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Notes and Discussion. 107 

to the Greek reckoning. In it the Jews made a compact with the Beni 
Qureis to fight against Muhammed, son of 'Abd Allah. Muhammed 
went out and fought with them at a place called El Handaq (the ditch), 
and defeated them, and 'Alt, son of Abi Talib, killed 'Amr, son of Adur. 
(" Chronicle of the Kings of the Arabians.") 

(Page 111), XX. year began on Thursday, 21st Kanftn I., 952 accord- 
ing to the Greek reckoning. In it 'Amr, son of 'As, conquered Alexan- 
dria and Egypt, and 'Omar, son of El Hattab, expelled the Jews from 
Nagran and settled them in Kufa. In the same year Hareklius (son of 
Heraklius), Emperor of the Greeks, died, and his son Constantine 
succeeded him. (Is6'denah, Metropolitan of Basra.) 

Year 101 began Sunday 23rd Tammfiz, 1030 according to the Greek 
reckoning. In it 'Omar, son of 'Abd el 'Aziz, died, and was succeeded 
by Jezid, son of 'Abd el Melik, on Friday the 25th of Ragab. In the 
same year Leo, the Emperor of the Greeks, ordered all Jews within the 
limits of his empire to be baptized. (Hawarazmi.) 

(Page 141), year 309 began on Saturday the 12th of Iyar, 1232 accord- 
ing to the Greek reckoning. In it there began between the Western and 
the Eastern Jews a difference in reference to the date of their festivals. 
The Western Jews began their year on Tuesday, and the Eastern Jews 
on Thursday. (No sources are mentioned.) 

(Page 193), year 400 began on Thursday the 25th of Ab, 1320 accord- 
ing to the Greek reckoning. In it Hakino, the ruler over Egypt, com- 
manded the great church in Jerusalem to be destroyed ; he began the 
persecution of the Christians and the destruction of their churches, and 
did not allow a church of the Christians nor a synagogue of the Jews to 
remain in his empire. 


Joseph Sambary and Benjamin of Tudela. — Valuable extracts 
from a mediaeval chronicle by Joseph Sambary, form one of the 
interesting items in the recent volume of "Anecdota Oxoniensia," 
edited by Dr. Neubauer. The MS. from which these passages were 
taken is stated by the learned editor to have been completed in 1672. 
Hence Sambary may have had Benjamin of Tudela's Itinerary before 
him when he wrote. That he made occasional use of his predecessor's 
materials is evident, even from a casual examination of Sambary's 
remarks. In fact, several passages are almost verbatim excerpts from 
Benjamin's account of his journey. Thus the opening paragraph in 
Sambary's chronicle may be found in Benjamin, pp. 61, 62 (Asher's 
edition), though Sambary adds interesting points. With Sambary, 
page 119 (the four last lines from DnVDDl down to fl"JJ la^m nK>D)| 
compare Benjamin, p. 102. The whole account of Alroy's career, 
occupying pages 123 and 124 in Sambary's chronicle, is almost verbally 
identical with Benjamin's well-known narrative of the same incident ; 
the agreement going even as far as the misreading of Alroy's native 
town (Amaria for Amadia). On page 132 the opening lines of Sam- 
bary's remarks on Lunel, containing the statement about R. Meshullam 
and his five sons, occur almost verbatim in Benjamin, pp. 3, 2. Possibly 
there are other points of agreement. These identities, of course, con- 
cern only a very small portion of Sambary's chronicle, which is full of 
important information. 

I. Abrahams.