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184 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF THE BOOK OF JUBILEES. 

Part I. 

This 1 is the account of the division of the days of the law and of the 
testimony, according to the events of the years, according to their 
sevenfold division, according to their Jubilees throughout all the 
years of the -world, as the Lord spake on Mount S nai to Moses when 
he went up to receive the stone tables of the law and the command- 
ments, according to the voice of God as he said unto him, " Go up to 
the top of the Mount." 

I. — And it came to pass in the first year of the exodus of the 
children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth 
day of the month, that God spake to Moses, saying : " Come up to 
me on the Mount, and I will give thee two stone tables of the law 
and of the commandments : whatsoever I have written, thou shalt 
teach them.'' 2. And Moses went up into the Mount of God, and 
the glory of God dwelt on Mount Sinai, and a cloud overshadowed it 
six days. 3. And he called to Moses on the seventh day, in the midst 
of the cloud, and he saw the glory of God like a flaming fire on the 
top of the Mount. 4. And Moses was on the Mount forty days 
and forty nights, and God taught him what had been and what should 
be, the account of the division of all the days of the law and of the 
testimony. 5. And he said : " Incline thine heart to every word 
which I shall speak to thee on this Mount, and write them in a book 
in order that their generations may see how I have not forsaken them 
for all the evil which they have wrought in causing them to err from 
the covenant which I established between me and thee for their 
generations this day on Mount Sinai. 6. And thus it will come to 
pass when all these words will come upon them, and they will recog- 
nise that they (these words) are more righteous than they in all their 
judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognise that I have 
been truly with them. 7. And do thou write for thyself all these 
words which I will declare unto thee this day, for I know their 
wantonness and their stiff neck, before I bring them unto the land 
which I sware to their fathers, to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob, 
saying : ' Unto your seed will I give the land which floweth with 
milk and honey, and they will eat and be satisfied.' 8. And they 

1 For an account of the MSS. on which this new translation is based, 
see Jewish Quaeterly Review, V. 



The Booh of Jubilees. 185 

will turn to strange gods, to (gods) which did not deliver them from 
aught of their tribulation : and this testimony shall testify for a 
testimony against them. 9. For they will forget all my command- 
ments, (even) all that I have commanded them, and they will walk 
after the Gentiles, and after their uncleanness, and after their shame, 
and will serve their gods, and these will prove unto them an offence 
and a tribulation and an affliction and a snare. 10. And many will 
perish and will be taken captive, and will fall into the hands of the 
enemy, because they have forsaken my ordinances and my command- 
ments, and the festivals of my covenant, and my sabbaths, and my 
holy place which I have hallowed for myself in their midst, and my 
tabernacle, and my sanctuary, which I have hallowed for myself in 
the midst of the land, that I should set my name upon it, and that 
it should dwell (there). 11. And they will make to themselves high 
places and groves and graven images, and they will worship, each his 
own (graven image), so as to go astray, and they will sacrifice their 
children to demons, and to all the works of their erring hearts. 12. 
And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may testify against them, 
but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also, and they will 
persecute those who seek the law, and they will set at nought and 
change everything so as to work evil before my eyes. 13. And I will 
hide my face from them, and I will deliver them into the hand of the 
Gentiles for captivity, and for a prey, and for devouring, and for 
their removal from the midst of the land, and I will scatter them 
amongst the Gentiles. 14. And they will forget all my law and all 
my commandments and all my judgments, and will err as to new 
moons, and sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and ordinances. 15. 
And after this they will turn to me from amongst the Gentiles with 
all their hearts and with all their soul and with all their strength, 
and I will gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will 
seek me, so that I may be found of them : and when they seek me 
with all their heart and with all their soul, I will disclose to them 
abounding peace with righteousness. 16. And I will transplant 
them, the plant of uprightness, with all my heart and with all my 
soul, and they will be for a blessing and not for a curse, they will be 
the head and not the tail. 17. And I will build my sanctuary 
in their midst, and I will dwell with them, and I will be 
God and they will be my people in truth and righteousness. 
18. And I will not forsake them nor fail them ; for I am the Lord 
their God." 19. And Moses fell on his face and prayed and said, "O 
Lord my God, do not forsake thy people and thy inheritance, so 
that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver 
them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest these should 



186 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

rule over them and cause them to sin against thee. 20. Let thy 
mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon thy people, and create in 1 them an 
upright spirit, and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse 
them before thee, and to turn them deceitfully from all the paths of 
righteousness, so that they may perish from before thy face. 21. 
But they are thy people and thy inheritance, which thou hast de- 
livered •with thy great power from the hands of the Egyptians : create 
in 2 them a clean heart and a holy spirit, and let them not be en- 
snared in their sins from henceforth until eternity." 22. And the 
Lord said unto Moses : " I know their contrariness and their thoughts 
and their stiffneckedness, and they will not hearken till they recognise 
their own sin and the sin of their fathers. 23. And after this they 
will turn to me in all uprightness and with all (their) heart and with 
all (their) soul, and I will circumcise the foreskin of their heart and 
the foreskin of the heart of their seed, and I will create in 2 them a 
holy spirit, and I will cleanse them so that they will not turn away 
from me from that day unto eternity. 24. And their souls will cleave 
to me and to all my commandments, and my commandments will 
return to them, and I will be a father unto them and they shall be my 
children. 25. And they shall all be called children of the living God, 
and every angel and every spirit will know, yea, they will know that 
these are my children, and that I am their father in uprightness and 
in righteousness, and that I love them. 26. And do thou write down 
for thyself all these words which I have declared unto thee on this 
mountain, the first and the last, and that which shall be according to 
all the divisions of the days in the law and in the testimony and in 
the weeks of the jubilees unto eternity, until I descend and dwell with 
them throughout eternity." 27. And he said to the angel of the 
presence : " Write for Moses from the beginning of creation till my 
sanctuary has been built among them for all eternity. 28. And God 
indeed will appear to every eye, and all will know that I am the God 
of Israel and the father of all the children of Jacob, and king on 
Mount Zion for all eternity. And Zion and Jerusalem will be holy." 
29. And the angel of the presence who went before the camp of 
Israel took the tables of the divisions of the years — from the time of 
the creation of the law and of the testimony — according to weeks 
and jubilees — the individual years according to all the number of the 
jubilees, from the day of the new creation when the heavens and the 
earth were created anew, and likewise all the creatures in them 
according to the powers of the heaven, and according to all the crea- 
tion of the earth, until the sanctuary of the Lord shall be made in 

1 MSS. give " for." 2 MSS. " for." 



The Book of Jubilees. 187 

Jerusalem on Mount Zion, and all the luminaries be created anew for 
healing and for peace and for a blessing for all the elect of Israel, 
and that thus it may be from that day and unto all the days of the 
earth. 

II. — And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the 
word of the Lord, saying : " Write all the words of the creation, how 
in six days the Lord God finished all his works and all that he created, 
and rested on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and ap- 
pointed it as a sign for all his works. 2. For on the first day he 
created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters 
and all the spirits which serve before him, and the angels of the 
presence, and the angels of sanctification, and the angels of the 
breathing spirits (or blowing winds), and the angels of the spirits 
of the clouds of darkness, and of snow 1 and of hail and of hoarfrost, 
and the angels of the voices 2 and of thunder and of lightning, and the 
angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring 
and of autumn and of summer, and of all the spirits of his creatures 
which are in the heavens and on the earth, and in all the abysses and 
also the darkness of the deep, and light and dawn and morning and 
evening which he hath prepared in the knowledge of his heart. 3. 
And thereupon we saw his works, and praised him, and lauded before 
him on account of all his works; for seven great works did he create on 
the first day. 4. And on the second day he created the firmament in 
the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day — 
half of them went up above and half of them went down below the 
firmament over the face of the whole earth. And this was the only 
work (God) created on the second day. 5. And on the third day 
it was dont 3 as he said ' Let the waters pass from off the face of the 
whole earth into one place, and the dry land appear.' 6. And the waters 
did so as he said unto them, and they retired from off the face of the 
earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land 
appeared. 7. And on that day he created for them all the seas 
according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and 
the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth, 
and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is 
sown, and all sprouting things, 4 and everything which is eaten, and 

1 " Of snow " — an emendation of text of A B in accordance with frag- 
ment in Epiphanius. 

2 " Voices " — emendation in accordance with Epiphanius. 

3 " Was done," reading tagabra for gabra. 

4 " Sprouting things." I have emended zajetbala, " which is eaten," 
into zajebaquel. So Gr. pXaortinara . 



188 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the •wood, and the garden of Eden, 
in Eden, for pleasure. And all these four great works God created on 
the third day. 8. And on the fourth day he created the sun and the 
moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, 
that they might give light upon all the earth, and bear rule over the day 
and the night, and divide between the light and the darkness. 9. And 
the Lord appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days 
and for sabbaths and for months and for festivals and for years and 
for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 
10. And he will divide between the light and the darkness, and for 
prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the 
earth. These three kinds he made on the fourth day. 11. And on 
the fifth day he created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, 
for these were the first things of flesh that were created by his hands, 
and all the fish that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, 
the birds and all their kind. 12. And the sun rose above them to 
prosper them, and above everything that was on the earth, everything 
that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 
These three kinds he created on the fifth day. 13. And on the sixth 
day he created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and every- 
thing that moves on the earth. 14. And after all this he created man, 
male and female created he them, and gave him dominion over all 
that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, 
and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on 
the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this he gave him 
dominion. And these four kinds he created on the sixth day. 
15. And there were altogether two and twenty kinds. 16. And he 
finished all his work on the sixth day — all that is in the heavens and 
on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, iu the light and in 
the darkness, and in everything. 17. God gave us a great sign, the 
Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the 
seventh day from all work. 18. And all the angels of the presence, 
and all the angels of sanctification, these two great classes — he hath 
bidden us to keep the Sabbath with him in heaven and on earth. 
19. And he said unto us : 'Behold, I will separate unto myself a 
people from among all ihe peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath 
day, and I will sanctify them unto myself as my people, and will 
bless them ; as I have sanctified the day of Sabbaths, and sanctified 
them unto myself, and thus will I bless them, and they shall be my 
people and I will be their God. 20. And I have chosen the seed of 
Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down 
as my first-born son, and have sanctified him unto myself for ever and 
ever ; and I will teach him the day of the Sabbaths, that they may 



