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550 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 



THE RITUAL OF THE SEDER AND THE AGADA 
OF THE ENGLISH JEWS BEFORE THE EX- 
PULSION. 

Jacob b. Jehuda of London, the author of that valuable 
contribution to the literary side of Anglo-Jewish history, 
the Talmudical compendium Etz Chaim, so providentially 
rescued and preserved for us, never dreamt, when he noted 
down, in the year 1287, the Ritual and Agada of the 
Seder Nights according to English usage, that he was fixing 
a permanent picture of what was doomed to destruction, 
and was recording not a mere portion of the liturgy, but a 
page of Jewish history. Faithfully copying his great proto- 
type, Maimonides, the English Chazan also embodied in 
his work the texts of the Recitations on the Seder Nights 
in the form customary among his countrymen, and ap- 
pended the correlated rites according to Minhag England. 

The Hagada has hitherto been considered the piece, par 
excellence, common to all the liturgies, and bearing the least 
and fewest marks of national differentiation. The exami- 
nation of our MS. shows, however, that this part of the 
Service reflects as clearly and unmistakably the charac- 
teristic independence of the English liturgy, already noted 
in a previous article, as the rest of the prayers. Notwith- 
standing its small bulk, several variations distinguish and 
mark it off from the French ritual. Thus, for example, the 
repetition, in the vernacular, of the first two pieces, before 
and after the second cup — which, we learn from Rashi's 
Pardess was the French usage — was not customary in Eng- 
land.' Had it been so, how valuable would the English 

' Solomon b. Jehuda, the saint of Dreuae (see Gross, Mevne deg Etudes 
Jvives, XIIl, 46, No. 3), followed this custom of translating the Hagada 



The JRitual of the Seder and the Agada. 561 

renderings from the pre-expulsion period have been to us. 
Or, perhaps, they too would have been in French. The 
single non-Hebraic term which R. Jacob gives in his Ritual 
of the Seder, cer/euil, the name of the vegetable handed 
round after the first cup, is French, and is met with in 
authorities of French origin or descriptive of the French 
ritual, e.g., in the Mac/izor Vitry (ed. Hurwitz, p. 294 : 
^"iB-ixn }o np'i). 

In the third part of his Hilchot Pesach, R. Jacob gives 
detailed instructions for the preparation of charoseth. But 
we look in vain in his work for a translation of the terra, 
though such is given in Zidkiah b. Abraham's tapVn "hlitf 
(ed. S. Buber, p. 184). 

The directions for the preparation of the mixture are as 
follows: — np' ing'ins nasi o^e^ idt onsiD nano hj'n nonn 
p"?!!!! tbnoi foin Da 1""' Pi^i tViox in nnanj in onon 
'Dnns'n n»B> ^b> nn»B ^do iniK'r^ emoa nsdji f^ana t3»D 'oa 
fiom fpn !?» Dtfn npe^ anptj' fi'DVi man tun jiibt njNn mon 
6B^"i»ai B»o^ nat a»i i»nnn i3-nii«? nian^ ^DT nvp [i^Dim l.] 
ineny id'b^b' Emaibio bS^ "o^ trh lat pn iniB'rb nnv nb 'a»N 
noai noa ♦mi ppK'o ia t»3nij ^lata ncB'ai n^nna ay. We need 
but compare this with Zidkiah b. Abraham's recipe, to 
notice the difference of national usage, even in this trifling 
detail. In England, all the fruits named in the Song of 
Songs — dates, tigs, pomegranates, nuts and apples — were 
crushed with almonds and moistened with vinegar. In 
Italy, spices, vegetables, blossoms, and even a sprinkling of 
lime formed some of the ingredients of the paste. R. Moses 
of London, quoted in this connection, appears here as an 
unquestioned authority for the Seder ritual. For the first 
time, an English Rabbi, a master in Halacha and an authority 
in traditions, confronts us as a living personality and not 

into the vernacular, so Samuel of Falaise reports, as quoted by R. Isaac, 
Or Sarua, II., 119ff, 13*?ia IV t'V^a nOI^ b'JT H'H B'VmD CnpHI 

paiDD. 

' Or Sarua, II., 119 J. 



