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The Book of Jubilees. 297 



A NEW TRANSLATION OF THE BOOK OF 

JUBILEES. 1 {Concluded.) 

Part III. 

XXXII. — And he abode that night at Bethel, and Levi dreamed 

that they had ordained and made him the priest of the Most High 
God, him and his sons for ever ; and he awoke from his sleep and 
blessed the Lord. 2. And Jacob rose early in the morning, on 
the fourteenth of this month, and he gave a tithe of all that came 
with him, both of men and cattle, both of gold and every vessel 
and garment, and he gave tithes of all. 3. And in those days 
Rachel became pregnant with her son Benjamin. And Jacob 
counted hia sons from him upwards and Levi fell to the portion of 
the Lord, and his father clothed him in the garments of the priest- 
hood and filled his hands. 4. And on the fifteenth of this month he 
brought to the altar fourteen oxen from amongst the cattle, and 
twenty-eight rams, and forty-nine sheep, and seven 2 lambs, and 
twenty-one 2 kids of the goats as a burnt-offering on the altar of 
sacrifice, well pleasing for a sweet savour before G-od. 5. This was 
his offering, in consequence of the vow which he had vowed that 
he would give a tenth, with their fruit-offerings and their drink- 
offerings. 6. And when the fire had consumed it, he burnt incense 
on the fire over it, and for a thank-offering two oxen and four 
rams and four sheep, four he-goats, and two sheep of a year old, 
and two kids of the goats ; and thus he did daily for seven days. 
7. And he and all his sons and his men were eating (this) with joy 
there during seven days and blessing and thanking the Lord, who 
had delivered him out of all his tribulation and had given him his 
vow. 8. And he took a tenth of all the clean animals, and made a 
burnt sacrifice, but the unclean animals he gave (not) 3 to Levi his 
sod, and he gave him all the souls of the men. 9. And Levi dis- 
charged the priestly office at Bethel before Jacob his father in 
preference to his ten brothers, and he was a priest there, and 

1 For an account of the MSS. upon which this translation is founded, 
see Jewish Quarterly Review. Vol. V. pp. 703-708. 

2 Emended from B. B I have added the negative. 



298 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Jacob gave his vow : thus he gave a second tenth to the Lord and 
sanctified him, and he became holy unto him. 10. And for this 
reason it is ordained in the heavenly tables as a law for the giving 
of a second tenth to eat before the Lord in the place where it is 
chosen that his name should dwell from year to year, and to this law 
there is no limit of days for ever. 11. This ordinance is written that 
it may be fulfilled from year to year in eating the second tenth before 
the Lord in the place where it has been chosen, and nothing shall remain 
over from it from this year to the year following. 12. For in its year 
shall the seed be eaten until the days of the gathering ' of the seed 
of the year, and the wine till the days of the wine, and the oil till 
the days of its season. 13. And all that is left thereof and becomes 
old, let it be regarded as polluted : burn it with fire, for it is unclean. 
14. And thus let them eat it together in the sanctuary, and let them not 
suffer it to become old. 15. And all the tithes of the oxen and sheep 
shall be holy unto the Lord, and shall belong to his priests, which 
they will eat before him from year to year ; for thus is it ordained 
and engraven regarding the tithe in the heavenly tables. 16. And on 
the following night, on the twenty-second day of this month, Jacob 
resolved to build that place, and to surround the ground with a wall, 
and to sanctify it and make it holy for ever, for himself and his 
children after him. 17. And the Lord appeared to him by night and 
blessed him and said unto him : " Thy name shall not be called Jacob, 
but Israel shall they name thy name." 18. And he said unto him 
again : " I am the Lord thy God who created the heaven and the 
earth, and I will increase thee and multiply thee exceedingly, and 
kings shall come forth from thee, and they shall rule everywhere 
wherever the foot of the sons of men have trodden. 19. And I will 
give to thy seed all the earth which is under heaven, and they shall 
rule over all the nations according to their desires, and after that they 
shall get possession of the whole earth and inherit it for ever." 20. 
And he finished speaking with him, and he went up from him, and 
Jacob looked till he had ascended into heaven. 21. And he saw in 
a vision of the night, and behold an angel descended from heaven 
with seven tablets in his hands, and he gave them to Jacob, and 
he read them and knew all that was written therein which would 
befall him and his sons throughout all the years. 22. And he 
showed him all that was written on the tablets, and said unto him : 
" Do not build this place, and do not make it an eternal sanctuary, 
and do not dwell here ; for it is not this place. Go to the house 
of Abraham thy father and dwell with Isaac thy father until the 
day of the death of thy father. 23. For in Egypt thou shalt die 

1 Emended from B. 



The Book of Jubihes. 299 

in peace, and in this land thou shalt be buried with honour in the 
sepulchre of thy fathers, with Abraham and Isaac. 24. Pear not, 
for as thou hast seen and read it, thus will it all be ; and do thou 
write down everything as thou hast seen and read." 25. And 
Jacob said : " Lord, how can I remember all that I have read and 
seen ? " And he said unto him : " I will bring everything to thy 
remembrance." 26. And he went up from him, and he awoke from 
his sleep, and he remembered everything which he had read and 
seen, and he wrote down all the words which he had read and 
seen. 27. And he stayed there yet another day, and he sacrificed 
thereon according to all that he had sacrificed on the former days , 
and called its name " Addition," for this day was added, and the 
former days he called " The Feast." 28. And thus it was manifested 
that it should be, and it is written on the heavenly tables : where- 
fore it was revealed to him that he should celebrate it, and add it 
to the seven days of the feast. 29. And its name was called the 
days of " Addition," because that it is recorded amongst the days ' of 
the feast, according to the number of the days of the year. 
30. And in the night, on the twenty- third of this month, Deborah 
Rebecca's nurse died, and they buried her beneath the city under 
the oak of the river, and he called the name of this river, 
The river of Deborah, and the oak, The oak of the mourning of 
Deborah. 31. And Rebecca went and returned to her house *to 
his father Isaac, and Jacob sent by her hand rams and sheep and 
he-goats that she should prepare a meal for his father such as he 
desired. 32. And he went after his mother till he came to the land 
of Kabrat&n, and he dwelt there. 33. And Rachel bare a son in the 
night, and called his name " Son of my Sorrow " ; for she suffered in 
giving him birth : but his father called his name Benjamin, on the 
eleventh of the eighth month in the first of the sixth week of this 
jubilee. 34. And Rachel died there and she was buried in the land 
of Ephratha, the same is Bethlehem, and Jacob built a pillar on the 
grave of Rachel, on the road above her grave. 

XXXIII. — And Jacob went and dwelt to the south of Magdala- 
dr&&f . 2 And he went to his father Isaac, he and Leah his wife, on the 
new moon of the tenth month. 2. And Reuben saw Bilhah, Rachel's 
maid, the concubine of his father, bathing in the water in a secret 
place, and he loved her. 3. And he hid himself at night, and he 
entered the house of Bilhah at night, and he found her sleeping 
alone on a bed in her house. 4. And he lay with her, and she awoke 

1 Emended with Latin. 

» A translation of rr$# "TJV-'b^g. 



300 The Jewish Quarterly Bevieip. 

and saw, and behold Reuben was lying with her in the bed, 1 and she 
uncovered the border of her covering and seized him, and cried out, 
and discovered that it was Reuben. 5. And she was ashamed because 
of him, and released her hand from him, and he fled. 6. And she 
lamented because of this thing exceedingly, and did not tell it to any 
one. 7. And when Jacob returned and sought her, she said unto 
him : "lam not clean for thee, for I have been defiled (so as to be 
separate) from thee ; for Reuben has defiled me, and has lain with 
me in the night, and I was asleep, and did not discover until he 
uncovered my skirt and slept with me." 8. And Jacob was 
exceedingly wroth with Reuben because he had lain with Bil- 
hah, because he had uncovered his father's skirt. 9. And 
Jacob did not approach (her) again because Reuben had defiled 
her; and as for every man who uncovers his father's skirt his 
deed is wicked exceedingly, for he is abominable before the 
Lord. 10. For this reason it is written and ordained on the heavenly 
tables that a man should not lie with his father's wife, and should 
not uncover his father's skirt, for this is unclean : they shall surely 
die together, the man who has lain with his father's wife and the 
woman, for they have wrought un cleanness on the earth. 11. And 
there shall be nothing unclean before our God in the nation which he 
has chosen for himself as a possession. 12. And again, it is written 
a second time : " Cursed be he who lieth with the wife of his father, 
for he hath uncovered his father's shame " ; and all the holy ones of 
the Lord will say, " So be it ; so be it." 13. And do thou, Moses, 
command the children of Israel that they observe this word ; for the 
punishment is death ; and it is unclean, and there is no atonement for 
ever to atone for the man who has committed this, except by executing 
and slaying, and stoning him with stones, and rooting him from the 
midst of the people of our God. 14. For no man who has done so 
in Israel shall remain alive a single day on the earth, for he is 
abominable and unclean. 15. And let them not say that to Reuben 
was granted life and forgiveness after he had lain with his father's 
concubine, and to her also, though she had a husband, her husband 
Jacob, his father, being still alive. 16. For until that time there had 
not been revealed the ordinance and judgment and law in its com- 
pleteness for all, but in thy days (it has been recorded) as a law of 
seasons and of days, 2 and a law that is everlasting for the everlasting 
generations. 17. And for this law there is no consummation of days, 
and no atonement for it, except that they should both be rooted out 
in the midst of the nation : on the day whereon they committed it 

1 I have omitted " and sleeping " after " bed " with Lat. 

2 Passage is corrupt ; for " in days " (A.) I have read " and of days." 



The Book of Jubilees. 301 

they shall slay them. 18. And do thou, Moses, write it down for 
Israel that they may observe it, and do according to these words, and 
not commit a mortal sin ; for the Lord our God is judge, who 
respects not persons and accepts not gifts. 19. And tell them 
these words of the covenant, that they may hear and observe, and be 
on their guard with respect to them, and not be destroyed and rooted 
out of the land ; for an uncleanness, and an abomination, and a con- 
tamination, 1 and a pollution are all they who commit this on the earth 
before our God. 20. And there is no greater sin than the fornication 
which they commit on earth ; for Israel is a holy nation unto the 
Lord its God, and a nation of inheritance, and a nation of priests, 
and a nation for a kingdom and a possession ; and there shall no such 
uncleanness appear in the midst of the holy nation. 21. And in the 
third year of this sixth week Jacob and all his sons went and 
dwelt in the house of Abraham, near Isaac his father and Rebecca hia 
mother. 22. And these were the names of the sons of Jacob : the 
first-born Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulon, the sons 
of Leah ; and the sons of Rachel, Joseph and Benjamin ; and the 
sons of Bilhah, Dan and Naphtali ; and the sons of Zilpah, Gad and 
Asher ; and Dinah, the only daughter of Leah, the daughter of Jacob. 
23. And they came and bowed themselves to Isaac and Rebecca, and 
when they saw them they blessed Jacob and all his sons, and Isaac 
rejoiced exceedingly, for he saw the sons of Jacob, his younger son, 
and he blessed them. 

