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Notes and Discussion. 531 

privileges et immunitatibus non gaudeant in eisdem prefatos judeos ad 
represalias contra cives illarum Civitatum Terrarum vel locorum quae 
incolunt institutas nisi prefatae represaliae eorundem Judeorum causa et 
contemplatione fuissent contra illas Civitates Terras vel loca quae inco- 
lunt institutas prefatos Judeos non teneri nee eorundem vigore conveniri 
debere. Illos autem Judeos dumtaxat hujusmodi protectionis presidio 
volumus communiri qui nicbil machinari presumpserint in subversione 
fidei memoratas. Nulli ergo etc. nostras constitutionis privilegii decreti 
statuti et Voluntatis infringere, etc. Si quis, etc. Datum Romas apud 
Sanctum Petrum Anno Incarnationia dominicae millesimo quadrigen- 
tesimo tricesimo tertio Octavo Idus Februarii anno secundo. 

A. Neubauer. 



A Fragment of an Account of Persecutions. — Jewish cbronicles 
contain naturally among historical data also those of calamities which 
befell Jewish congregations only too often. There are special chronicles 
for this subject, e.g., by Judah ibn Verga (TJie Hod of Judah), by Joseph 
Cohen, of Avignon (The Valley of Weeping), by Samuel ben Nathan 
{Mire of Clay), and other authors. The so-called Memorbuch (book of 
reminiscence) contains lists of martyrs of various congregations. Of 
these, that^ of Mayence is the oldest and the most celebrated (see 
lievne des Mvdes Juives, t. iv, page 1 sq.), but there are many others pre- 
served in other congregations. Finally, manuscript prayer books, con- 
taining smaller or larger lists of names of countries and localities where 
persecutions degenerated into slaughters took place ; these lists are 
usually followed by a prayer for the victims in general, mostly be- 
ginning with 113T\ Those lists are not only of importance for Jewish 
history, but also for mediaeval Jewish geography. The fragment which 
we are going to publish has a special interest by having the years when 
the massacres took place. It is to be found in a miscellaneous MS. of 
the Hamburg Library, No. 70 u , in Dr. Steinschneider's Catalogue of the 
MSS. of this Library, Hamburg, 1878, page 32. Dr. Steinschneider 
gives, as is usual in catalogues, the beginning and the end of the frag- 
ment ; it is preceded by a liturgy, of which the beginning is wanting, 

and finishing with the words ni?D7 rt31Dn J13n V N'3. The anonymous 
copyist made certainly use of David Gans's chronicle (Sprout of David), 
but he also gives some additional data, altogether fifty-three calamities, 
of which only the last nine are preserved in the MS. Possibly that the 
anonymous writer made also use of Efodi's lost treatise, entitled JUST 
miDBTI (Memorial of forced conversions), ingeniously recognised in 
quotations from it by Professor Graetz in his great history of the Jews, 
t. VIII. note I., page 404 sqq. 
The incomplete text is the following: — 

-\mb -oyo D'B3K>n rrwy njHoo ndh 'osixin im ^njioiid wind 
DHirvn tin (ms. »wy) wy wn sfrsh n"e> nxnw irnxi o^miNn : \m 
DHirvn 73 itjnjru 3'itni pc e>itp bv ibisw d^ii d?vb rwiD3B> 
nj? oa mv "W) D'3T nny idiw onirrn bv 'bbw mm rwionD 
■w njEoe> ne>om onniKi jooipo? nm tki unh pain?) mm ii3nx> 

.1W1 D'1?31K1 : N^DN pK 733 D^NXDJn 11110 J n 73 1B1B0 Wil ffrxb 

M M 2 



532 The Jeurish Quarterly Review. 

37TK1 JNIS TJD DHin^HD DnBDH ^3 l^>tM WH (|^ B»»e> nXO^ 

Sa itroru Von nxae' njne>i D^nnKi :jrvnao D»na 3"y isneo 
oqnnto : ddipd^> nrnm ynttw ny errs runoDi atna -wd nmrrn 
noai pnnyo riJHDi nt?K omn^ mx ny rrn y6b> nxae> ruion 
n*De> rue>3e> nyern D^nnao not? ne>inp b isneo ^\xne»D me>Bi 
3-3B» rutsa D^om : nvb new ^3 n?3i pa n^ya new dhwh ^o ie>an 
n»n nxae* nnNi D^>Dm : j^pra new dhwa ^>a lenaro wn s£*6 
njHoa ^kt^d me^ d*b^k hsd noa natoi itaneoi unnj wn r^t6 
n3*oe> no na^> ninrasi me>pi nwo mn»» wd Saa inoim jD"n 
jd wxim naDJi new pioi o*pinn nisnso ien:in:.e> mown pa 
d*s^k noa lone^i unnj wn 0*6 t3»n nueae' o^e>i o^oni : ^>ar» 
*£t6 roan ratnv ne6e>i D^om : n»ajNi D^yn Waa pSia runoa 
aym ain nan ana n\ni ppi Snj p^ia runoa VnJi an jnn rrn wn 
iVn Sa : unru D*e>np ni^np noai birwn niB'aj d^bSk noa inawi 
why nsye* no naS wewn hv mayi wnw ikxd new ■h dttu nmn 
roman Saa ernp, oya iyja -ex naote itsxy on »a ^ iyno vh new 
xaitampa ataxias (so) w^inaa x^oops k^vxs nnaoa tsnaa 
orvaa uaews ntd^3N3 tavonias nanxs noi Dna3 .ydjo N»n3n33 
(?) ann f)V3 Sktd pnDnwtaen ^ccnpi psnp3 pn^isi "pnoDta pnnyoi 
po"m p^iB3 D^ne^B pto ^331 e>ni nnxos ^Dnjim pjnn pm ps«3i 
: ^ lynu k^> -cn nvatai nirno nscsi oioni n^t<t3^3 p*3i 

The forced converts of Portugal and David the Reubenite, who came 
from the land of the Ten Tribes, which is situated on the other side of 
the river Gozan. (See this Quarterly, Vol. I., page 408.) 

