Skip to main content

Full text of "On the Apocalypse of Moses"

See other formats


Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World 

This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in 
the world by JSTOR. 

Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other 
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the 
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. 

We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this 
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial 

Read more about Early Journal Content at 
journal-content . 

JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people 
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching 
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit 
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please 

216 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 


It is almost certain that in this Apocalypse we have one 
of those Jewish apocryphs which, like the Book of Enoch, 
exercised a formative influence upon the earliest Christi- 
anity. For two ideas are prominent in it which have been 
perpetuated in the younger religion, namely, that of bap- 
tism by trine immersion after repentance and forgiveness 
of sins, and that of the resurrection in the flesh and 
restoration to the Garden of Eden of the descendants of 
Adam. The former of these two ideas is conveyed in ch. 
xxxvii., the latter in chs. xxviii., xxxvii., xxxix. and xliii. 

The following text of the Apocryph is translated from 
the ancient Armenian Version, which in turn seems to 
have been made not from a Greek, but from a Syriac or 
Ethiopic, or even Arabic text. Thus in ch. xxix. the 
words "nard" and "cinnamon" are explained respectively 
as "phajlaseni" and "daraseni," and these synonyms are 
perhaps Arabic terms, though one of them occurs once in 
Ethiopic literature, probably as a transliteration. The 
frequent Syriacisms, however, strongly suggest a Syriac 
original. The date of the Armenian Version is not easy to 
assign with any precision, the MS. from which I copied 
it being as late as the year a.d. 1539. As regards language, 
however, it is old, and probably anterior to 1000 a.d. ; it 
might even belong to the fifth or sixth century. There is 
a peculiar use observable in it of the dative for the 
genitive, which is not characteristic of Armenian in any 
age, and may, perhaps, reflect the idiom of the language 
from which the version was made. 

The Greek Text was first published by Tischendorf in 
a volume of Apocrypha, under the title of Apocalypse of 
Moses, from four MSS., of which the earliest belongs to the 

On the Apocalypse of Moses. 217 

eleventh century, and is preserved in the library of Milan. 
This MS., which only contains the beginning and end of 
the piece, has been republished more critically by Ceriani 
Tischendorf 's other three MSS. are equally fragmentary and 
much later. His Text is, therefore, an eclectic one, and com- 
prises many readings which never stood together in any one 
Text. The Armenian, however, which I here translate, is 
both a real Text and an ancient one, as is clear from the 
way in which it cuts across the Greek codices, following 
now one and now another. It must, therefore, be taken 
account of by any one who wishes to get at the Text as it 
originally stood. I have printed in italics passages which 
are absent from all the Greek codices, and which may 
represent either additions due to the Armenian translator 
and to his archetype, or lacunae in the Greek tradition. 
Where the sense of the Armenian departs from all the 
Greek codices alike, or agrees with one of them and not 
with others, I have often appended a note explanatory of 
the same. 

There is one remarkable variant in the Armenian. In 
ch. xxxvii. we read in it that Adam is thrice immersed in 
a sea not made with hands, as if the Greek original were 
a^6ipo7roir)Tov \ifivr}v ; but the Greek MSS. have a^ipovaav 
Xifivrjv. At first glance the Armenian reading seems the 
better one, for it recalls the temple not made with hands 
of Mark xiv. 58, and " the house not made with hands 
which is everlasting in the heavens " of Paul's II. Ep. to 
Cor. v. 1, and also the irepirofif) a^eipoTroirjTO^ of Ep. to 
Col. ii. 11. It is suitable to think of Adam, who has been 
caught up into the second heaven, as being baptised in a 
sea or laver not made with hands. On the other hand, the 
parallels which I have quoted from the Visio Pauli make 
it very likely that the Greek has here retained the original 
reading, and that the Armenian reflects the brilliant emen- 
dation of some Greek scribe who could not allow an Acheru- 
sian lake to figure in his conception of heaven. 

In the Greek MSS. this piece is entitled "The History 

218 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

of the life of Adam and Eve, revealed by God to Moses his 
servant, when he received the tablets of the Law of the 
Covenant from the Lord's hand, instructed by the archangel 
Michael." In the Armenian the Apocryph is entitled simply 
the " Book of Adam," and at the end of it is written in the 
MS., in the lower margin, this scholium : "Ye should know, 
brethren, that this history of the first created (irpcoToirXd- 
<ttcov) was revealed at the command of God by Michael, the 
archangel, to the first prophet, Moses. Glory to God." 
That this piece of information is relegated in the Armenian 
to a scholium, whereas in the Greek MSS. it is embodied in 
the title, makes it probable that it is a late addition in 
itself, and that the Armenian title, " The Book of Adam," 
is the true one. It also diminishes the force of Tischen- 
dorf's argument, based on the Greek title, that this Apo- 
cryph is part of a longer history. There is no internal 
reason for supposing this to be so, for the Apocryph is, 
as it stands, a self-contained whole, needing nothing to 
complete it. 

There are several other " books of Adam " in the library 
of Etschmiadzin, but all of them of a late and trifling des- 
cription: some of them were versifications of this Apocryph. 
One of them, contained in an enormous folio for reading in 
church, is entitled " A History of the Repentance of Adam 
and Eve, the First-created. How they Fared." This be- 
gins with a long and tedious lament uttered by Adam on 
being expelled from the garden. At the close of it, it is re- 
lated that Adam and Eve's bodies were laid by Sem (Shem) 
in his portion, in a place now called Shamajtoun, i.e., "the 
house of Shem." But afterwards they were moved, and 
Eve's was laid in a cave at Bethlehem, wherein Christ was 
born of the Virgin Mary, just over Eve's tomb; while 
Adam's was removed to Golgotha, where Jesus was cruci- 
fied for our salvation directly over the head of Adam. 
This latter treatise is, therefore, a Christianised version of 
our Apocryph ; and though I copied the greater portion of 
it, I do not think it merits to be published. 

On the Apocalypse of Moses. 219 

Prof. Marr, of the University of Petersburg, has printed 
some portions of the Adam book here translated in an 
article on Armenian apocryphs, contained in the Transac- 
tions (or Bulletin) of the Eastern Section of the Russian 
Imperial Archaeological Society, 1890-91, Vols. V., VI., p. 
228. I have made my translation from a photographic 
copy of the book which I made on the spot. The MS. is 
a small quarto, well written in double columns. It contains 
many other apocryphs of a similar nature to this one. Prof. 
Jajic has lately published an old Slavonic book of Adam, 
which I have not had an opportunity of comparing with 
the Greek and Armenian. It would no doubt prove a 
valuable aid towards the determination of the earliest form 
of the Text. 