XXXIV. — And in the sixth year of this week after this, in the forty- 
fourth jubilee Jacob sent his sons to pasture their sheep, and their ser- 
vants with them to the pastures of Shechem. 2. And the seven kings 
of the Amorites assembled themselves together against them, to slay 
them, hiding themselves under the trees, and to take their cattle as a 
prey. 3. And Jacob and Levi and Judah and Joseph were in the 
house with Isaac their father ; for his spirit was sorrowful, 2 and they 
could not leave him : and Benjamin was the youngest, and for this 
reason remained with his father. 4. And the kings of T&phu, and 
the kings of Arlssa, and the kings of Ser&g&n, and the kings of Slid, 
and the kings of Gaas, and the king of Bethordn, and the king of 
Maanisakir, and all those who dwell in those mountains (and) who 
dwell in the woods in the land of Canaan. 5. And they announced 
this to Jacob saying : " Behold, the kings of the Amorites have sur- 
rounded thy sons, and plundered their herds." 6. And he arose from 
his house, he and his three sons and all the servants of his father, and 

1 Emended by Dillmann. 
1 Better translated " timorous " with Lat, 
VOL VII. X 



302 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

his own servants, and went against them with six thousand ' men, who 
carried swords. 7. And he slew them in the pastures of Shechem, 
and pursued those who fled, and he slew them with the edge of the 
sword, and he slew Aresa and Thaphu and Saragan and Sel6 and 
Amanisakir and G-fig&as. 8. And he brought together his herds, and 
was powerful over them, and he imposed tribute on them that they 
should pay him tribute, five fruit products of their land, and he built 
Reuben and TamnsltSre's. 9. And he returned in peace, and made 
peace with them, and they became his servants until the day that he 
and his sons went down into E^ypt. 10. And in the seventh year of 
this week he sent Joseph to learn about the welfare of his brothers 
from his house to the land of Shechem, and he found them in the 
land of Dothan. 11. And they dealt treacherously with him, aud 
formed a plot against him to slay him, but changing their minds, they 
sold him to Ishmaelite merchants, and they brought him down into 
Egypt, and they sold him to Potiphar, the eunuch of Pharaoh, captain 
of the guard, 2 priest of the city of Elew. 12. And the sons of Jacob 
slaughtered a kid, and dipped the coat of Joseph in the blood, and 
sent (it) to Jacob their father on the tenth of the seventh month. 
13. And he mourned all that night, for they had brought it to him 
in the evening, and he became feverish with mourning for his death, 
and he said : " An evil beast hath devoured Joseph " ; and all the 
members of his house mourned with him that day, and they were 
grieving and mourning with him all that day. 14. And his sons and 
his daughter rose up to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted 
for his son. 15. And on that day Bilhah heard that Joseph had 
perished, and she died mourning him, and she was living in Qafritel, 
and Dinah also, his daughter, died after Joseph had perished. Thus 
three mournings came upon Israel in one month. 16. And they 
buried Bilhah over agninst the tomb of Rachel, and Dinah also, his 
daughter, they buried there. 17. And he mourned for Joseph one 
year, and did not cease, for he said : " Let me go down to the grave 
mourning for my son." 18. For this reason it is ordained for the 
children of Israel that they should mourn on the tenth of the seventh 
month — on the day that the news which made him weep for Joseph 
came to Jacob his father — that they should make atonement for them- 
selves thereon with a young goat on the tenth of the seventh month, 
once a year, for their sins ; for they had grieved the affection of their 
father regarding Joseph his son. 19. And this day has been ordained 
that they should grieve thereon for their sins, and for all their trans- 

1 So A,B,D. C gives " eight hundred." 
3 MSS. give " the chief cook," owing to the Greek translator adopting the 
meaning of Q'natsn *1K\ inappropriate to this contest. 



The Book of Jubilees. 303 

gressions and for all their errors, so that they might cleanse them- 
selves on that day once a year. 20. And after Joseph was destroyed, 
the sons of Jacob took unto themselves wives. The name of Reuben's 
wife is AAk ; and the name of Simeon's wife is AdeMa, a Oanaanite ; 
and the name of Levi's wife is M61k&, of the daughters of Ar&m, of 
the seed of t\x& sons of TSran ; and the name of Judah's wife, Beta- 
sMl, a Canaanite ; and the name of Issachar's wife, HSzaqd ; and the 
name of Zabulon's wife, Adni 1 ; and the name of Dan's wife, Egla ; 
and the name of Naphtali's wife, Rasiiit, of Mesopotamia ; and the 
name of Gad's wife, M&ka ; and the name of Asher's wife, IjonS, ; and 
the name of Joseph's wife, Asnetb, the Egyptian ; and the name of 
Benjamin's wife, Ijasaka. 21. And Simeon repented, and took a 
second wife from Mesopotamia as his brothers. 

XXXV. — And in the first year of the first week of the forty-fifth 
jubilee Rebecca called Jacob, her son, and commanded him regard- 
ing bis father and regarding his brother, that he should honour them 
all the days of Jacob's life. 2. And Jacob said : " I will do all that 
thou hast commanded me ; for this thing will be honour and great- 
ness to me, and righteousness before the Lord, that I should honour 
them. 3. And thou too, my mother, knowest from the time I was 
born until this day, all my deeds and all that is in my heart, that I 
always think good concerning all. 4. And how should I not do this 
thing which thou hast commanded me, that I should honour my 
father and my brother ! 5. Tell me, mother, what perversity hast 
thou seen in me and I shall turn away from it, and mercy of the 
Lord 2 will be upon me." 6. And she said unto him : " My son, I 
have not seen in thee all my days any perverse but (only) upright 
deeds. And yet I will tell thee the truth, my son, I shall die this 
year, and I shall not survive this year in my life ; for I have seen in 
a dream the day of my death, that I should not live beyond a hundred 
and fifty-five years : and behold I have completed all the days of my 
life which I was to live." 7. And Jacob laughed at the words of his 
mother, because his mother had said unto him that she should die ; 
and she was sitting opposite to him in possession of her strength, and 
she was not infirm in her strength ; for she went in and out and saw, 
and her teeth were strong, and no ailment had touched her all the days 
of her life. 8. And Jacob said unto her : "Blessed am I, mother, if 
my days approach the days of thy life, and my strength remain with 
me thus as thy strength : and thou wilt not die, for thou hast jested 
idly to me regarding thy death.'' 9. And she went in to Isaac and 
said unto him : " One petition I make unto thee : make Esau swear 

1 So Syr. Frasr. A.B, omit. 2 Restored from Lat. ; Bth. omits. 

x 2 



304 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

that he will not injure Jacob, nor pursue him with enmity ; for thou 
knowest Esau's thoughts that they are perverse from his youth, and 
there is no goodness in him ; for he desires after thy death to kill 
him. 10. And thou knowest all that he has done since the 
day Jacob his brother went to Haran until this day ; how he has 
forsaken us with his whole heart, and has done evil to us ; how he 
has taken to himself thy flocks, and carried off before thy face all thy 
possessions. 11. And when we implored and besought him for what 
was our own, he did as a man who was taking pity on us. 12. And 
he is bitter against thee because thou didst bless Jacob thy perfect and 
upright son ; for there is no evil but only goodness in him, and since 
he came from Haran unto this day he has not robbed us of aught, 
for he brings us everything in its season always, and rejoices with all 
his heart when we take at his hands, and he blesses us and has not 
parted from «ts since he came from Haran until this day, and he has 
remained with us continually at home honouring us.'' 13. And 
Isaac said unto her : " I, too, know and see the deeds of Jacob who is 
with us, how that with all his heart he honours us ; but I loved Esau 
formerly more than Jacob, because he was the firstborn ; but now I 
love Jacob more than Esau, for he has done manifold evil deeds, and 
there is no righteousness in him, for all his ways are unrighteousness 
and violence, and there is no righteousness around hifa. 14. And 
now my heart is troubled because of all his deeds, and neither he 
nor his seed shall prosper, for they are those 1 who shall be destroyed 
from the earth, and who shall be rooted out from under heaven, for 
he has forsaken the God of Abraham and gone 2 after his wives and 
after their uncleanness and after their error, he and his children. 
15. And thou dost bid me make him swear that he will not slay Jacob, 
his brother ; even if he swear he will not abide by his oath, and he 
will not do good but evil only. 16. But if he desires to slay Jacob, his 
brother, into Jacob's hands will he be given, and he will not escape 
from his hands, for he will fall into his hands. 17. And fear thou 
not on account of Jacob ; for the guardian of Jacob is great and 
powerful and honoured, and praised more than the guardian of 
Esau." 18. And Rebecca sent and called Esau, and he came to her, 
and she said unto him : " I have a petition, my son, to make unto 
thee, and do thou promise to do it, my son." 19. And he said : 
" I will do everything that thou sayest unto me, and I will not refuse 
thy petition." 20. And she said unto him : " I ask you that the day 
I die, thou wilt take me in and bury me near Sarah, thy father's 
mother, and that thou and Jacob will love each other, and that 
neither will desire evil against the other, but love just him, and ye 

1 Construction doubtful. J Emended. 



The Book of Jubilees. 305 

will prosper, my sons, and be honoured in the midst of the land, and 
no enemy -will rejoice over you, and ye will be a blessing and a 
mercy in the eyes of all those that love you." 21. And he said : " I 
will do all that thou hast told me, and I will bury thee on the day 
thou diest near Sarah, my father's mother, as thou lovest that her 
bones may be near thy bones. 22. And Jacob, my brother, also, I 
will love above all flesh ; for I have not a brother in all the earth 
but him only : and this is no great merit for me if I love him ; for he 
is my brother, and we were sown together in thy womb, and togeth<r 
came we forth from thy loins, and if I do not love my brother, whom 
shall I love ? 23. And I, myself, beg thee to exhort Jacob concern- 
ing me and concerning my children, for I know that he will assuredly 
be king over me and my children, for on the day my father blessed 
him he made him the higher and me the lower. 24. And I swear 
unto thee that I will love him, and not desire evil against him all the 
days of my life but good only." And he swear unto her regarding 
all this matter. 25. And she called Jaoob before the eyes of Esau, 
and gave him commandment according to the words which she had 
spoken to Esau. 26. And he said : " I will do thy pleasure ; believe 
me that no evil will proceed from me or from my sons against Esau, 
and I shall be first in naught save in love only." 27. And they eat 
and drank, she and her sons that night, and she died, three jubilees 
and one week and one year, old, on that night, and her two sons, Esau 
and Jacob, buried her in the double cave near Sarah, their father's 
mother. 

