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262 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 


In the fifth volume of this Review I ventured to submit 
some suggestions upon the missionary character of Judaism 
in relation to those who do not belong to the Jewish race. 
In that essay I endeavoured to point out that the Jewish 
religion was one which embodied spiritual conceptions and 
religious beliefs of a character suitable to the religious 
needs of men and women beyond the confines of the 
race of Israel. There may be, and undoubtedly there is, 
some difference among Jews themselves as to the elements 
of Judaism which are entitled to command the first place 
in their own judgment, and which are of universal applica- 
tion. I propose, therefore, to indicate here that there is 
a certain mission which the House of Israel owes to 
itself. It is possible that the kind of Judaism which I 
consider capable of acceptance by non-Jews is not 
altogether that same Judaism which the mass of the 
Jewish people recognise as constituting their religion. 
For example, the mass of Israelites hold to a concep- 
tion of worship that differs very essentially from that 
which alone is capable of commending itself to the Western 
mind, as indeed it is the only one that appeals to those 
who believe in the diffusion of Israel's faith. 

The divergence between Jews of the present generation 
is a matter which cannot be ignored. For although the 
fundamental dogma known as the unity of God is accepted 
by every section of Israelites, there are distinct differences 
in religious conception between those who may be described 
as Rabbinical and as Reform Jews. Now, in using these 
designations, it must be understood that, however reluctant 
one is to do so, the necessities of language are such that it is 
scarcely possible to refer to different schools of thought 

Reformed Judaism. 263 

without the use of some generic terms. The word usually 
employed as the antithesis of reform is " orthodox." In my 
view, that expression is logically objectionable in the sense 
in which it is used by the Jewish Community. What 
they actually mean by it is not simply conventionality, the 
sense in which the term is employed in the Anglican 
Church. They mean that kind of Judaism which rests 
entirely and exclusively upon Rabbinical authority. That 
is to say, the Jewish religion in their view is that, and that 
alone, which has been denned to them by a long series of 
traditions upheld and transmitted upon the authority of 
the Rabbis. This is nominally at least the Judaism of the 
vast majority of Jews in England, counting them in their 
corporate numbers as so many congregations. The other 
Judaism for which I would desire vigorous missionary 
efforts, and which is the only one that can be fully em- 
braced by the modern European or American, is based 
upon another kind of tradition from that of Rab- 
binical authority. It is the tradition of the Jewish 
people testifying to the experience of natural religion, 
and is interpreted independently of those prescriptions 
which constitute Rabbinical Judaism. The genius of 
Judaism is that it is a story of natural religion, of spiritual 
aspiration among individuals and families through a long 
series of ages. The revelation of which Rabbinism 
makes so much is only the tested and recorded result 
of spiritual experiences. But it is revelation in 
the supernatural and miraculous sense which stands 
supreme in the minds of Jews who live under the 
sway of Talmudical prescription. Traditional Judaism, 
therefore, has two distinct meanings : (A.) The traditions of 
Rabbinical authority ; (B.) The spiritual experience of the 
Jewish race. Now, this experience is seen under different 
aspects, and here again we have the two distinct schools of 
thought which, for linguistic convenience, I have ventured 
to designate by the two separate terms of " Rabbinism " 
and " Reform." One word here as to Rabbinism. I wish it 

264 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

to be understood that I use that expression in no sense of 
disrespect. On the contrary, it represents much of the 
loftiest and purest features of the Jewish religion. The 
Rabbis as a body have been the true conservators of that 
very spiritual Judaism in regard to which we modern Jews 
have still a mission to our own race as well as a mission to 
the world. Tradition, and indeed Rabbinical tradition, 
has played a triumphant part in the work of transmit- 
ting to us of this age the deepest truths of ages that are 
passed. Rabbinism therefore is simply a term used here to 
denote that conception of Judaism, which is commonly, 
but, I think, inaccurately termed " Orthodox." Now the 
characteristic of that Judaism, which distinguishes it from 
the other Judaism which I desire to indicate, is that it 
places bounds and limits to the expression of the religious 
idea. Another and highly important feature is that it 
identifies spiritual religion with ritual. The ritual of 
Judaism, at once historic, traditional, and possessing the 
majesty of fixedness, is part, and an inalienable part, of the 
Judaism of the Rabbinic school. The authority of the 
Rabbis refuses to entertain the proposition that ritualism 
may be severed from religion. Judaism in their view has a 
double aspect, both spiritual and ceremonial at the same 
time. A transgression against the Ritual Law is equal to a 
transgression against the moral one. In fact the two are so 
interwoven that the ethical element is made as applicable 
to the one as to the other. From their standpoint they are 
logical in this attitude. For they maintain not merely that 
the Ritual Ordinances and the Moral Law proceed from the 
same Divine authority, but that the one is co-ordinate in 
importance with the other. To disobey the law of 
circumcision, or to eat forbidden food, or to neglect the 
observance of the Sabbath is for a Jew of this type just 
as sinful as it would be for an ordinary person to dis- 
regard the laws of charity, the rights of property, 
or the laws of chastity. This assumption of identity 
between two things which appear radically different 