The Book of Jubilees. 189 

keep Sabbath thereon from all work." 21. And thus he created therein 
a sign in accordance with which they should keep Sabbath with us on 
the seventh day, to eat and to drink, and to bless him who has created 
all things as he has blessed and sanctified unto himself a peculiar 1 
people above all peoples, and should keep Sabbath together with us. 
22. And he caused his commands to ascend as a sweet savour accept- 
able before him all the days of the two and twenty heads of mankind 
from Adam to Jacob. 23. And two and twenty kinds of work were 
made until the seventh day ; this is blessed and holy, and the former 
also is blessed and holy ; and this one serves with that one for a 
sanctification and blessing. 24. And to this latter it was granted 
that it should be throughout all the blessed and holy days of the first 
testimony and law, as it had been sanctified and blessed on the seventh 
day. 25. He created heaven and earth and everything that he created 
in six days, and God appointed a seventh holy day for all his works ; 
therefore he commanded on its behalf that whoever does any work 
thereon shall die, and that he who defiles it shall surely die. 26. 
Wherefore do thou command the children of Israel to observe 
this day that they may keep it holy and not do thereon any work, 
and not to defile it, as it is holier than all other days. 27. Who- 
ever profanes it shall surely die, and whoever does thereon any work 
shall surely die for ever, that the children of Israel may observe this 
day throughout their generations, and not be rooted out of the land ; 
for it is a holy day and a blessed day. 28. And every one who 
observes it and keeps Sabbath thereon from all his work, will be holy 
and blessed throughout all days like unto us. 29. Declare and say 
to the children of Israel the law of this day that they should keep 
Sabbath thereon, and that they should not forsake it in the error of 
their hearts, and that no work 2 should be done thereon which should 
not be done, which would appear to be doing their own pleasure there- 
on, and that they should not prepare thereon anything to be eaten or 
drunk, and that they should not draw water, nor bring in nor take 
out through their gates thereon anything that is carried which they 
have not prepared for themselves on the six days in their dwellings. 
30. And they shall not bring in nor carry out from one house to 
another on that day ; for that day is more holy and blessed than any 
day of the jubilee of jubilees : on this we kept Sabbath in the heavens. 

1 "Peculiar." I have emended zajastari which is meaningless, into 
zajetarai = H53Q Cf. Deut. vii. 6, 

2 " Which would appear .... pleasure thereon." These words which 
rest on a slight emendation of the text of A B, are not found in later 
MSS., being lost through homoioteleuton. Cf . Is. lviii. 13. 



190 The Jewish Quarterly Revieiv. 

before it was made known to any flesh to keep Sabbath thereon on 
the earth. 31. And the Creator of all things blessed it, but he did 
not sanctify all peoples and nations to keep Sabbath thereon, but Israel 
alone : them alone he permitted to eat and drink and to keep Sabbath 
thereon on the earth. 32. And the Creator of all things blessed it, 
who had created this day for a blessing and a sanctification and a 
glory above all days. 33. This law and testimony was given to the 
children of Israel as a law for ever unto their generations. 

III. — " And on the sixth day of the second sabbath we brought, 
according to the word of God, unto Adam all the animals, and all the 
cattle, and all the birds, and everything that moves on the earth, and 
everything that moves in the water, according to their kinds, and 
according to their types : the animals on the first day ; the cattle on 
the second day ; the birds on the third day ; and all that which moves 
on the earth on the fourth day ; and that which moves in the water 
on the fifth day. 2. And Adam named them all by their respective 
names, and as he called them, so was their name. 3. And on these 
five days Adam saw all these, male and female, in each kind that was 
on the earth, but he was alone and could find no helpmeet for him- 
self. 4. And the Lord God said unto us : 'It is not good that man 
should be alone : let us make a helpmeet for him.' 5. And the 
Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and he slept, and he 
took for the woman one rib from amongst his ribs, and this rib was 
the origin of the woman from amongst his ribs, and he built up the 
flesh in its stead, and built the woman. 6. And he awaked Adam out 
of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and he brought 
her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her : ' This is now bone 
of my bone and flesh of my flesh ; she shall be called my wife ; 
because she was taken from her husband.' 7. Therefore shall man 
and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his 
mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 8. In 
the first seventh was Adam created, and the rib — his wife : in the 
second seventh he showed her unto him : and for this reason the 
commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male 
seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 9. And after Adam 
had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we 
brought him into the garden of Eden to till it and keep it, but his 
wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered 
into the garden of Eden. 10. And for this reason the commandment 
is written on the heavenly tables in regard to her that gives birth : 
' if she bears a male, she shall remain in her uncleanness seven days 
according to the first week of days, and thirty and three days shall 
she remain in the blood of purifying, and she shall not touch any- 



The Book of Jubilees. 191 

thing holy, and shall not enter into the sanctuary, until she who has 
a male child has accomplished these days. 11. But she who has a 
female child shall remain in her uncleanness two weeks of days, 
according to the first two weeks, and sixty-six days in the blood of 
her purification, and they shall be in all eighty days.' 12. And when 
she had completed these eighty days we brought her into the garden 
of Eden, for it is holier than all the earth besides, and every 
tree that is planted in it is holy. 13. Therefore, there was 
ordained regarding her who bears a male or a female child the 
statute of those days that she should touch nothing holy, nor enter 
into the sanctuary until these days for the male or female child are 
accomplished. 14. This is the law and testimony which was written 
down for Israel, in order that they should observe (it) all the days. 
15. And in the first week of the first jubilee, Adam and his wife were 
in the Garden of Eden, for seven years tilling and keeping it, and we 
gave him work and we instructed him to do everything that has been 
revealed for tillage. 16. And he tilled (the garden), and was naked 
and knew it not, and was not ashamed, and he protected the garden 
from the birds and beasts and cattle, and gathered its fruit, and eat, 
and put aside the residue for himself and for his wife, and put aside 
that which had been reserved. 17. And after the expiration of seven 
years, which he had spent there, in the seventh year exactly, and in 
the second month, on the seventeenth day (of the month), the serpent 
came and approached the woman, and the serpent said to the woman, 
' Hath God commanded you, saying, Ye shall not eat of every tree of 
the garden ? ' 18. And she said to it, ' Of all the fruit of the trees of the 
garden God hath said unto us, Eat ; but of the f ruitof the tree which is 
in the midst of the garden he hath said unto us, Ye shall not 
eat thereof, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.' 19. And the 
serpent said unto the woman, * Ye shall not surely die : for God doth 
know that on the day ye shall eat thereof, your eyes shall be opened, 
and ye shall be as gods, and ye shall know good and evil.' 20. And 
the woman saw the tree that it was agreeable and pleasant to the eye, 
and that its fruit was good for food, and she took thereof and eat. 
21. And when she had first covered her shame with figleaves, she gave 
thereof to Adam and he eat, and his eyes were opened, and he saw 
that he was naked. 22. And he took figleaves and sewed (them) 
together, and made an apron for himself, and covered his shame. 23. 
And God cursed the serpent, and was wroth with it for ever, and he 
was wroth with the woman, because she hearkened to the voice of the 
serpent, and did eat ; and he said unto her : 24. ' I will greatly 
multiply thy sorrow and thy pains : in sorrow thou shalt bring forth 
children, and thy desire shall be unto thy husband, and he shall rule 



192 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

over thee.' 25. And to Adam also he said, ' Because thon hast 
hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree of 
which I commanded thee that thou shouldst not eat thereof, cursed be 
the ground for thy sake : thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to 
thee, and thou shalt eat thy bread in the sweat of thy face, till thou 
returnest to the ground from whence thou wast taken ; for dust 1 thou 
art, and unto dust shalt thou return.' 26. And he made for them 
coats of skin, and clothed them, and he sent them forth from the 
Garden of Eden. 27. And on that day on which Adam went forth 
from the Garden of Eden, he offered as a sweet savour an offering, 
frankincense, galbanum, and myrrh, and spices in the morning with 
the rising of the sun on the day when he covered his shame. 28. And 
on that day was closed the mouth of all beasts, and of cattle, and of 
birds, and of whatever walks, and of whatever moves, so that they 
could no longer speak : for they had all spoken one with another with 
one lip and with one tongue. 29. And he sent out of the Garden of 
Eden all flesh that was in the Garden of Eden, and all flesh was 
scattered according to its kinds, and according to its types unto the 
places which had been created for them. 30. And to Adam alone did 
he give (the wherewithal) to cover his shame, of all the beasts and 
cattle. 31. On this account this is prescribed on the heavenly tables 
as touching all those who know the judgment of the law, that they 
should cover their shame, and should not uncover themselves as the 
Gentiles uncover themselves. 32. And on the new moon of the 
fourth month, Adam and his wife went forth from the Garden of 
Eden, and they dwelt in the land of Eldlt, in the land of their crea- 
tion. 33. And Adam called the name of his wife Eve. 34. And 
they had no son till the first jubilee, and after this he knew her. 
35. Now Adam tilled the land as he had been instructed in the 
Garden of Eden. 

IV. — " And in the third week in the second jubilee she gave birth 
to Cain, and in the fourth she gave birth to Abel, and in the fifth she 
gave birth to her daughter Awto. 2. And in the first (week) of the 
third jubilee, Cain slew Abel because (God) accepted the sacrifice of 
Abel, and did not accept the offering of Cain. 3. And he slew him 
in the field : and his blood cried from the earth to heaven, complaining 
because he had slain him. 4. And God reproved Cain because of 
Abel, whom he had slain, and he made him a fugitive on the earth 
because of the blood of his brother, and he cursed him upon the 
earth. 5. And on this account it is written on the heavenly tables, 
' Cursed is he who smites his neighbour with wicked intent, and let 

1 " Dust." Emendation with help of A. 