552 The Jetcish Quarterly Revieie. 

merely a nominis umbra. R Moses' decisions were recognised 
even when opposed to the pronouncements of such great 
French teachers as the famous R Isaac b. Abraham=Isaac 
of Dampierre, brother of R. Simson of Sens, who, by the 
way, was known in England by the abbreviation N"i3n, not 
K3n or K3xn. As in France, they relied for their knowledge 
of the Seder ceremonies on such revered teachers as R. 
Solomon b. Isaac of Troyes, R Joseph Tob Elem and others, 
who worked out arrangements of the Seder ritual, in prose 
and verse ; so R. Moses of London stood out as the central 
authority in tradition for the whole of England. Most 
probably he also left a compilation of the rules appertain- 
ing to this service, which Jacob b. Judah possessed in 
manuscript, just as he left compilations of other ritual laws, 
e.g.: — NKTiiji^o Mon DiiD "iK'to D»3nn ^31 "rs fin^^D no^n 
n'a'J'n (Bodleian Library, codex 882). 

But apart from the historical interest of R. Jacob's Agada, 
it deserves examination for its deviations from, and addi- 
tions to, the textus receptus. In the following pages I have 
carefully copied the rubrics which precede the Agada and are 
interspersed in it ; and also noted all the essential variants 
of the Agadah as contained in the fourth part of the 26th 
Book of the Mz Chaim. Thus an idea may be formed of 
the text of the Agada which, three years before the expul- 
sion, was already accepted by the English Jews as a heir- 
loom of the past : — 

n» n^nn ^ow n'?iJ3 f» ^'bi [^»b s.] i''t33 pibt' nnon nr Yb 
♦ms3E' '03 wpn E'np'i inn ^33 d» 3Dn^ n^»i n3-i3n ^n^^ nntc 
ni30i in'rm 3n Nini 'dji^ n^id nnx b nnt?*! B'np nis^ns 
kW '•y^ n3'? nisD n»3r3 in bbi u»pn n^ois 'n ^^h& pro rara 
KS» 1D13D 103^ npcrn '3m3 DN1 noiD pron n3n365' innwt ti3» 
iN»tD» N^tf n^»t33ni »jy nnsoi in» ^omi n»i^3T 3n nne'K' mm 
^"iDTS3 jnjtsi nip"i» np»i n^nn ;niK'j)^ iwo-i nrjK' jne' in» 
nr iniSD ^nb' p^si nDnn3 k^i n^o »d3 h3t3»i nrnxn s"3 ni3D» 

• ne»1 inno, ed. Hurwltz, p. 274, note K. ' /*., p. 278. 



The Ritual of the Seder and the Agada. 558 

htm rmh "iniD n^D *d nh px dni lona wdd k^d* vh »3B' ^uo 
n^NH nip-i»n» nna n»"iv pKi nonna nt ^uo ana 'iD»»oni nau'a 
nna bs n^ dn nityaa '-na inn« ina* n^i na»n^ ns »a nr psB' 
m»p K»a» na -inNi : n^K nipn»D nnx ^a^ nna nnxo ♦jid'^dhi 
"w^ »3»iD »jc5» DHB' *3iD»Dm Nnann 'ini p^^t^an 'ai niXD 'in oy 
nmnan 'rana 'ik ^myhvi onn ^ax nvan^ nnxi noa^ nar nnt< 
inat^ DN *a nt i^sc k^ nso ^as I'^ib'oi nou '^snt mih 
^laN^ unjB' Dipm ''ano ^y *np ntainc jid na^ai 'OKpi 'r^hmfm 
'nv i»N naB' ^KVioa hdb ^n t iniN pbiN 13n ps nni? ^aK »W 
nin t/'riD entyj dni nac? nnn n"» nran pxn nnw ^'c^an dk *a 
♦DH^!? i»»D nnK jntj^ws jnitw^ aruoi nivo 'J nnrpa tr^i "inw n»^ 
nt'N »i»D^ jnjDi nvn* dni an^^i? ej^ovi *nD»Bn» Nsvn «*aDB' mm 
niSD 'in ID nnx ^dmi nn^ pxi n'B'*'?B' nt*Ni n"3K> nt'si hjib'nt 
«n 'taN'i n*a tn«» n*sm pip»Bi6 n»vn wvih np^noi njiamn 