XXXVI. — And in the sixth year of this week Isaac called his two 
sons, Esau and Jacob, and they came to him, and he said unto them : 
" My sons, I am going the way of my fathers, into the eternal house 
where my fathers are. 2. Wherefore bury me near Abraham my 
father, in the double cave in the field of Ephron the Hittite, where 
Abraham purchased a sepulchre to bury in ; in the sepulchre which 
I digged for myself, there bury me. 3. And this I command you, my 
sons, that ye practise righteousness and uprightness on the earth, so 
that the Lord may bring upon you all that the Lord said that he 
would do to Abraham and to his seed. 4. And love one another, my 
sons (even) your brother as a man loves his own soul, and let each 
seek in what he may benefit his brother, and act together on the earth ; 
and let them love each other as their own souls. 5. And concern- 
ing the question of idols, I have commanded and admonished you to 
reject them and hate them, and love them not ; for they are full of 
deception for those that worship them and for those that bow down 
to them. 6. Eemember ye, my sons, the Lord God of Abraham 
your father, and afterwards 1 1 too worshipped him and served him 

1 We should perhaps emend and read "how." 



306 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

in righteousness and in joy, that he might multiply you and increase 
your seed as the stars of heaven in multitude, and establish you on 
the earth as the plant of righteousness which shall not be rooted out 
unto all the generations for ever. 7. And now I will make you 
swear a great oath, for there is no oath which is greater than it by 
the name glorious and honoured and great and splendid and wonderful 
and mighty, which created the heavens and the earth and all things 
together, that ye will fear him and worship him. 8. And that each 
will love his brother with affection and righteousness, and that 
neither will desire evil against his brother from henceforth for ever 
all the days of your life, so that ye may prosper in all your deeds and 
may not be destroyed. 9. And if either of you devises evil against his 
brother, know that from henceforth everyone that devises evil against 
his brother will fall into his hand, and will be rooted out of the land 
of the living, and his seed shall be destroyed from under heaven- 
10. But on the day of turbulence and execration and wrath and 
anger, and as with naming devouring fire he burnt Sodom, so like- 
wise will he burn his land and his city and all that is his, and he will 
be blotted out of the book of the discipline of the children of men, 
and not be recorded in the book of life, but in that which shall be 
destroyed, and he will depart into eternal execration ; so that their 
condemnation may be always renewed in hate and in execration and 
in wrath and in torment and in indignation and in plagues and in 
disease for ever. 11. I say and testify to you, my sons, according to 
the judgment which will come upon the man who wishes to injure his 
his brother. 12. And he divided all his possessions between the two 
on that day, and he gave the larger portion to him that was the first- 
born, and the tower and all that was about it, and all that Abraham 
possessed at the well of the oath. 13. And he said, " This larger por- 
tion I will give 1 to my firstborn." 14. And Esau said, " I have sold to 
Jacob and given my right of primogeniture to Jacob ; to him it has been 
given, and I have not a single word to say regarding it, for it is his." 
15. And Isaac said, "May a blessing rest upon you, my sons, and upon 
your seed this day, for ye have given me rest, and my heart is not 
pained concerning the primogeniture, lest thou shouldest work wicked- 
ness on account of it. 16. May the Most High Lord bless the man 
that worketh righteousness, him and his seed for ever." 17. And he 
ended commanding them and blessing them, and they eat and drank 
together before him, and he rejoiced because there was a reconciliation 
between them, and they went forth from him and rested that day and 
slept. 18. And Isaac slept on his bed that day rejoicing ; and he slept 
the eternal sleep, and died one hundred and eighty years old. He 

1 Emended. 



The Book of Jubilees. 3,07 

completed twenty-five weeks and five years ; and his two sons Esau 
and Jacob buried him. 19. And Esau went to the land of Edom, 
to the mountains of Seir, and he dwelt there. 20. And Jacob 
dwelt in the mountains of Hebron, in the tower of the land 
of the sojournings of his father Abraham, and he worshipped 
the Lord with all his heart and according to the visible command 
according to the division of the days of his generation. 21. And Leah 
his wife died in the fourth year of the second week of the forty-fifth 
jubilee, and he buried her in the double cave near Rebecca his mother, 
to the left of the grave of Sarah, his father's mother. 22. And all 
her sons and his sons came to mourn over Leah his wife with him, 
and to comfort him regarding her, for he was lamenting her. 23. 
For he loved her exceedingly after Eachel her sister died ; for she 
was perfect and upright in all her ways and honoured Jacob, and all 
the days that she lived with him he did not hear from her mouth a 
harsh word, for she was gentle and peaceable and upright and honour- 
able. 24. And he remembered all her deeds which she had done 
during her life, and he lamented her exceedingly ; for he loved her 
with all his heart and with all his soul. 

XXXVII. — And on the day that Isaac the father of Jacob and 
Esau died, the sons of Esau heard that Isaac had given the portion of 
the elder to his younger son Jacob they were very angry. 2. And 
they strove with their father, saying : " Why has thy father given 
Jacob the portion of the elder and put thee after him, although thou 
art the elder and Jacob the younger ? " 3. And he said unto them 
" Because I sold my birthright to Jacob for a small mess of lentils . 
and on the day my father sent me to hunt venison ' and bring him 
something that he should eat and bless me, he came with guile and 
brought my father food and drink, and my father blessed him and 
put me under his hand. 4. And now our father has caused us to 
swear, me and him, that we shall not mutually devise evil, either 
against his brother, and that we shall continue in love and in peace 
each with his brother and not make our ways corrupt." 5. And they 
said unto him, " We will not hearken unto thee to make peace with 
him ; for our strength is greater than his strength, and we are more 
powerful than he ; we will go against him and slay him, and destroy 
him and his children. 3 And if thou wilt not go with us, we will do 
hurt to thee also. 6. And now hearken unto us : We will send to 
Aram and Philistia and Moab and Ammon, and let us choose for 
ourselves chosen men who are ardent for battle, and let us go against 
him and do battle with him, and let us exterminate him from the 

1 Emended. 2 Emended from A, with Latin. 



308 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

earth before he grows strong." 7. And their father said unto them, 
" Do not go and do not make war with him lest ye fall before him." 
8. And they said unto him, " This too, is exactly thy mode of action 
from thy youth until this day, and thou hast brought thy neck under 
his yoke. We will not hearken to these words." 9. And they sent 
to Aram, and to Adur&tn to the friend of their father, and they hired 
along with them one thousand fighting men, chosen men of war. 10. 
And there came to them from Moab and from the children of Ammon, 
those who were hired, one thousand chosen men, and from Philistia, 
one thousand chosen men of war, and from Edom and from the 
Horites one thousand fighting men, and from the Hittites one 
thousand chosen and mighty men, men of war. 11. And they 
said unto their father : " Go forth with them and lead them, 
else we will slay thee." 12. And he was filled with wrath and 
indignation on seeing that his sons were forcing him to go be- 
fore (them) to lead them against Jacob his brother. 13. But 
afterward he remembered all the evil which lay hidden in his heart 
against Jacob his brother ; and he remembered not the oath which he 
swear to his father and to his mother that he would devise no evil 
all his days against Jacob his brother. 14. And notwithstanding all 
this, Jacob knew not that they were coming against him to battle, 
and he was mourning for Leah, his wife, until they approached very 
near to the tower with four thousand warriors and chosen men of 
war. 15. And the men of Hebron sent to him saying, " Behold thy 
brother has come against thee, to fight thee, with four thousand girt 
with the sword, and they carry shields and weapons ; " for they loved 
Jacob more than Esau. So they told him ; for Jacob was a more 
liberal and merciful man than Esau. 16. But Jacob would uot 
believe until they came very near to the tower. 17. And he closed 
the gates of the tower ; and he stood on the battlements and 
spake to his brother Esau and said, " Noble is the comfort wherewith 
thou has come to comfort me because of my wife who has died. Is 
this the oath that thou didst swear to thy father and again to thy mother 
before they died ? Thou hast broken thy oath, and on the moment 
that thou didst swear to thy father wast thou condemned." 18. And 
then Esau answered and said unto him, "Neither the children of 
men nor the beasts of the earth have any oath of righteousness which 
they swear when they would swear (an oath valid) for ever ; but 
every day they devise evil one against another, so that each may slay 
his adversary and foe. 19. And thou too dost hate me and my 
children for ever. And there is no observing the tie of brotherhood 
with thee. 20. Hear these words which I declare unto thee, If the 
boar can change its skin and make its bristles as soft as wool, or if it 
can cause horns to sprout forth on its head like the horns of a stag or 



The Book of Jubilees. 309 

of a sheep, then I will observe the tie of brotherhood with thee. And 
yet since the (twin) male offspring were separated from their mother, 
thou hast not shown thyself a brother to me. 21. And if the wolves 
make peace with the lambs so as not to devour and rob them, and if 
their hearts turn towards them to do good (unto them), then there will 
be peace in my heart towards thee. 22. And if the lion becomes the 
friend of the ox and if he is bound under one yoke with him and 
ploughs with him and makes peace with him, then I will make peace 
with thee. 23. And when the raven becomes white as the r^zS,, 1 then 
know that I have loved thee and will make peace with thee. Thou 
shalt be rooted out and thy sons shall be rooted out, and there shall be 
no peace for thee." 24. And when Jacob saw that he was working 
evil against him from his heart, and that with his whole soul he would 
slay him, and that he had come springing like the wild boar which 
comes upon the spear that pierces and kills it, and it recoils not from 
it ; 25. Then he spake to his own and to his servants that they should 
attack him and all his companions. 