The Book of Jubilees. 193 

all who hear say, So be it ; and the man who sees and does not declare 
it, let him be accursed as the other.' 6. And for this reason we 
announce when we come before the Lord our God all the sin which 
is committed in heaven and on earth, and in light and in darkness, and 
everywhere. 7. And Adam and his wife mourned for Abel four 
weeks of years, and in the fourth year of the fifth week they became 
joyful, and Adam knew his wife again, and she bare him a son, and 
he called his name Seth ; for he said : ' God has raised up a second 
seed unto us on the earth instead of Abel ; for Cain slew him.' 8. 
And on the sixth week he begat his daughter AzurA. 9. And Cain 
took Awin his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch at the 
close of the fourth jubilee. And in the first year of the first week of 
the fifth jubilee, houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city, 
and called its name after the name of his son Enoch. 10. And Adam 
knew Eve his wife and she bare yet nine sons. 11. And in the fifth 
week of the fifth jubilee Seth took Azurlt his sister to be his wife, and 
in the fourth year she bare him Enos. 12. And he began to call on 
the name of the Lord on the earth. 13. And in the seventh jubilee 
in the third week Enos took N6amha his sister to be his wife, and she 
bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and called his name 
Cainan. 14. And at the close of the eighth jubilee Cainan took 
Mualgt his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the ninth 
jubilee, iu the first week in the third year of this week, and called his 
name Malalel. 15. And iu the second week of the tenth jubilee 
Malalel took unto him as his wife Dinah, the daughter of Barakihil 
the daughter of his father's sister, and she bare him a son in the third 
week in the sixth year, and he called his name Jared ; for in his days 
the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named 
the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that 
they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 16. And ia 
the eleventh jubilee Jared took to himself a wife, and her name was 
BS,rak&, the daughter of Rasujal, a daughter of his father's sister, in 
the fourth week of this jubilee, and she bare him a son in the fifth 
week, in the fourth year of the jubilee, and he called his name Enoch. 
17. And he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt 
writing and knowledge and wisdom and who wrote down the signs of 
heaven according to the order of the months in a book, that men might 
know the seasons of these years according to the order of their 
separate months. 18. And he was the first to write a testimony, 
and he testified to the sons of men concerning the generations of the 
earth, and explained the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them 
the days of the years, and set in order the months, and explained the 
sabbaths of the years as we made them known to him. 19. And 
VOL. VI. N 



194 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

what was and what will be he saw in a vision of his sleep as it will 
happen to the children of men throughout their generations until the 
day of judgment ; he saw and understood everything, and wrote a 
testimony thereof, and placed the testimony on earth regarding all 
the children of men and regarding their generations. 20. And in the 
twelfth jubilee, in the seventh week thereof, he took to himself a wife, 
and her name was Edni, the daughter of D&nel, the daughter of his 
father's sister, and in the sixth year in this week she bare him a son 
and he called his name Methuselah. 21. And he was moreover with 
the angels of God these six jubilees of years, and they showed him 
everything which is on earth and in the heavens, the rule of the sun, 
and he wrote down everything. 22. And he testified to the Watchers, 
to those who had sinned with the daughters of men ; for they had 
begun to unite themselves, so as to be defiled, with the daughters of 
men, and Enoch testified against them all. 23. And he was taken 
from amongst the children of men, and we conducted him into the 
Garden of Eden in majesty and honour, and behold there he writes 
down the condemnation and judgment of the world, and all the 
wickedness of the children of men, 24. And on his account (God) 
brought the waters of the flood upon all the land of Eden ; for there he 
was set as a sign that he should testify against all the children of men, 
that he should declare all the deeds of the generations until the day of 
judgment. 25. And he offered the offering of the sanctuary, which 
was acceptable before the Lord on the Mount of the South ; for God 
has four places on the earth, the Garden of Eden, and the Mount of the 
East, and this mountain on which thou art this day, Mount Sinai, and 
Mount Zion, (which) will be sanctified in the new creation for a 
sanctification of the earth; through it will the earth be sanctified from 
all its guilt and uncleanness throughout the generations of the world. 
26. And in the fourteenth jubilee Methuselah took unto himself a 
wife, Edna the daughter of Azriel, the daughter of his father's sister, 
in the third week, in the first year of this week, 1 and he begat a son 
and called his name Lamech. 27. And in the fifteenth jubilee in the 
third week Lamech took to himself a wife, and her name was Beten6s 
the daughter of Baralrfel, the daughter of his father's sister, and in 
this week she bare him a son and he called his name Noah, saying, 
' This one will comfort me for my trouble and all my work, and for 
the earth which the Lord hath cursed.' 28. And at the close of the 
nineteenth jubilee, in the seventh week in the sixth year thereof, 
Adam died, and all his sons buried him in the land of his creation, and 
he was the first to be buried in the earth. 29. And he lacked seventy 

1 " Week " : so Dillmann rightly amends. A B D give " years. " 



The Book of Jubilees. 195 

years of one thousand years ; for one thousand years are as one day 
in the testimony of the heavens and therefore was it written concern- 
ing the tree of knowledge : ' On the day that ye eat thereof ye shall 
die.' For this reason he did not complete the years of this day ; for 
he died during it. 30. At the close of the jubilee Cain was killed 
after him in the same year ; for his house fell upon him and he died 
in the midst of his house, and he was killed by its stones ; for with a 
stone he had killed Abel, and by a stone was he killed in righteous 
judgment. 31. For this reason it was ordained on the heavenly 
tables : ' With the instrument with which a man kills his neighbour 
with the same shall he be killed ; after the manner that he wounded 
him, in like manner shall they deal with him.' 32. And in the 
twenty-fifth jubilee Noah took to himself a wife, and her name was 
Emz&rS, the daughter of Rake"el, the daughter of his father's sister, 
in the first year in the fifth week : and in the third year thereof she 
bare him Shem, in the fifth year thereof she bare him Ham, and in 
the first year in the sixth week she bare him Japhet. 

T. — " And it came to pass when the children of men began to mul- 
tiply on the face of the whole earth and daughters were born unto 
them, that the angels of God saw them on a certaia year of this 
jubilee, that they weie beautiful to look upon ; and they took them- 
selves wives of all whom they chose, and they bare unto them sons 
and they were giants. 2. And unrighteousness increased on the earth 
and all flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and 
birds and everything that walks on the earth — all of them corrupted 
their ways and their orders, and they began to devour each other, 
and unrighteousness increased on the earth and every imagination of 
the thoughts of all men (was) thus evil continually. 3. And the Lord 
looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had 
corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought 
evil greatly before his eyes. 4. And he said : ' I will destroy man 
and all flesh from the face of the earth which I have crea ed.' ' 5. And 
Noah alone found grace before the eyes of the Lord. 6. And against 
the angels whom he had sent upon the earth, he was exceedingly 
wroth, so that he overthrew them wholly out of all their dominion, 
and he bade us to bind them in the depths of the earth, and behold 
they are bound in the midst of them, and are (kept) separate. 7. 
And against their sons went forth a command from before his 
face that they should be smitten with the sword, and be removed 



1 "From the face of the earth . . . created." This text is emended 
partly on MS. evidence. 

N 2 



196 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

from under heaven. 8. And he said ' My spirit will not always abide 
on man ; for they are flesh and their days shall be one hundred and 
twenty years.' 9. And he sent his sword iDto their midst that each 
should slay his neighbour, and they began to slay each other till they 
all fell upon the sword and were destroyed from the earth. 10. And 
their fathers were witnesses (of their destruction), and after this 
they were bound in the depths of the earth for ever, until the day of 
the great condemnation, when judgment shall be executed on all 
who dwell on the earth, and on all those who have corrupted their 
ways and works before the Lord. 11. And he destroyed them all from 
their places, and there was not left one of them whom he judged 
not according to all their wickedness. 12. And he made for all his 
works a new and righteous nature, so that they should not sin in their 
whole nature for ever, but should be all righteous each in his kind 
alway. 13. And the judgment of all is ordained and written on the 
heavenly tables in righteousness — even (the judgment of) all who 
depart from the path which is ordained for them to walk in ; and if 
they walk not therein, judgment is written down for each nature and for 
each kind : and there is nothing in heaven or on earth, or in light or in 
darkness, or in Sheolor in the depth, or in the place of darknets (which 
he hath not judged) ; all their judgments are ordained and written and 
engraved. 14. In regard to all he will judge, the great according 
to his greatness, and the small according to his smallness, and each 
according to his path. 15. And he is not one who will regard the 
person (of any), nor receive gifts, when he says that he will execute 
judgment on each : if one gave him everything that is on the earth, 
he will not regard the gifts or the person (of any), nor accept any- 
thing at his hands, for he is a righteous judge. 16. And of the 
children of Israel it has been written and ordained : If they turn to 
him in righteousness, he will forgive all their transgressions and 
pardon all their sins. 17. It is written and ordained that he will 
show mercy to all who turn from all their errors once each year. 

18. And as for all those who corrupted their ways and their works 
before the flood, no man's person was accepted save that of Noah 
alone ; for his person was accepted in behalf of his sons, whom God 
saved from the waters of the flood on his account ; for his heart was 
righteous in all his ways, according as it was commanded regarding 
him, and he had not departed from aught that was ordained for him. 

19. And the Lord said that he would destroy everything which was 
upon the earth, both men and cattle, and beasts, and fowls of the air, 
and that which moveth on the earth. 20. And he commanded Noah 
to make an ark for himself, that he might save him from the waters 
of the flood. 21. And Noah made the ark in all respects as he com- 



The Booh of Jubilees. 197 

mauded him, in the twenty-sixth jubilee of years, 1 in the fifth week 
in the fifth year. 22. And he entered in the sixth (year) thereof, in 
the second month, on the new moon of the second month, till the 
sixteenth ; and he entered, and all that we brought to him, into the 
ark, and the Lord closed it from without on the seventeenth evening. 

23. And the Lord opened seven flood-gates of heaven, and the 
mouths of the fountains of the great deep, seven mouths in number. 