44th. In the year 5301 (1541) they tortured the Jews of Bohemia, 
where many were burnt for the sake of thine holy name ; they were 
then driven out from this country on the ground that they had set fire 
to many towns, but when it was proved later to be untrue, they were 
allowed to return. 

45th. In the year 5314 (1554) all the copies of the Talmud were burnt 
in Italy. 

46th. In the year 5319 (1559) all the books were taken away from the 
Jews at Prague, and seventy-two of their houses were burnt. 

47th. In the same year the Jews were exiled from Prague and 
Bohemia, but they were allowed to return there. 

48th. In the year 5334 (1574) there was a great calamity to the Jews 
in Moravia, and many of them were burnt for thine holy name. 

49th. In the year 5348 (1588) all the Jews were seized at Bonn, and 
their property was plundered. 

50th. In the year 5352 (1592) all the Jews were driven from Saxony. 

51st. In the year 5408 (1648) hundreds and thousands of the Jews 
perished in the province of Reissen by cruel deaths, besides those who 
were made captives, and sold to far countries, and others who were con- 
verted by force. 

52nd. In the year 5409 (1649) many thousands of Jews perished in 
Chelm and the neighbourhood, in Poland. 

53rd. In the year 5415 (1655) slaughters with plague and famine 



Notes and Discussion. 533 

occurred in Poland, Great and Lesser, when many thousand Jews perished, 
and many congregations were completely annihilated. 

All these calamities are known to me, besides the many unknown in 
Spain (Andalusia), Sicily, Castilia, Barcelona, Toledo, Cordova, Barbary, 
Asia, Persia and Media, France, Portugal, England, Germany, Bohemia 
and Moravia, Austria and Hungary, Krain (Carintia) and Styria, Tyrol 
and Neuburg ?, Bavaria, Transylvania, Turkey, Egypt, Cush, Babylonia, 
and the land of the Philistines, in Poland, Reussen, Greece and Rome, 
and in other lands unknown to me. 

A. Neubauek. 



Hosea xiv. 8. — An interesting rendering of the LXX. is to be found 
in Hosea, chap, xiv., 8, to the words JS33 imQ'l \i1 •1»PI , : . The words 
are not easy. Both A. V. and R. V. have : " They shall revive as the 
corn, and blossom as the vine," which is distinctly against the pointing 
of the first part of the sentence. Ewald translates : " They shall 
produce corn." 

Now the LXX. renders tfiaovrat km ixe8vo-6ri<rovTai ctit^>. Here 
/ic6v(T0!)<roPTai is not only not in the Hebrew text, but its use is most 
curious. What is the meaning of, " They shall live and be drunk with 
corn." MedvaKa in Greek has the sense of " being drunk " only. The 
nearest approach to a similar use is, as Professor Wilkins has noticed to 
me, that to be found in the rendering of Psalm xxxvi. 9. \VTf. 

"Hp'S i$?'1'? (LXX., Psalm xxxv. 9), where we read, ncOvaSrivovrat. anb 
itiotijtos k.t.X ; but here JIM")', is literally translated, and the Hebrew 
verb itself is used in a rather unusual sense. The use of peBvo-Ka 
in a metaphorical sense goes further than the use of " intoxicate " in 
English. We might say of one that he was intoxicated with success ; 
we could hardly speak of his being intoxicated with bread. 

L. M. Simmons. 



An Unknown Hebrew Version of the Sayings of Aesop. — In 
the library of the Temple Emanu-el, New York, there is preserved a 
MS. 1 by an otherwise unknown Jewish author of the end of the sixteenth 
century. Eliyya ben Menahem Rabha, at once the author and the scribe, 
lived in Carpi in the Dukedom of Modena. 2 His father resided in Padua, 

1 Press-Mark, vii., c. 42. 

3 Cfr. Ben, Cliananja, Szegedin, 1866, p. 215 ; Catalogo del Manoseritti 
Ebraici dell a Biblioteca delta Communita Israelitica dl Montana, compilato 
dal Babbino Maggiore Marco Mortara. Livorno, Tipografia I. Costa e C, 
1878, p. 58. (For the use of this little book I am indebted to Dr. S. Morais, 
of Philadelphia.) Mortara says that Rabha lived in Padua, but he did not 
know of the existence of our MS., which is distinctly stated to have been 

written in Carpi. On the title-page we read, WJIIK J17J/0 rptfD.D Jinn 
Pl«3 JOK JDK 8B>:rU naD^T K'V IDJIB^N JH D13H. Of course, Alfonso 
II. (1559-1597), the persecutor of Tasso, and the last legitimate offspring of 
the Italian branch of the Este house, is meant. Cfr. Muratori, Annali 
aV Italia, x., pp. 365 ff.