Fred. C. Conybeare. 

From the MS. No. 1,631 (198«-212a) of the library of Etschmiadzin, 
written A.D. 1539 :— 

(Ch. i.) A history 1 of the life of Adam and Eva, the first-created, 
after their expulsion from the garden of delight. 

Adam took his wife Eva and went to a place which was in the 
region of the,full opposite the garden of delight. And there he 
dwelt for eighteen years and two months ; and after that Adam 
approached his wife Eva, and she conceived and bore two sons, Anlojs 2 
(i.e., without light), who is called Cain, and Barekhooh 3 (i.e., well- 
minded), who is called Habel. (Oh. ii.) But subsequently, while Adam 
and his wife were sleeping, Eva saw a dream. Then Eva awoke 
Adam, and told the dream to Adam, and said as follows : — " My 
lord, I saw in a dream by night, that blood of our son Abel was 
poured 4 into the mouth of Cain, his brother, and he drauk the 
blood of his brother. But Habel prayed him to leave him a little 
of his blood. But he hearkened not unto him, but instantly drank 

1 The Greek Codices have not only the title as translated in the Arm., 
but also this previous one : Sir)yr)Oig Ku't iroXirtta 'ASap km Evag tSiv 
7rpii)ro7rXrti77-a>>' airoKa\vf6tZoa vapa 6tov Mwvoy rip Oenairovn avrov ore 
rag irXaicag rov vofiov rijg SiaBriKtig Ik x il P<>{ Kvpiov idi^aro, SiSaxQt'tg vwb 
TOW dp^ayysXot) MixarjX. 

2 Tisch. has Siokjhotov. Ceriani, aSiaQwrov, which answers to the Arm. 

3 The Grk. has 'A/uXa/S4c 

4 " Filled." The Grk. has j3a\\6iievov tig to arojia. 

220 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

it all ; and there remained no other blood in his stomach, but he 
vomited it all out." When Adam heard this he said unto her : — 
" Arise, and let us go to see our children and learn what hath happened 
unto them, lest the enemy be warring against them. (Ch. iii.) And 
they went and found that Habel had been slain by the hands of his 
brother Cain. And God said to the archangel Michael : " Go and say 
unto Adam : The mystery of the dream which thou didst see, tell it 
not to thy son Cain. For he is a son of destruction. 1 And say to 
Adam : ' But do thou not sorrow, for I will give to thee another son 
in his place, who shall tell unto thee all that thou art about to do.' " 
And all this the archangel Michael by the behest of God said to 
Adam. But Adam kept all that was said in his heart. Likewise also 
his wife. But Eva continually sorrowed in her soul for their son 

(Ch. iv.) But after that Adam again approached his wife Eva and 
she conceived and bore Seth. And Adam said to Eva : " Lo, we have 
begotten a son in place of Habel, whom Cain slew. Let us then arise 
and give glory and praise to God." (Ch. v.) And there came to be 
sons of Adam in number thirty, 2 and the length of his life which he 
lived on the earth was 930 years. And after that it happened unto 
him to fall sick. And Adam called with a loud voice and said : " Let 
there be summoned all my sons together before me, that I may behold 
them before I die." And they were all gathered together, for they 
were living apart each by himself in his own place. 3 Then said Seth 
his son unto Adam : " my father, what is thy sickness and injury ?" 
And he made answer and said unto him : 

" Woes many and inextricable hem me round, O my child." (Ch. 
vi.) Seth said unto him : " my father, surely thou art bringing to 
mind the delight and the enjoyment of the garden of God, and the 
diverse variety of fruits of which thou didst daily eat ? And because 
of that sorrow of thine is thy sickness. Should this be so ? O my 
sire, tell me, and I will go and bring to thee of the fruit of the garden 
of life. For I will go and will place dust 4 on my head, and will 
lament before it, and will beseech the Lord God ; and the Lord 
heareth the voice of the prayer of his servant, and sendeth his angels, 
and will fulfil my desire ; and I will bring unto thee of the fruit of the 
garden of life (to be) thy food, that, tasting of it, thou mayest be made 
whole of thy sickness." Adam said unto him : " It cannot be so, my 
child Seth, but many sicknesses and woes without escape beset me." 

1 Grk. : bpyijq vioq. 

2 Grk. adds " and daughters thirty." 

3 "And they . . . place"]. Grk. has ijv yap okcaOtXaa jj y»jj eis rpia ftipti. 
* In Grk. : "dung." 

On the Apocalypse of Moses. 221 

Said Seth unto him : " And how l came there to be woes unto thy sick- 
ness ? Tell me, father mine." (Ch. vii.) Adam saith unto him : " Hear 
me, my child, with patience. When God created me and thy mother 
Eva, because of whom I am dying, he also gave me a command to 
taste of and enjoy all the fruits of the garden, but of one tree he com- 
manded me not to taste thereof. And he saith to me : ' If ye eat qf 
the same with death shall ye die' 2 ; and that time was near when angels 
looked to your mother Eva for her to render homage before God. And 
when the angels had departed afar from her, then the enemy, under- 
standing that I am not near at hand, nor yet the angels,* came and 
conversed with her, and gave her of the fruit, and she did eat of it, and 
came and gave unto me, and I did eat. (Ch. viii.) And* then God 
was angry with us, and at the same hour he came into the garden ; 
and the Lord spake to me with a terrible voice and said : ' Adam, 
where art thou ? Why hidest thou thyself from my face ? For a 
house cannot be hidden from its builder. 5 But forasmuch as ye 
have transgressed my command and have not kept my edict, so there- 
fore will I bring upon thy flesh persecutions and many woes, as it 
were seventy in number. 6 And the first of ills which shall smite 
thee will be an affliction of the eyes. But the second blow will fall 
on thine ears ; and thus, one by one, there shall be woes and strokes 
that befall all thy members.'" (Oh. ix.) And when Adam had said 
all this to his sons, he drew a deep sigh, and said : " What shall I do, 
for (in) great sorrow is my soul ? '' 

But Eva wept bitterly, and said to Adam : " My lord, rise up, and 
the half of the woes of thy soul thou shalt give to me, and I will 
bear them. Because on my account did this come upon thee, and 
by reason of me wilt thou be in toil." 7 And Adam said unto her : 

' This answers to w£>q aoi, read in Tisch. ; iroooi is read by Ceriani'a 
MS. D. 