24. And the flood-gates began to pour down water from the heaven 
forty days and forty nights, and the fountains of the deep also sent 
up water?, until the whole world was full of water. 25. And the 
waters increased upon the earth : fifteen cubits did the waters rise 
above all the high mountains, and the ark was lift up above the earth 
and it moved upon the face of the waters. 26. And the water 
remained on the face of the earth five months — one hundred and fifty 
days. 27. And the ark went and rested on the top of Lubar, one 
of the mountains of Ararat. 28. And in the fourth month the foun- 
tains of the great deep were closed and the flood-gates of the heaven 
were restrained ; and on the new moon of the seventh month all the 
mouths of the abysses of the earth were opened, and the water began 
to descend into the deep below. 29. And on the new moon of tho 
tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen, and on the new 
moon of the first month the earth became visible. 30. And the 
waters disappeared from above the earth in the fifth week in the 
seventh year thereof, and on the seventeenth day in the second month 
the earth was dry. 31. And on the twenty-seventh thereof he opened 
the ark, and sent forth from it beasts, and cattle, and birds, and every 
moving thing. 

VI. — "And on the new moon of the third month he went forth 
from the ark, and built an altar on that mountain. 2. And he made 
atonement on the earth, and took a kid, and made atonement by its 
blood for all the guilt of the earth ; for everything that had been on 
it had been destroyed, save those that were in the ark with Noah. 
3. And he placed the fat on the altar, and he took an ox, and a goat, 
and a sheep and kids, and salt, and a turtle-dove, and the young of a 
dove, and placed a burnt sacrifice on the altar, and poured thereon an 
offering kneaded in oil, and sprinkled wine and put frankincense over 
everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, which was acceptable 2 
before the Lord. 4. And the Lord smelt the goodly savour, and he 
made a covenant with him that there should not be any more a flood 
to destroy the earth ; that while the earth remaineth. seed-time and 

1 Text emended and restored. 

2 Text emended by a change of vocalisation. 



198 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

harvest should never cease ; cold and heat, summer and winter, day 
and night should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 5. ' And 
you, increase je and multiply upon the earth, and have dominion over 
it, and be a blessing in its midst. 1 The fear of you and the dread of 
you I will inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. 
6. And behold I have given unto you all beasts, and all winged things, 
and everything that moves on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and 
all things for food ; as the green herbs, I have given you all things to 
eat. 7. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not 
eat ; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest I require your blood 
of your lives. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (man's 
brother), will I require the blood of man. 8. Whoso sheddeth man's 
blood by man shall his blood be shed ; for in the image of God made he 
man. 9. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth.' 10. And 
Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was 
in any flesh, and he made a covenant before the Lord God for ever 
throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 11. On 
this account he spake to thee that thou shouldest make a covenant 
with the children of Israel in this month upoa the mountain with 
an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of 
all the words of the covenant, which the Lord made with them for 
ever. 12. And this testimony is written concerning you that you 
should observe it continually, so that you should not eat for ever any 
blood of beasts or birds during all the days of the earth, and the man 
who eats the blood of man or of beast or of cattle or of birds during 
all the days of the earth, he and his seed should be rooted out of 
the land. 13. And do thou command the children of Israel to eat 
no blood, so that their names and their seed may be before the 
Lord our God continually. 14. And for this law there is no limit 
of days, for it is for ever. And they shall observe it throughout 
their generations, so that they may continue supplicating on your 
behalf with blood before the altar ; every day and festival, 2 morning 
and evening they shall seek forgiveness in regard to it perpetually 
before the Lord that they may keep it and not be rooted out. 15. 
And he gave to Noah and hU sons a sign that there should not again 
be a flood on the earth. 16. He set his bow in the cloud for a token 
of the eternal covenant that there should not again be a flood on 
the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. 17. For this 
reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tables that they 
should celebrate the feast of weeks in this month once a year, to 
renew the covenant every year. 18. And this whole festival was 

1 So emended by Dillmann. 2 Text of B slightly emended. 



The Book of Jubilees. 199 

celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noah — 
twenty-six jubilees and five weeks of years : and Noah and his sons 
observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day 
of Noah's death, and from the day of Noah's death his sons violated 
it until the days of Abraham, and they eat blood. 19. But Abraham 
alone observed (it), and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it 
up to thy days, and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until 
I gave (it) anew unto them on this mountain. 20. And do thou 
command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their 
families for a commandment unto them : on one day in the year 
in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 21. For it is a festival 
of weeks and a festival of first fruits: this festival is twofold and of 
a double nature, as it is written and engraved concerning its cele- 
bration. 22. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that 
which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its 
season, one day in every year, 1 and I explained to thee the sacrifices 
that they should remember them, and that the children of Israel 
should celebrate it in their families in this month, one day in every 
year. 23. And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new 
moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh 
month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of 
remembrance, and the days of the feasts in the four divisions of the 
years. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 

24. And Noah ordained them for himself as festivals for the genera- 
tions for ever, so that they have become a memorial unto him. 8 

25. And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make 
for himself an ark, and on that day the earth became dry and he 
opened (the ark) and saw the earth. 26. And on the new moon of the 
fourth month the mouths of the abysses beneath were closed. And 
on the new moon of the seventh month all the mouths of the abysses 
of the earth were opened and the waters began to descend into them. 
27. And on the new moon of the tenth month the tops of the 
mountains were seen, and Noah was glad. 28. And on this account 
he ordained them as festivals for a memorial unto himself for ever, 
and thus are they ordained. 29. And they placed them on the 
heavenly tables, each had thirteen sabbaths ; from one to another 
passed their memorial, from the first to the second, and from the 
second to the third, and from the third to the fourth. 30. And all the 
days of this commandment will be two and fifty sabbaths of days, and 
all the years will be complete. 31. Thus it is engraven and ordained 

1 Text of AB slightly emended. * Right text doubtful. I have 

followed B. 



200 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

on the heavenly tables. And there is no transgressing (this command- 
ment) for a single year or from year to year. 1 32. And command 
thou the children of Israel that they observe the years according 
to this reckoning — three hundred and sixty-four days, and (these) 
■will constitute a complete year, and they shall not disturb the exact 
dates of the days and of the festivals ; for everything will fall out in 
them according to their testimony, and they shall not pass by any 
day nor disturb any festival. 33. But if they do transgress and do not 
observe them according to his commandment, then they will disturb 
all their seasons, and their years will be dislodged from this (order), 
and they will transgress their ordinances. 34. And all the children 
of Israel will forget, and will not find the path of the years, and will 
forget the new moons, and the seasons, and sabbaths, and they will go 
wrong as to all the order of the years. 35. For I know and from 
henceforth will I declare it unto thee, and it is not sprung from my 
own thought; for the book (lies) written before me, and in the heavenly 
tables the division of days is ordained lest they forget the festivals 
of my covenant and walk according to the festivals of the Gentiles 
after their error and after their ignorance. 3G. For there will be 
those who will make observations of the moon — now (the moon) 
disturbs the seasons and comes in every year ten days too soon. 37. 
For this reason the years will come upon them when they will disturb 
(the order), and make an abominable day the day of testimony, and an 
unclean day a festival day, and they will confound all the days, the 
holy with the unclean, and the unclean day with the holy ; for they 
will go wrong as to the months and sabbaths and festivals and jubilees. 
38. And for this reason I command and testify to thee that thou 
mayst testify to them ; for after thy death thy children will disturb 
(them), so that tbey will make the year only three hundred and sixty- 
four days, and for this reason they will go wrong as to the new moons 
and seasons and sabbaths and festivals, and they will eat all kinds of 
blood with all kinds of flesh. 2 

VII. — " And in the seventh week in the first year thereof, in this 
jubilee, Noah planted vines on the mountain on which the ark had 
rested, named Lub&r, one of the Ar&rat Mountains, and they pro- 
duced fruit in the fourth year, and he guarded their fruit, and 
gathered it in this year in the seventh month. 2. And he made wine 
therefrom and put it into a vessel, and kept it until the fifth year, 
until the first day thereof, on the new moon of the first month. 3. 
And he celebrated with joy this day as a f estival, and he made a 

1 1 have followed B with a slight emendation of the text. 
2 The text is here corrupt. 



The Booh of Jubilees. 201 

sacrifice unto the Lord, one young ox and one ram, and seven 
sheep, each a year old, and a kid of the goats that he might make 
atonement thereby for himself and his sons. 4. And he prepared the 
kid first, and placed some of its blood on the flesh that was on the 
altar which he had made, and all the fat he laid on the altar where he 
was making the sacrifice, and the ox and the ram and the sheep, and 
he laid all their flesh upon the altar. 5. And he placed all their 
offerings mingled with oil upon it, and afcer 1 he had first sprinkled 
wine on the fire which was upon the altar, he placed incense on the 
altar and caused a sweet savour to ascend which was acceptable 2 
before the Lord his God. 6. And he rejoiced and drank of this wine, 
he and his children with joy. 7. And it was evening, and he went 
into his tent, and being drunken he lay down and slept, and was un- 
covered in his tent as he slept. 8. And Ham saw Noah his father 
naked, and came forth and told his two brethren without. 9. And 
Shem took his garment and arose, he and Japheth, and they placed 
the garment on their shoulders, and went 3 backward and covered 
the shame of their father, and their faces were backward. 10. And 
Noah awoke from his wine 4 and knew all that his youngest son had 
done unto him, and he cursed his son and said : ' Cursed be servile 
Canaan ; a servant shall he be unto his brethren.' 11. And he blessed 
Shem, and said : ' Blessed be the Lord God of Shem, and Canaan 
shall be his servant. 12. God shall enlarge Japheth, and God shall 
dwell in the dwelling of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant.' 13. 
And Ham knew that his father had cursed his youngest son, 
and he was displeased that he had cursed his son, and he 
parted from his father, he and his sons with him, Ques and Mestarem 
and Phud and Canaan. 14. And he built for himself a city and 
called its name after the name of his wife N6§l&tamauk. 15. And 
Japheth saw it, and became envious of his brother, and he too built 
for himself a city, and he called its name after the name of his wife 
Ad&tan§s6s. 16. And Shem dwelt with his father Noah, and he built 
a city close to his father on the mountain, and he too called its 
name after the name of his wife S6deq&t6iMb. 17. And behold 
these three cities are near Mount Lftbttr ; S6d6qatelb&b fronting the 
mountain on its east ; and Naeltamduk on the south ; Adat&nes^s 
towards the west. 18. And these are the sons of Shem : El&m, and 
Asur, and Arphaksed (and Lud and) Ar&m ; these were born two 
years after the flood. 19. The sons of Japheth : Gomer and M&gug 
and Madai and Ij6ij&, T3bel and Meska and TSr&s: these are the sons 

1 Text of A slightly emended. 2 Text emended by change of 

vocalisation. 3 Text emended. 4 Emended. 