After the formula Non^ Nna, which corresponds com- 
pletely with the ordinary reading, the direction follows : — 
\Tim m»pr 'ipoa mypn p!?Doi n-^h n^ton inno na nnxi 
p^D^ yyi pxi ^NE**^ ja"? "ran nti vn D'jep D3n^iK> an^D^ae' 
n»av N^ BN *nna "^^irv? K>np»a 'na psK* n-irpn jo j»^»e>ann 
m»aia nnx ik wa 13^nb>» dni *3E' ma 31To»i nt noa 'ini ^^tfann 
: TMnm no : 'on* ^nic px dni 'ia i3»*n anai? 'oxn 3^n» 

The form of the questions exhibits no difference what- 
ever, except that MTON is used throughout instead of 13K. 

In the opening of the response M"n anar we read : — 
*^nj Nnioai D^naioai niniNai n*i03 rntai ; a^jpr u^a is want- 
ing ; naa^ mvo alone is found. 

The passage concerning the night spent in Ben^ Brak, 
which is only known from the Agada — its original source 
being still undiscovered — arranges the names in the follow- 
ing order : — Na^pr ni rtfin* 'am »^k ni nnw ja t»*^k "ia rmm 
XVBTKi '-\\. It only reads n'?'^n !?a. 

' Petaehim-yWib ; Maehzor Vitry,-p.2&i. 

» Ibn Jarchi, mjon Pe^aeh, § 69. 

» Machzor Vitry, p. 272. < lb., p. 271, note K. 

' L. Hoffmann in BerHner't Magmin, 13,193, not* 1. 



554 The Jewish Quarterly Reviete. 

The formula D1p»n ^n3 is peculiar and against Reif- 
mann's hypothesis, that this piece is of the nature of a 
responsorial song. It begins as follows: — ina Dipon "yna 

nranN 1333 'ib^ 101;^ min \Tm Kin •\\-\i idb> 'na i*«in. 

The wise son says, in contradistinction to his wicked coun- 
terpart: — S|N1 wniN 13»nW '♦* niV IK'N, as, indeed the Mechilta 
and all ancient texts of the Agada read (comp. Hoffmann in 
Berliner's Magazin, 13,193). The speech put into the mouth 
of the Btn has the readings : — WiV N'VinB', Oif n»n 'h'>»&. In 
the fourth son's speech liO^h is omitted. 

The piece ^13* contains the reading: — "^h ♦mON »h. 

After 101B' nna it is said:— Kpn ni^a^ aw pnB' t^'a n'a 
'DKt5> noa. 

In no^i NV the reading is ^an niprS, rpne'n!? TT n!?B' n»'?o 
ainn naa »a ob' nia^ tiha u& is wanting, — wti '36? dixm ^nj 
ntrp mia» and D'DD nc r^r id*B"i are omitted, hit niK'na 
htrKr> riK D»n'?N nti '36? pN, '3B> D»3an i'?n, pmn ir, »"» i3N»vn 
nN'?o '"y i6 n&K), *3K ntn n^»'?a onvD psa ♦maw. 

After the words nn« N^l Nin »3N, a passage follows which 
has hitherto been regarded as specially and exclusively 
interpolated in the Provencal Ritual. Here it boldly ap- 
pears in the text without the suspicion of a hint that it 
was condemned by some authorities. Juda Halevi {Kttsari, 
III., 73">, who sought it in vain in the Talmud, i.e., the 
ancient authorities, correctly recognised it as a poetical 
elaboration of the conception that the Exodus was God's own 
direct and immediate work. That the piece did not belong 
to the Spanish Ritual is proved by his remark that it is 
only found in one ritual — as we now know — the Provencal. 
If the author of Asufoth (Gross in Berliner's Magazin X., 64) 
was correctly informed, this piece and its recitation at this 
portion of the service were condemned by the Rabbis of 
Palestine (see Luzzatto in Polak's tnp nia^^n, page 41). 
Mr. Schechter has already pointed out (Jewish Quarterly 
Review, IV., p. 255) that R. Judah b. Jakar also failed to 
discover the source of this Agada. The English reading of 