8 In place of the words italicised, the Grk. has simply : Si ov xai awoBvi)- 
aicuptv, which, however, MS. C omits. Cp. Protevang., c. xiii., p. 25. 

3 In place of the words italicised, the Grk. has icai tfvptv avrfiv fiovov ; 
but adds equivalent words : tyvioicws on ovk ci/ti tyyiora aurijc ovti oi 
iiyiot ayyeXoi later in the sentence after the clause : " She did eat of it." 

4 The Grk. codd., except D, prefix: ort di i<payoniv afifortpot. 

5 D omits this clause : " For a house," etc., and adds instead these 
words : " Did I not tell thee not to eat of the tree ? And I said to the 
Lord : The woman, whom thou gavest me, she gave me from the tree, and 
I did eat. And the Lord said to me." 

6 Ceriani's MS. D reads, "seventy-two." The rest, "seventy." 

7 The Grk. MS. D adds : " Through me in the sweat of thy brow thou 
eatest thy bread ; through me thou sufferest all things." The other Grk. 
codd. omit. 


222 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

" Do thou arise, and thy son Seth, and do ye go near to the garden 
and cast dust upon your beads and lament exceedingly with tears, 
and beseech God if he will perhaps have pity on me and send his 
angels into the garden of delight, and give unto me of the fruit 
from which proceedeth the anointing of pit)/; 1 and ye shall anoint 
my person therewith in order that I may, perhaps, be healed of my 
woes." (Oh. x.) But they arose and went opposite to the garden ; 
and when they came into the road, 2 then Eva looked and beheld her 
son Seth, that a wild beast fought with him. And Eva wept bitterly, 
and cried : "Woe to me, woe to me, woe to me ! For if it be unto me 
to come unto the day of resurrection, all sinners of my progeny will 
come to curse me, and will say : [Cursed be Eva, for] she has not kept 
safe the observance of the Lord her God, [and because of this we shall 
all die with death." And having looked'] she said to the beast : " evil 
beast, art thou not afraid to wage war against the image of God?" 
(Ch. xi.) Then that wild beast called out and said : '■ thou woman, 
'tis not from us that there was a beginning of greed (irheove^ia), 3 but 
from thee. For from thee was the beginning [of the loosing] of wild 
beasts. For when thy mouth was opened to eat of the fruit of the 
tree, of which God commanded you not to eat of the same, and thou 
didst eat and transgress the commandment of God, then our nature 
changed into disobedience to men. And now therefore [bandy not 
words with me, but hold thy peaee, for] thou canst not bear it if I 
begin to chide thee." (Oh. xii.) But Seth said to the beast : " Shut 
thy mouth and be silent, and hold off from the image of God 
until the day of judgment." Then said that wild beast to Seth : 
" Behold, I stand aloof from the image of God, and I go 
to my dwelling place.'' (Ch. xiii.) But Seth and his mother Eva 
having got quit of the wild beast, came nigh to the garden of the Lord, 
and they wept and lamented, and prayed the Lord to send his angels 
and give unto them the anointing of pity. 4 And the Lord sent the 
archangel Michael and said to Setb : " Man of God, weary not thyself 
concerning this quest of thine, about the tree iu which flows the oil 
of compassion, that thou mayest anoint with it thy father Adam. 
For in the present this shall not be ; but going thou shalt behold 
thy father end his earthly (or temporal) life. And his time is at 
hand. For after three days he will pass away (lit. exchange), and 

1 So tov s\eovQ has dropped out of all the Greek codd. after to tXaiov 
(for which, however, B has 2\eoc). The sending of Seth for the oil of 
pity is also told in the Descensus Christi ad Inferos (JEfoang. Apocryph., 
p. 303). 

2 MS. D omits this clause. * The Grk. adds, " and of wailing." 
4 Ceriani's D has to ikeo<; tov tXaiov. 

On the Apocalypse of Moses. 223 

thou shalt behold his translation (lit. change to above), glorious and 
terrible.'' 1 When the angel of the Lord had said this, he ascended 
from them into Heaven. (Ch. xiv.) But Seth and his mother came and 
returned 2 to where Adam was placed and lay in sickness. And Adam 
said to Eva : "0 Eva, what hast thou done unto me, because thou 
hast brought upon me wrath exceeding, which 3 also shall be inherited 
by all the race of my offspring." What answer doth she give and 
make to him ? '' Woe unto me, woe unto me, woe unto me, because 
I was deceived, obeying the deceitful words of the serpent." And 
when Eva had said this, they began to weep and lament bitterly. 
And when they ceased from their lamentation, an awful sorrow 
overcame* Adam. But his sons along with Eva sat around the bed 
of their father and wept exceedingly. (Ch. xv.) Said to them their 
mother Eva : " Children, so your father dies, and I with bim ; and 
now, my children, give ear unto me, and I will relate to you the envy 
. . . of the adversary, by what crafty means he robbed us of the 
garden of delight and of eternal life? And she began to say as 
follows : "God, who loveth man and is merciful, fashioned me and your 
father Adam ; and placed us in the garden of delight, to govern and rule 
over all things which grew therein. But from one tree he commanded 
us to abstain from the same ; the which Satan beheld, (to wit) our glory 
and honour ; and having found tfie serpent the wisest animal of all 
which are on the whole earth, (Ch. xvi.) he approached him and said to 
him* : ' I behold thee wiser than all animals, and I desire 8 to reveal 

1 The Greek has : '• Bo thou again go to thy father, since the measure of 
his life is fulfilled. And as his soul goes forth, thou art about to behold his 
ascent (aixnW) all terrible." ■ Grk. : " returned to the tent where." 

3 The rest of this chapter is much briefer in the Greek, as follows : 
•'which is death, dominating all our race. And he saith to her : 'Summon 
all our children and our children's children, and inform them of the mode 
of our transgression.' " 

4 The Armenian Text is not quite intelligible here. 

5 Instead of the passage in italics the Greek Texts read in the follow- 
ing sense : "And it happened, as we were guarding the paradise, each of 
us kept the portion assigned him by God. But I guarded in my portion 
the south and west. But the devil went into the portion of Adam, where 
were the male beasts. For God divided them for us, and apportioned the 
males to your father, but the females to me. And each of us watched. 
And the devil spake to the serpent and said : Rise up and come to me. 
And he arose and went to him. And the devil said to him." 