202 The Jewish Quarterly Revieiv. 

of Noah. 20. And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin 
upon his sons' sons the ordinances and commandments, and all the 
judgments that he knew, and he exhorted his sons to observe 
righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless 
their Creator, and honour father and mother, and love their neigh- 
bour, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all 
iniquity. 21. For owing to these three things came the flood upon 
the earth, namely, owing to the fornication which the Watchers com- 
mitted against the law of their ordinances, (going) after the daughters 
of men, and they took themselves wives of all which they chose : they 
made the beginning of uncleanness. 22. And they begat sons the 
NSphidim, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another : 
and the giants slew the Naphil, and the N&phil slew the Eljo, and the 
Eljo mankind, and one man another. 23. And everyone sold himself 
to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled 
with iuiquity. 24. And after these they sinned 1 against the beasts 
and birds, and all that walks and moves on the earth : and much 
blood was shed on the earth, and all the imaginations and desires of 
men imagined vanity and evil continually. 25. And the Lord 
destroyed everything from off the face of the earth ; because of the 
wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had 
shed in the midst of the earth he destroyed everything. 26. And we 
were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us 
into the ark, and behold I see your works before me that ye do not 
walk in righteousness ; for in the path of destruction ye have begun 
to walk, and ye are parting one from another, and are envious one of 
another, so that ye are not in harmony, my sons, each with his 
brother. 27. For I see, and behold the demons have begun (their) 
seductions against you and against your children, and now I fear on 
your behalf, that after my death ye will shed the blood of men upon 
the earth, and that ye, too, will be destroyed from the face of the 
earth. 28. For every one that sheddeth the blood of man, and every 
one that eateth the blood of any flesh, will all be destroyed from the 
earth. 29. And there will not be left any man that eateth blood or 
that sheddeth the blood of man on the earth, nor will there be left to 
him any seed or descendants living under heaven ; for they will go 
into Sheol, and will descend into the place of condemnation, into the 
darkness of the deep will they all be removed by a violent death. 30. 
There shall be no blood seen upon you of all the blood there shall be 
all the days in which ye kill any beasts or cattle or whatever flies 
over the earth, and work ye a good work to your souls by burying 

1 Text restored from Enoch vii. 5. 



The Booh of Jubilees. 203 

that which has been shed on the face of the earth. 31. And ye shall 
not be like him who eats with blood, but do your best that none may 
eat blood before you : bury the blood, for as 1 1 have received this 
commandment so I testify to you and your children, together with 
all flesh. 32. And give not the soul to be eaten with the flesh, so 
that there may be none to require your blood, which is your life, 
from any flesh that sheds it. 33. For the earth will not be clean 
from the blood which has been shed upon it ; for only through the 
blood of him that shed it will the earth be purified throughout all its 
generations. 34. And now, my children, hearken : work judgment 
and righteousness that ye may be planted in righteousness over the 
face of the whole earth, and your glory lifted up before my God, who 
saved me from the waters of the flood. 35. And behold, ye will 
proceed and build for yourselves cities, and plant in them all the 
plants that are upon the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees. 3G. For 
three years the fruit of anything that is eaten will not be gathered 
for eating : and in the fourth year its fruit will be gathered, and the 
first-fruits offered, an acceptable (offering) before the Most High 
God, who created heaven and earth and all things, so that they offer 
in abundance the first of the wine and oil as first-fruits on the altar 
of the Lord, who receives it, and what is left the servants of the 
house of the Lord shall eat before the altar which receives (it). 37. 
And in the fifth year make ye the release so that ye release it in 
righteousness and uprightness, and ye shall be righteous, and all that 
you plant will prosper. 38. For thus did Enoch, the father of your 
father Methuselah, command his son, and Methuselah his son Lamech, 
and Lamech commanded me all the thiogs which his fathers com- 
manded him. 39. And I also will give you commandment, my sons, 
as Enoch commanded his son in the first jubilees : whilst still living, 
the seventh in his generation, he commanded and testified to his son 
and to his sons' sons until the day of his death. 

YIII. — " In the twenty-ninth j ubike, in the first week, in the beginning 
thereof ArpMksed took to himself a wife, and her name was Easuejft, 
the daughter of Susan, the daughter of El&m, and she bare him a son 
in the third year in this week, and he called his name K&in&m. 2. 
And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to 
seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 3. 
And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on 
the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and 
learnt 2 from it that it contained the teaching of ihe Watchers whereby 

1 Emended by a change of vocalisation in one letter. 

2 So Billmann emends text. 



204 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

they had founded 1 the astrology of the sun and moon and stars in all 
the signs of heaven. 4. And he wrote it down and said nothing re- 
garding it ; for he was afraid to speak to Noah about it lest he should 
be angry with him on this account. 5. And in the thirtieth jubilee, 
in his second week, in the first year thereof, he took to himself a 
wife, and her name was M£lk&, the daughter of Abad&i, the son of 
Japheth, and in the fourth year he begat a son, and called his name 
Sala ; for he said : ' Truly I have been sent away.' 6. And in the 
fourth year Said was born, and he grew up and took to himself a wife, 
and her name was Miiak, the daughter of K6s6d, his father's brother, 
in the thirtieth jubilee, in the fifth week, in the first year thereof. 7. 
And she bare him a son in the fifth year, and he called his name Eb6r : 
and he took unto himself a wife, and her name was Azurad, the 
daughter of Nebr6d, in the thirty-second jubilee, in the seventh week, 
in the third year thereof. 8. And in the sixth year thereof she bare 
him a son, and he called his name Phal^k ; for in the days when he 
was born the children of Noah divided the earth amongst themselves : 
for this reason he called his name Phaleik. 9. And in wickedness 
they divided (it) amongst themselves, and told it to Noah. 10. And 
it came to pass in the beginning of the thirty-third jubilee that they 
divided the earth into thres parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, 
according to the inheritance of each, in the first year of the first 
week, when one of us, who were sent to them, was there. 11. And he 
called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their children, and 
he divided by lot the earth, which his three sons were to take in 
possession, and they reached forth their hands, and took the writing 
out of the bosom of Noah, their father. 12. And there came forth 
on the writing of Shem's lot the middle of the earth which he should 
take as an inheritance for himself and for his sons for the generations 
of eternity, from the middle of the Mountain R&fsi, from the mouth 
of the water from the river Tina, and his portion goes towards the 
west through the midst of this river, and it extends 2 till it reaches 2 
the water of the abysses, out of which this river goes forth and pours 
its waters into the sea Meat, and this river flows into the great sea. 
And all that is towards the north is Japheth's, and all that is towards 
the south belongs to Shem. 13. And it extends till it reaches K&r£s6,* 
which is in the bosom of the tongue (of land) which looks towards 
the south. 14. And his portion extends unto the great sea, and it 
extends in a straight line till it reaches the west of the tongue which 

1 Slightly emended. Or adopting reading of Dillmann, for " founded 
the astrology " read " saw the chariots." 

2 Emended. 3 A gives " K&ran." 



The Booh of Jubilees. 205 

looks towards the south ; for this sea is named the tongue of the 
Egyptian Sea. 15. And it turns from here towards the south, towards 
the mouth of the great sea on the shore of (its) waters, and it ex- 
tends to the west of Afr&,' and it extends till it reaches the waters of 
the river Gij6n, and to the south of the waters of GijCn, to the 
extreme limit of this river. 16. And it extends towards the east, till 
it reaches the Garden of Eden, to the south thereof, to the south and 
from the east of the whole land of Eden, and of the whole east, and 
it turns to the east, and proceeds till it reaches the east of the moun- 
tain named Rafa, and it descends to the bank of the mouth of the 
river TinS. 17. This portion came forth by lot for Shem and his 
sons, that they should possess it for ever throughout the generations 
for evermore. 18. And Noah rejoiced that this portion came forth 
for Shem and for his sons, and he remembered all that he had spoken 
with his mouth in prophecy ; for he had said : ' Blessed be the Lord 
God of Shem, and may the Lord dwell in the dwelling of Shem.' 
19. And he knew that the Garden of Eden is the holy of holies, and 
the dwelling of the Lord, and Mount Sinai the centre of the desert, 
and Mount Zion— the centre of the navel of the earth : these three 
were created as sanctuaries facing each other. 20. And he blessed 
the God of gods, who had put the word of the Lord into his mouth, 
and the Lord for evermore. 21. And he knew that a blessed portion 
and a blessing had come to Shem and his sons unto the generations 
for ever — the whole land of Eden and the whole land of the Red 
Sea, and the whole land of the east, and India, and on the Red Sea 
and the mountains thereof, and all the land of Bltaar, and all 
the land of Lebanon and the islands of Kebtfir, and all the 
mountains of Sanir and Amana, and the mountains of Asshur in the 
north, and all the land of Elam, Asshur and Babel, and Susan and 
Madai, and all the mountains of Ararat, and all the region beyond the 
sea, which is beyond the mountains of Asshur towards the north, a 
blessed and spacious land, and all that is in it is very good. 22. And 
for Ham came as the second portion, beyond the Gijon towards the 
south to the right of the garden, and it extends towards the south and 
it extends to all the mountains of fire, and it extends towards the 
west to the sea of Atel and it extends towards the west lill it reaches 
the sea of Mauk— that sea into which everything which is not 
destroyed descends. 23. And it goes forth towards the north to the 
limits of Gadir, and it goes forth to the coast of the waters of the sea 
to the waters of the great sea till it draws near to the river Gij6n, and 
the river GijSn flows till it reaches the right of the Garden of Eden. 