The Ritual of the Seder and the Agada. 555 

the passage is undoubtedly more correct than that given in 
Machzor Vitry, p. 293 ■} — rxr onvoa a^D^wn pa-i m^ca noK 
nno Cfs ON^D DHD n^an *3S^o ^6? nuan d»s^k D^re^n loi? 
»D^ ntmN n^n^m • nm »aN^D one pn *aN^» dhd ma ^aw^D 
mi'K'a mi nca n^» N^ni dSi? ^c mut vjb^ noN oniN nxn!? 
nnxi iBua lus nsd* vhv^ na mix pfl»p» mam int? 'on'pDa 
inna *3a 't*?* ^jai nnair MnjNB' nw }n D'a^on *a^D ^^D wn 
PNB' *3a psn HB'irNi »^ in»3n urh 'n onvoa nopj nt^Mi ma 
n»a iDnvoa nopi ntwNi 'oxua »3n msB' nr mipru ♦nin 

: nann n nprn 

In the following passage the reading is: — '3B> annn it, 
'JE' ni^aE' »ib It, nriNai arw ninoi rntai nptn n»a nnx tan 
D»nB' D'nsDai D»nE> ^nj Nnioai Q^ntJ', o^nson ip^t? |»3d, 'in ints, 
nt «in D»n^N raxN, in mo D*n ^ni, nnrts ni»N is wanting. 

For Nin nna empn, the reading throughout is 'pn. 

In ni^PD noa the single variant is D31DD 13^. 

In nnN ^N, 13*^1? is wanting after DipD^. The reading is: — 
DH'n^Nai '*esE' nna ntfyi, nann^. 

The piece commencing ^N»^»3 "\ varies : — 'IN 'J'l, ntyStJ* 
iV^n Dnan, jn i^n, d*p enpon n»aK' }Dta is wanting. 

'vtf '-0^ »3a »na ^u oipopi nosB' dib' hv, onsoa before isija 
is wanting. 

'DN^i nvD npM, irnuN npva, rhy^ nr. 

'ONM nnon np»i, »n o^nvon, omai? ^a j-in is wanting; 
: NV* i^Na iDvr niNn^ 

na»B^ : 'ON* iDia nnN Sa n»a3»i, pa^^n, ina^i is wanting. 

W'niaN^ D*D3 nt5W, ta"*^ ^aNoi h\M "iin^ h^snoi is wanting. 

Against the tradition in Ibn Jarchi (3»n3Dn, Pesach, p. 75), 
the conclusion here reads : — n*1^!?n enn n^t? V3a^ "iDN31. 

Before the recitation of the Hallel, which, in spite of its 



' The objection to this deduction in Machzor Vitry, p. 293, is conapt. 
Instead of "IDini ?pa iniNI, left by Hurwitz uncorrected, we should read 

npv NVO» N^B* na iniN pD'po vnay N^ni iiDNn noini % iniNi 

*0 IDN [Nin T>B1D] '13 "I'PD nHNI 1B133 ; comp. DTp nia'^n, p. 41. 



556 The Jewish Quarterlp Beviete. 

being unabbreviated, appears without the customary intro- 
ductory blessing, the remark is made: — nni; y^SD n»n xnai 
1V3T : mhhn 'acnp jk3 px nnty Bmate bn^ ia i»ni ^!?nn nnp^ 

: 'D1K1 'oiwn naiETia 'ma jai 
After WV) )yvoh, the direction is given rvan Wa 'tilNl. In 
the blessing ntn n^»^n «p»jm, v<i'>^ D^natn pi D^nDsn j». 