6 The Greek Text of Ceriani (D) has " And I associate with thee. Why 
dost thou eat of the tares of Adam and not, of the garden ? Arise, and we 
will cause him to be expelled from the garden, as we also were expelled 
through him. The serpent said." etc. 

Q 2 

224 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

unto thee the thought which is in my heart and to unite (with) 
thee. Thou seest how much worth God has hestowed on the 
man. But we have been dishonoured ; so hearken unto me and 
come, let us go and drive him out of the garden, out of which 
we have been driven because of him.' The serpent saith unto him : 
' I fear to do this thing, lest the Lord be wrath with me.' Satan said 
to him : ' Fear not concerning this, but do thou only become a vessel 
unto me, and I will deceive them by thy mouth in order to ensnare 
them.' (Ch. xvii.) And instantly the serpent hung himself from and 
lay along the wall of the garden ; and when the angels went forth to do 
homage, then Satan having taken the form of an angel, sang the songs 
of praise. And I looked and saw him there on the wall in the form of 
an angel. And he spake and said to me : 'Art thou Eva ?' And I 
say to him, ' Yes, I may be.' And he saith to me, ' What mayest 
thou be doing in yonder garden of thine ? ' And I say to him, ' God 
placed me here.' 1 And he saith to me, ' And how (is it that) God 
commanded thee not to eat of all the trees which are in this garden of 
thine ? ' And I say to him, ' 'Tis not so ; but we eat of all, except 
of a single tree which is in the middle of the garden, which God 
commanded us not to eat of the same ; saying unto us : " If ye eat 
of the same, with death shall ye die." ' (Ch. xviii.) Then saith the 
serpent unto me : 'As God is alive, my soul hath exceeding sorrow 
because of thee, 8 and I desire not thy ignorance. But take and eat 
of yonder fruit ; and then forthwith shalt thou know the honour of 
that tree.' And I say unto him, 'I fear Jest the Lord be wroth 
with me, even as he commanded us.' And he saith unto her (sic), 
' Tear not, for when thou shalt eat of the same, thine eyes shall be 
opened unto a knowledge of good and evil. 3 For the Lord knew 
that whenever ye shall eat, ye shall become like God to know good 
and evil. And being jealous of you because thereof, he forbade you 
to eat of the same. And now do thou take and eat of the fruit, and 
thou shalt behold the highest glory.' (Ch. xix.) And when I heard 
these words spoken by him, I opened the door of the garden and 
entered into the garden of delight ; for I was without when the 
serpent spake unto me. But he went in after me and said to me , 
' CoTie after me, and I will give to thee of the fruit.' And he began 

1 The Grk. has : " God placed us here to guard and eat out of it. The 
devil answered by the mouth of the serpent : Ye do well, but ye do not 
eat of all that grows. And I said : We eat of all, save of one tree only, 
which is in the middle of the garden," etc. 

' The Grk. adds : " because ye are as cattle." 

3 The Grk. has : " thine eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods 
knowing good and evil." 

On the Apocalypse of Moses. 225 

to walk before me, and I after him. And when we had gone a little 
way, he turned back and said to me craftily : ' I will not give thee of 
yonder fruit to eat, unless thou swear unto me, that when thou eatest 
it, thou wilt give also to thy husband to eat of the same.' And not 
understanding his crafty language of deceit, I further say to him, ' I 
know not how I may swear to thee, but whatsoever I know I will 
say. And now then I swear to thee on the throne of the 
Lord and on the Cherubin which bear it up and hold it, and on the 
tree of life, that when I shall have eaten, I will give also to my 
husband, even as thou tellest me to swear.' When he heard 
the oath which I sware unto him, he came instantly and drew 
nigh unto the tree, and took and gave to me of the fruit forth- 
with ; the offspring of his wickedness, 1 that is to say of desire. 
For desire is the leader in all sin. And he took hold of the 
bough of the tree of knowledge, and bent it down to the earth, 
and I took and eat of the fruit thereof. (Ch. xx.) And at once 
my eyes were opened, and I knew that I was naked of the right- 
eousness with which I had clad myself. And I wept bitterly, and I 
said unto the serpent : ' Why hast thou done this thing, offspring 
of wickedness, and why hast thou deceived me and deprived me of 
my glory ? ' I also wept much, because of the oath which I had sworn 
unto him. But he, when he heard this, at once went down from the 
tree and disappeared ! And I sought on my part for leaves in order to 
cover my shame, and I found them not. For there rested not upon 
my body the leaf of any of the trees* except of the fig-tree only. And 
I took thereof and girdled myself and hid the nakedness of my body. 
(Ch. xxi.) And I cry out to your father, and say : ' Adam, where art 
thou. Arise and come unto me, and I will shew thee wonderful 
things.' 3 And when your father cometh to me, I repeat to him the 
words of lawlessness, which drove us out of our glory. And I 
opened my lips, because Satan gave unto me to speak the words of 
blasphemy and of contumacy. And I say unto him : ' Come, my lord 
Adam, hearken unto my words, and eat of the fruit of the tree of 
which the Lord commanded us that we should not eat of the 
same, and thou shalt become Grod.' 4 Your father made answer 
unto me and said : 'I fear lest God be angry with me.' And 
I say unto him : ' Fear not, for when thou shalt eat it, it shall 
be thine to know good and evil.' And he hearkened to my words 
of temptation, and tasted of the fruit, and at once his eyes were 

1 The Grk. has : " the poison of his wickedness." 
* The Grk. adds row i/iov jikpovg. 
' In the Grk. : " a great mystery." 
4 In the Grk. : " become as a god." 

