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652 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW
THE STEINSCHNEIDER "FESTSCHRIFT."
Festschrift zum achtzigsten Geburtstage Moritz Steinschneiders (Con-
gratulatory-volume for the eightieth birthday of Prof. Dr.
M. Steinschneider). Otto Harvassowitz, Leipzig, 1896.
The Nestor of Hebrew bibliography reached his eightieth year
on the 30th of March (second day of Pesah) in full working order,
and it occurred to many of his pupils and friends to congratulate him
by a volume which contained essays on various subjects of Hebrew
and Rabbinic literature, viz. Bible criticism, mediaeval Biblical com-
mentaries, Hebrew Grammar, Historical subjects, Theology and Phi-
losophy, Documents and Letters, Poetry, Folklore, Mathematics, and
Bibliography, altogether twenty-nine essays, written (entirely, or at
least prefaced) in Hebrew, English, French, German, and Italian, by
authors living in England, America, France, Germany, Russia, Italy,
and Denmark. Thus we may say that the desire to honour Hebrew
literature in the person of our octogenarian is universal, except in
Germany as we shall see. It is by no means a criticism of the many
essays that I am going to give ; it would be presumptuous on my part to
embrace such a variety of subjects, all I can do is to give a short abstract
of each essay according to subjects. — The most useful and most
extended essay is the Bibliography of the writings of our learned
octogenarian, by G. A. Kohut, son of the lamented Rabbi A. Kohut of
New York, author of the Arukh completum. This essay fills thirty-five
pages of small print, in a methodical form, viz. 1. Separate works (from
1841 to 1896) ; 2. Contributions to the works of others (1838 to 1892) ;
3. Essays and Reviews contributed to various periodicals, encyclo-
paedias and similar collections (1839 to 1896). Dr. Steinschneider's
writings are in Hebrew, Latin, German, French, and Italian. He has
just issued the second edition of the catalogue of the Hebrew MSS. in
the Royal Library of Munich, and is now finishing the D'HSDn 1V1X
of Benjacob according to the authors, which will be very extensive.
Kohut's bibliography will be indispensable for those who deal with
Rabbinic literature. Another bibliographical essay is written by
Dr. Simonsen, Rabbi of Copenhagen, on the first issue of the Mahazor
CRITICAL NOTICES 653
according to the German rite, Cracow, 1571. Dr. S. Poznanski,
of Warsaw, who paid a visit last summer to the British Museum
and the Bodleian Library, gives an extended description, more than
bibliographical, of al-Qirqisani's works in MSS. in the British Museum
(see Dr. Bacher's essay on this author in J. Q. B., VII, 687). I should
mention that Dr. Harkavy brought this Qaraitic author to the fore
by publishing his chapter on the various sects amongst the Jews
(J. Q. R., VII, 355). — Biblical researches are represented by Prof. D. H.
Muller of Vienna, Amos 1-2, according to his theory of strophes and
hypothesis of chorus in the Prophets. This is an addition to his
great and original book in German, entitled Die Propheten in ihrer
urspriinglichen Form, which appeared some months ago in two volumes.
We hope that a specialist in Biblical criticism will make it known
to the readers of this Quabteely. Lector M. Priedmann of Vienna
busies himself with the division of some prophecies of Isaiah ; his
essay is in Hebrew and will scarcely be read by Christian Bible
critics. It is only a first part, which I hope will be continued, for
there are many points which are original, though perhaps not
concise. Dr. S. Krauss of Budapest has given some interesting notes
on Aquila's Greek translation of the Bible, which we recommend
to the critics. He shows that our knowledge of his translation
is by no means complete.— Talmudical literature is represented by
Mr. I. Abrahams' edition of an ethical treatise, entitled "The Fear
of Sin" (NDn nNT 6), published from MSS. in the Bodleian Library,
which is identical with NQlt pK TYl D, according to Professor Bacher.
We shall mention out of chronological order the essay of Dr. H. Adler,
the chief rabbi, on Jacob of London's D^Tl yy, with an extensive
specimen from his book. The last two essays are written in English.
Herr A. Epstein adduces evidence that the commentaries on parts of
the Babylonian Talmud attributed to R. Gershom, called the " light
of the captivity," are not by him but by an anonymous writer of
Mayence. The essay is full of information concerning the Rabbis
in the Rhine provinces and in Lorraine in the eleventh and twelfth
centuries.— The Midrashic part is taken by Prof. Blau of Budapest,
who makes some contributions to the understanding of the Mekhilta
and the Sifre. Dr. Ph. Bloch of Posen gives samples of a translation
of the three chapters n^N, 1]>C£>, nan of the Pesikta, attributed
to R. Kahna, with interesting notes. Both are written in German.
Herr S. Buber of Lemberg explains the object of the introductions
(r.irvriE) to the Midrash of Lamentations. This is written in Hebrew.