Here follow the rules for the blessings to be recited 
before the meal : — 

t5'N3 niDia tm2 ']'\sx^ yn^ ]•>») '^nittn laan na Kiia 'naoi 
nnir ^tawi ntDia jn»n nana »3 jsjn ^u nna» k^i niana 'a^na '»s 
K^ nipnn wik'nt n^^om on* n^»m ^r ^^a»1 mwon itiv^ in» 
^it3»^ pans paiDon i?a djt h"y\ in^rmn noo N^'^m maxn ud 
'mjN 'N JN» 'oNna ch:> noiBi mjKn '1K nnx n»n onns^a 'p«n 
mnn no'n 'vtm maxn 'in w^iae' nni; ^ax 2ntrt5> an ntj^ an »3 
nnw ninxan nxtsn n»an hs2r\ njyh) Dnn» ^id»^ bn '♦anx 
nxt3 n^»3N ^i; iapx ip nnsi N»yi»n Dn'nu' ^u inaoi nvo'hefn'o 
hv 'nana nain h& nvon N»n n nw nna biKi Dn^ncno »^ai 
nna nnx ^3^ jnwi nno np»i nno nnni n»3 ini^3N» Dnnoi nixo 
^» iapN nna'i r^inn n»on^ nonna ^no»i no na^na nV»3Nn 
ii;Ni ntsia Dn^nt? nonKn ba ina^ nnx pxi ^3N»i nno ni»»3K 
lina D'Nan onana »3n iN^a »iD K^n jva nan na^^ «3 13»nb> 
na «nn nnon ^» n^nna ^nao V""' "'KK' n3»^ »31 '^on nnwon 
nt ]'>tn n3na N^a "vno ^»3n nnni ^»3ni nino n^»3N ^»i nonsn 
K^K ni^'an np»D N^n ninon ^i; niana »nt5'n inao(n) dk ni^'an 
iin niana ^nt^ni nab Dia jwta nnk hy^ ttnnpi jiran n3nan N»oin 
D^wn 10 ni3n»^ niDkn qikts »in nn^n nanantf «a»n ^ax nam 
nmaM n»B'»W nnx onpi^ i3 nnsi <ni^»an nn vh nana K^a ntn 
noinna nBnPB' nr ^laoi ^Sna tj'npo^ nsr nonna ^lao'i nno nor 
^lao penwy iva n^n sap na n'h van: na n»Nn ^an 'xap dib'o k^ 
nonna ntjni; n»n Nonoo nnx ^lais neni; n^n t6 hhm hhr\^ n3T nt 
naa »3 «in n3n3a nno nna nnp^ pajE' rnnji^o 6^hi nt oinaoi 

' Op^n '^38?, ed. Buber, p. p. » /"eMcAon, f. 1166. 

' ^ihn ^h2V, ib. ; rnjon, Peiach, § 67. 

* rnjOn, Pemch. § 82. » lb., ^ 79. and Pesachim, t. Il6a. 



The Riiual of the Seder and the Agada. 557 

r\y^i "ino nna na^na nniNi ^aiN ^^n n»n sin inain n* «x* 
pn^n niana vV» y<yo n^ry »a »in nanan hv panao p« ^ax 
IK ^lao ia TN DK B^n px in»oi mkx» naa nnB* n^oa^ nana »in 
^in «»viDn inao n»n i»31»d onjo irani nanan nara 13^ m nna 
Dn^ K^N nj'KC? ^Sa wi3 n'n n^ no^^B'ai nonan ^1; nxo n^'aw 
JO nnxa bn nanani nvo n^»aK ^in x^xion x^'w B'n mtw 
an^^ nnsn nixD tib' dk *a p rmrj n»n k^ dsd anni nivon 
^» nnKai K»xiDn nnxa inc^B'a nixts 'j ni{«?^ pain ^ax naens 
'PT iNB^ ^laon rmv *3io»»oni nannxa nanani nso n^»at« 
nonna nnoni nonna nso n^'ax ^y nn^at? nonani nonna 
»3Ba nn nt 'xn 'aana na^n dn '■h 'psoon 'ib^ 'onna nanani 
^aiK nsT po"»nK> tmji^o D"n^ nji una n^nc ^^na in ids» 
KnniKT nsD ^oaoi 'jam 'nn >n»^ nH nonn N^a ma^ no^^e'n 
i^oaM imwD b ^ax* nnxi Nsp uwo rvwptth 'nv nnon ^aK 
!?aN 'nniNi ntn jota fjK N»nB' raa nv» pro p[']»3n pip'ska 
jnnK nnaa nx* ]»ipbk bx n^i naB* dki )^ naaN vh pam nnoa 
BIN 2niv»o niso ^c jniN jipna nvim \hff jw£o bn bxc nxoo 
nnK» K^i n^onn^ inx ]»k mon ^>nnn^ panxoB' d^^hj b*' »a 
nixn inK bw irxB' noan oipoa NaB> nnn nns iDipasn ^lax^ 
>DV 'na {Dipax ibx* n^ aiB* mwon iina ob 13b>*i lomj dki 