226 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

opened, and he knew the nakedness of his person. And he said 
to me : ' thou woman, why hast thou done this thing unto me, and 
hast deprived me of the glory of God ? ' (Ch. xxii.) And ia that hour 
we heard the voice of Michael the archangel, sounding his trumpet and 
saying to all the angels : 'Thus saiih the Lord of Hosts : "Come ye all, 
and go down with me into the garden, and hear the judgment with 
which I shall will to judge Adam." ' And when we heard the sound of 
the trumpet of the archangel Michael and the words which he spake, 
we say one to the other : ' Behold the Lord is ahout to come into this 
garden in order to judge us,' and we were afraid, and hid ourselves. 
And the Lord God came into the garden sitting upon a chariot of 
Cherubin, and all the angels gave praise before him. And when he 
entered into the garden all the plants which are in the garden 
instantly blossomed and burgeoned, all 1 which were around Adam ; 
likewise, also, those which were around me. And the throne of the God- 
head was set at the tree of life. (Gh. xxiii.) And the Lord God cried 
aloud to thy father Adam and said : ' Adam, where art thou bidden ? 
Dost thou think thyself hidden from my all-seeing eyes, that I should 
not find thee ? For the house is not hidden from him that builded 
it.' Then thy father made answer to him and said : ' My Lord, 'tis 
not that we hide from thee, a but we are naked, and we thovght 
thou wouldst not find us. But we fear thee, for we are naked.' 
And God said unto him : ' And who taught thee that thou wast 
naked (except) that thou hast transgressed my commandment which 
I gave thee and hast not kept it ? ' Then thy father pondered my 
word which I said unto him, 3 that I will preserve thee without fear 
before God. He turned to me and said : ' Why hast thou done this 
thing?' And 4 I say unto him: 'Lord, the serpent deceived me.' 
(Ch. xxiv.) Then the Lord God said to thy father Adam : ' Foras- 
much as thou hast done this, and bast not kept my commandment, 
but hast listened to the voice of thy wife, the earth shall be cursed in 
thy works. For thou shalt woik it, and it shall not give thee its 
strength ; but thorns and thistles shall it bring forth for thee, and by 
the sweat of thy brows thou shalt eat thy bread.' 5 And turning to 

1 The Grk. has : " both, those of the portion of Adam and of my portion 

2 The Grk. has : " We hide as thinking that we are not found by thee, 
but we fear, because we are naked," etc. 

3 The Grk. adds : " when I wished to deceive him." 

* In the Grk. : " And I remembered the word of the serpent, and said 
that the serpent deceived me." 

5 The Grk. adds a long gloss here, which is not in the Armenian, as fol- 
lows :. " and shalt be in many sorts of labour ; thou shalt weary and not win 

On the Apocalypse of Moses. 227 

the serpent, he said unto him : ' Forasmuch as thou hast done this 
thing, and hast become the vessel of shame, and hast deceived the 
upright 1 in heart, cursed shalt thou be among all brutes and dumb 
animals, and thou shalt be deprived of thy food, whence thou didst 
eat, and shalt eat dust all the days of thy life. Upon thy navel and 
thy belly shalt thou go, and shalt be deprived of thy hands and thy 
feet : and there shall not be left to thee an ear, nor wings, nor any of 
thy other members for thee to have, 2 forasmuch as by thine evil 
devices thou hast worsted and deceived these beings, and hast caused 
them to be expelled from the garden of delight. And I will place 
enmity between thee and this woman, between thy seed and hers ; 
tbey shall serve thy head, and thou shalt serve the sole of their foot 
until the day of judgment.' (Ch. xxv.) And the Lord turned and 
said to me': 'Forasmuch as thou hast listened to this serpent, 
despising my commandment, thou shalt be in empty paius and pangs 
that cannot be alleviated. Thou shalt bear many children in sorrow, 
and 4 in thy labours thou shalt be straitened, and in thy life and in 
thy distress thou shalt make confession, and shalt say : "O Lord God, 
save me in this present, and henceforth I will not turn me to the 
same sinning in my flesh.'' 5 

(Two lines undecipherable) 

Concerning the enmities which the 

enemy hath sown in thee. And there thy turning shall be to thy 
husband, and he shall rule over thee.' (Ch. xxvii.) And thereafter 
the Lord gave a command to his holy angels to drive us out of the 
garden of delight. And when they had driven and led us out, we 
lamented much and wept bitterly. And your father Adam saith to 
me : ' Grant me a little respite, that I may pray to God who loveth 
man, in order that he may perhaps have compassion on me, for I 

rest, be pressed hard by bitterness and not taste of sweetness, be oppressed 
by heat and straitened by cold. And thou shalt weary much, and not 
be rich, and shalt grow fat, but not reach thine end, and those beasts 
which thou ruledst shall rise up against thee and rebel, because thou hast 
not kept my commandment." 

1 rove irapnitivo'vQ. 2 In the Grk. : tv ->ij KaKtq. oov. 

3 The Greek Text puts this address to Eve before that made to the 
serpent, transposing chs. xxv. and xxvi. 

4 The Grk. continues: "and in one hour thou shalt come and destroy 
thy life because of thy great necessity and pains. And thou shalt con- 
fess," etc. 

5 Two lines are illegible in the Armenian. The Grk. continues : " And 
therefore I will judge thee by thy words, because of the hatred which the 
enemy put in thee," etc. 

228 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

alone sinned.' And the angels granted him a little respite from 
driving us out ; and Adam called out with a loud voice, and said, 
lamenting : ' Remit unto me, Lord, my transgressions, whatsoever I 
have done.' Then said the Lord to his angels : 'Wherefore have ye 
given them respite, and expel them not from the garden ? Did I not 
of myself make (them) ? l or have I judged them unjustly ?' But the 
angels fell on their faces, and said : ' Just art thou, Lord ; and 
righteous are thy judgments.' (Ch. xxviii.) And the Lord turned to 
Adam and said to him : ' I will not permit thee now and henceforth 
to be there in the garden.' And Adam made answer and said to the 
Lord : ' my Lord and my God, I pray thee bestow on me of the 
tree of life, that I may eat thereof before I go forth from the garden 
of life.' God again spake with Adam, and said : 'In this present thou 
shalt not receive of the same, for we have enjoined on the cherubim 
with the flaming sword to guard the path, unto the end that thou 
mayest not taste thereof and abide deathless for ever. But there 
shall be unto thee 2 thy war, which the enemy has sown for thee. But 
when thou shalt remove thyself from the garden and keep thyself 
from all wickedness, and bear in mind death ; 3 after thine ending, in 
the coming of the resurrection, I will raise thee up, and then I will 
give to thee of the fruit of life and thou shalt abide deathless for 
ever.' (Ch. xxix.) And the Lord, having said this, commanded the 
angels to drive us out of the garden. And then your father Adam 
wept bitterly in the garden before the angels. And the angels say 
unto him : ' What wilt thou that we do to thee, Adam ? ' Adam 
made answer to the angels : ' I know that ye now drive me forth, but 
suffer me to take some fragrant thing from the garden, in order that 
when I shall be outside it, and am offering oblations to God, the Lord 
may listen unto my prayers.' (Ch. xxx.) But the angels approached the 
Lord, and said: ' Hojili Hojil,' 4 which is translated King eternal. And 
he bade be given to Adam incense of sweet odour (el<o8las) from the 
garden. And the Lord God bade that Adam be brought before him, 
that he might receive the incense of sweet odour and the seeds of his 
food, giving leave unto his angels. And Adam came before the Lord . 
And the Lord God bade there be given to him four things, which are 
the following : crocus, which is saffron ; and nard, which is phajla- 

1 The G-rk.=" Surely the transgression is not mine ? " 

2 " Thou shalt have the war," etc. 