XXXVIII. — And after that Judah spake to Jacob, his father, and 
said unto him : " Bend thy bow, father, and send forth thy arrows 
and cast down the adversary and slay the enemy ; and mayst thou 
have the power, for we will not slay thy brother, for he was with 
thee, and he is like thee, so that we should give him 2 (this) honour. 
2. Then Jacob bent his bow and sent forth the arrow and struck 
Esau, his brother, on his right breast, 3 and slew him. 3. And again 
he sent forth an arrow and struck Ador&n, the Aramaean, on the 
left breast, and drove him backward and slew him. 4. And then 
went forth the sons of Jacob, they and their servants, dividing them- 
selves into companies on the four sides of the tower. 5. And Judah 
went forth in front, and Naphtali and G-ad with him and fifty 
servants with him on the south side of the tower, and they slew all 
they found before them, and not one individual escaped from them. 
6. And Levi and Dan and Asher went forth on the east side of the 
tower, and fifty (men) with them, and they slew the fighting men of 
Moab and Ammon. 7. And Reuben and Issachar and Zebulon went 
forth on the north side of the tower, and fifty men with them, and 
they slew the fighting men of the Philistines. 8. And Simeon and 
Benjamin and Enoch, Reuben's son, went forth on the west side of 
the tower, and fifty men with them, and they slew of Edom and of 
the Horites four hundred stout warriors ; and six hundred escaped, 

1 The R&zfi, is a large white bird which eats grasshoppers. 

1 Emended with Lat. 

3 Restored from Lat. and the Midrash Wajjissan. 



310 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

and four of the sons of Esau fled with them, and left their father 
l>ing slain, as he had fallen on the hill which is in Adur&m. 9. And 
the sons of Jacob pursued after them to the mountains of Seir. And 
Jacob buried his brother on the hill which is in Adurim, and he re- 
turned to his house. 10. And the sons of Jacob surrounded > the 
sons of Esau in the mountains of Seir, and (the sons of Esau) 
humbled themselves so as to become servants of the sons of Jacob. 
11. And they sent to their father to inquire whether they should 
make peace with them or slay them. 12. And Jacob sent word to his 
sons that they should make peace, and they made peace with them, and 
placed the yoke of servitude upon them, so that they paid tribute to 
Jacob and to his sons always. 13. And they continued to pay tribute to 
Jacob until the day that he went down into Egypt. 14. And the sons 
of Edotn did not get quit of the yoke of servitude which the twelve 
sons of Joseph had imposed on them until that day. 15. And these 
are the kings that reigned in Edom before there reigned any king over 
the children of Israel until this day in the land of Edom. 16. And 
Bal&q, the son of Be'or, reigned in Edom, and the name of his city 
was DaneiM. 17. And BiMq died, and JoMb, the son of Z&ra' of 
BoseY, reigned in his stead. 18. And JoMb died, and As&m, of the 
land of Temfin, reigned in his stead. 19. And As&m died, and Ad&th, 
the son of Barad, who slew Median in the field of Moab, reigned in 
his stead, and the name of his city was Awut. 20. And Addth died, 
and Salman, from Amfis6q&, reigned in his stead. 21. And Salman 
died, and Saul, of Baab6th (by the) river, reigned in his stead. 22. 
And SMI died, and Baedun&n, the son of Akbur, reigned in his stead. 
23. And Baelunilo, the son of Akbur, died, and Ad&th reigned in his 
stead, and the name of his wife was Maitabit, the daughter of M&ta- 
rat, the daughter of Metabld Zftab. 24. These are the kings who 
reigned in the land of Edom. 

XXXIX. — And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's sojournings 
in the land of Canaan. 2. These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph 
was seventeen years old when they took him down into the land of 
Egypt, and Potiphar, an eunuch of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, 2 
bought him. 3. And he set Joseph over all his house, and the blessing of 
the Lord came upon the house of the Egyptian on account of Joseph, 
and the Lord prospered him in all that he did. 4. And the Egyptian 
left everything in Joseph's hands ; 3 for he saw that the Lord was 
with him, and that the Lord prospered him in all that he did. 5. 
And Joseph was comely and very well favoured, 4 and the wife of his 

1 Emended with Lat. 2 Emended, as in xxxiv. 11. 

3 Emended. * Slightly emended from A, B. 



The Booh of Jubilees. 3J 1 

master lifted up her eyes and saw Joseph, and she loved him, and 
besought him to lie with her. 6. But he did not surrender his soul, 
and he remembered the Lord and the words which Jacob, his father, 
had read (to him) from amongst the words of Abraham, that no 
man should commit fornication with a woman who has a husband ; 
that for him the punishment of death has been ordained in the heavens 
before the Most High Lord, and the sin will be recorded against him 
in the eternal books continually before the Lord. 7. And Joseph 
remembered these words and refused to lie with her. 8. And she 
besought him for a year, but he refused and would not listen. 9. But 
she embraced him and held him fast in the house in order to force 
him to lie with her, and closed the doors of the house and held him 
fast ; but he left his garment in her hands and broke through the 
door and fled without from her presence. 10. And the woman saw 
that he would not lie with her, and she calumniated him in the 
presence of his lord, saying : " Thy Hebrew servant, whom thou 
lovest, sought to force me to lie with him ; and it came to pass when 
I lifted up my voice that he fled and left his garment in my hands 
when I held him, and he brake through the door." 11. And the 
Egyptian saw the garment of Joseph and the broken door, and heard 
the words of his wife, and cast Joseph into prison into the place 
where the prisoners were kept whom the king imprisoned. 12. And 
he was there in the prison ; and the Lord gave Joseph favour in the 
sight of the chief of the guards of the prison and compassion 
before him, for he saw that the Lord was with him, and made 
all that he did to prosper. 13. And he committed all things into 
his hands, 1 and the chief of the guards looked to nothing that 
was in his keeping, for Joseph did every thing, and the Lord 
perfected it. 3 14. And he remained there two years. And in 
those days Pharaoh, king of Egypt, was wroth against his two 
eunuchs, against the chief of the butlers, and against the chief 
of the bakers, and he put them in ward in the house of the 
captain of the guard, 3 in the prison where Joseph was kept. 15. And 
the captain of the guard appointed Joseph to serve them ; and he 
served before them. 16. And they both dreamed a dream, the chief 
butler and the chief baker, and they told it to Joseph. 17. And as he 
interpreted to them so it befell them, and Pharaoh restored the chief 
butler to his office, and the chief baker 4 he slew, as Joseph had in- 

1 Emended with Lat. and Gen. xxxix. 22. 

2 Better emended with Latin and read " made it to prosper." 

3 Eth. and Lat. versions read " chief of the cooks," which, though a 
possible rendering of DTI^lT"" 1 ^! is manifestly wrong here. 

* Emended with Lat. 



312 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

terpreted to them. 18. But the chief butler forgot Joseph in the 
prison, although he had informed him what should befall him, and 
did not remember to inform Pharaoh how Joseph had told him, for 
he forgot. 

XL. — And in those days Pharaoh dreamed two dreams in one night 
concerning a famine which should be in all the land, and he awoke 
from his sleep and called all the interpreters of dreams that were in 
Egypt, and magicians, and told them his two dreams, and they were 
not able to declare (them). 2. And then the chief butler remem- 
bered Joseph and spake of him to the king, and he brought him forth 
from the prison, and he told his two dreams before him. 3. And he 
said before Pharaoh that his two dreams were one, and he said unto 
him : " Seven years will come (in which there will be) plenty over all 
the land of Egypt, and after that seven years of famine, such a famine 
as has not been in all the earth. 4. And now let Pharaoh appoint 
overseers in all the land of Egypt, and let them store up food in every 
city throughout the days of the years of plenty, and there will be food 
for the seven years of famine, and the land will not perish through the 
famine, for it will be very severe.'' 5. And the Lord gave Joseph 
favour and mercy in the eyes of Pharaoh, and Pharaoh said unto his 
servants : " We shall not find such a wise and intelligent man as this 
man, for the spirit of the Lord is with him." 6. And he appointed 
him the second in all his kingdom and gave him authority over all 
Egypt, and caused him to ride in the second chariot of Pharaoh. 7. 
And he clothed him with byssus garments, and he put a gold chain 
upon his neck, and they proclaimed ' before him 2 " El El Wa Abirer, 3 
and placed a ring on his hand and made him ruler over all his house, and 
magnified him, and said unto him : " Only on the throne shall I be 
greater than thou." 8. And Joseph ruled over all the land of Egypt, 
and all the princes of Pharaoh, and all his servants, and all who did 
the king's business loved him, for he walked in uprightness, for he 
was without pride and arrogance, and he had no respect of persons, 
and did not accept gifts, but he judged in uprightness all the people 
of the land. 9. And the land of Egypt was at peace before Pharaoh 
because of Joseph, for the Lord was with him, and gave him favour 
and mercy for all his generations before all those who knew him and 
heard concerning him, and Pharaoh's king-lorn was well ordered, and 
there was no adversary and no evil person (therein). 10. And the 
king called Joseph's name Sepbftntiphans, and gave Joseph to wife 

1 Emended with Lat. 

3 Eth. MSS. add " and he said " against Latin and Gen. xli. 43. 

3 " God, God, the mighty one of God, " b« TONl b^ Vh. 



