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Festschrift zum achtzigsten Geburtstage Moritz Steinschneiders (Con- 
gratulatory-volume for the eightieth birthday of Prof. Dr. 
M. Steinschneider). Otto Harvassowitz, Leipzig, 1896. 

The Nestor of Hebrew bibliography reached his eightieth year 
on the 30th of March (second day of Pesah) in full working order, 
and it occurred to many of his pupils and friends to congratulate him 
by a volume which contained essays on various subjects of Hebrew 
and Rabbinic literature, viz. Bible criticism, mediaeval Biblical com- 
mentaries, Hebrew Grammar, Historical subjects, Theology and Phi- 
losophy, Documents and Letters, Poetry, Folklore, Mathematics, and 
Bibliography, altogether twenty-nine essays, written (entirely, or at 
least prefaced) in Hebrew, English, French, German, and Italian, by 
authors living in England, America, France, Germany, Russia, Italy, 
and Denmark. Thus we may say that the desire to honour Hebrew 
literature in the person of our octogenarian is universal, except in 
Germany as we shall see. It is by no means a criticism of the many 
essays that I am going to give ; it would be presumptuous on my part to 
embrace such a variety of subjects, all I can do is to give a short abstract 
of each essay according to subjects. — The most useful and most 
extended essay is the Bibliography of the writings of our learned 
octogenarian, by G. A. Kohut, son of the lamented Rabbi A. Kohut of 
New York, author of the Arukh completum. This essay fills thirty-five 
pages of small print, in a methodical form, viz. 1. Separate works (from 
1841 to 1896) ; 2. Contributions to the works of others (1838 to 1892) ; 
3. Essays and Reviews contributed to various periodicals, encyclo- 
paedias and similar collections (1839 to 1896). Dr. Steinschneider's 
writings are in Hebrew, Latin, German, French, and Italian. He has 
just issued the second edition of the catalogue of the Hebrew MSS. in 
the Royal Library of Munich, and is now finishing the D'HSDn 1V1X 
of Benjacob according to the authors, which will be very extensive. 
Kohut's bibliography will be indispensable for those who deal with 
Rabbinic literature. Another bibliographical essay is written by 
Dr. Simonsen, Rabbi of Copenhagen, on the first issue of the Mahazor 


according to the German rite, Cracow, 1571. Dr. S. Poznanski, 
of Warsaw, who paid a visit last summer to the British Museum 
and the Bodleian Library, gives an extended description, more than 
bibliographical, of al-Qirqisani's works in MSS. in the British Museum 
(see Dr. Bacher's essay on this author in J. Q. B., VII, 687). I should 
mention that Dr. Harkavy brought this Qaraitic author to the fore 
by publishing his chapter on the various sects amongst the Jews 
(J. Q. R., VII, 355). — Biblical researches are represented by Prof. D. H. 
Muller of Vienna, Amos 1-2, according to his theory of strophes and 
hypothesis of chorus in the Prophets. This is an addition to his 
great and original book in German, entitled Die Propheten in ihrer 
urspriinglichen Form, which appeared some months ago in two volumes. 
We hope that a specialist in Biblical criticism will make it known 
to the readers of this Quabteely. Lector M. Priedmann of Vienna 
busies himself with the division of some prophecies of Isaiah ; his 
essay is in Hebrew and will scarcely be read by Christian Bible 
critics. It is only a first part, which I hope will be continued, for 
there are many points which are original, though perhaps not 
concise. Dr. S. Krauss of Budapest has given some interesting notes 
on Aquila's Greek translation of the Bible, which we recommend 
to the critics. He shows that our knowledge of his translation 
is by no means complete.— Talmudical literature is represented by 
Mr. I. Abrahams' edition of an ethical treatise, entitled "The Fear 
of Sin" (NDn nNT 6), published from MSS. in the Bodleian Library, 
which is identical with NQlt pK TYl D, according to Professor Bacher. 
We shall mention out of chronological order the essay of Dr. H. Adler, 
the chief rabbi, on Jacob of London's D^Tl yy, with an extensive 
specimen from his book. The last two essays are written in English. 
Herr A. Epstein adduces evidence that the commentaries on parts of 
the Babylonian Talmud attributed to R. Gershom, called the " light 
of the captivity," are not by him but by an anonymous writer of 
Mayence. The essay is full of information concerning the Rabbis 
in the Rhine provinces and in Lorraine in the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries.— The Midrashic part is taken by Prof. Blau of Budapest, 
who makes some contributions to the understanding of the Mekhilta 
and the Sifre. Dr. Ph. Bloch of Posen gives samples of a translation 
of the three chapters n^N, 1]>C£>, nan of the Pesikta, attributed 
to R. Kahna, with interesting notes. Both are written in German. 
Herr S. Buber of Lemberg explains the object of the introductions 
(r.irvriE) to the Midrash of Lamentations. This is written in Hebrew. 
—There is one essay on Hebrew Grammar, by M. Lambert of Paris, 
with the title of " Quelques remarques sur l'adjectif en arabe et en 
hebreu," of course written in French.— As to Rabbinical commentaries, 