3 In G-rk. : "As wishing to die [but Codex C'as about to die '], then 
when the resurrection again comes I will raise thee up, and then shall be 
given thee of the tree of life," etc. 

4 In the Grk. : " 'latj\ aioivu flaoiKtv." 

On the Apocalypse of Moses. 229 

seni ; > and calamus, wbich is a reed ; and cinnamon, which is 
daraseni ; ' and many other seeds among those things which we eat. 
And when he had received all these, we went forth from the garden, 
and we beheld ourselves placed in this earth. (Oh. xxxi.) And now, 
my children, I have discoursed to you about everything, and con- 
cerning the chicanery of the enemy {and how, that by his deceit, he 
. . . . us). But do ye forthwith be on your guard, lest ye also 
forfeit the glory of God." (Oh. xxxii.) And all this did Era relate 
to her sons ; and Adam lay before them much afflicted in his sickness. 1 
But Eva and her sons began to weep and lament. 

And when they were silent there arose Adam from his sleep. And 
Eva said unto him : "Wherefore dost thou die and I remain alive, my 
lord ? Or for how long a time do I (wait to) come after thine end- 
ing ? Acquaint me with the truth." Said Adam unto Eve: "It is 
not any concern of thine (lit. for thee) to ask concerning this, because 
thou wilt (? not) delay to follow after me, but alike we shall die 
together, and they will place thee near to me in the same spot. But 
when I shall die cover me 3 ; and suffer not any one of thy sons to 
behold 4 me, until the angel shall ordain what is to be done concerning 
me. For God neglects me not, but seeks out the vessels which he 
fashioned. Now, therefore, arise and remain in prayer until there 
shall pass forth my spirit from my body this day into the hand of 
my Lord who gave it unto me. Oh, for I know not, how I 6 shall 
meet my Creator, lest haply he be wroth concerning me, or on the 
contrary he may have pity on me in his compassion." Then Eva arose 
and went without, and fell on her face on the earth, and wept and 
lamented bitterly, and spake as follows: "I have sinned against thee, 
O God ; I have sinned against thee, Father of all ; I have sinned 
against thee, O Lord ; I have sinned also against thy angels ! 6 I have 
sinned against thee, Lover of mankind ; I have sinned against thee and 
thy cherubim ; I have sinned against thee, Lord, and against thy 
immoveable throne ; I have sinned against thee, Lord ; I have sinned 
against the holiness of thy saints ; I have sinned against thee, Lord, I 
have sinned unto heaven and before thee, O Lord. For sin and trans- 
gressions have from me originated in the world." And as she offered 
up this prayer, the angel of the Lord came unto her in a human shape 

1 The homonyms added are, perhaps, Arabic. The Greek Text has not 

2 The Grrk. adds: "but he had one more day before he quitted his 

3 The Cod. A has Ka\v\j/ert, but B C Kara\iif/tTt. 

4 In the G-rk. : " to touch me." 

6 In the Grk. : " how toe." 6 In Grk. : " Thy chosen angels." 

230 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

(sioto), 1 and having aroused her from, sleep, said to her : " Stand strong, 
thou woman, in thy adoration. 2 For behold Adam, thy husband, has 
passed away from his flesh. And do thou look and behold his spirit 
ascending unto heaven to his Maker to be before him." (Ch. xxxiii.) 
But Eva having arisen cleansed with her hands her face 3 from her 
excessive tears ; for lier eyes were swollen with weeping. And having 
raised her eyes to heaven, she beholds a fiery chariot raised aloft by 
four fiery beasts, 4 and the tongue of man is too weak to tell forth the 
sheen of their glory. And they bore his spirit to the place wherein 
(?) is Adam in the flesh. And angels went before the chariot. But 
when they came nigh to that place, the chariot stopped along with 
the cherubin and Adam upon it ; she beheld also censers of gold and 
three canopies, and angels went with fragrant incense taking the 
censers, and came in haste into the holy tabernacle, and kindling fire 
they cast the incense into the censers, and the smoke of the incense 
so went forth as to overshadow the firmament of heaven. And the 
angels prostrated themselves in adoration before God, crying all of 
them aloud and saying : " Eliajil, which is being translated Lord, king 
of eternity, vouchsafe remission to Adam, for he is thine image and 
the work of thy spotless hands." (Ch. xxxiv.) Eva beheld yet other* 
marvels before God. And Eva wept bitterly. And Eva turned and 
spake, and said to Seth her son : " My child, stand firm over the body" 
of thy father, and come to me and see what no one hath seen with 
his eyes. And behold how all the angels beseech the Lord concerning 
thy father Adam.'' (Ch. xxxv.) Bat Seth arose and went to his 
mother, and said unto her : " Why weepest thou, mother mine ? '' 
His mother made answer to him and said to him : " Do thou look up 
and see with thine eyes the firmament of heaven opened, 7 and the 

1 In the G-rk. : " Lo there came to her the angel of humanity (rijg 
avQpiairoTtjToo)." 2 In the Grrk. : " Rise up from thy repentance." 

3 In Grk. simply : " laid her hand on her face." 

4 The Grrk. has : " A chariot of light moved on by four bright eagles, of 
which no one born of the womb could tell the glory nor behold their 
countenance, and angels preceding the chariot. When they came to the 
place where lay your father Adam, the chariot halted, and the seraphim 
were between your father and the chariot. And I saw gold censers and 
three cups ; and lo, all the angels with frankincense and with censers and 
the cups (or vials) came to the altar and blew them, and the vapour of 
the incense hid the firmaments," etc. 