1 So B. A gives " to Arabia and Fara." 



206 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

24. And this is the land 'which came forth for Ham as the portion 
which he was to occupy for ever for himself and his sons unto their 
generations for ever. 25. And for Japheth came forth the third 
portion beyond the river Tina* to the north of the outflow of its 
waters, and it extends north-easterly to the whole region of Gdg and 
to all the east thereof. 26. And it extends northerly to the north, 
and it extends to the mountains of Q61t towards the north, and 
towards the sea of Mauk, and it goes forth to the east of G&din as far 
as the coast of the waters of the sea. 27. And it extends until it 
approaches the west of Pher£g, and it returns towards Apherag, and 
it extends easterly to the waters of the sea of M6at. 28. And it 
extends to the bank of the river Tinst in a north-easterly direction 
until it approaches the boundary of its waters towards the mountain 
Raff'., and it turns round towards the north. 29. This is the land 
which came forth for Japheth and his sons as the portion of his 
inheritance which he should possess for himself and his sons,' for their 
generations for ever ; five great islands and a great land in the north. 
30. But it is cold, and the land of Ham is hot, and the land of Shem 
is neither hot nor cold, for it is of blended cold and heat. 

IX. — " And Haui divided amongst his sods, and the first portion 
came forth for Ques towards the east, and to the west of him for 
M6sr§m, and to the west of him for Phud, and to the west of him 
and to the west thereof on the sea for Canaan. 2. And Shem also 
divided amongst his sons, and the first portion came forth for El&m 
and his sons, to the east of the river Tigris till it approaches the east, 
the whole land of India, and on the Red Sea on its coast, and the 
waters of DM£n, and all the mountains of Mebri and E1&, and all the 
land of Sus&n and all that is to the side of Pharnak: to the Red Sea 
and the river TiniL 3. And for Asshur came forth the second portion, 
all the land of Asshur and NinivS and Sin&ar and to the border of 
India, and it ascends beyond 1 the river. 4. And for Arphaksed came 
forth the third portion, all the land of the region of the Chaldees to 
the east of the Euphrates, bordering on the Red Sea, and all the 
waters of the desert up to the border of the tongue of the sea which 
looks towards Egypt, all the land of Lebanon and Sanir and Aman& 
to the border of the Euphrates. 5. And for Ar&m there came forth 
the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris 
and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the 
mountains of Asshur. 6. And there came forth for Lud as the fifth 
portion the land of Ardr£, the mountains of Asshur and all 
appertaining to them till it reaches the Great Sea, and till it reaches 

1 Text of A B C emended. 



The Booh of Jubilees. 207 

the east of Asshur his brother. 7. And Japheth also divided the 
land of his inheritance amongst his sons. 8. And the first portion 
came forth for G6mer to the east from the north side to the river 
Tina ; and in the north there came forth for Mag6g all the inner 
portions of the north until it reaches to the sea of M£at. 9. And for 
Madai came forth as his portion that he should possess from the west 
of his two brothers to the islands, and to the coasts of the islands. 10. 
And to Ij6v£tn came forth as a fourth portion all the islands and the 
islands which are towards the border of Lud. 11. And for T6bel 
there came forth the fifth portion in the midst of the tongue which 
approaches towards the border of the portion of Lud to the second 
tongue to the region beyond the second tongue, unto the third tongue. 
12. And for Mesek came forth the sixth portion, all the region 
beyond the third tongue till it approaches the east of Gadir. 13. And 
for Tiras there came forth the seventh portion, four great islands in 
the midst of the sea, which reach to the portion of Ham, and the 
islands of Kamaturi came out by lot for the sons of Arphaksed as his 
inheritance. 14. And thus the sons of Noah divided unto their sons 
in the presence of Noah their father, and he bound them by an oath, 
imprecating a curse on everyone that should seek to seize the portion 
which had not fallen (to him) by his lot. 15. And they all said, ' So 
be it ; so be it,' for themselves and their sons for ever throughout 
their generations till the day of judgment, on which the Lord God 
shall judge them with a sword and with fire, for all the unclean 
wickedness of their errors, wherewith they have filled the earth with 
transgression and uncleanness and fornication and sin. 

X. — "And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began 
to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah, and to deceive and 
destroy them. 2. And the sons of Noah came to Noah their father, 
and they told him concerning the demons which were leading astray 
and blinding and slaying his sons' sons. 3. And he prayed before the 
Lord his God, and said : ' God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast 
shown mercy unto me, and hast saved me and my children from the 
waters of the flood, and hast not caused me to perish as thou didst the 
children of perdition, for thy grace has been great towards me, and 
great has been thy mercy to* my soul ; let thy grace be lift up upon 
my sons, and let not wicked spirits rule over them lest they should 
destroy them from the earth. 4. But do thou bless me and my sons, 
that we may increase and multiply and replenish the earth. 5. And 
thou knowest how thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, acted in 
my day : and as for these spirits which are living, imprison them and 
hold them fast in the place of condemnation, and let them not bring 
destruction on the sons' sons of thy servant, my God ; for these are 



208 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

malignant, and created in order to destroy. 6. And let them not rule 
oyer the spirits of the living ; for thou alone knowest their power. 
And let them not have dominion over the children of the righteous 
from henceforth and for evermore.' 7. And the Lord our God bade us 
to bind all. 8. And the chief of the spirits, Mast^mfi, came and said : 
' Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them 
hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them ; for if some 
of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the full 
power of my desires on the children of men ; for these are for corrup- 
tion and leading astray before my judgment, for great is their 
wickedness toward the children of men.' 9. And he said : ' Let the 
tenth part of them remain before him, and let him cause nine parts 
to descend into the place of condemnation.' 10. And to one of us he 
said: ' Let us teach Noah all their medicines' ; for he knew that they 
would not walk in uprightness, nor strive in righteousness. 11. And 
we did according to all his words, all the malignant evil ones we 
bound in the place of condemnation, and a tenth part of them we left 
that they might be subject before Satan on the earth. 12. And we 
explained to Noah all the medicines of their diseases, together with 
their seductions, how they might heal them with plants of the earth. 
13. And Noah wrote down ali things in a book as we instructed him 
concerning every kind of medicine. Thus the evil spirits were pre- 
cluded from (hurtingj the children of Noah. 14. And he gave all 
that he had written to Shem, his eldest son ; for he loved him ex- 
ceedingly above all hi3 sons. 15. And Noah slept with his fathers, 
and was buried on Mount Lub&r in the land of Ar&r&t. 16. Nine 
hundred and fifty years he completed in his life, nineteen jubilees and 
two weeks and five years. 17. And in his life 1 on earth he excelled 
the children of men in righteousness, wherein he was perfect, save 
Enoch. For, as a testimony to the generations of the world, the 
office was ordained for Enoch of declaring all the deeds of generation 
unto generation, on the day of judgment. 18. And in the three and 
thirtieth jubilee, in the first year of the second week, PMlek took to 
himself a wife, whose name was L6mna' the daughter of Sfri&ar, and 
she bare him a son in the fourth year of this week, and he called his 
name RSgav ; for he said : ' Behold the children of men have become 
evil through the wicked purpose of building for themselves a city and 
a tower in the land of Sanaar.' 19. For they departed from the land of 
Ararat in the east, 2 to Sdnaar ; for in his days they were building the 
city and the tower, saving, 'Q-o to, let us ascend thereby into heaven.' 2 
20. And they began to build, and in the fourth week they made brick s 

1 Emended by a change of vocalisation. s Emended. 

3 Emended and restored. 



The Book of Jubilees. 209 

with fire, and used brick for stone, and the clay with which they 
cemented them together was asphalt which comes out of the sea, and 
out of the fountains of water in the land of Sanaar. 21. And they 
built (it) : forty and three years were they building it ; its breadth 1 
was 203' bricks, and the height 1 (of a brick) was the third of one : its 
height amounted to 5,433 cubits and 2 palms, and (the extent of one 
wall was) thirteen stades. 22. And the Lord our God said unto us : 
' Behold, they are one people, and (this) they begin to do, and now 
nothing will fail of those things. Go to, let us go down and 
confound their language, that they may not understand one 
another's speech, and they will be dispersed into cities and 
nations, and one mind shall no longer abide with them till the day 
of judgment.' 23. And the Lord descended, and we descended with 
him to see the city and the tower which the children of men were 
building. 24. And he confounded their language, and they no longer 
understood one another's speech, and they ceased then to build the 
city and the tower. 25. For this reason the whole land of SinMr is 
called Babel, because the Lord did there confound the language of 
the children of men, and from thence they were dispersed into their 
cities, each according to his language and his nation. 26. Then the 
Lord sent a mighty wind against the tower and overthrew it upon 
the earth, and behold it was between Asshur and Babylon in the 
land of SanS6r, and they called it ruins. 27. In the fourth week in 
the first year in the beginning thereof 2 in the four and thirtieth 
jubilee, were they dispersed from the land of SinMr. 28. And Ham 
and his sons went into the land which he was to occupy, which he 
acquired as his portion in the land of the south. 29. And Canaan 
saw the land of Lebanon to the river of Egypt, that it was very 
good, and he went not into the land of his inheritance to the west 
of the sea, and he dwelt in the land of Lebanon, eastward and west- 
ward from the border of Jordan and from the border of the sea. 
30. And Ham, his father, and Ques and Masrem, his brothers said 
unto him : ' Thou hast settled in a land which is not thine, and 
which did not fall to us by lot : do not do so ; for if thou dost do 
so, thou and thy sons will fall in the land and (be) accursed through 
sedition ; for by sedition ye have settled, and by sedition will thy 
children fall, and thou shalt be rooted out for ever. 31. Dwell not 
in the dwelling of Shem ; for to Shem and to his sons did it come 
by lot. 32. Cursed art thou, and cursed shalt thou be beyond all the 
sons of Noah, by the curse which we consented to by an oath in the 

1 Emended by means of the Greek fragment preserved in the Catena 
of Nicephorus I. See Ronsch, pp. 274-277. 2 Emended. 

VOL. VI. O 



210 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

presence of the holy judge, and in the presence of Noah our father.' 
33. Bui he did not hearken unto them, and dwelt in the land of 
Lebanon from Emath to the entering, of Egypt, he and his sons 
until this day. 34. And for this reason that land is named Canaan. 
35. And Japheth and his sons went towards the sea and dwelt in 
the land of their portion, and MMai saw the land of the sea and it 
did not please him, and he begged a (portion) from Elam and 
Asshur and Arph&ksed, his wife's brother, and he dwelt in the land 
M6dqm, near to his wife's brother Until this day. 36. And he called 
his dwelling-place, and the dwelling-place of his sons, MMiqtn, after 
the name of their father MMai. 

