their Responsa, of which we possess now a valuable collec- 
tion, edited ably by Dr. Harkavy from MSS. in the Imperial Library of 
St. Petersburg, and published by the same society. Dr. Joel Miiller, 
Professor of the Rabbinical Hocltschule at Berlin, is the greatest living 
authority on the Responsa-literature, which he has sufficiently shown by 
his various publications on the subject ; for instance, that with the title 
of aiJJDI mTO *3WJ nUlETI, Berlin, 1888 (collected from the scattered 
articles in the Beth Talmud). In the seventh' programme of the Hoch- 
schule he treats of the Responsa of Spanish Rabbis in the tenth century, 
the epoch when Jewish learning began to pass from the East and the 
Maghreb to Spain. It was, indeed, no easy task to collect from numerous 
casuistical works the fragments of these Responsa. — The Book of 
Precepts (J")1SDn ~BD), composed by the famous Moses ben Maimon in 
Arabic, is well-known from its Hebrew translation by Moses ibn Tabbon 
(Tibbon). It cannot be doubted that the skilled translator did his task 
satisfactorily, and that the inaccuracies found in the editions of it arise 
from copyists and printers. A translation can, however, scarcely take 
the place of the original, which is now well edited in Hebrew characters 
from many MSS. by M. Moise Blocb, Rabbi at Versailles. In the 
learned preface, M. Bloch discusses the three translations of this treatise, 
of which that of Salomon ibn Ayoob is completely preserved in MSS. 
We hope that M. Bloch will find material help for its publication. — 
We shall at present only mention that another part of Maimonides' 
commentary in Arabic on the Mishnah, part Tohoroth, with a corrected 
Hebrew translation, edited by M. J. Derenbourg, has appeared in the 
publication of the Meqitze Nirdamim. — The parts Taanith and Meghillah 
of the Halakhic work (nDT'KTin 'D) of Meshullam, of Beziers, is now 
edited by Rabbi M. Grossberg, at the end of the commentary of Jacob 
of Vienna (above, p. 193). — Of late commentaries on the Talmud, we 
mention the edition from a MS. of that of R. Nissim, of Gerona ()"")) on 



196 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Abodah Zarah, made by Rabbi S. A. Wertheimer (Jerusalem, 1888). — 
Of a miscellaneous character, we mention Dr. Salomon Spira's essay on 
the Eschatology of the Jews according to the Talmud and Midrashim 
(Halle, 1889). In spite of the able articles of Herr Schorr in his 
periodical hc-Halutz, IV., Dr. Spira has hit upon points not mentioned 
by the former acute critic. — We may be allowed to make a bare mention 
of the unpalatable book in tasteless Hebrew against H. Schorr by Herr 
Meir Kohn Bistritz (1889). The title, JVn t^D mj?0, already indicates 
the character of the book. The author spoils his criticism, which in 
many paragraphs is good and plausible, by his invectives. Criticising 
and abusing are two different things ; but we are a little accustomed to 
it by similar outbursts in this country, with the difference that the 
author of the latter is everywhere wrong. — Very useful for the history 
of early exegesis is the German essay of Dr. Samuel Landau " On the 
opinions of the Talmud and the Geonim concerning the value of the 
exegesis found in the Midrashic literature.'' — Dr. E. Landau's Zurich 
dissertation " On the synonym names for God " in the post-biblical 
literature, derived from words connected with space, e.g., the words DIpD 
and n^'OK', is well put together, and will prove interesting also for 
students of the New Testament literature. 



Grammar and Lexicography. 