5 In G-rk. : " yet two other mysteries before Grod." 

6 In Gi-rk. : " rise up from the body." 

' In Gtrk. : " behold the seven firmaments opened, and see with thine 
eyes how the body of thy father lies on its face, and all the holy angels 
with it, praying for it and saying." 

On the Apocalypse of Moses. 231 

soul of thy father, how he falls down before God on his face, and all 
the angels beseech the Lord in his behalf, thus saying : ' Vouchsafe, 
Lord, remission unto Adam, thou who art God long-suffering and 
art Lord of all. For he is thine image.' Therefore, my child Seth, 
what 1 shall come unto me, when I shall stand before the unseen God. 
And who then may be yonder two men, the Ethiops, who stand before 
God, beseeching the Lord for thy father Adam V " (Oh. xxxvi.) Seth 
said unto her : "0 my mother, yonder two men whom thou beholdest 
are the sun and the moon, who stand and beseech God, falling upon 
their faces, concerning my father Adam." And Eva saith unto him : 
" Aud where may be their light ? How darkened do they appear ! " 
Seth made answer and said : "'Tis not because their light is laid aside 
from them, but their light appeareth not before the father of light. 2 
Because their sheen is clouded over by glory and by the mighty sheen of 
the face of the father of light." (Oh. xxxvii.) And as Seth spake this 
word unto his mother Eva, on a sudden one of the archangels blew 
his trumpet, and instantly all the angels arose, who were fallen on 
their faces before God. And they called out with a loud uproar and 
with terrible voice : " Blessed is the glory of the Lord by his creatures. 
For that he hath taken pity on those that were fashioned by his 
hands, upon Adam.'' And when the angels had cried out this aloud, 
there came one of the six -winged cherubin and caught up Adam and 
bore him into a sea not made with hands, and washed him three 
times. 3 

1 In Grk. : " What shall be this ? and when shall it be given over into 
the hands of the unseen father and of our God? But who are the two 
Ethiops," etc. 

2 In Grk. : " before the light of the whole, the father of lights, and 
therefore is their light hidden and lost." 

3 In Grk. : " r)piraaiv tov 'ASa/i, Kai airtiyaytv avrov ttq Trjv Axtpovaiav 
Xipvnv teal cnrkXovatv avrbv Tpirov." So Ceriani's codex D ; but Teschen- 
dorf reads : ijpTraasv tov 'Adi/t si; Trjv a-^ioovaav \ifivnv Kai cnrinXvvtv 
avrbv ivdnriov dtov, and on a.\ipov<rav he has this note : Ita coaiecimus 
scribendum esse pro ytpoi/triac, quod in codice esse dicitur. Poterat enina 
scribi axtpovaiaSa. ■ Illud vero similiter in Apocalypsi Pauli legitur, ubi 
sect. 22 est: brav St pttTavoijai} Kai iisraaraBy tov /Stow, -KapaFiSorai t<$ 
Mi^oijX, K«i fidXXovmv nvrbv fit; ri)v ' Axtpovoav Xip.vr]v. In the same sec- 
tion of the Apoc. Pauli we read that ij axtpovaa \ip,vn was in the land of 
the gentle ones who inherit the earth, in a region where the souls of the 
just are kept. Its waters were brighter than gold and silver, and none 
might enter it, except after repentance of their sins. The Syriac version 
of the Apoc. Pauli renders it " the sea of Eucharista." In § 31 of the 
same Apocryph the phrase recurs i%,ia rijjc ttoXkoq Kai rijjc axtpobatiQ Xifivvc 
«ai rijt yijc rijc iyaQue 

232 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

And again he brought and placed him before God ; and he spent 
three hours, fallen on his face on the earth. But after this he 
stretched forth his hand, who is lord of all, he that sat on his throne. 
And having taken Adam, he gave him into the hand of Michael the 
archangel, saying to him : "Bear him unto the second heaven 1 and let 
him repose until the day of the great renewal, which I will bring (as) 
salvation in the midst of the earth, because of Adam and all his 
children. " Then Michael the archangel took Adam and they bore 
him and gave him repose in the place where the Lord commanded 
him. And all the angels sang a strain of praise and the songs of 
angels. They marvelled at God's love of man, and at the acceptable 
pardon of Adam. But after so much rejoicing, which there was 
concerning Adam, Michael the archangel spake unto the father 
of light concerning Adam, and said to him : " Lord, let all the angels 
be gathered together before God, each according to his order." 
And they were all gathered together, some having censers in their 
hands and others harps and trumpets. 2 And behold the Lord as- 
cended in glory upon the four winds, and the cherubim took hold of 
and held the winds. And angels came down from heaven and went 
before him, all of them, and descended unto the earth, at the spot in 
which was lying the body of Adam. And having come thither, the 
Lord entered into the garden with the heavenly hosts. Then the 
plants and fruit-bearing trees all blossomed forth together, and there 
breathed forth a sweet odour, so that all who were born of Adam, 
were stupefied and fell into a deep sleep, from the odour wafted to 
them from the bloom and blossom of the garden. But Seth alone 
was not stupefied : for the Lord wished to shew unto Mm the wonders 
which he was about to work. But the Lord God 3 having looked, beheld 
the body of Adam lying just as it was on the earth. He was much 
distressed in his love of man, and he said : " O Adam, wherefore hast 
thou done this, for if thou hadst kept my commandment, which I 
gave to thee, they would not be rejoicing who have brought thee into 
yonder place of thine ? But now I say to thee, that when my sal- 
vation shall be manifested to the world, I will turn their rejoicing into 
sorrow ; but thy sorrow I will turn into rejoicing. For I will restore 
thee unto thy primal glory, 4 and seat thee on a throne of thy 

1 In the Grk. : "Lift Mm up into the paradise as far as the third heaven, 
and leave him there till that great day and terrible of my economy, which 
I will bring about in the world." 