XI. — " And on the thirty-fifth jubilee, in the third week, in the first 
year thereof, Bagav took to himself a wife, and her name was Oril, 
the daughter of Ur, the son of K6s§d, and she bare him a son, and 
he called his name S6r6, in the seventh year of this week in this 
jubilee. 2. And the sons of Noah began to war on each other, to 
take captive and to slay each other, and to shed the blood of men on 
the earth, and to eat blood, and to build strong cities, and walls, and 
towers, and to exalt individuals 1 above the nation, and to found 
the beginnings of kingdoms, and to make war nation against nation, 
nations against nations, and city against city, and to make all things 
worse, and to acquire arms, and to teach their sons war, and they 
began to capture cities, and to sell male and female slaves. 3. And 
Ur, the son of K6sed, built the city of Ara of the Chaldees, and 
called its name after his own name and by the name of his father. 
4. And they made for themselves molten images, and they 
worshipped each the idol, the molten image which they had made 
each for himself, and they began to make graven images and unclean 
simulacra, and malignant spirits assisted them, and seduced them 
into committing sin and uncleanness. 5. And the prince Ma9t6ma 
exerted himself to do all this, and he sent forth various 2 spirits 
which were put under his hand, to do all manner of evil and sin, and 
all manner of transgression, to corrupt and destroy, and to shed blood 
upon the earth. 6. For this reason he called the name of Sero, 
SSruk, for everyone turned to do all manner of sin. 7. And he 
became great, and dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees, near to the father 
of his wife's mother, and he worshipped idols, and he took to himself 
a wife in the thirty-sixth jubilee, in the fifth week, in the first year 
thereof, and her name was Melkit, the daughter of Kfiblr, the 
daughter of his father's brother. 8. And she bare him Nachcir, in 
the first year of this week, aud he grew and dwelt in Ur of the 

1 Emended. * Emended. 



The Book of Jubilees. 211 

Chaldees, and his father taught him the researches of the Chaldees 
to divine and augur, according to the signs of heaven. 9. And in 
the thirty-seventh jubilee, in the sixth week, in the first year 
thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was Ij&sk&, 
the daughter of Nest^g of the Chaldees. 10. And she bare him 
T£r& in the seventh year of this week. 11. And the prince 
Mastemd sent ravens and birds to devour the seed which 
was sown in the land, in order to destroy the land, and rob the 
children of men of their labours : before they could plough in the 
seed, the ravens picked it from the surface of the ground. 12. 
And for this reason he called his name Titk, because the ravens and 
the birds plundered them and devoured their seed. 13. And the 
years began to be barren, owing to the birds, and they eat all the 
fruit of the trees from the trees : it was only with great effort that 
they could save a little of all the fruit of the earth in their days. 14. 
And in this thirty-ninth jubilee, in the second week in the first year, 
Tjtra" took to himself a wife, and her name was EdnS,, the daughter 
of Abram, the daughter of his father's sister. 15. And in the seventh 
year of this week she bare him a son, and he called his name Abram, 
by the name of the father of his mother ; for he had died before this 
daughter had conceived a son. 16. And the child began to understand 
the errors of the earth that all went astray after graven images and after 
uncleanness, and his father taught him writing, and he was two weeks 
of years old, and he separated himself from his father, that he might 
not worship idols with him. 17. And he began to pray to the Creator 
of all things that he might save him from the errors of the children 
of men, and that his portion should not fall into error after unclean- 
ness and vileness. 18. And the seed time came for the sowing of seed 
upon the land, and they all went forth together to protect their seed 
against the ravens, and Abram went forth with those that went, and 
the child was a lad of fourteen years. 19. And a cloud of ravens 
came to eat the seed, and Abram ran to meet them before they settled 
on the ground, and cried to them before they settled on the ground to 
eat the seed, and said, ' Descend not : return to the place whence 
yo came,'' and they turned back. 20. And he caused the clouds of 
ravens (to turn back) that day seventy times, and none of all the 
ravens throughout all the land where Abram was, there settled there 
not so much as one. 21. And all who were with him throughout all 
the land saw him cry out, and all the ravens turn back, and his name 
became great in all the land of the Chaldees. 22. And there came to 
him that year all those that sowed seed, and he went with them until 
the time of sowing ceased : and they sowed their land, and that year 
they brought enough grain home and eat and were satisfied. 23. And 

O 2 



212 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

in the first year of the fifth week Abram taught those who made 
implements for oxen, the artificers in wood, and they made vessels 
above the ground, facnig the frame of the plough, in order to put the 
seed thereon, and the seed fell down therefrom upon the share of the 
plough, and was hidden in the earth, and they no longer feared the 
ravens. 24. And after this manner they made (vessels) above the 
ground on all the frames of the ploughs, and they sowed and tilled 
all the land, according as Abram commanded them, and they no longer 
feared the birds. 

XII. — "And it came to pass in the sixth week, in the seventh 
year thereof, that Abram said to T&rfi,, his father, saying, ' Father ! ' 
And he said, ' Behold, here am I, my son.' 2. And he said, ' What 
help and pleasure have we from the idols which thou dost worship, 
and before which thou dost bow thyself ? 3. For there is no spirit in 
them, for they are dumb forms, and they lead the heart astray : 
worship them not. 4. Worship the God of heaven, who causes the 
rain and the dew to descend on the earth, and does everything upon 
the earth, and has created everything by his word, and all life is from 
before his face. 5. Why do ye worship things that have no spirit in 
them ? for they are the workmanship of (men's) hands, and on your 
shoulders do ye carry them, and ye have no help from them, but they 
are a great cause of shame to those who make them, and a misleading 
of hearts to those who worship them : worship them not.' 6. And 
his father said unto him, ' I also know it, my son ; but what shall I 
do with a people who have made me to serve before them ? 7. And 
if I tell them the truth, they will slay me ; for their soul cleaves to 
them to worship them and honour them. Keep silent, my son, lest 
they slay thee.' 8. And these words he spake to his two brothers, 
and they were angry with him and he kept silent. 9. And in the 
fortieth jubilee, in the second week, in the seventh year thereof, 
Abram took to himself a wife, and her name was Sarah, the daughter 
of his father, and she became his wife. 10. And ArSn, his brother, 
took to himself a wife in the third year of the third week, and she 
bare him a son in the seventh year of this week, and he called his 
name Lot. 11. And Nachor, his brother, took to himself a wife. 
12. And in the sixtieth year of the life of Abram, that is, in the 
fourth week, in the fourth year thereof, Abram arose by night, and 
burned the house of the idols, and he burned all that was in 
the house, and no man knew it. 13. And they arose in the night and 
sought to save their gods from the midst of the fire. 14. And 
Aran hasted to save them, but the fire flamed over him, and he was 
burnt in the fire, and he died in tjr of the Chaldees before T&ra" his 
father, and they buried him in Ur. 15. And Tilra' went forth from 



The Book of Jubilees. 213 

Ur of the Chaldees, he and his sons, to go into the land of Lebanon 
and into the land of Canaan, and he dwelt in the land of K&r&n, and 
Abram dwelt with Tara" his father in Karsln two weeks of years. 16. 
And in the sixth week, in the fifth year thereof, Abram sat up through- 
out the night on the new moon of the seventh month to observe the 
stars from the evening to the morning, in order to see what would be 
the character of the year with regard to rain, and he was alone as he 
sat and observed. 17. And a word came into his heart and he said : 
' All the signs of the stars, and all the signs of the moon and of the 
sun are in the hand of the Lord. "Why do I search them out ? 18. 
If he desires, he causes it to rain, morning and evening ; and if he 
desires, he withholds it, and all things are in his hand.' 19. And he 
prayed that night and said : ' My God, God Most High, thou alone 
art my God, and thou hast created all things, and all things that are 
the works of thy hands, and thee and thy dominion have I chosen. 
20. Deliver me from the hands of evil spirits who have dominion 
over the thoughts of the hearts of men, and let them not lead me 
astray from thee, my God, and stablish thou me and my seed for ever 
that we go not astray from henceforth and for evermore. 21. And I 
said, Shall I return unto TjTr of the Chaldees who seek my face that I 
may return to them, or how shall I remain here in this place ? The 
right path before thee prosper in the hands of thy servant that he 
may follow it, and not walk in the deceitf ulness of my heart, O my 
God.' 22. And he ended his words and his prayer, and behold the 
word of the Lord was sent to him through me, saying : ' Get thee up 
from thy country and from thy kindred and from the house of thy 
father unto a land which I will show thee, and I will make thee a 
great and numerous nation. 23. And I will bless thee and will make 
thy name great, and thou shalt be blessed in the land, and in thee 
shall all families of the earth be blessed, and I will bless them that 
bless thee, and curse them that curse thee. 24. And I will be a God 
to thee and thy son, and to thy son's son, and to all thy seed and to 
all that are thine, fear not, from henceforth and unto all generations 
of the earth I am thy God.' 25. And the Lord God said : ' Open his 
mouth and his ears, that he may hear and speak with his mouth, with 
the language which has been revealed ' ; for it had ceased from the 
mouths of all the children of men from the day of the fall. 26. And 
I opened his mouth, and I opened his ears and his lips, and I began to 
speak with him in Hebrew in the tongue of the creation. 27. And 
he took the books of his fathers, and these were written in Hebrew, 
and he transcribed them, and he began from henceforth to study 
them, and I made known to him that which would have been im- 
possible for him (to understand), and he studied them during the sis 



214 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

rainy months. 28. And it came to pass in the seventh year of the 
sixth week that he spoke to his father and informed him, that he 
would leave K&rsm to go into the land of Canaan to see it and return 
to him. 29. And T&rfi his father said unto him : ' Go in peace : 
may the eternal God make thy path straight, and the Lord (be) with 
thee, and protect thee from all evil, and grant unto thee grace, mercy 
and favour before those who see thee, and may none of the children 
of men have power over thee to do thee harm ; go in peace. 30. 
And if thou seest a land pleasant to thy eyes to dwell in, then arise 
and take me to thee, and take Lot with thee, the son of ArUn thy 
brother as thine own son, and the Lord be with thee. 31. And 
Nahor thy brother leave with me till thou returnest in peace, and we 
go with thee altogether.' 