Reformed Judaism. 265 

to the Western mind is a tremendous demand upon the 
conscience — a demand so great that it is becoming more 
and more difficult to recognise it in the present genera- 
tion. Reformed Judaism, on the other hand, recognises an 
inherent distinction between ritualism and spirituality. The 
two may be blended. They may work in harmony, and it 
is therefore possible for a reformer to observe all the 
minutiae of traditional Judaism, but in his innermost 
conscience he will preserve a clear line of separation 
between the two. Hence Reform, in the sense in which 
I would fain advocate it, does not necessarily involve 
a violation of those ritual observances which to the old- 
fashioned Israelite are all important, but it does involve 
a mental attitude that is distinctly different from that of 
his so-called " orthodox " co-religionists. 

Admitting, as every student of Jewish history must 
admit, the disciplinary value which ritualism possessed in 
the middle ages, one cannot be blind to the fact that it 
has had other consequences as well. The extraordinary 
detail with which ritualism pursued the life of the 
Israelite, and its extreme rigour, had the effect of deaden- 
ing, to some extent at least, the natural impulses of 
the spiritual life. The office of prayer, which is the 
very rock of the personal religious life, has in itself 
sustained some injury by the excessive amount of pre- 
scription with which it was laden. A child whose earliest 
conception of prayer is associated with the repeti- 
tion of lengthy formularies, is apt to become stunted 
in its spiritual growth. There is little freedom left to the 
human soul to cultivate its own desire to speak for itself 
in the Divine Presence. Multitudinous words are set 
down for its use in a book, and there are not many 
of those words which can ever become its own natural 
language. The essence of the religious idea is free 
communion with God. The shortness of life, the swift- 
ness of time are alone sufficient to prevent the habit of 
free and spontaneous prayer when the set formularies are so 

266 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

numerous and often so incomprehensible. The habit of 
prayer is thus checked at the very period of life when it 
could best be cultivated. A very simple illustration of 
this spiritual drawback is the case of grace after meals. A 
Jewish child brought up under the old system is taught 
to say by rote after every meal a number of pages* which 
it has committed to memory, instead of uttering some 
simple and natural expression of its gratitude to God. 
This illustration can be indefinitely multiplied, covering 
the entire range of the religious life. Any one who 
fully carries out the Rabbinical prescriptions as to 
prayer can find little opportunity for personal com- 
munion with God. This is a matter of transcendent 
importance, for it really covers the whole area of the 
spiritual life, and lies at the root of that conduct which is 
founded upon a religious basis. It is notorious that, 
whilst there are no people who say so many prayers as 
the " orthodox " Jews, there are none who so rarely pray. 
The natural prayer is not obligatory, whereas the artificial 
or prescribed prayer is. To the old-fashioned Israelite, 
worship means the reading of a book or the recital from 
memory of that which he once read. He has never 
acquired the faculty of speaking in the Divine ear exactly 
what is in his heart. 

There can be bub little doubt that there are two 
distinct conceptions of the Jewish religion entertained by 
persons who are equally attached in loyalty and affection 
to their race, and who both regard Judaism as a divine 
message. Moreover, they both believe in the Jewish mission. 
They differ as to the manner of giving it effect. Between 
these two kinds of men there are in regard to outward 
observances very marked differences indeed. And such 
differences do in truth arise from the contrasts in their 
actual conceptions of the religious life. Upon the vital 
subject of divine worship the difference is particularly 
significant. That which is impressive to the one is re- 
pellent to the other. Upon the subject of the manner 