3 In the Grk. : " and others trumpets and vials." 

3 According to Teschendorf's Text Seth was " distressed." In all the 
Grk. MSS., however, there is some flaw here. 

4 In Grk. : " will restore thee to thine empire." 

On the Apocalypse of Moses. 233 

deceiver. And he shall come to that place, wherein thou art now 
lying, and he shall behold thee become higher than himself. And 
then he himself shall be judged and all his worshippers. And I send 
him into thegehenna of fire. And he shall be much affrighted and will 
sorrow, beholding thee sitting on his throne." (Ch. xl.) And when 
God had spoken these words to Adam, the archangel Michael again 
said 1 : " Come to the kingdom, which is in the second heaven, and thou 
shalt take there three linen robes, white and purple, and shalt bring 
them hither." And he went and fulfilled that which was com- 
manded of the Lord. And God commanded Michael the archangel 
to envelop the body of Adam, saying thus : " Spread ye out those 
fine linen cloths of yours and envelop him, and bring ye of the oil 
of anointing, of fragrant smell, and scatter it over him." And the 
archangels Michael and Uriel did as the Lord commanded them. 
And when they had enfolded the body of Adam,, God commanded 
them to bring the body of Abel the jusr. And they bore and laid 
it before God. And God commanded them to bear in like manner 
linen cloths, and envelop the body of Abel the just ; because his 
body was not wrapped up by anyone, from the day on upon which 
(Jain slew his brother. For Cain himself was desirous to keep it, 2 
but was not able ; for that the earth would not receive his body. 

But there was a voice of summoning from the earth to Cain 
saying : " I am not willing to receive the body of the first-formed, 
which they received from me." And the angel having taken the body 
of Abel, they placed it on a stone, until they had buried the body of 
Adam. But the Lord God commanded the angels to lift up his body and 
carry it into the region of the garden unto that place in which the Lord 
had taken clay (or dust) and fashioned Adam. And he commanded 
that they should cleave the earth asunder and bury them together. 
And the Lord gave command to seven holy archangels to come and 
bring forth from the kingdom many odours. And the archangels 
came and brought them, even as the Lord commanded. And they 
laid the fragrant (spices) in the place in which he commanded them 

1 According to the Grk. ch. xl. begins thus : " After this God said to 
the archangel Michael : Strew linen clothes and cover the body of Adam ; 
and bring ye oil of the oil of fragrance and pour it out on it. And the 
three great angels tended him. And when they had finished tending 
Adam, G-od bade the body of Abel also to be brought." 

2 In the Grk. : " Cain often wished to hide it, but could not. For his 
body would leap up from the ground and a voice issued from the earth, 
saying, A second creation shall not be hidden in the earth, until there be 
given up to me the first creation which was taken from me, the dust (of 
me) from whom it was taken." 

234 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

to set down their bodies. And then they took the body of the twain 
and laid them in the place in which they had cloven asunder the 
sepulchre; and they covered it over with clay (or dust). (Ch. xli.) 
And the Lord God cried out to the body of Adam and said : " Adam, 
Adam." But he uttered aery, sayiug 1 : "Lo,here am I, Lord." And 
the Lord said : "Aforetime I said unto thee that dust thou wast and 
to dust shouldst thou return. But mightily 2 do I give thee good 
tidings of my power and unto all nations of the sons of men, who are 
of thy children." (Ch. xlii.) When he said this, the Lord God made 
a sign (or monument) 3 , triangular, and with it sealed their sepulchre ; 
that no one might come nigh thereunto for six days, until the dast 
return whence it was taken. And when he had completed all this 
our Lord ascended into heaven in glory. But Evadid not comprehend 
where was laid his body. She was filled with great sorrow and wept 
bitterly because of his death, and again because of not knowing his 
body, what it was become. For as we said before, all were stupefied 
together with Eva, in that time in which the Lord descended into the 
garden of delight concerning the body of Adam. And so all these 
marvels took place ; but no one of them knew, but only Seth, their 
son. But after this, when the time of Eva's end came, she arose 
even of herself, and fell to praying with tears and said : " Lord God 
of all natures, Creator of creation, separate me not from the body of 
thy servant Adam. For thou didst even make me out of the body of 
Adam, and from his bones didst thou even fashion me ; and I pray 
thee, make me worthy, who am unworthy, (and make worthy) the sinful 
body of thy hand-maid ; that it be not separated from the body of 
Adam, even as aforetime I was together with him in yon garden. 
For though we had transgressed thy command, we were not 
divided from one another." And when she had finished this prayer, 
she looked up to heaven and smote her breast, and said : " O my Lord, 
and God of all, receive my spirit in peace." And having said this, she 
slept, committing her spirit into the hands of angels. (Ch. xliii.) But 
thereafter Michael the archangel along with three archangels 
lifted up the body of Eva, and took and buried it in the place in 

' In the Grk. : "the body answered from the earth and said." 

2 In the Grk. : " Again I announce to thee the resurrection. I will 
raise thee in the resurrection with every race of men sprung from thy 

3 In the Grk. : " God made a seal and sealed the tomb, that no one 
might do aught to it in the six days, until his rib revert to him. Then 
the Lord and his angels proceeded unto their place. But Eve also after 
the fulfilling of six days fell asleep. But while she still lived, she wept 
bitterly because of the falling asleep of Adam." 

On tlte Apocalypse of Moses. 235 

which lay the body of Adam and of Abel the just. And thereafter 
Michael the archangel cried aloud to Seth and said : " Thus 1 shalt 
thou bury every man who shall die until the day of the coming again 
and of the resurrection." And having thus laid down the law, he 
saith to bim : " On the seventh day thou shalt rest and rejoice in it. 
For on this day the Lord and all his angels (? said) : ' Let us rejoice 
with all the spirits of the just ones who may be upon the earth.' " 
And when Michael the archangel had said this to Setb, forthwith he 
ascended into heaven along with the three archangels, giving thanks 
unto and glorifying God. And they sang songs, saying : " Allelouiah, 
Allelouiah, Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord of Hosts, glory to God Almighty 
for ever and ever." 2 

Lord God of thy holy archangels and angels, and of all the powers 
of heaven, and of the first created ones Adam and Eva, through their 
intercession have pity on the owner of this book, Mahdas Gregory, and 
his wife Selene (low-sin), and bis sons Tbdrwand and Parsam, and on 
all the blood of his neighbours, and on the writer of the same, and on 
those who shall read and give ear to it and who say the Amen. 

1 In the Grk. Michael says : " Thus bury every man who dies until the 
day of resurrection." And after giving him this law he said to him : " Beyond 
six days ye shall not mourn ; but on the seventh day rest and be joyful 
on it, because in it (we) God and the angels rejoice with the just soul 
which has passed away (rfjc iiiTaaraar\Q) from earth." 

8 The Greek ends here. The rest is an addition of the Armenian trans- 
lator or scribe.