Professor Bacher, of Budapest, has for some time chosen the subject 
of mediaeval Jewish grammarians, which he handles in a masterly way. He 
has ably edited Joseph Qamhi's (Kimhi) grammar (JTQtn 'D)' for the 
Jewish Literary Society (Q'DTU ^pD) according to several MSS., 
and he found out {Ilevue des Etudes Juives, XII., p. 371), that this book 
was provided with glosses by the author of the book of Punctuation 
("I1p3n 'D), usually attributed to Moses ben Isaac, of London/ (See 
however, Jewish Quarterly Review, I., p. 182.) But his delight seems to 
be the father of the grammarians, R. Jonah (Abul-Walid ibn Jannah) 
of Saragossa. After several able articles on R. Jonah's Arabic dictionary 
(in which he suggested many good emendations to the Oxford edition), 
he brought out, together with M. J. Derenbourg, the Arabic text of R. 
Jonah's grammar, with emendations to the somewhat iacorrect edition of 
its Hebrew translation, which he supplies in the notes. Let us mention 
here that M ; Metzger, Rabbi of Belfort, has published lately (BiMio- 
theque de I'Ecule des Ilautes Etudes, t. 81), a French translation of it, 
which seems to be well done on the whole. It is rather strange to find 
the translator saying he had made it according to MSS., and ignores 
completely the above mentioned edition. With the edition and French 
translation of R. Jonah's Opuscula, by MM. H. and J. Derenbourg 
(Paris, 1886) we have now all the writings of the Sarasossa gram- 
marian except his outburst against the Prince (Naghid) Samuel, his con- 
temporary at Cordova, of which only a few fragments exist at present. 
It is indeed satisfactory that, in spite of the great apathy of the rich 
Jews towards Hebrew literature, such editions are published, and much 
more in the original Arabic. Not satisfied with his essays on R. Jonah's 



1 We remind our readers that Mr. H. J. Mathews, Exeter College, Oxford, 
had edited a year before, for the same society, Joseph Qamhi's Grammatical 

Polemics against R. Jacob Tarn (of Ramerupt), entitled MTOil 'D. 



Post-Biblical Bibliography, 1888-9. 197 

writings, Professor Bacher furnished lately an important essay on Abul 
Walid's exegesis, as found in his grammatical and lexicographical writ- 
ings (Aus dir Schrifterklarunq des E. Jona, Programme of the Rab- 
binical School of Budapest, 1888-9, Budapest, 1889). Will Professor 
Bacher now be satisfied with having squeezed out, if we may employ 
this expression, the Saragossa grammarian ? One would believe that is 
so, but we know it is not the case. For Professor Bacher is going to 
make an edition of the Hebrew translation of R. Jonah's Arabico-Hebre w 
dictionary, according to the existing MSS., which will appear in the 
publication of the above-mentioned Hebrew Literary Society, which just 
manages to exist. This is not the only grammarian who attracted Pro- 
fessor Bacher's attention. We shall mention (p. 201) his biography of 
the famous Elijah Levita, the greatest Massoret after Jacob ben Hayyim. 
Unfortunately, an encyclopaedia, even the great German publication, 
cannot give space to do complete justice to authors. Professor Bacher 
has, therefore, given an essay on Elijah's learned productions Elijah 
Levtta's Wissmschaftliche Leistungen (in the Zeitschrift der deutsch- 
morgenldndisclien Gesellschaft, Bd. 43), where he is allowed to handle fhe 
matter according to his own heart. The grammar forms the chief part 
in it, and Dr. Bacher's essay completes Dr. J. Levi's able doctor- thesis, 
entitled Mia Levita und seine Leistungcn ate Grammatiker (Breslau, 
1888). — Dr. S. Kohut, now one of the Rabbis of New York, and formerly 
Babbi in Hungary, was obliged to interrupt for a time, owing to his 
change of countries, his learned and critical edition of the Talmudical 
lexicon (THJO, of Nathan ben Yehiel, of Rome. We are glad to men- 
tion that the continuation (Vol. V.) has appeared, and if material means 
do not fail, he will follow the continuation in a regular way. — Rabbi 
Dr. J. Levy has finished his task on the same subject. His Talmud 
dictionary, which is made in accordance with modern criticism, is now 
complete, and the author, who, we are sorry to say, is in failing health, 
will be able now to take his well-deserved rest after his labours on the 
dictionaries on the Targum and the Talmud. — Is there room for another 
work of the kind, such as Dr. M. Jastrow, Rabbi at Philadelphia, has 
undertaken with great originality ? We may answer in the affirmative. 
In the first instance, Dr. Jastrow writes in English, which will be a 
boon for scholars in England and America. On the other hand, he is 
more complete than Dr. Levy in quotations from the Jerusalem Talmud 
and the Midrashim, many of which have appeared since Dr. Levy began 
his excellent work. Dr. Jastrow has often better selections for Greek 
words in the Talmudic literature. It is true that his philology is some- 
what peculiar, the author following the biliteral system, but on the 
whole, it does harm only by taking up too much space. — Dr. Julius 
Fiirst gives in the Magazin (1888-9) specimens of his forthcoming Glos- 
sarium Graco-Hebrmtm, i.e., Greek words occurring in the Midrashim, 
with full explanation. We hope that he will be able to publish his 
work soon, which will be of importance also for post-classical Greek. 