Reformed Judaism. 267 

in which worship should be conducted, the difference 
of opinion and of feeling between one Jew and another 
is probably as wide as anything which distinguishes 
the Buddhist worship from that of the Greek and 
Latin Churches. There is scarcely, indeed, a common 
ground upon this particular subject. The persistent 
effort on the part of the Rabbinical Jew to preserve 
every element of Orientalism, in utter disregard of the 
transformation in his own temperament, and its complete 
unfitness for Oriental methods, is a point upon which no 
compromise is possible. This Orientalism in the system of 
worship, however picturesque as viewed from a distance 
and observed by an outsider, is to a religious-minded Jew 
who is not of that school of thought an absolute deterrent. 
It is an obstacle in his path. Either it alienates him from 
religious communion with his brethren, or it completely 
destroys his faculty for worship. No one who is not a Jew 
can well estimate the appalling effect of the popular Jewish 
manner of worship upon that Jew who is not in sympathy 
with it. There are two distinct objects in the Rabbinical 
form of worship. One is, of course, the spiritual object, 
that of drawing men's hearts near to their Maker ; and the 
other is to preserve intact the symbols of a remote Oriental 
ancestry. The combination of these two purposes seems to 
be a philosophical impossibility, and therefore one of them 
must be sacrificed to the other. Human nature is con- 
stituted in a way which renders the forms that pro- 
perly belong to one age unsuitable for another. The 
manner in which people live and express their thoughts 
must necessarily vary according to the circumstances 
of time, place, and education. The costume, meta- 
phorically speaking, of ancient Judsea or of the early 
Roman Empire is not consonant with the idiosyncrasies 
of later ages and of different countries. The funda- 
mental religious beliefs may be the same, but it is humanly 
impossible that they can be expressed exactly in the same 
way. But there are still further differences besides 

268 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

those of mere climate and period. There are the actual 
contrasts arising from political and intellectual conditions. 
The temperament of a human being must necessarily vary 
when he is living as a pariah in a foreign land, afflicted by 
persecution, and when he is a free citizen of a State where 
there is no persecution. There is an unspeakable difference 
between the conditions of enforced separateness and those 
of political assimilation. The habit of life is transformed, 
the individual temperament is changed. To allege that 
the religious symbols suited to one condition are equally 
appropriate for another that is totally different is to 
attempt to do in words what cannot be done in reason. 
The experiment is doomed to failure. And the experience 
of the present century in England — the only period when 
the matter can be said to have been fairly tested — proves 
that the loss to the cause of spiritual religion is greater 
than the gain to that of external racial continuity. 

The alteration in the manner of public worship which 
has been effected among the English Jews in the present 
century is almost infinitesimal. Substantially they wor- 
ship in the same manner as their ancestors did a thousand 
years ago, and as their brethren do in the present day 
throughout Russia and Poland. There is no correspondence 
whatever in the change of their ritual observances with 
the other changes that have come over every other depart- 
ment of their lives. Neither is there any prospect that 
within the lines of Rabbinical Judaism an organic change 
will take place. A change not less than that which dis 
tinguishes the Oriental from the Occidental is the aim of 
that reform which I would advocate ; and such a change 
would not be regarded as permissible by any Rabbinical 
authority as at present constituted. What, then, is the 
future of Judaism ? Historical continuity, no doubt, is 
assured ; identity of forms and ceremonies is guaranteed ; 
but what of spiritual expansion within these restrictions ? 
What of the real message of religion so carefully trea- 
sured by countless generations ? Can English and 

Reformed Judaism. 269 

American Jews be sure that their descendants will be 
able to receive that message through a medium which is 
growing less and less serviceable to each successive genera- 
tion ? This is the problem for the present generation of 
English-speaking Jews and Jewesses. Can we pretend 
that the outward forms of religion have the same 
attribute of eternity which belong to those divine truths 
which they are said to represent? Is not the idea of 
eternity, or at least of unalterableness, the special and 
exclusive attribute of what is abstract ? In dealing with 
this question it seems necessary to refer briefly to the 
common opinion that outward forms are of little or no 
consequence. By a strange paradox, this is the answer put 
forth by Eabbinical Jews to those who now desire organic 
changes in the ritual. But in reality, these very people hold 
forms to be of so much consequence that they will not 
yield even to the bitter cry that such observances fail 
to appeal to the present generation. It is, however, a broad 
truth of singular import that outward forms are not casual 
and trifling things. They profoundly affect the inner 
springs of religion, both on its spiritual and its moral sides. 
In ordinary affairs, outside the sphere of religion, external 
forms are of so much consequence that many are unable to 
digest food which is perfectly healthy unless it is prepared 
and served in a particular way. There is no greater popular 
fallacy than the cry that external manners and outward 
things are of little consequence. Numerous illustrations 
could be cited to show that, in various stages of civilisa- 
tion which represent different conditions of men and 
women, such matters are in reality quite vital. In reli- 
gion, more than in most things, outward forms constitute 
all the difference which distinguishes the natural tempera- 
ments of one group of people from another. This accounts 
for the fact that Christianity, which is fundamentally the 
same, so far as the central doctrine of the resurrection of 
Christ is concerned, to every Christian in Europe, yet pre- 
sents the extraordinary varieties which may be instanced 