XIII. " And Abram journeyed from K&r&n, and he took Sarah, his 
wife, and Lot, his brother Aran's son, to the land of Canaan, and he came 
into Asshur, and proceeded to SakimSn, and dwelt near a lofty oak. 2. 
And he saw, and, behold, the land was very pleasant from the entering 
of Em&th to the lofty oak. 3. And the Lord said to him : ' To thee 
and to thy seed will I give this land.' 4. And he built an altar there, 
and he offered thereon a sacrifice to the Lord, who had appeared to him. 
5. And he removed from thence unto a mountain with Bethel on the 
west and Agge 1 on the east, and pitched his tent there. 6. And he saw 
and behold, the land was very wide and good, and everything grew 
thereon — vines and figs and pomegranates, oaks and ilexes, and tere- 
binths and oil trees, and cedars and date trees, 1 and cypresses and all 
trees of the field, and there was water on the mountains. 7. And he 
blessed the Lord who had led him out of Ur of the Chaldees, and had 
brought him to this land. 8. And it came to pass in the first year, in 
the seventh week, on the new moon of the month, on which he built 
an altar on this mountain, that he called on the name of the Lord and 
said : ' The eternal God is my God.' 9. And he offered on the altar 
a sacrifice unto the Lord that he should be with him and not forsake 
him all the days of his life. 10. And he removed from thence and 
went towards the south, and he came to KcSbrSn, and KlbrSn was built 
at that time, and he dwelt there two years, and he went (thence) into 
the land of the south, to B6a Lot, and there was a famine in the land. 

11. And Abram went into Egypt in the third year of the week, and he 
dwelt in Egypt five years before his wife was torn away from him. 

12. Now Tanais in Egypt was at that time built — seven years after 
K6br6n. 13. And it came to pass when Pharaoh seized Sarah, the 
wife of Abram, that the Lord punished Pharaoh and his house with 

1 Text of A emended. 



The Book of Jubilees. 215 

great punishments on account of Sarah, Abram's wife. 14. And 
Abram was very glorious by reason of possessions in sheep, and 
cattle, and asses, and horses, and camels, and menservaots, and maid- 
servants, and in silver and gold exceedingly : And Lot also, his 
brother's son, was wealthy. 15. And Pharaoh gave back Sarah, the 
wife of Abraham, and he sent him out of the land of Egypt, and he 
journeyed to the place where he had pitched his tent at the beginning, 
to the place of the altar, with Agge on the east and Bethel on the 
west, 1 and he blessed the Lord his God who had brought him back in 
peace. 16. And it came to pass in the for.ty-first jubilee, in the third 
year of the first week, he returned to this place and offered thereon a 
burnt sacrifice, and called on the name of the Lord, and said : ' Thou, 
most high God, art my God for ever and ever.' 17. And in the fourth 
year of this week Lot parted from him, and Lot dwelt in Sodom, and 
the men of Sodom were sinners exceedingly and wicked. 18. And he was 
grieved 2 at heart that his brother's son had parted from him ; for he 
had no children . 19. In that year when Lot was taken captive, the 
Lord said unto Abram, after that Lot had parted from him, in the 
fourth year of this week : 3 ' Lift up thine eyes from the place where 
thou art dwelling, northward and southward, and westward and east- 
ward. 20. For all the land which thou seest I will give to thee and to 
thy seed for ever, and I will make thy seed as the sand of the sea : if 
a man can number the dust of the earth, yet thy seed will not be 
numbered. 21. Arise, go through the length and breadth of it, and 
see it all ; for to thy seed will I give it.' And Abram went lo 
K§br6n, and dwelt there. 22. And in this year came K6d61%6m6r, 
king of Elam, and Amarphel, king of S§naar, and Ari6k, king of 
SIHSsar, and Tergal, king of nations, and slew the king of G6m6r, and 
the king of Sodom fled, and many fell in battle in the vale 4 of Siddim, 
by the Salt Sea, and they took captive Sodom and Adam aDd Seb6im, 
and they took captive Lot also, the son of Abram's brother, and all 
his possessions, and they went 5 to Dan. 23. And one who had 
escaped came and told Abram that his brother's son had been taken 

captive 6 24. And the houseservant made atonement for 

Abram, and for his seed, with a first tenth to the Lord, and the Lord 
ordained it as an ordinance for ever that they should give it to the 
priests who served before him, that they should possess it for ever. 
25. And to this law there is no limit of days, but he hath ordained 

1 Text of B slightly emended. 2 Emended. 

3 A B C D wrongly add " and he said " against Lat. and Gen. xiii. 11. 

* Text of A B D emended. 

5 Emended. 6 There is evidently a lacuna here. 



216 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

it for the generations for ever that they should give to the Lord the 
tenth of their seed and of the wine and of the oil and of the cattle 
and of the sheep. 26. And he gave it unto his priests to eat and to 
drink with joy before him. 27. And the king of Sodom came to him 
and bowed himself before him, and said : ' Our Lord Abram, give 
unto us the souls which thou hast rescued, but let the booty be thine.' 
28. And Abram said unto him : ' I have lift up my hands to the most 
high God, that from a thread to a shoe-latchet I will not take aught 
that is thine lest thou shouldst say : I have made Abram rich, save 
only what the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men who 
went with me — Aun&n, fiskal, and Mamri. These will take their 
portion.' 

XIV. — " After these things, in the fourth year of this week, on 
the new moon of the third month, the word of the Lord came to 
Abram in a dream, saying : ' Fear not, Abram ; I am thy defender, 
and thy reward shall be exceeding great.' 2. And he said : ' Lord, 
Lord, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go hence childless, and the 
son of Maseq, the son of my handmaid, 1 this Dammasek Eliezer, he 
will be my heir, and to me thou hast given no seed.' 3. And he said 
unto him : ' This (man) will not be thy heir, but one that will come 
out of thine own bowels ; he will be thine heir.' 4. And he brought 
him forth abroad, and said unto him : ' Look toward heaven and 
number the stars, if thou art able to number them.' 5. And he 
looked toward heaven, and beheld the stars ; and he said unto him : 
'So shall thy seed be.' 6. And he believed in the Lord, and it 
was counted to him for righteousness. 7. And he said unto him : ' I 
am the Lord that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, that I 
might give thee the land of Canaan to possess it for ever ; and I will 
be God unto thes and to thy seed after thee.' 8. And he said : 
' Lord, Lord, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it ? ' 9. And 
he said unto him : ' Take me an heifer of three years, and a goat of 
three years, and a sheep of three years, and a turtle-dove, and a 
pigeon.' 10. And he took all these in the middle of the month ; and 
he dwelt at the oak of Mamri, which is near Kebrdn. 11. And he 
built there an altar, and sacrificed all these ; and he poured their 
blood upon the altar, and divided them in the midst, and laid them 
over against each other ; but the birds divided he not. 12. And 
birds came down upon the pieces, and Abram drove them away, and 
did not suffer the birds to touch them. 13. And it came to pass, when 
the sun had set, that an ecstasy fell upon Abram, and lo ! an horror 
of great darkness fell upon him, and it was said unto Abram : ' Know 

1 Emended by Dillmann. 



The Book of Jubilees. 217 

of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land (that is) not 
theirs, and they will bring them into bondage, and afflict them four 
hundred years. 14. And the nation also whom they shall serve will I 
judge, and after that they will come forth thence with much sub- 
stance. 15. And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace, and be buried 
in a good old age. 16. But in the fourth generatiou they shall return 
hith<-r ; for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full. 17. And he 
awoke from his sleep, and he arose, and the sun had set ; and there 
was a flame, and behold ! a furnace was smoking, and a flame of fire 
passed between the pieces. 18. And on that day the Lord made a 
covenant with Abram, saying : ' To thy seed will I give this land, 
from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates, the 
Kenites, the Kenezzites, the Kadmonites, the Perizzites, and the 
Bephaim, the Phakerites, and the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and 
the Gergashites, and the Jebusites. 19. And the day passed, and 
Abram offered the pieces, and the birds, and their fruit offerings, and 
their drink offerings, and the fire devoured them. 20. And on that 
day we made a covenant with Abram, according as we had covenanted 
with Noah in this month ; and Abram renewed the festival and ordi- 
nance for himself for ever. 21. And Abram rejoiced, and made all 
these things known to Sarah his wife ; andjhe believed that he would 
have seed, though she had not yet borne children. 22. And Sarah 
advised her husband Abram, and said unto him : 'Groin unto Hagar, my 
Egyptian maid : it may be that I shall obtain seed unto thee by her.' 
23. And Abram hearkened unto the voice of Sarah his wife, and said 
to her, ' Do it.' And Sarai took Hagar, her maid, the Egyptian, and 
gave her to Abram, her husband, to be his wife. 24. And he went in 
unto her, and she conceived and bare him a son, and he called his name 
Ishmael, in the fifth year of this week ; and this was the eighty-sixth 
year in the life of Abram." 

B. H. Charles. 

(To be continued.')