History. 

The father of Jewish History according to modern researches, Pro- 
fessor H. Graetz, has had the great satisfaction to see a fourth edition 
of the third volume of his well-known History of the Jews (from 
the death of Judah the Maccabean till the loss of the Jewish State) 
(1888-9). The author is so ingenious that we are not astonished to find 
much new material in this volume, for instance, the excursus on the 



198 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

connection of the conversion of St. Paul with that of the Queen Helen e 
of Adiabene, that on the date of the composition of the Gospels, and more 
especially on the Jewish coins, of which a part has appeared in English. 
We do not mean to say that all his items and data will be accepted with- 
out discussion, but at all events, Professor Graetz will have the merit of 
having introduced new views in all these parts. We cannot enter here in 
details ; besides, such an important work would well deserve a separate 
review in this Quarterly. — The dissertation on the Maccabean wars 
against the Syrians, according to Greek and Agadic sources in their 
relation to history, by Dr. Caesar Josephson (Breslau, 1889), is worth 
reading. — The History of the Jews in England before the expulsion, has 
been much advanced by the publications of the Anglo- Jewish Exhibition, 
and more especially by the editing of the Shctars, by Mr. M. Davis, 
although done somewhat unmethodically. A similar publication has come 
out in Germany, by Dr. R. Hceniger and Herr M. Stern, with the title 
of Das Jiidensehreinbuch der Laurenzpfarre zu Koln (Berlin, 1888), which 
accords with the critical method of the modern historical schools. The 
latter contributes some useful notes to the history of the Jews in Ger- 
many in the Magazin, etc., edited by Dr. Berliner (1888-9). — Professor 
D. Kauf mann of Budapest has lately taken up parts of Jewish history of 
a comparatively modern time. After having given an exhaustive sketch 
of the Vienna philanthropist, Samson Wertheimer (Wien, 1886), he com- 
municated in this Quarterly (I., pp. 89 to 94), the epitaphs of Carvajal 
(which he unearthed in a Leipzig MS.) and Jeshurun Alvares, and con- 
tinued with an important contribution on the history of the expulsion of 
the Jews from Vienna and Lower- Austria, viz., the details of the period 
from 1G25 to 1G70, which appeared as a programme of the Rabbinical 
School of Budapest for 1887-8. This sketch is written in a beautiful 
style, of which he is a master, and the data are taken not only from 
printed books of all kinds, but he has also made ample use of archives 
and unpublished epitaphs from personal inspection, as well as from 
communication of many friends. We find in Professor Kaufmann's 
monograph of not less than 228 pages, not only the historical facts 
which preceded the Vienna catastrophe, but all biographies and notices 
of the Rabbis, official, as well as private, of the time. The material 
is so ample and so exhaustive, from printed sources as well as MSS., 
that it will be rather difficult for a historian to make full use of it 
without an index, which is unfortunately not given by the author, 
even though it was on his instigation that an index was made of 
Zunz"s book on the hymns used in the Synagogues (see p. 201). We 
cannot go into the details of the excellent work, and we must be 
satisfied with the mention of the Table of Contents, which is as fol- 
lows: 1. Ferdinandus II. and the Jewry of Vienna; 2. His reign; 
3. Leopoldus I. and the expulsion ; 4. The return of the exiles and 
their new homes, viz., in Moravia, Bohemia, Hungary, Bavaria, Bran- 
denburg, Poland, and France (Alsace-Lorraine). — Dr. M. Griinwald gives 
to his meagre periodical the pompous title of Das Jiidische Central- 
Matt ; it appears very irregularly. He gives in it documents concerning 
the Jews in Bohemia and Moravia, but fills half of his issue with some 
of his lectures and translations from the Italian. Is it worth while 
having a special organ for such second-rate documents? We think not ; 
it is high time that Jewish literature should have a central and inter- 
national organ, for as it goes on now, it is impossible to follow the 
current of Jewish literature, even for rich scholars. — The Zeitschrift fur 
die Geschichte dcr Juden in Deutsckla?id, which has reached the third year, 
remains faithful to its programme ; it gives documents on the history of 