270 The Jewish Quarterly Revietc. 

by the mention of the Roman Catholic Church and of the 
Salvation Army. As to doctrine, the differences are as 
nothing compared with their concurrence upon the ques- 
tions of the Incarnation, the Atonement, and the Resurrec- 
tion. They differ largely as to externals and to discipline. 
And yet, if it were not possible to be a Christian 
except upon the terms of the Salvation Army, or upon 
those of the Church of Rome, Christendom would be 
enormously diminished. The same truth is even more 
applicable to the Jewish religion. Even if such a 
Reformed Judaism as I desire were in existence, its 
differences from Rabbinic or traditional Judaism would 
be mainly in the sphere of outward forms, and only 
slightly in that of Dogma. There would inevitably be 
a striking contrast between a Rabbinic synagogue and 
a Reformed one ; but the faith would be practically 
identical. The position of Rabbinic Judaism, on the 
other hand, is this: — You can only belong to the 
Jewish religion on certain terms. Here comes the 
need for that revolution which the present generation of 
emancipated Jews is called upon to institute. We claim to 
profess the same faith as the author of the 143rd Psalm. 
We desire that same free communion with the Eternal 
Spirit which the Israelite who composed that Psalm en- 
joyed. We claim to hold that communion in our own way, 
and not according to prescription. I know I shall be told 
that such a claim will be the forerunner of many sects 
within Judaism. And here it is necessary to speak of 

There was a time in every country when there was an 
intolerance of sect, and when uniformity was the watch- 
word. The word uniformity has lost its charm and the word 
sect has lost its sting. The fundamental dogmas of Judaism 
are of such incomparable breadth, and the racial tie of 
Israel is so incalculably strong, that even the multiplication 
of religious sects within Israel's fold presents no cause 
for disruption or alarm. We have reached a stage in 

Reformed Judaism. 271 

the history of Judaism, and in the history of our race, 
when there is room, ample and abundant, for varied 
expressions of those Hebrew truths which are eternal. 
But this fear of sects becoming numerous is misplaced. 
For from the very nature of the case they could not 
number more than they do at present. We already possess 
the two distinct rituals or Minbagim of the Sephardim and 
the Ashkenazim, with their different Hebrew pronuncia- 
tions, and their separate organisation and government in 
the same town. Then come the Reform synagogues, 
already established in England, America, and Germany, of 
which scarcely two are exactly alike. These reforms, so 
far as England is concerned, have been what I would 
respectfully describe as timid and tinkering. Not one of 
them has effected that organic change in the externals 
of public worship which is so urgently required. There 
should be a definite change in our attitude towards 
those forms which have no justification in the present 
age, except that they are traditional. I freely admit 
the powerful claim which that word tradition has upon 
the intellectual judgment of every thoughtful person. 
But what I contend is that the tradition of the spiritual 
religion of Judaism is being sacrificed for the tradition of 
its medieval customs. The shell of Judaism is being 
studiously preserved, while the religion of the Hebrew 
prophets and psalmists is becoming obscured. The 
revision of the Prayer Book is of vital consequence. The 
prayers require to be reset and recast, in order to express 
at once the historical continuity of Israel and the religious 
thoughts of people of our own time. It is surely incon- 
gruous that the prayer which is offered in a London 
synagogue for the Queen and her Government should be 
expressed in precisely the same words that are used in 
Russia for the Czar and his rule. If they are appropriate 
in the one case, they must be inappropriate in the other. 