The Book of Jubilees. 313 

the daughter of Potiphar, the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis, 
captain of the guard. 1 11. And on the day that Joseph stood before 
Pharaoh he was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh. 12. 
And in that year Isaac died. And it came to pass as Joseph had said 
in the interpretation of his two dreams, according as be had said it, 
there were seven years of plenty over all the land of Egypt, and in 
the land of Egypt one measure brought forth abundantly eighteen 
hundred measures. 13. And Joseph gathered food into every city 
until they were full of corn until they could no longer count and 
measure it for multitude. 

XLI. — And in the forty-fifth jubilee, in the second week, (and) in 
the second year, Judah took for his first-born, Er, a wife from the 
daughters of Aram, named Tamar. 2. But he hated, and did not lie 
with her, because his mother was of the daughters of Canaan, aud he 
wished to take him a wife of the kinsfolk of his mother, but Judah, 
his father, would not permit him. 3. And this Er, the first-born of 
Judah, was wicked, and the Lord slew him. 4. Aud Judah said unto 
Onan, his brother : '' Go in unto thy brother's wife and perform the 
duty of a husband's brother unto her, 2 and raise up seed unto thy 
brother.'' 5. Aud Ouan knew that the seed would not be his, (but) 
his brother's only, and he went into the house of his brother's wife, 
and spilt the seed on the ground, and he was wicked in the eyes of 
the Lord, and he slew him. 6. And Judah said unto Tamar, his 
daughter-in-law : " Bemain in thy father's house as a widow till 
Shelah my son be grown up, and I will give thee to him to wife.'' 7. 
And he grew up ; but BMsuel, the wife of Judah, did not permit 
her son Shelah to marry. And Bedsuel, the wife of Judah, died in 
the fifth year of this week. 8. And in the sixth year Judah went 
up to shear his sheep at Timnah. And they told Tamar : " Behold 
thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his sheep.'' 9. And she 
put off her widow's clothes, and put on a veil, aud adorned herself, 
and sat in the gate which faces the way to Timnah. 10. And as 
Judah was going along he found her, and thought her to be an 
harlot, and he said unto her : " Let me come in unto thee " ; and she 
said unto him : " Come in," and he went in. 11. And she said 
unto him : " Give me my hire " ; and he said unto her : " I have 
notoing in my hand save my ring that is on my finger, and my neck- 
lace, and my staff which is in my hand. ' 12. And she said unto 
him : "Give them to me until thou dost send me my wage"; and 
he said unto her : " I will send unto thee a kid of the goats " ; and he 

1 M8S. read "cooks." See xxxix. 14 (note). 
* The phrase is obscure. 



314 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

gave them to her, and he went in unto her, 1 and she conceived by 
him. 13. And Judah went unto his sheep, and she went to her 
father's house. 14. And Judah sent a kid of the goats by the hand 
of his shepherd, an Adullamite, and he found her not ; and he asked 
the people of the place, saying : " Where is the harlot who was 
here ? " And they said unto him : " There is no harlot here with 
us." 15. And he returned and informed him, and said : " I have 
not found her, 3 and I asked the people of the place, and they said 
unto me : ' There is no harlot here.' " And he said : " Let her take 3 
(them) lest we become a cause of derision.'' 16. And when she had 
completed three months, it was manifest that she was with child, and 
they told Judah, saying : "Behold Tamar, thy daughter-in-law, is 
with child by whoredom." 17. And Judah went to the house of her 
father, and said unto her father and her brothers : " Bring her forth, 
and let them burn her, for she hath wrought uncleanness in Israel.'' 
18. And it came to pass when they brought her forth to burn her 
that she sent to her father-in-law the ring and the necklace, and the 
staff, saying : " Discern whose are these, for by him am I with 
child." 19. And Judah acknowledged, and said : " Tamar is more 
righteous than I am." And therefore they burnt her not. 20. And 
for that reason she was not given to Shelah, and he did not again 
approach her. 21. And after that she bare two sons, Perez and 
Zerah, in the seventh year of this second week. 22. And thereupon 
the seven years of fruitfulness had been accomplished, of which 
Joseph spake to Pharaoh. 23. And Judah acknowledged that the 
deed which he had done was evil, for he had lain with his daughter- 
in-law, and he declared that it was hateful in his eyes, and he ac- 
knowledged that he had transgressed and gone astray, for he had 
uncovered the skirt of his son, and he began to lament and to 
supplicate before the Lord because of his transgression. 24. And we 
told him in a dream that it was forgiven him because he supplicated 
earnestly, and lamented, and did not again commit it. 25. And he 
received forgiveness because he turned from his sin aud from his 
ignorance, for he transgressed greatly before our God ; and every 
one that acts thus, every one who lies with his mother-in-law, let them 
burn him with fire that he may burn therein, for there is uncleanness 
and pollution upon them ; with fire let them burn them. 26. And 
do thou command the children of Israel that there be no uncleanness 
amongst them, for every one who lies with his daughter-in-'aw or 
with his mother-in-law hath wrought uncleanness ; with fire let them 

1 Restored from, emended Lat. text. 

2 Emended with Lat. and G-en. xxxviii. 22. 

3 Emended with Lat. and G-en. xxxviii. 23. 



The Book of Jubilees. 315 

burn the man who has lain with her, and likewise the woman, that he 
may turn away wrath and punishment from Israel. 27. And unto 
Judah we said that his two sons had not lain with her, and for this 
reason his seed was established for a second generation, and should 
not be rooted out. 28. For in singleness of eye he had gone and 
sought for punishment, namely, according to the judgment of Abra- 
ham, which he had commanded his sons, Judah had sought to burn 
her with fire. 

XLII.— And in the first year of the third week of the forty-fifth 
jubilee the famine began to come into the land, and the rain refused 
to be given to the earth, for none whatever fell. 2. And the earth 
grew barren, but in the land of Egypt there was food, for Joseph 
had gathered the seed of the land in the seven years of plenty and 
had preserved it. 3. And the Egyptians came to Joseph that lie 
might give them food, and he opened the storehouses where was the 
grain of the first year, and he sold it to the people of the land for 
gold. 4. Now the famine was very sore in the land of Canaan, 1 and 
Jacob heard that there was food in Egypt, and he sent his ten sons 
that they should procure food for him in Egypt ; but Benjamin he 
did not send, and the ten sons of Jacob 2 arrived in Egypt among 
those that went (there). 5. And Joseph recognised them, but they 
did not recognise him, and he spake roughly 3 unto them, and he said 
unto them : " Are ye not spies, and have ye not come to explore the 
approaches of the land " ? And he put them in ward. 6. And after 
that he set them free again, and detained Simeon alone and sent off 
his nine brothers. 7. And he filled their sacks with corn, and he put 
their gold in their sacks, and they did not know. 8. And he com- 
manded them to bring their younger brother, for they had told him 
their father was living and their younger brother. 9. And they went 
up from the land of Egypt and they came to the land of Canaan ; 
they told their father all that had befallen them, and how the lord 
of the country had spoken roughly to them, and had seized Simeon 
till they should bring Benjamin. 10. And Jacob said : " Me have ye 
bereaved of my children ! Joseph is not and Simeon is not, and ye 
will take Benjamin away. Against me is your wickedness." 11. 
And he said : '-'My son will not go down with you lest perchance he 
fall sick ; for their mother gave birth to two sons, and one has 
perished, and this one also ye would take from me. If perchance he 
took a fever on the road, ye would bring down my old age with 
sorrow unto death.'' 12. For he saw that their money had been 

1 Found only in Lat. 2 Restored from Lat. and Gen. xlii, 5. 

3 Corrected from Lat. and Gen. xlii. 7. 



316 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

returned to every man in his sack, and for this reason he feared to 
send him. 13. And the famine increased and became sore in the 
land of Canaan, and in all lands save in the land of Egypt, for 
many of the children of the Egyptians had stored up tht-ir seed for 
food from the time when they saw Joseph gathering seed together 
and putting it in storehouses and preserving it for the years of 
famine. 14. And the people of Egypt fed themselves thereon during 
the first year of their famine. 1 5. But when Israel saw that the 
famine was very sore in the land, and that there was no deliverance, 
he said unto his sons : " Gro, return, and procure food for us that we 
die not." 16. And they said : " We will not go ; unless our youngest 
brother go with us, we will not go." 17. And Israel saw that if he 
did not send him with them, they should all perish by reason of the 
famine. 18. And Reuben said : " Give him into my hand, and if I 
do not bring him back to thee, slay my two sons instead of his soul." 
And he said unto him : " He shall not go with thee." 19. And Judah 
came near and said : " Send him with us, and if I do not bring him 
back to thee, let me bear the blame before thee all the days of my 
life.'' 20. And he sent him with them in the second year of this 
week on the first day of the month, and they came to the land of 
Egypt with all those who went, and (they had) presents in their 
hands, stacte and almonds and terebinth nuts and pure honey. 21. 
And they went and stood before Joseph, and he saw Benjamin his 
brother, and he knew him, and said unto them : " Is this your 
youngest brother?" And they said unto him : "It is he." And he 
said : " The Lord be gracious to thee my son ! " 22. And he sent 
him into his house and he brought forth Simeon unto them and he 
made a feast for them, and they presented the gift which they had 
brought in their hands. 23. And they eat before him and he gave 
them all a portion, but he made the portion of Benjamin seven times 
larger than that of any of theirs. 24. And they eat and drank and 
arose and remained with their asses. 25. And Joseph devised a plan 
whereby he might learn their thoughts as to whether thoughts of 
peace prevailed amongst them, and he said to the steward who was 
over his house : " Fill all their sacks with food, and return their 
money unto them into their vessels, and my cup, the silver cup out 
of which I drink, put it in the sack of the youngest, and send them 
away." 