Pod-Biblical Bibliography, 1888-9. 199 

the Jews in Germany. We point out specially the history of the Jews 
at Rothenburg by Professor H. Bresslau. The miscellaneous notes con- 
tain much new matter. We do not approve of the attacks made on Dr. 
Giidemann's excellent work (see below). — The Revue des Etudes Juives, 
1888-9, has several historical articles, by M. Loeb on the chronicle of 
Joseph Cohen of Avignon, and by other savants on the state of the 
Jews in the Papal States in the eighteenth century, the history of the 
Jews in the CataloDian provinces, in Nantes, and in Marseilles. — M. 
Joseph Halevy has an interesting essay on the persecution of the 
Christians of Nejran in Yemen, by the Jewish King Dhoo Nowas, 
towards the end of the fifth century of the common era ; he comes to 
the conclusion that this story is based on legends, for there was no 
Himyaritic king who professed Judaism. The indefatigable explorer of 
the Yemen countries, Herr Eduard GJaser expresses, however, a contrary 
opinion in an article in its last issue, entitled Shizzcn zur Geschichte 
Arabiens, etc., Heft I. (Munich, 1889). Dr. Briill (Jahrbucher ix., 
pp. 102, sqq.) gives many good suggestions for readings in the 
Mediaeval Chronicles, published in the Anccdota Oxoniensia. Magister 
Jonas Gurland, Rabbi at Odessa, has written on persecutions in Poland 
and edited monographs concerning them (Ozar HassiJ'ruth II., 1888). — 
The history of teaching aDd of the social state of the Jews in Germany 
during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, by Dr. Giidemann of 
Vienna (Geschichte des Erzielmngsmesens vnd der Cultur der Judeu in 
Deutschland wdhrend des XIV. und XV. Jahrhundcrts, Wien, 1888) is as 
excellent as his three previous volumes on Spain, France, and Italy. The 
literature of this epoch in Germany is a poor one, consisting chiefly of 
the too many treatises on the ritual (Minha/jiiu) and casuistic liesponsa, 
in which, now and then, some crumbs for Jewish history may be 
gathered. But the chapters which treat of the relation of the Jews 
to the Christians will be read with great interest, inasmuch as Dr. 
Giidemann has the art of being interesting, even with dry material. The 
last chapter on the German Jews in Upper Italy and the comparison 
between German and Italian culture is worth reading attentively. 



Philosophy. 

Dr. J. Guttmann thinks that the philosophical system of the famous- 
Solomon Ibn Gabirol (Avicebron, who lived in the eleventh century), 
as laid down in his " Fons Vitas," is not yet entirely known by the 
works of the late S. Munk (who had only a Hebrew compendium of 
Gabirol's work, of which the Arabic original is lost, and only a Latin 
translation of the whole exists), nor by that of Dr. Seyrlein, who 
worked on the Latin translation. It seems that there are many dis- 
crepancies between these two savants. He therefore undertook to give 
a new and complete exposition of Gabirol's philosophy, indicating when 
possible the means which were at his disposal. In general, Gabirol 
follows the neo-platonic ideas, and when he mentions Plato, he means 
Plotinus, and inclines towards pantheism, just like Philo and Spinoza, so 
that we could say that three Jews at various epochs, in antiquity, in 
middle ages, and in modern times, are the representatives of pantheism. 
Dr. Guttmann holds with Munk that Gabirol did not die at the age of 
twenty-nine as reported by early authors, but that he must have reached 
a mature age of about fifty. No reason is given why the date assigned 
by those who live ODly a century after Gabirol should be doubted. The 
objection that Gabirol expounds a new philosophical system at so young 