JDIpBN lbK» ob 13B'» N^ DN ^aK 'ibx' N^ lomi nOB »aj 'NT 

ano'i nana^ ni^ioa roonno on^B* nana N^a in» ^id» ^a nnw 
N^ ]Bjn hv la nnKi [n](i)nB'n jain aa nna^i jntsn nana^ 'b^^b* oia 
"ym pa ^ax mo nioa^ naB**! nanB'* n^b* ^v'^yh '•^h^ pa nnB** 
DTipi nanB^ w^k miyon imaB' pn nnB'» nma^ nxn dn nioian 
: "iiBB* 'DN^i >»»an oia ino* ia nnw lanB'n^ ni^^in pN pjon 
The curious passage "inon ^1BB', which appears imme- 
diately after Grace and before the continuation of the 
Hallel, and has become associated with Elijah's Cup, but 
for which there is no authority in the ancient Talmudical 
literature, was recited in the following characteristic form : 
N^ noB^a -v^i nia^Don ^jn iiyn^ vh tb'n n^iin ^i; inon -iiaB* 

' What is here related in the name of K. Menachem, the saint of Joigny, 
Isaac, Or SarvaQl., 119A), tells in the name of R. Jom Tob of Joigny, the 
martyr of York. See Z. Cahn, Revrie dei Etudet Juivet, III. 4. 
» amnion, Peto^h, § m. « Pe»a.eMm. f. 102*. 



558 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

1N3» ^Ni uw hv jw njD : uy^n nsN |nni -pax un'hv Ibb' • intp 
3^ njJD Dn^ {nn • onn' ntwoa « ^idj dh^ s^bti • ^np^V3 
noE^ DDTts 'nn • « 'otf nnno on^DBTii f\^i fiTin • on^ in^Kn 

• uns' ^N D»pny Din D^n naoo ino» • 3{?i' »n' ^n Dn»SnN3 
Dn^ )n }nn no « on^ jn ■ Dvaan isr '"paa Sn3 t33{}'3 Dinin 
riNi ini^3'i inibsi 3pt;* tin i^3n »3 • n^poix onen S'stfo om 

: lot^n ini3 
While, therefore, the Italian Jews recited only Ps. lix. 6 
(cp. Roman Machzor), and the Sephardic Jews added v. 7, 
and the present form has in addition Lam. iii. 66, we see 
here, in contradistinction even to the North-French Eitual, 
as preserved in Machzor Vitry, p. 296, with its many verses, 
the following independent selection of Scriptural texts: 
Psalm Ixix. 6, 7, 28; Lam. iii. 64-66; Ps. Ixix. 26, 29 ; ii. 9 ; 
Hosea ix. 14; Jer. x. 25. The margin contains, in addition, 
Ps. XXXV. 5, 6; Jer. xvii. 18; Ps. xxxvii. 15; Ixix. 24; 
Ixxxiii. 18, in the same hand as the text : — 
nip^p^m nnn Dsnn 'n' • nnn « -[vhn\ nn ':a'? poD rn» 

• u-a&f \roxif [n](')JB'D[i] njn dv 'rxhv N'sn • Dsnn '^ in^oi 
Dn»3noi niNio Dn»j»r njsB'nn • nyax^n onntypi D3^3 N3n D3nn 

: n3N'i nsHM [ir]nr iSn3'i w^y ninsn Ton 

Then follows the rubric •.—'iipii nnr Ti3^l S^n S'nnn^ p33i 

nSina nnpS dk 'd dSw^ ti3^ pN now^ nnx '3 «!« S^n nnp^ 

: 13 'D1J1 13^ N^ nr 'INI 'p3Ti;3 PN 'D 
Before ivon }D the direction is given :— nin "ilDon wr'i 
piDB ^33, and before 1DN0 px— ^Q13 i^'Ni JN3'0. 