It would appear that the reason for the strong opposition 
to reform is due to the obscuration of the supreme elements 

272 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

of the Jewish religion. And what are these elements ? Do 
they begin and end with the unity of God ? Surely 
not ! The people of Israel have transmitted a religion 
which I believe is adaptable to persons of every race and 
clime. It certainly includes faith in the Universal Father 
of the spirits of all flesh. And that faith is free from 
the terrors of a God of wrath, of an angry Deity, of a 
God who has accursed his own children, and made it 
necessary to ransom them afresh. The Hebrew concep- 
tion of God, — knowing no need of mediation, holding 
forth free access for the human conscience to its Creator, — 
is this not a message of inestimable bounty to the world 
at large ? The question arises, Do Jews themselves 
comprehend what it is which the religious genius of 
their race has revealed to mankind ? Judaism, freed 
from its racial padlocks, becomes transformed into a 
religion at once limitless in its application and divine in 
its essence. Christianity in its earlier history did but 
faintly translate to a pagan world the inspiration of its 
Hebrew founders. Christianity is itself an earnest of a 
world-wide Theism, and of a kingdom of heaven which is 
within. Judaism in its ultimate expansion — not in the 
Churches founded at Calvary, but in the wider and more 
Catholic Church founded out of a fresh reform within 
the Synagogue itself — is nothing short of a message 
to mankind betokening the love of a universal God 
and the brotherhood of the human race. Bursting the 
bounds of locality and the limits of a family tradition, it is 
destined to become the religion of a larger humanity than 
any which is at present embraced either within the Western 
or the Eastern Churches of Christendom. Judaism, with 
its independence of the crushing dogma of the Fall and of 
the normal perdition of the human soul; Judaism, with its 
glowing optimism of free salvation to all human beings, 
with its consecrated fire of passionate devotion to a 
Being without form or shape, and with its fervid love 
of a tender Deity who is merciful and long-suffering, 

Reformed Judaism. 273 

has without doubt a future of statelier and of more 
soul-stirring magnitude than any religion which the 
history of the world has produced. The justification of 
long ages of separation, sometimes enforced from without, 
not infrequently established from within, will become 
manifest in the sight of those very people who have wailed 
and prayed over a so-called Christ-rejecting people. Con- 
tinuity will be established between one era in the history 
of this world-famed ancestral faith and another. The 
work of the Apostles in the first century of the Christian 
era will come to be regarded as an instalment of the 
Hebrew message to the world. Christianity, in its later 
and broader developments will carry with it so many 
tokens, one by one, of the simpler and sublimer Theism 
of which it is only the preparation. 

All this progress and advance depends upon the Jews 
themselves, upon those who are emancipated. It rests 
with us to elect between archaeology and religion. The 
problem forces itself upon modern Jews here in Eng- 
land whether they will be content to keep their treasure 
locked up in dusty safes, and hidden from the view of 
mankind, or make it known and spread it broadcast. 

The whole of this problem resolves itself into the 
question of reform. Do the Jews themselves rightly 
understand what it is they have suffered for through the 
ages ? Have they themselves a right conception of the 
faith which is in them ? Are the Jewish people, as a body, 
conscious of the fact that their religion is essentially a 
universal religion, and that it is one which is specially 
capable of satisfying the natural cravings of the human 
soul ? It is doubtful whether these facts have been 
realised. It is more than probable that under the dominion 
of Rabbinical prescription the ordinary view entertained 
by Jews and Jewesses of their religion is that it is entirely 
a family religion, and one not designed for the spiritual 
requirements of other people. It is not brought home to 
the conscience of the Jewish community that their fondest 
vol. vj. s 

274 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

prayers are those in which every religious nature in 
Christendom delights. The very fact that every nation 
of Christendom has unreservedly taken into its own 
language the prayers and hymns of the Jewish psalmists 
is a conclusive proof that Judaism, as expounded in those 
Psalms, is the religion of a much larger world than 
the people of Israel. Such a Psalm as the 143rd, to 
which I have already alluded, and a number of others, 
show that the religious genius of Israel has touched the 
keynote of the universal religious consciousness. The 51st 
Psalm is one more among many illustrations. Again, the 
103rd, the 139th, and the 90th Psalms all reveal spiritual ex- 
periences which are neither national nor communal, because 
they are unspeakably human. It has never been suggested 
that compositions of this character have not proceeded out 
of the inmost sanctuary of the Jewish religion. Nor are we 
aware that either Greek or Roman has bequeathed to the 
Western World anything precisely of this nature. The real 
verities of Judaism are just those thoughts and aspirations 
to which Psalms like these give utterance, not its ritual or 
its rabbinical observances. The soul to which that wonderful 
verse in the 143rd Psalm is a reality, namely, " Teach me 

to do thy will ; thy spirit is good ; lead me into 

the land of uprightness" — that soul has grasped the 
substance of spiritual religion which can never be bettered 
either by the most elaborate ritual or the most complex 
metaphysical creed. No religious voice in Europe could 
ever venture to dispute this proposition. Many have sought 
to fit into those words, and into others like them, some 
creed which was not in the mind of the person who first 
conceived them. But what we may claim for Judaism is 
that the thoughts, the strivings of every devout soul, are 
just those thoughts and those strivings which constitute 
the substance of the Hebrew Faith. A God, who is the 
perfection of love as well as the perfection of knowledge, 
is the highest Being who has ever been conceived. No race 
and no Church have contemplated a Deity with attributes 