200 Tlte Jeicish Quarterly Review. 

an age, is not very strong ; we think we could find examples for that, 
even in modern times. One who writes poems of such gravity and depth 
as Gabirol did at the age of fourteen to eighteen, may have also written a 
philosophical book before he was thirty years of age. Anyhow we can only 
give full praise to Dr. Guttmann's clear exposition of Gabirol's philosophy, 
which are accompanied by references to the sources. — Joseph Ibn Tsaddik 
of Cordova is the author of a philosophical treatise in Arabic on the 
Microcosm. We know only the Hebrew translation of it, edited in 1854 
by Dr. A. Jellinek. Dr. Leopold Weinsberg (Breslau, 1888) gives an 
analysis of it, and more especially of Joseph's relation to the Arabic 
Aristotelians, and to the philosophy of the Calam. — Dr. David Mann- 
heimer gives in bis doctor-dissertation (Halle, 1888) a clear exposition of 
the Cosmogony according to Jewish philosophers from Saadiah Gaon to 
Maimonides. — "We think that we may be allowed to range here an essay 
on the Law (liecht) and its position towards the Ethics according to the 
knowledge of Ethics and Law in the Talmud (Berlin, 1889), by Dr. Sch. 
Scbaffer. The Talmud gives no system for any of the branches treated 
in it, not even for casuistry, but from the scattered sentences we can draw 
conclusions of what the various authors of them meant in Ethics and Law, 
but we must guard ourselves against attributing them to the Talmud as 
an integral book ; the sayings are of individual Rabbis, but not by the 
Rabbinical school. 

Kabbalah. 

It is to be regretted that M. Adolphe Franck has issued a second 
edition of his work la Kabate, which appeared in 1843 without any altera- 
tion. The first edition was not built on solid ground, but wnce then 
documents bearing on this branch of literature were brought to light, for 
instance, on the book Buhir, which was declared a fabrication by 
the Synod of Narbonne, about 1240, of which the author ought to have 
taken notice. — The i-sue of new cabbalistical texts is fortunately scanty. 
We record a different text of the »D3"1 ]"ll73»n from that to be found in 
Dr. Jellinek's Beth ham-Midrash, edited from a MS. by R. S. A. Wer- 
tbeimer (Jerusalem, 1887-8) ; some chaptt-rs attributed to the prophet 
Elijah, and some anonymous ones, edited from MSS. by Herr Chaim 
M. Horowitz, with the title of nsin 1123. Unfoitunately the latter 
publication is autographed with very small characters and difficult to 
rtad. 

Poetry axd Liturgy. 

In the poetical department we have to mention M. Samuel Philipp's 
edition of tbe poems of Rabbi Hai (Haya) Gaon, re-edited according 
to MSS., with critical notes by the editor, and by Herren Reif mann and 
Halberstamm. Herr Philipp entitled the work mTDn JV3, forming a 
second collection ; the first consists of liturgical pieces by the famous 
Judah Halevi. We may unhesitatingly say that Herr Philipp has a 
kind of intuition for Hebrew poetry, and it would not be a bad idea to 
entrust him a complete edition of all Judah Halevi's poems, religious as 
■well as profane, the MSS. of which are at Oxford, if we could discover a 
Mecsenas in our rich communities who would be willing to erect a 
monument to the favourite poet of Heine by defraying the cost of 
such an edition. — Some Selilwth are published in the Sammclband iv., 
by R. Isaac Baruch Levi, of Ferrara, Dr. Berliner, and notes by Herr 
Halberstamm. The Mutjazin (1888) has some good emendations by Pro- 
fessor Kaufmann on the poem of Elijah of Norwich, edited by Dr. 
Berliner. 



Post-Biblical Bibliography, 1888-9. 201 



Bibliography and Biogkapiiy. 