it happens that Dr. Friedlander, of the Jewish College, London, and 
Mr. H. J. Mathews, of Brighton, have both hit upon commentaries on 
Canticles, the first in Hebrew and Arabic, probably coming from 
Yemen, incomplete and philosophico-mystic in character ; the editor's 
preface is written in Hebrew. Mr. Mathews publishes another, of 
a rather rationalizing character, by an anonymous French Rabbi 
of the twelfth century. Mr. Mathews' preface is written in English. — 
Philosophy : Dr. Hirschfeld, of Montefiore College, Ramsgate, publishes 
from a MS. of the College Library, the Hebrew translation of Isaac 
Israeli's Arabic book of definitions, translated by Nissim ben Solomon. 
The Arabic original is lost, and the Latin translation (Lyons, 1515) is 
according to Dr. Steinschneider a compilation. Dr. Hirschfeld's intro- 
duction is written in German. — Theology : Prof. Bacher of Budapest 
publishes in Arabic a second composition of S e adyah Gaon's book of 
Creeds, the chapter on the resurrection (seventh chapter), from 
a St. Petersburg MS. In the learned preface he states that our text 
is in accordance with Tabbon's translation, and that it is probable 
that the seventh chapter was current as a separate treatise, perhaps 
in S 6 adyah's lifetime. Prof. Gottheil of New York gives an extended 
notice of an unknown and unique theological treatise in Arabic, with 
the title of "Garden of Intelligence," by R. Nathanel ben Fayyumi. 
Dr. Gottheil is right in identifying Nathanel with the father of Jacob, 
to whom Maimonides addressed his epistle of Yemen. Prof. Gottheil 
says : " Of Jewish authors I find only S e adyah Gaon, B e hai ben Joseph, 
Solomon Hakkatan, and Jehudah Hallewi. Nathanel speaks of the 
last two as living in his time (jNtOPK rrin , a). This would fix his 
date about the middle of the twelfth century." It seems to us that 
Nathanel could not be a contemporary of Solomon J1Dpn (Gabirol) 
who lived in the eleventh century, and of Judah Halevi who lived in 
the twelfth century. — Poetry is represented by pieces from a Yemen 
Diwan in Arabic with Hebrew characters, in the possession of the 
publisher, Baron David de Giinzburg of St. Petersburg. His preface 
is written in Hebrew. Dr. Heinrich Brody of Berlin produces ten 
poems of the famous Moses ben Ezra from a Bodleian Manuscript. 
The editor is well known by his edition of other poetical texts. His 
preface is written in Hebrew. — Mathematics is dealt with in an 
Italian translation of an Arabic mathematical treatise by Gustavo 
Sacerdote of Rome. The full title is " II trattato del pentagono 
e del decagono di Abu Kamil Shogia' ben Aslam ben Muhammed." 
The translator gives also the technical terms in Hebrew according 
to a Munich manuscript.— Documents and letters: Prof. Goldziher 
of Budapest gives in German an abstract of Sad ben Mansur ibn 
Kammuna's Arabic treatise on the eternity of the soul. Dr. Stein- 


Schneider was the first to point out the relation of Ibn Kamnmna's 
treatise to Jewish religion. Prof. Kaufmann of Budapest publishes the 
Hebrew text of Moses Rimos (perhaps Remos) of Majorca, addressed 
to Benjamin, son of Mordecai, at Rome. The preface is written in 
German. The Rev. W. D. Macray contributes a letter from Isaac 
Abendana, 1673, which is a slight addition to the history of the Jews 
in England. Herr S. J. Halberstam of Bielitz (Austria) contributes 
letters in Hebrew concerning Azariah de Rossi, and one from him. 
— Historical matter : Prof. Biichler of Vienna has made new studies 
concerning the behaviour of Caesar to the Jews. The English of the 
German title is as follows : " The priestly tithes and the Roman taxes 
in the edicts of Caesar." He comes to the conclusion that Caesar 
wished not only to reward the Jews but to win them for the future. 
The writer of these lines has completed the non-Jewish chronicle 
by Abraham Zakkuth from a newly- acquired MS. in the Bodleian 
Library. The preface is written in English.— Folk-lore : Dr. Giidemann 
contributes a German essay on the superstitious signification of the 
proper names in pre-mosaic Israel, saying that the names had a real 
signification amongst the early Jews and later on. M. Israel Levi 
publishes the legend of Alexander the Great, according to the Hebrew 
MS. in the Library of Modena, which is identical with that bought 
by Dr. Harkavy some years ago in Damascus. M. Levi thinks that 
the text comes from Southern Italy, composed in the eleventh century. 
M. Levi's preface is- written in French. Finally Dr. Harkavy publishes 
an essay on R. Nissim (of Kairowan) and some legends in the Talmud, 
of which he discovered a great part of the original Arabic text. The 
bibliography of the subject is exhaustive. 

It will be seen that nearly all branches of Jewish learning are 
represented in our volume, with the exception of mysticism and 
Kabbala. It is possible that the learned Jews in Germany took up 
that difficult part of the literature, and could not get their essays 
ready in time. Thus one mystery may explain another. 

A. N. 


Die Eigennamen des atten Testaments in ihrer Bedetitung fur die 
Kenntniss des hebriiisctien Volksglaubens, von M. Grunwald. 
(The proper names of the Old Testament in their significance 
for the knowledge of the Hebrew popular creed.) Breslau 
(Koebner), 1895. 

Afteb the first attempts by Pott and Ewald to explain the sig- 

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