—There is one essay on Hebrew Grammar, by M. Lambert of Paris,
with the title of " Quelques remarques sur l'adjectif en arabe et en
hebreu," of course written in French.— As to Rabbinical commentaries,
VOL. VIII. X X
654 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW
it happens that Dr. Friedlander, of the Jewish College, London, and
Mr. H. J. Mathews, of Brighton, have both hit upon commentaries on
Canticles, the first in Hebrew and Arabic, probably coming from
Yemen, incomplete and philosophico-mystic in character ; the editor's
preface is written in Hebrew. Mr. Mathews publishes another, of
a rather rationalizing character, by an anonymous French Rabbi
of the twelfth century. Mr. Mathews' preface is written in English. —
Philosophy : Dr. Hirschfeld, of Montefiore College, Ramsgate, publishes
from a MS. of the College Library, the Hebrew translation of Isaac
Israeli's Arabic book of definitions, translated by Nissim ben Solomon.
The Arabic original is lost, and the Latin translation (Lyons, 1515) is
according to Dr. Steinschneider a compilation. Dr. Hirschfeld's intro-
duction is written in German. — Theology : Prof. Bacher of Budapest
publishes in Arabic a second composition of S e adyah Gaon's book of
Creeds, the chapter on the resurrection (seventh chapter), from
a St. Petersburg MS. In the learned preface he states that our text
is in accordance with Tabbon's translation, and that it is probable
that the seventh chapter was current as a separate treatise, perhaps
in S 6 adyah's lifetime. Prof. Gottheil of New York gives an extended
notice of an unknown and unique theological treatise in Arabic, with
the title of "Garden of Intelligence," by R. Nathanel ben Fayyumi.
Dr. Gottheil is right in identifying Nathanel with the father of Jacob,
to whom Maimonides addressed his epistle of Yemen. Prof. Gottheil
says : " Of Jewish authors I find only S e adyah Gaon, B e hai ben Joseph,
Solomon Hakkatan, and Jehudah Hallewi. Nathanel speaks of the
last two as living in his time (jNtOPK rrin , a). This would fix his
date about the middle of the twelfth century." It seems to us that
Nathanel could not be a contemporary of Solomon J1Dpn (Gabirol)
who lived in the eleventh century, and of Judah Halevi who lived in
the twelfth century. — Poetry is represented by pieces from a Yemen
Diwan in Arabic with Hebrew characters, in the possession of the
publisher, Baron David de Giinzburg of St. Petersburg. His preface
is written in Hebrew. Dr. Heinrich Brody of Berlin produces ten
poems of the famous Moses ben Ezra from a Bodleian Manuscript.
The editor is well known by his edition of other poetical texts. His
preface is written in Hebrew. — Mathematics is dealt with in an
Italian translation of an Arabic mathematical treatise by Gustavo
Sacerdote of Rome. The full title is " II trattato del pentagono
e del decagono di Abu Kamil Shogia' ben Aslam ben Muhammed."
The translator gives also the technical terms in Hebrew according
to a Munich manuscript.— Documents and letters: Prof. Goldziher
of Budapest gives in German an abstract of Sad ben Mansur ibn
Kammuna's Arabic treatise on the eternity of the soul. Dr. Stein-
CRITICAL NOTICES 655
Schneider was the first to point out the relation of Ibn Kamnmna's
treatise to Jewish religion. Prof. Kaufmann of Budapest publishes the
Hebrew text of Moses Rimos (perhaps Remos) of Majorca, addressed
to Benjamin, son of Mordecai, at Rome. The preface is written in
German. The Rev. W. D. Macray contributes a letter from Isaac
Abendana, 1673, which is a slight addition to the history of the Jews
in England. Herr S. J. Halberstam of Bielitz (Austria) contributes
letters in Hebrew concerning Azariah de Rossi, and one from him.
— Historical matter : Prof. Biichler of Vienna has made new studies
concerning the behaviour of Caesar to the Jews. The English of the
German title is as follows : " The priestly tithes and the Roman taxes
in the edicts of Caesar." He comes to the conclusion that Caesar
wished not only to reward the Jews but to win them for the future.
The writer of these lines has completed the non-Jewish chronicle
by Abraham Zakkuth from a newly- acquired MS. in the Bodleian
Library. The preface is written in English.— Folk-lore : Dr. Giidemann
contributes a German essay on the superstitious signification of the
proper names in pre-mosaic Israel, saying that the names had a real
signification amongst the early Jews and later on. M. Israel Levi
publishes the legend of Alexander the Great, according to the Hebrew
MS. in the Library of Modena, which is identical with that bought
by Dr. Harkavy some years ago in Damascus. M. Levi thinks that
the text comes from Southern Italy, composed in the eleventh century.
M. Levi's preface is- written in French. Finally Dr. Harkavy publishes
an essay on R. Nissim (of Kairowan) and some legends in the Talmud,
of which he discovered a great part of the original Arabic text. The
bibliography of the subject is exhaustive.
It will be seen that nearly all branches of Jewish learning are
represented in our volume, with the exception of mysticism and
Kabbala. It is possible that the learned Jews in Germany took up
that difficult part of the literature, and could not get their essays
ready in time. Thus one mystery may explain another.
PROPER NAMES IN HEBREW.
Die Eigennamen des atten Testaments in ihrer Bedetitung fur die
Kenntniss des hebriiisctien Volksglaubens, von M. Grunwald.
(The proper names of the Old Testament in their significance
for the knowledge of the Hebrew popular creed.) Breslau
Afteb the first attempts by Pott and Ewald to explain the sig-
X X 3