The OricntaliscJie Bibliographic, so ably edited by Professor August 
Miiller, of Konigsberg (Berlin, 1888), gives, under the heading of 
Jlebraisch, a complete list of works and articles concerning the Hebrew 
and Rabbinical literature. This publication is indispensable for 
scholars who wish to be well informed upon these branches of studies, 
since the bibliography in the Revue des Etudes Juioes does not pretend 
to be complete, and Dr. Berliner has not yet begun to continue the 
excellent work done by Dr. Steinschneider in his Ilebraische Biblio- 
graphic, which ended with the twenty-first volume. — A useful alphabetical 
index has been made to Dr. Zunz's Literaturgcschichtc der Synrif/ogaleit 
Foesie, according to the beginning of the iiturgies and hymns ;' Dr. 
Zunz's index being alphabetical according the authors. The new index 
has the title of Maj'teach ha-Pijutim, by A. Gerstetner, aud is published 
by the Curatorium of the Zunz-Stiftung (Berlin, 1889, i. ; see p. 198) 
With it the researches in MSS. and rare editions of MaJiazorim will be 
easier. — Dr. Berliner gives, in his Magazia, etc. (1889), a short descrip- 
tion of the Hebrew MSS. in the library of Naples, and Dr. L. Modona 
publishes a minute catalogue of those of Bologua (Cutalnghi . .a" Italia, 
Firenze, 1888). 

The editor of the lia-Assyf (annual publication in Hebrew, Warsaw, 
fifth year, 1889), has made an attempt to give biographies of living 
Jewish writers, many of which are written by themselves. It is arranged 
alphabetically according to the family names, beginning with Drs. Adler, 
the venerable chief rabbi and the delegate chief rabbi ; there is also a 
biography of Dr. Gaster. The editor complains about the scanty answers 
he had to his appeal for his well-intended publication. The title of the 
work is Scpher Zyharon, Bio-bibliogruphisches Lexicon. — The last issued 
volume (2 1 " Section, Theil 43) of Ersch and Grubier's Encyclopaedic, con- 
tains concise and full articles on Levi ben Gershom (Ralbag), and on the 
various Leos, biographical as well as from a literary point of view, by 
Dr. M. Steinschneider ; and on Elijah Levita, by Professor W. Bacher 
(see p. 197). — Dr. Tauberles has chosen for his doctor-dissertation the 
biography of Saadiah Gaon. This kind of production is rarely com- 
plete, but it is an improvement on the poor article on this important 
author given in the Encyclopaedia Britanuica, vol. xxi., p. 120, where the 
Agron is still quoted from the Orient x., the nature of the Sepher 
Mggalvy is still not clear, and the commentary on Daniel (Bodl. MS. 
248(>) not mentioned at all. — Dr. D. Cassel made the subject of the 
programme of the Berlin llochschule the famous Joseph Caro (Berlin, 
1888), whose commentary on the Shulehan Arulih was not long ago 
attacked by the anti-Semites in Germany, and gave rise to a lawsuit. 
He tries to prove that this rabbi was not a kabbalist, and consequently 
is not the author of the Maggid Mesharim, which is usually attributed 
to him. — Signor Cesare Musatti consecrated fifty- three pages in the 
Archivio Veneto (t. xxxvi., p. ii., 1888) to the biography of the late 
Maestro Moise" Soave, of Venice, born 1820, who did not write books, 
but many useful and erudite articles, amongst others on Dante in 
relation to the famous poet Emmanuele, of Rome. Soave refuted the 
opinion of the late Dr. Geiger that, by the Daniel mentioned in the 
Diwan of Emmanuele, Dante is meant. — Dr. Joel Miiller gave a lecture 
(see the Populdre-wi&sensclutf'tliche Monutsbldtter, 1888) on the late Leo- 
pold Kompert as a writer on Jewish life and customs in Bohemia. 



202 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 



Paleography and Epigraphy. 