XLIII. — And he did as Joseph had told him, and filled all their 
sacks for them with food and put their money in their sacks, and put 
the cup in Benjamin's sack. 2. And early in the morning they 
departed, and it came to pass that when they had gone from thence, 
Joseph said unto the steward of his house : "Pursue them, run 



The Book of Jubilees. 317 

and seize them, saying, ' For good ye have requited me with evil ; 
you have stolen from me the silver cup out of which my lord drinks.' 
And bring back to me their youngest brother, and fetch him quickly 
before I go forth to my seat of judgment." 3. And he ran after them 
and said unto them according to these words. 4. And they said unto 
him : " God forbid that thy servants should do this thing, and steal 
from the house of thy lord any utensil, and the money also which we 
found in our sacks the first time, we thy servants brought back from 
the land of Canaan. 5. How then should we steal any utensil ? 
Behold here are we and our sacks ; search, and wherever thou findest 
the cup in the sack of any man amongst us, let him be slain, and we 
and our asses will serve thy lord." And he said unto them : " Not so, 
the man with whom I find , him only will I take as a servant, and ye 
shall return in peace unto your house." 7. And as he was searching 
in their vessels, beginning with the eldest and ending with the 
youngest, it was found in Benjamin's sack. 8. And they rent their 
garments, and laded their asses, and returned to the city and came to 
the house of Joseph, and they all bowed themselves on their faces to 
the ground before him. 9. And Joseph said unto them : " Ye have 
done evil." And (Judah) said unto him 1 : " What shall we say and how 
shall we dispute the transgression of thy servants which our lord 
has discovered ; behold we are the servants of our lord, and our asses 
also." 10. And Joseph said unto them : " I too fear the Lord ; as for 
you, go ye to your homes and let your brother be my servant, for ye 
have done evil. Know ye not that a man divines with 2 his cup as I 
(do) with this cup? And yet ye have stolen it from me." 11. And 
Judah said : " my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, 5 speak a word in 
my lord's ear ; two brothers did thy servant's mother bear to our 
father ; one went away and was lost, and hath not been found, and 
he alone is left of his mother, and thy servant our father loves him, 
and his life also is bouud up with the life of this (lad). 12. And it 
will come to pass, when we go to thy servant our father, and the lad 
is not with us, that he will die, and we shall bring down our father 
with sorrow to the grave (lit. " death "). 13. Now rather let me, thy 
servant, abide instead of the lad as a bondsman unto my lord, and let 
the youth go with his brethren, for I became surety for him at the 
hand of thy servant our father, and if I do not bring him back, thy 
servant shall bear the blame to our father for ever." 14. And Joseph 
saw that they were all accordant in goodness one with another, and 
he could not refrain himself, and he told them that he was Joseph. 
15. And he conversed with them in the Hebrew tongue and fell on 

1 B "they said" ; CD "they said unto him." 
* Emended with Gen. xliv. 5, 15. 3 Emended with Gen. xliv. 18. 

VOL. VII. Y 



318 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

their neck and wept. But they knew him not and they began to 
weep. 16. And he said unto them : "Weep not over me, but hasten 
and bring my father to me ; and ye see that it is my mouth 
that speaketh, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin see. l 

17. For behold this is the second year of the famine, and there 
are still five years without harvest or fruit of trees or ploughing. 

18. Come down quickly ye and your households, so that ye perish not 
through the famine, and do not be grieved for your possessions, for 
the Lord sent me before you to set things in order that many people 
might live. 19. And tell my father that I am still alive, and ye, 
behold, ye see that the Lord has made me as a father to Pharaoh, and 
ruler over his house and over the land of Egypt. 20. And tell my 
father of all my glory, and all the riches and glory that the Lord hath 
given me." 21. And by the command of the mouth of Pharaoh he 
gave them chariots and provisions for the way, and he gave them all 
many-coloured raiment and silver. 22. And to their father he sent 
raiment and silver and ten asses which carried corn, and he sent them 
away. 23. And they went up and told their father that Joseph was 
alive, and was measuring out corn to all the nations of the earth, and 
that he was ruler over all the land of Egypt. 24. And their father 
did not believe it, for he was beside himself in his mind ; but when 
he saw the wagons which Joseph had sent, the life of his spirit 
revived, and he said : "It is a great thing for me if Joseph lives ; I 
will go down and see him before I die." 

XLIY. — And Israel took his journey from Haran from his house 
on the new moon of the third month, and he went on the way of the 
well of the oath, and he offered a sacrifice to the God of his father 
Isaac on the seventh of this month. 2. And Jacob remembered the 
dream that he had seen at Bethel, and he feared to go down into 
Egypt. 3. And while he was thinking of sending word to Joseph to 
come to him, and that he would not go down, he remained there 
seven days, if perchance he should see a vision as to whether he 
should remain or go down. 4. And he celebrated the harvest festival 
of the first-fruits with old grain, for in all the land of Canaan there 
was not a handful of seed in the land, for the famine was over the 
beasts and cattle and birds, and also over man. 5. And on the six- 
teenth the Lord appeared unto him, and said unto him, "Jacob, 
Jacob " ; and he said, " Here am I." And he said unto him : " I am 
the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham and Isaac ; fear not to 
go down into Egypt, for I will there make of thee a great nation. 

1 Emended with Gen. xlv. 12, by a slight change from an unmeaning 

text. 



The Book of Jubilees. 319 

6. 1 will go down with thee, and I will bring thee back (again), and in 
this land shalt thou be buried, and Joseph will put his hands upon 
thy eyes. Fear not ; go down into Egypt." 7. And his sons rose up, 
and his sons' sons, and they placed their father and their possessions 
upon wagons. 8. And Israel rose up from the well of the oath on 
the sixteenth of this third month, and he went to the land of Egypt. 
9. And Israel sent Judah before him to his son Joseph to examine 
the Land of Goshen, for Joseph had told his brothers that they 
should come to dwell there that they might be near him. 10. And 
this was the goodliest (land) in the land of Egypt, and near to him, 
for all of them and for their cattle. 11. And these are the names of 
the sons of Jacob who went into Egypt with Jacob their father. 
12. Reuben, the first-born of Israel ; and these are the names of his 
sons : Enoch, and Phallus, and Esr6m and Kar&mi, five. 13. Simeon 
and his sons ; and these are the names of his sons : IjSmuel, and 
IjamSn, and Av6t, and Ijakim, and Saar, and Saul, the son of the 
Canaanitish woman, 1 seven. 14. Levi and his sons ; and these are the 
names of his sons : GMson, and Qaitfch, and Mer&ri, four. 15. Judah 
and his sons ; and these are the names of his sons : Shela, and Phares, 
and Zarah, four. 16. Is«achar and his sons ; and these are the names 
of his sons : T6M, and Plraa, and Ijlisub, and Sanaarom, five. 17. 
Zebulon and his sons ; and these are the names of his sons : Saar, and 
E16n, and Ijalll, four. 18. These are the sons of Jacob, and their 
sons whom Leah bore to Jacob in Mesopotamia, six, and their one 
sister, Dinah, and all the souls which were sons of Leah, and their 
sons, who went with Jacob their father into Egypt, were twenty-nine, 
and Jacob their father being with them, they were thirty. 19. And 
the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, the wife of Jacob who bore 
unto Jacob Gad and Asher : 21. And these are the names of their 
sons who went with them into Egypt : The sons of Gad : Sephjon, 
and Agati, and Suni, and Asib6n. . . . and Arfilf, and Ar6di, eight. 21. 
And the sons of Asher : Ijomnd, and Jesiia, . . . and Baria, and SfirS, 
their one sister, six. 22. And all the souls were fourteen, and all 
those of Leah were forty-four. 23. And the sons of Rachel, the 
wife of Jacob : Joseph and Benjamin. 24. And there were born to 
Joseph in Egypt before his father came into Egypt, those whom Asenath 
bare unto him daughter of Potiphar priest of Heliopolis, Manasseb, 
and Ephiaim, three. 25. And the sons of Benjamin : Balsi, and 
Bakar, and Asb61, Gftada, and Neem6n, and Abdj6, and Rae", and 
Sanfinim, and Aphim, and Gfiam, eleven. 26. And all the souls of 
Rachel were fourteen. 27. And the sons of Bilhah, the handmaid of 
Rachel, the wife of Jacob, whom she bare to Jacob, were Dan 

1 Emended. 
Y 2 



320 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

and Naphtali. 28. And these are the names of their sons who 
went with them into Egypt. And the sons of Dan were Kusim, 
and Samon, and Asudi, and Ij&ka, and Sal6m6n, six. 29. And 
they died the year in which they entered into Egypt, and there 
was left to Dan Knsrm alone. 30. And these are the names 
of the sons of Naphtali : Ijdsiel, and GaMni, and Esaar, and 
Sallum, and Iv. 31. And Iv, who was born after the years of 
famine, died in Egypt. 32. And all the souls of Kachel were twenty- 
six. 33. And all the souls of Jacob which went into Egypt were 
seventy souls. These are his children and his children's children, in 
all seventy ; but five died in Egypt before Joseph, and had no 
children. 34. And in the land of Canaan two sons of Judah died, Er 
and Onan, and they had no children, and the children of Israel buried 
those who perished, and they were reckoned among the seventy 
Gentile nations. 

XLV. — And Israel went into the country of Egypt, into the land 
of Goshen, on the new moon of the fourth month, in the second year 
of the third week of the forty-fifth jubilee. 2. And Joseph went to 
meet bis father Jacob, to the land of Goshen, and he fell on his 
father's neck and wept. 3. And Israel said unto Joseph : " Now let 
me die since I have seen thee, and now may the Lord God 
of Israel be blessed, the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac who 
hath not withheld his mercy and his grace from his servant Jacob.'' 
4. It is a great thing for me that I have seen thy face whilst still 
living ; yea, true is the vision which I saw at Bethel, blessed be the 
Lord my God for ever and ever, and blessed be his name. 5. And 
Joseph and his brothers ate bread before their father and drank wine, 
and Jacob rejoiced with exceeding great joy because he saw Joseph 
eating with his brothers and drinking before him, and he blessed the 
Creator of all things who had preserved him, and had preserve 1 for 
him his twelve sons. 6. And Joseph had given to his father and to 
his brothers as a gift the right of dwelling in the land of Goshen and 
in IUmesen& and all the region round about, which he ruled over 
before Pharaoh. And Israel and his sons dwelt in the land of Goshen, 
the best part of the land of Egypt ; and Israel was one hundred and 
thirty years old when he came into Egypt. 7. And Joseph nourished 
his father and his brethren and their possessions with bread as much 
as sufficed them ' for the seven years of the famine. 8. And the land 
of Egypt suffered by reason of the famine, and Joseph acquired all 
the land of Egypt for Pharaoh in return for food, and he got 

1 " As much as sufficed them," seems corrupt for " according to their 
persons," cf. Gen. xlvii. (LXX.). 