Reformed Judaism. 275 

more universal than these. It was a retrogression on the 
part of Paul, when he stooped to represent God with 
human passions, requiring a compromise between the 
demands of his justice and the demands of his mercy. 
Paul, I would venture to submit, had not fully grasped 
the highest ideal of Deity as we find it in such Psalms as 
those I have mentioned, and in the Jewish Liturgy of a 
later date. We have in the New Testament and the 
Apocrypha other instances of the intensity with which 
individual Israelites had apprehended the Divine Being. 
"In my Father's house are many mansions," and "In- 
asmuch as ye do it to the least of these ye do it 
unto me," and " Pray to thy Father which is in secret," 
are all so many fragments of religious genius, which 
abundantly testify to the universality of the religious 
idea as conceived by the spokesmen of the Jewish 
race. With his usual picturesque exaggeration the late 
Lord Beaconsfield observed in his life of Lord George 
Bentick that " No one ever wrote under the inspiration of 
the holy spirit except a Jew." There was development, 
however, in those writings, and one Jew excelled another 
time after time in his wider conception of a Universal 
God. More than one Rabbi of the middle ages has 
excelled some of the Apostles in his conception of 
God. But none of them have surpassed, if any 
have « reached, the spiritual heights which were at- 
tained by the unknown Hebrew who composed the 
139th Psalm. Here we have the story of the indivi- 
dual soul, stripped of nationality and caste, in its 
personal and secret relations with the Divine Being; 
Here is likeness to God. Here is affinity between the 
created and immortal soul on the one hand, and the 
eternal Divine Fountain of Love on the other. In con- 
nection with such language terms like those of " Jew " 
and " Gentile " shrink into nothingness, and we have 
before us the abstract human and the abstract Divine 
singularly blended into a harmony, which can only be 


276 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

likened to that of mother and child. The tenderness 
and catholicity of this Psalm unmask the false theory 
that, up till the Christian era, Judaism conceived 
a God of vengeance and a tribal God. If in the age 
of Christ reform within the Jewish community had been 
possible, a very different religious history would have 
followed from that which has disfigured the face of Europe 
for a thousand years and more. Still, in spite of the 
compromise of the first of those centuries, the spiritual 
genius of the House of Israel has slowly penetrated the 
Western mind. In every translation of the Hebrew 
Scriptures, as well as in their use in the New Testa- 
ment, we perceive the message of Judaism to mankind. 
At the present time we find in England a true religious 
bond between the educated Christian and the educated 
Jew. There is scarcely any difference at all between the 
Christian Theist and the Reformed Jew. If Jews and 
Christians would each in their turn recognise this bond, 
and seek to cultivate it, a new era would be initiated in 
the religious history of mankind. 

The special object of this essay is to place before my own 
brethren in race and creed the paramount claims of that kind 
of reform which seems essential to the furtherance of Israel's 
mission. We stand in need at the present moment of 
a loosening of the tie which has so long bound the ritual 
of one particular age to the changing religious sentiments 
of all subsequent ages, a tie which tends to suffocate those 
religious sentiments with the strings of an antique but 
outworn ritual. We require to adapt our eternal faith to 
the changed temperament and the altered education of 
new generations. The future triumph of Judaism can 
never be thwarted, but it may be delayed by a want of 
proportion in our estimate of the relation in which an 
historic ritual stands to permanent truths. So long as 
we permit our youth to discover that the first kindling 
of the religious flame within them takes place in a 
Christian place of worship and not in a Jewish one, we are 

Reformed Judaism. 277 

retarding the progress of our Mission. There is every 
reason why this grave difficulty, so loosely and lightly 
estimated by the general community of Jews, should 
speedily he obviated. When we have removed this one 
obstacle, then indeed will Jews and Christians be able to 
.unite in the utterance of those striking words, " Mine eyes 
have seen thy salvation, which shall be a light to lighten 
the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel." 

Oswald John Simon.