Dr. Reinhart Hoerning, of the Department of Oriental MSS., Britis 
Museum, has brought out a curious collection of facsimiles, with an 
exhaustive description of Karaitic MSS. of Biblical fragments, written in 
Arabic characters and provided with the Hebrew vowel-points. The 
title of this important book is the following : Description and Collation 
of six Karaite Manuscripts of Portions of tlw. Hebrew Bible, in Arabic 
characters ; with a complete reproduction by the autotype process of one, 
Exodus i. 1 — viii. 5, in forty-two facsimiles (Williams andNorgate, 1889). 
Those MSS. were brought by the late Mr. Shapira, some from the 
Karaitic Synagogue at Heet (a town situated on the Euphrates, about 
thirty leagues to the west of Bagdad, inhabited by Arabs and Karaite 
Jews), and others from Cairo. This is at present the greatest col- 
lection of this kind of MSS., of which some are found in the Imperial 
Library of St. Petersburg. Dr. Hoerning's description extends to 
every detail, to the phonetics, to the accents, and to the massoretical 
rules ; for the last, he had the benefit of Dr. Ginsburg's help. There 
are also variations from the massoretic text. Dr. Hoerning however 
does not suggest any explanation why the Bible in Hebrew was 
written in Arabic characters for these communities. Is it possible 
that tbe Karaites in thesa countries found difficulty in reading 
Hebrew in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries, for those are 
the dates of these MSS. ? Most likely this was the case, for we can 
scarcely suggest that the transcription was made for the benefit of 
Mahommedan lettres, for in that case the Arabic vowel-points would 
have been employed, and the accents and massoretic notes omitted. 
Besides, the commentary of Yepeth, which is found in them, is in many 
passages offensive to Islam — Besides the controversy on the Simeon et 
Bar Cochba coins between Professor Graetz and M. Th. Reinacb, we have 
to mention many notices by M. Salomon Beinach, based on inscriptions, 
such as on the Jewish congregation of Athribis, and by M._ Th. Beinach 
on the Jewish inscription of Narbonne in the licvve des Etudes Juives ; 
here we find also notices on the inscription of Narbonne in Latin with 
the usual Hebrew words 7N"C" ?V BIX', in'l on that found in a mosque 
at Gaza in Hebrew and Greek, by M. Loeb (1889, p. 100). — We may be 
allowed to mention here Dr. D. Simonsen's (Rabbi of Copenhagen) 
edition of inscription of Palmyra (the Biblical Tadmor) to be found 
on monuments in the Gfyptotheque of Ny Orrlsborg (Copenhagen, 1889). 
The Palmyrenian dialect is much connected with those of the Talmud and 

tbe neo-Hebrew, for instance the word ?3n, "alas," which occurs so often 
on Palmyrenian tomb-stones. — Dr. Harkavy gives (liussian Archaeological 
Journal, iv., pp. 83 — 95) a solution of a formula of exorcising on a 
Babylonian cup, to be found at Moscow ; this kind of inscriptions in 
Aramaic are not rare in European Museums, on which the late Dr. A. 
Levy, M. Joseph Halevi, Abb6 Hyvernat, and even tbe omniscient 
M. Moi'se Schwab tried their hands, more or less satisfactorily. Dr. Har- 
kavy, who has not seen the original, doubts the genuineness of the Moscow 
document. — The epitaphs in the old Jewish cemetery at Algiers were 
published with biographical notes by the chief Rabbi of that town, M. 
Isaac Bloch. We find amongst them those of Judah Khallatz, of Tsemah 
Duran and Samuel Vivas (not Bibas, as M. Bloch writes). This mono- 
graph in French has the following title : Inscriptions tumulaires des 



Post-Biblical Bibliography, 1888-9. 203 

aneiens cimetieres Israelites d' Alger (Paris, 1888). Some years ago 
M. M. Weil, chief Rabbi of Tlemcen, published the epitaphs of this 
town. We hope that this example will be followed for Tunis and 
Morocco. An epitaph found at Orleans is described in the Hemic. — 
Professor Euting also has contributed to this branch of literature with 
his essay entitled JJeber die alteren hebraischen Steine in Elsass (1888), 
to which some good emendations are proposed by Professor D. Kauf mann 
{Revue des Etudes Juives, 1889). There are also notices on the epitaphs 
of Riva, by Baron David de Giinzburg and Professor Kaufmann. 