Before -\'hhr\'' the remark is made : — nnr I1^^n'3 Dinn' ^N1 

• nin3B'n3 ^^^03 o'oj>b 'Vff oinn^ i7V3 no o "jnan '?bn3 ^'nn' yt 
ninB'^ nxni o'ino'N in Nin nSin dn in 'ps o^n "\ anu n'n pi 

: T^^n» • no'nnn nn nnN di3 ninB'^ ns ni'?^n»3 oinn' inv 

The conclusion here reads : — l[»]TDni ymm hz w'pW " T^^n' 

' Arachin, f. 10a (Tosafot. s. v. H"*). Of. Beraelwt, i. 14a, Toiafot, s. v. 

inN miyon inNi nnp^ n^nn3i D'oys p3-i30K' c* D^nca '^♦^31 
-11 D J*? P313D iiatj'. 

» ro«a/o^ Pesachim, f. 118fl, s. T. JjnV '31. 



The Ritual of the Seder and the Agada. 559 

T3t^ wn* mm nin ntnp dk' nx is^^d'i ihib'^i idditi nsa* runa 

: ninanna SSino n^o " «a « nn« d^w 

Then cornea the following passage : — DJnDKn IK n^inn T»aM 

nDB'3 '0N» na nnxi ^nan ^!?n^ i»{?on Dia jitd^i nne^i naa 

: rh'hn iniN ^a Di^a owta* nVi nntr^i nsa nna^ Dinn'i nantr^i 

: D'D niriB'^ jn^spo j'N »a fix joip'ssn oyta rs* k^b' 

The conclusion consists of the brief memoria technica of 

the Seder Ritual. A commentary on it is not given, though 

the writer probably composed one; just like Samuel b. 

Solomon, styled Sir Morel of Falaise, who wrote one on 

Joseph Tob Elem's rhymed Pesach arrangement which is 

preserved by R. Isaac, Or Saruah (II. 114-20); or, to quote a 

later instance, Solomon b. Jechiel Luria, who provided a 

Commentary to his own verses on this theme, in which 

he gives his name acrostically (Resp. 88) : — 

Tnciif -non id'-dh -p Un 
[s. ^MBis] borh &)mh iawLii» Viw Kmp 

ms I '>iV ^1DD Wn p» ^Ni 'D3 

'DtDiK' nuts' nwD nar inn 
: *3ip I'nyo Dia in noana *d 
Then follow rules for those who perform the Seder in 
other households : — 

niVD '3D nns i?xi3 na [tik] enpoi n'?nn ^013 j" 1^ i^Kt? 'o 
ncN lib '•<nW ^ xa psn p on^ ''sion lib s " {ita 'iki hmnm 
rsiai nvD nVoN ^1? iaps nam ntini • }Dt 'ia oi; Van ua nna 
»a n^*e3 N^a ^aiNi ^aooi ^"iBn»v npiS in^ntyo ^aisi nn' in^nena 
• '■«?» ^N3 nr '3nB'3 noi n'3i; 'dh^ nh '1KI N'xion tiis^ Vt33 naa 
nno n^»as ^r nnaoi nno npi^i j" pxT nnso nana }t<a j'ki 
paoi nana xSa ^oui tdbdi nwDi nana 163 ^aiKi nonna ^aooi 
^^31^0 ncD "3n n* 'ao 'npnrn na Dia K^a jnon nana 

' Gr. Bikell, Jl/ewe m. Pascha, p. 81, thinks that the fifth cup is first 
mentioned in the 10th century. He has overlooked the fact that in the 
Boraitha Pesaehim, 118a, the old reading is ^B'DH Dia. See Siddmr Rav 
Aviraiit I., K'D Op?n 'VaB'. p. 200; Joseph Caro. Tur Orach Chaim, 481. 