The Book of Jubilees. 321 

possession of the people and their cattle and every thing for Pharaoh. 1 
9. And the years of the famine were accomplished, and Joseph gave 
to the people in the land seed and food that they might sow (the 
land) a in the eighth year, for the river had overflowed all the land 
of Egypt. 10. For in the seven years of the famine it had not over- 
flowed 3 and had irrigated only a few places on the banks of the river, 
but now it overflowed and the Egyptians sowed the land, and they 
gathered 4 much corn that year. 11. And this was the first year of 
the fourth week of the forty-fifth jubilee. 12. And Joseph took of 
all that which was produced 5 the fifth part for the king and left four 
parts for them for food and for seed, and Joseph made it an ordinance 
for the land of Egypt until this day. 13. And Israel lived in the land 
of Egypt seventeen years, and all the days which he lived were three 
jubilees, one hundred and forty-seven years, and he died in the fourth 
year of the fifth week of the forty-fifth jubilee. 14. And Israel 
blessed his sons before he died and told them everything that would 
befall them in the land of Egypt ; and he made known to them what 
would come upon them in the last days, and blessed them and gave to 
Joseph two portions in the land. 16. And he slept with his fathers, 
and he was buried in the double cave in the land of Canaan, near 
Abraham his father in the grave which he dug for himself in the 
double cave in the land of Hebron. 17. And he gave all his books 
and the books of his fathers to Levi his son that he might preserve 
them and renew them for his children until this day. 

XL VI. — And it came to pass that after Jacob died the children of 
Israel multiplied in the land of Egypt, and they became a great nation. 
and they were of one accord in heart, so that brother loved brother 
and every man helped his brother, and they increased abundantly and 
multiplied exceedingly, ten 6 weeks of years, all the (remaining) days 
of the life of Joseph. 2. And there was no enemy (lit. Satan) nor 
any evil all the days of the life of Joseph which he lived after his 
father Jacob, for all the Egyptians honoured the children of Israel 
all the days of the life of Joseph. 3. And Joseph died being a 
hundred and ten years old ; seventeen years he lived in the land of 
Canaan, and ten years he was a servant, and three in prison, and 
eighty years he was under the king, ruling all the land of Egypt. 4. 
So he died and all his brethren and all that generation. 5. And 
he commanded the children of Israel before he died that they should 
carry his bones with them when they went forth from the land of Egypt. 

1 Emended with Lat. from B. 2 Added with Lat. and Gen. xlvii. 23. 
3 Emended with Lat. from D. * Emended with Lat. 

6 Emended with Lat. 6 Slightly emended. 



322 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

6. And he made them swear regarding his bones, for he knew that the 
Egyptians would not again bring forch and bury him in the land of 
Canaan, for MSkamar6n, king of Canaan, while dwelling in the land 
of Assyria, fought in the valley with the king of Egypt and slew him 
there, and pursued after the Egyptians to the gates of Erm<5n. 7. 
But he was not able to enter, for another, a new king, was ruling over 
Egypt, and he was stronger than he, and he returned to the land of 
Canaan, and the gates of Egypt were closed, and none went out and 
none came into Egypt. 8. And Joseph died in this forty-six ih jubilee, 
in the sixth week, in the second year, and they buried him in the land 
of Egypt, and all his brethren died after him. 9. And the king of 
Egypt went forth to war with the king of Canaan in the forty -seventh 
jubilee, in the second week in the second year, and the children of 
Israel brought forth all the bones of the children of Jacob save the 
bones of Joseph, and they buried them in the field in the double cave 
in the mountain. 10. And the most of them returned to Egypt, but 
a few of them remained ia the mountains of H6br<5n, and Abr&m thy 
father remained with them. 11. And the king of Canaan was 
victorious over the king of Egypt, and he closed the gates of Egypt. 
12. And he devised an evil device against the children of Israel 
of afflicting them, and he said unto the people of Egypt : 13. 
" Behold the people of the children of Israel have increased and mul- 
tiplied more than we. Come and let us deal wisely with them before 
they become too many, and let ns afflict them with slavery before war 
come upon us and before they too fight against us ; and they join 
themselves unto our ' enemies and get them up out of our land, for 
their hearts and faces are towards the land of Canaan." 14. And he 
set over them taskmasters to afflict them with slavery ; and they 
built strong cities for Pharaoh, Pith6, and Ramse, 2 and they built all 
the walls and all the fortifications which had fallen in the cities of 
Egypt. 15. And they made them serve with rigour, and the more 
they dealt evilly with them, the more they increased and multiplied. 
16. And the people of Egypt abominated the children of Israel. 

XL VII. — And in the seventh week, in the seventh year, in the 
forty-seventh jubilee, thy father went forth from the land of Canaan, 
and thou wast born in the fourth week, in the sixth year thereof, in 
the forty-eighth jubilee ; this was the time of tribulation on the 
children of Israel. 2. And Pharaoh, king of Egypt, issued a com- 
mand regarding them that they should cast all their male children 
which were born into the river. 3. And they cast them in for seven 
months until the day that thou wast born. And thy mother hid thee 

1 Restored from Lat. 2 Lai. adds " and On." 



The Booh of Jubilees. 323 

for three months, and tbey told regarding her. 4. And she made an 
ark for thee, and covered it with pitch and asphalt, and placed it in 
the flags on the bank of the river, and she placed thee in it seven 
days, and thy mother came by night and suckled thee, and by day 
Miriam, thy sister, guarded thee from the birds. 5. And in those 
days Tharmuth, the daughter of Pharaoh, came to bathe in the river, 
and she heard thy voice crying, and she told her maidens ' to bring 
thee forth, and they brought thee unto her. 6. And she took thee out 
of the ark, and she had compassion on thee. 7. And thy sister said 
unto her : " Shall I go and call unto thee one of the Hebrew women 
to nurse and suckle this babe for thee ? " And she said unto her 2 : 
"Go." 8. And she went and called thy mother Jockabed, and she 
gave her wages, and she nursed thee. 9. And afterwards, when thou 
wast grown up, they brought thee unto the daughter 3 of Pharaoh, 
and thou didst become her son, and Ebr&n thy father taught thee 
writing, and after thou hadst completed three weeks they brought 
thee into the royal court. 10. And thou wast three weeks of years in 
the court until the time when thou didst go forth from the royal 
court and didst see an Egyptian smiting thy friend who was of the 
children of Israel, and thou didst slay him and hide him in the sand. 
11. And on the second day thou didst find two of the children of 
Israel striving together, and thou didst say to him who did the wrong : 
"Why dost thou smite thy brother?" 12. And he was angry and 
indignant, and said : " Who made thee a prince and a judge over us ? 
Thinkest thou to kill me :as thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday ?" 
And thou didst fear and flee on account of these words. 

XL VIII. — And in the sixth year of the third week of the forty- 
ninth jubilee thou didst depart and dwell in the land of Midian * 
five weeks and one year. And thou didst return into Egypt in the 
second week in the second year of the fiftieth jubilee. 2. And thou 
thyself knowest what he spake unto thee on Mount Sinai, and what 
Prince Mastema desired to do with thee when thou wast returning 
into Egypt on the way when thou didst meet him at the lodging- 
place. 6 3. Did he not with all his power seek to slay thee and de- 
liver the Egyptians out of thy hand when he saw that thou wast sent 
to execute judgment and vengeance on the Egyptians?'' 4. And I 
delivered thee out of his hand, and thou didst perform the signs and 
wonders which thou wast sent to perform in Egypt against Pharaoh, 

1 Emended by Dillmann. 2 Restored from Lat. 

3 Emended from Exod. ii. 13. 

4 Restored from Lat. and Exod. ii. 15. 

$ Emended by comparison of Lat. and Exod. iv. 24. 



324 The Jewish Quarterly Review, 

and against all his house, and against his servants and his people. 
5. Arid the Lord executed a great vengeance on them for Israel's 
sn.ke, and smote them ' through (the plagues of) blood and frogs, 
lice and dogflies, and malignant boils breaking forth in blains ; and 
their cattle by death ; and by hail-stones, thereby he destroyed every- 
thing that grew for them ; and by locusts which devoured everything 
which had been left by the hail, and by darkness ; and by the death 
of 2 the firat-born of men and animals, and on all their idols the Lord 
took vengeance and burned them with fire. 6. And everything was 
sent through thy hand, that thou shouldest do (these things) before 
they were done, and thou didst tell it to the king of Egypt before 
all his servants and before his people. 7. And everything took place 
according to thy words ; ten great and terrible judgments came on the 
land of Egypt that thou mightest execute vengeanje on it for Israel. 
8. And the Lord did everything for Israel's sake, and according to 
his covenant, which he had ordained with Abraham that he would 
take vengeance on them as they bad brought them by force into bond- 
age. 9. And Prince Mastema set himself against thee, and sought to 
cast thee into the hands of Pharaoh, and he helped the Egyptian 
sorcerers, and they set themselves against (thee), and they wrought 
before thee. 10. The evils inleei we permitted them to work, but 
the remedies we did not allow to be wrought by their hands. 11. And 
the Lord smote them with malignant ulcers, and they were not able to 
stand, for we destroyed them so that they could not perform a single 
sign. 12. And by all (these) sigus and wonders Prince Mastema was 
put to shame 3 until he became powerful/ and cried to theEgypt'ans 
to pursue after thee with all the powers of the Egyptians, with their 
chariots, and with their horses, and with all multitudes of the peoples 
of Egypt. 13. And I stood between the Egyptians and Israel, 
and we delivered Israel out of his hand, and out of the hand 
of his people, and the Lord brought them through the midst of the 
sea as if it were dry land. 14. And all the peoples whom he brought 
to pursue after Israel, the Lord our God cast them into the midst of 
the sea, into the depths of the abyss beneath them, for the sake of the 
children of Israel ; even as the people of Egypt had cast their chil- 
dren into the river, he took vengeance on 1,000,000 of them, and 
one thousand strong and energetic men were destroyed on account of 
one suckling of the children of thy people which they had cast into 
the river. 15. And on the fourteenth day and on the fifteenth and 
on the sixteenth and on the seventeenth and on the eighteenth Prince 

1 MSS. add "and slew them" against Lat. 

- Text restored. 3 MSS. insert a negative. 