Miscellaneous Literature. 

Religious controversy between Christians and Jews in the middle 
ages were treated in the Expositor of February and March (1888), and 
by M. Loeb, mostly of those in France and Spain, in the Revue de 
I'Histoire des Religions, (1888), to which he made some additions, more 
especially concerning the texts, in the Revue des Etudes Juives (1888). — 
The 4th Samvielband of the society D*DT0 ^pD contains texts relating to 
the lost tribes, on which the articles in the first volume of this Quarterly 
are based. — M. Moi'se Schwab, after having succeeded in lowering the 
Palestinian Talmud in the eyes of Christian scholars by his unintelligible 
and mostly inaccurate translation in French, did the same service to the 
Revue des Etudes Juives (1888-9) by his publication of a Hebraico- Italian 
school vocabulary, called Mdkra Durdake, with the pretension that it is 
of value for Romanic philology. The French, and certainly the Italian 
words here given are of no use for philological purposes. French texts 
of the fourteenth century are plentiful, and there is no necessity for 
reprinting a few words which are found in the Mdkra DarduJte, and much 
less the Italian translation. — M. Israel Levi gives from time to time, in 
the Revue des Etudes Juives, excellent notes and articles on Jewish 
legends in the Talmud and the Midrashim, early and late ones, of which 
folk-lorists will have to take notice. — We may also mention Dr. A. 
Fleischhacker's doctor-dissertation, with the title Der Tod Moses nach 
dcr Stiff e, in which the literature is well put together. There is some 
attempt made in the Revue to explain the expression {JHISDH DC. — 
M. Loeb connects the Shemonah Esre with some Psalms (14G and 147), 
on which this prayer is, according to him, modelled, and which he con- 
siders originally a prayer of the Justes and Poor. There is also an 
interesting note on the prayer after meals in the Ret Talmud (1889). — Dr. 
N. Briill has, in his Jahrbiicher (1889), an essay, or rather a description 
of MS., headed Beitrdge zvr judischen Sugen- und Sprachkundc im 
Mittelalter, which is f uli of legends and some poetry, the first of which 
represents the fight between wine and water, in Hebrew and German, by 
Zalman Sofer. — We may add here that Dr. Rosenberg has published, in 
his doctor-dissertation, Judseo-German texts of Volltsliedcr, with philo- 
logical remarks from a Germanistic point of view, from a Bodleian MS. 
This dissertation is to be found in the Zeitschrift fur Geschichte der 
Jnden in Deutschland (1888-9). Dr. Stein Schneider gives literary notices 
on various mediaeval subjects under the title of Miseellen in Dr. Briill's 
Jahrbiicher (1889). — The new monthly, edited by Herr Weissmann 
(Wien, 1889), has not yet accomplished its first year, and it would be 
premature to give an opinion on the articles contained in it. — The first 
volume of the late Leopold LCw's (Rabbi at Szegedin in Hungary) col- 
lected articles and essays is ably edited and annotated by bis son and his 
successor, Dr. Immanuel Low. 



204 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 



Samaritan. 

The Samaritan literature has been neglected somehow since the 
premature death of A. Geiger ; even Dr. Heidenheim, of Zurich, has 
published nothing since 1888. We welcome, therefore, two young 
students who devoted their doctor-dissertations to this branch of study. 
1st. Dr. H. Banetb, who gave Marqah's chapter on the twenty-two letters 
of the alphabet, which form the basis of the Hebrew language, with a 
German translation and copious notes. 2nd. Dr. Leopold Wreschner's 
dissertation, entitled Samarltanisckc Traditiunen mitgetcilt und nuch ihrer 
yeschichtlichen Entwicluiwitj unterswht (Berlin, 1888), is important for 
the history of the casuistical differences between the Rabbanites, 
Karaites and Samaritans. They are chiefly based upon a MS. of 
Munaga ibn Tsadakah, but Dr. Wreschner has by no means neglected 
the data of other writers. 

A. Neubauer.