660 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

nK'W na noa moa onnX «»viDn '-k>v an 'noa N-ia vnxsD am 
nnr*i mas 'dx* pB'xn pn» ^lata ^lata^i jie'kt did nne^i Bnp» 
^» ina'i Saxn nxD n^'ax ^in K'viDn 'ana nDina ons'i 'jb' Dia 
niD3» njnnxa in'aa pi D»na 'oaa ta nsw'i ^^na nina»i nnon 
nnt^M S^n 'dk» »j/»3nn % '<itf'h^ Dia nns^n wno hy nnaM innWD 
niDV *i;*ann hm Doia inE>M 'iton nana lanan 'jk' n*a^ n^* nnt<i 
B" DX1 »i;'an^ *b"Sb' pa aha mna'^ nox n^b' nnyn nnan ^^n 
Kin K^i inK'^i lana* Dm hhn nioj' ^^n de> niDJ^ »t5'»^B' n'a nw 
^r)p'< "h panx DK1 nnx n*aa vnph ri'DV nS in'aa }Dp»Qt< ^axK'Di 
nvo nS^asi K'vion 'anai in^i haa on lana' 'ipn»n ^i;i nnK** vhy 
Qvk naim ^»t<in -niDn hy pi Kin SaN» n^i DN'xinSi ina"? ^ia» 
}iTDn niDia iana» am an^ ina* k^ npn^n nana ^ax k^xio kx»B' 
Dia nns ni? jaan na bi jaan ^i? nna^ pxB' 'nj xnan ana hhnm 
♦a 'B3 Nnia Piioa^ nnao i3»s tiE>t<n Sao nnxS nn anu pi »i;'3n 
nivD 'iZ'yS »3B' Dia^ inao 'an eai liaa »3t5' Suoa nna» k^b' »a'n 
'niK^ nana 'a; kVi 'SdjS pn '*nin noo vh nnjxi opnty Dia ^a^ 
nanaS pit< 'nvt 'noo "ii»'\ nao jicxn Dia ^r 'aan hv '^anaoB' 
• n^oa^ nana »in n"3E> aye nna^ na 'ean hy "ina» n»K idd ah 'xn 
N'vion nnaS nirn^ ^^ann^ 'nnwa i?x»k3 'noiy^ '^anvoc? ty^i 
pton nana dk *a poan pxn Ennji^o niw nii *rj/a Kin ^ani 
: 'nJNi n^an kS 'Dane's 'd'toj' pa ♦ 'Dai nnwD^ 
Of free poetical additions, which certainly embellished the 
Seder Evening Service in Anglo-Jewish, as in French and 
Italian homes, the author of our compendium has preserved 
only one specimen in his work. Before passing on to the 
chapter on the Middle Days of the Festivals, he gives the 
piece nx' 1^ '3 nxj l^ *a. Zunz says {Gottesdienstl. Tort, 2nd 
edition, p. 133) that it, together with the last three passages 
of the Agada, was added in the loth century. But, at 
the close of the 13th century, we see it a firmly established 
portion of the Fnglish Ritual, before the expulsion. The 
author of the Etz Chaim has even taken care to anticipate 
all questions as to its antiquity, bj' adding a stanza in 
which he introduces his own name, Jacob, acrostically. 
There can be no doubt, therefore, that in his time already 
this poetical effusion formed an integral portion of the 



The Ritual of the Seder and the Agada. 661 

Seder Ritual. Its original form is that given here. In our 
Ritual and in the Roman it has suffered several modifica- 
tions. It may fitly form the pendant to this note : — 

^m "ID nN3 i!? ^3 • n3'?o»n ^ ^^ n^ «in n^ ^^ »3 n^ ^'?1 ^^ 

: "13 HNJ 1^ »3 '13 n^i ^!? 1^ nox^ vp'ni • n3^n3 ynr\ n3i^03 
: '13 nw i!? ^3 '13 ^!?1 n^ i!? nox* inoEsta • n3^n3 j^on nsi^oi »N3t 
: '13 nN3 1^ ^3 '13 n!?i n^ 1^ 1-iDK* VN113 ' n3^n3 Dno n3i^D3 n^n» 
: '13 nw i!? »3 '13 ^!?1 ^^ i^ nox' i^ns • n3Sn3 vji; n3i^D3 3*3D 
: '13 HNJ 1^ »3 '13 n'?i ^'? i"? noN' vnim • n3^n3 mp n3i'?D3 pnv 
: '13 nK3 1^ '3 '13 iSi ^^ 1^ noN' in^p^ • n3!?n3 ei*pn n3i^03 hints' 
^^ eiN ^^ ^^ ^3 n^ -^ i? -6 noN^ r^a • n3!?n3 Nup n3i!?Da nw 

: mbaon »^ n^ 

David Kaufmann. 



VOT,. IV. V V