4 Or " devised a plan," A. 



The Booh of Jubilees. 325 

Mastema was bound and imprisoned behind the children of Israel 
that he might not accuse them. 16. And on the nineteenth we let 
them loose that they might help the Egyptians and pursue the chil- 
dren of Israel. 17. And he hardened their hearts and made them 
stiffnecked, and the device was devised by the Lord our God that he 
might smite the Egyptians and cast them into the sea. 18. And on 
the seventeenth we bound him that he might not accuse the children 
of Israel on that day when they asked the Egyptians for vessels and 
garments, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of bronze, 
in order to despoil the Egyptians in return for the bondage in which 
they had forced them to serve. 19. And we did not cause the chil- 
dren of Israel to go forth from Egypt empty handed. 

XLIX. — Remember the commandment which the Lord commanded 
thee concerning the passover, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its 
season on the fourteenth of the first month, that thou shouldst 
kill it before evening, and that they should eat it by night 
on the evening of the fifteenth from the time of the setting of 
the sun. 2. For on that night it was the beginning of the festival 
and the beginning of the joy — ye were eating the passover in 
Egypt, when all the powers of Mastema had been let loose to 
slay all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of 
Pharaoh to the first-born of the captive maid-servant in the mill, 
and to the cattle. 3. And this is the sign which the Lord gave 
them : Into every house on the lintels of which they saw the blood 
of a lamb of the first year, into that house they should not enter to 
slay, but should pass (by it), that all those should be saved that were 
in the house because the sign of the blood was on its lintels. 4. And 
the powers of the Lord did everything according as the Lord com- 
manded them, and they passed by all the children of Israel, and no 
plague came upon them to destroy from amongst them the soul of 
either cattle, or man, or dog. 5. And the plague was very grievous 
in Egypt, and there was no house in Egypt where there was not one 
dead, and weeping and lamentation. 6. And all Israel was eating the 
flesh of the paschal lamb, and drinking the wine, and they lauded and 
blessed, and gave thanks to the Lord God of their fathers, and were 
ready to go forth from under the yoke of Egypt, and from the evil 
bondage. 7. And remember thou this day all the days of thy life, 
and observe it from year to year all the days of thy life, once a year, 
on its day, according to all the law thereof, and do not change the day 
from (its) day, or from month to month. 8. For it is an eternal 
ordinance, and engraven on the heavenly tables regarding the children 
of Israel that they should observe it every year on its day once a year, 
throughout all their generations ; and there is no limit of days, for 



326 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

this is ordained for ever. 9. And the man who is free from unclean- 
ness, and does not come to observe it on occasion of its day,, so as to 
bring an acceptable offering before the Lord, and to eat and ! to drink 
before the Lord on the day of that festival, that man who is clean 
and close at hand shall be cut off, because he offered not the oblation 
of the Lord in its appointed season, he shall bear his own sin. 
10. Let the children of Israel come and observe the passover on the 
day of its fixed time, on the fourteenth day of the first month, be- 
tween the evenings from the third part of the day to the third part 
of the night, for two portions of the day are given to the light, and 
a third part to the evening. 11. This is that which the Lord com- 
manded thee that thou shouldst observe it between the evenings. 12. 
And it is not permissible to slay it at any hour of the light, but on 
the hour bordering on the evening, and let them eat it at the time 
of the evening until the third part of the night, and whatever is left 
over of all its flesh on the third part of the night and onwards, let 
them burn it with fire. 13. And they shall not cook it with water, 
nor shall they eat it raw, but roast on the fire : They shall eat it ' 
with haste, 2 its head with the inwards thereof and its legs 3 they shall 
roast with fire, and not break any bone thereof ; for there will be no 
tribulation among the children of Israel on that day. 4 14. For this 
reason the Lord commanded the children of Israel to observe the 
passover on the day of its fixed time, and they shall not break a bone 
thereof ; for it is a festival day, and a day commanded, and there may 
be no change from it day to day, and month to month, but on the 
day of its festival let it be observed. 15. And do thou command the 
children of Israel to observe the passover throughout their days, every 
year, once a year on the day of its fixed time, and it will come for a 
memorial well pleasing before the Lord, and no plague will come upon 
them to slay or to smite in that year in which they celebrate the 
passover in its season in every respect according to his command. 16. 
And they shall not eat it outside the sanctuary of the Lord, but be- 
fore the sanctuary of the Lord, and all the people of the congregation 
of Israel shall celebrate it in its appointed season. 17. Every man 
who has come upon its day shall eat it in the sanctuary of your 
God before the Lord from twenty years old and upward ; for thus is 

1 Emended with Lat. 

2 Eth. renders "with care,'" and Lat., " diliff enter" ; but as they are 
both renderings of ptSrt5, Exod. xii. 11, 1 have translated accordingly. 

3 Eth. Lat. LXX., Exod. xii. 9, and Vulg., render "feet," but I have 
rendered " legs," as more truly representing VS - !?. 

4 Corrected from Lat. Eth. MSS. give, for " no bone of the children of 
Israel shall be broken." 



The Book of Jubilees. 327 

it written and ordained that they should eat it in the sanctuary of 
the Lord. 18. And when the children of Israel come into the land 
which they are to possess, into the land of Canaan, and have set up 
the tabernacle of the Lord in the midst of the land in one of their 
tribes until the sanctuary of the Lord has been built in the land, let 
them come and celebrate the passover in the midst of the tabernacle 
of the Lord, and let them slay it before the Lord from year to year. 
19. And in the days when the house has been built in the name of 
the Lord in the land of their inheritance, they shall go there and 
slay the passover lamb in the evening, at sunset, at the third part of 
the day. 20. And they shall offer its blood on the threshold of the 
altar, and place its fat on the fire which is upon the altar, and they 
shall eat its flesh roasted with fire in the court of the house which 
has been sanctified in the name of the Lord. 21. And they will not 
be able to celebrate the passover in their cities, or in any place save 
before the tabernacle of the Lord, or before his house where his 
name dwells ; they will not go astray from the Lord. 22. And do 
thou, Moses, command the children of Israel to observe the ordi- 
nances of the passover, as it was commanded unto thee ; declare thou 
unto them every year, and the day of its days, and the festival of un- 
leavened bread, that they should eat unleavened bread seven days, 
(and) that they should observe its festival, and that they bring an 
oblation every day during those seven days of joy before the 
Lord on the altar of your God. 23. For ye celebrated this festival 
with haste when ye went forth from Egypt till ye entered into 
the wilderness of Sur; for on the shore of the sea ye completed 
it. 

L . — And after this la w I made known to thee the days of the Sabbaths 
in the desert of Sinai, which is between Elam and Sinai. 2. And I 
told thee of the Sabbaths of the earth on Mount Sinai, and I told thee 
of the years of Jubilee in the Sabbaths of years : but the year thereof 
I did not tell thee till ye entered the land which ye were to possess. 
3. And the land also shall keep its Sabbaths while they dwell upon it, 
and these shall know the year of Jubilee. 4. Wherefore I have 
ordained for thee the year- weeks and the years and the jubilees : there 
are forty-nine jubilees from the days of Adam until this day, and 
one week and two years : and there are yet forty years to come 
(lit. " distant ") for learning the commandments of the Lord, until 
they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the 
west. 5. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from 
all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and 
error, and dwells safely in all the land, and there will be no more an 
adversary (lit. a Satan) or any evil one, and the land will be clean from 



328 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

that time for evermore. 6. And behold the commandment regarding 
the Sabbaths I have written down for thee, and all the judgments of its 
laws. 7. Six days shalt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sab- 
bath of the Lord your God. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye 
and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and 
all your cattle, and the sojourner also who is with you. 8. And the 
man that does any work on it shall die : whoever desecrates that day, 
whoever lies with a wife, or whoever says he will do something on it, 
so as to set out on a journey thereon ' regarding 3 any buying or selling : 
and whoever draws water which he had not prepared on the sixth day, 
and whoever takes a burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his 
house shall die. 9. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day 
save what ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to 
eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, 
and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival, 
and a holy day, and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel : such is 
that day among their days for all days. 10. For great is the honour 
which the Lord has given to Israel that they should eat and drink 
and be satisfied on that festival day, and rest thereon from all labour 
which belongs to the labour of the children of men, save burning 
frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord 
for 3 days and for 3 Sabbaths. 11. This work alone shall be done on 
the Sabbath-days in the sanctuary of the Lord your God ; that they 
may atone for Israel with sacrifice continually from day to day for 
a memorial well-pleasing before the Lord, and that he may receive 
them always from day to day according as thou hast been com- 
manded. 12. And every man who does any work thereon or goes a 
journey or tills (his) land, whether in his house or any other place, 
and whoever lights a fire, or rides on any beast, or travels by ship on 
the sea, and whoever strikes or kills anything, or slaughters a beast 
or a bird, or whoever catches an animal or a bird or a fish, or whoever 
fasts or makes war on the Sabbaths : 13. The man who does any 
of these things on the Sabbath shall die, so that the children of Israel 
shall observe the Sabbaths according to the commandments regarding 
the Sabbaths of the land, as it is written in the tables, which he 
gave into my hands that I should write out for thee the laws of 
the seasons, and the seasons according to the division of their days. 

Herewith is completed the account of the division of the days. 

R. H. Charles. 

1 Or "say thereon regarding to some work that he will do it early 
thereon." (B.) 
s MSS. "and regarding." * Or "of."