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Notes and Discussion. 505 

naxn D"n ons iks u 1 ? 

raw ta n»3n inrfo 
• naam nnx nnenni ona 

, inmo ;n -ibd nbtmi vh 
np-in pa ^ npmo nra» 
• npS »to tpov ik>n npn 

, inuy by Tina runx •£ 
, nxon ntDN , *an3 niroK ib 
: rrc^> Dion "?k vyb^ nnai 

P"e6 n3n«Es n'a wnba bjdi* >jk enr6 nE>»na waBTia nr rvni 
Paris, July, 1892. Richard Gottheil. 

Samuel Portaleono's Proposed Restrictions on Games of 


At about the year 1630, Samuel ben Elisha Portaleone drew up 
a series of suggestions for the regulation of gaming some- 
where in Italy. The city for the guidance of whose Jewish inhabitants 
these proposals were intended is not stated. As may be seen from the 
text that follows, it is not clear that it was Mantua, where Samuel 
ben Elisha Portaleone 1 was born. Perhaps the writer was at the time 

1 Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 27123, has the following autograph heading on 

p . 7a : _td33 i ?xik>b> Tyxn *3N m*nn2> memno wb& -©d m 

ine> pnD3 ntnai nana bi by vmn jm nns -\yvo n"r6t wbtt 

• in"j?3 waea nats> hd rvoa jm mvb mira nmna 

The author's usual signature, which does not mention his father's name, 
occurs in MS. Add. 26991, p. 20a, where he mentions his brother Solomon, 
n'TPT TM nDT'K' H DDnn, in whose hand are written the Chiddushim on 
AlfasiinMS. 27176 and the greater part of Add. 26991; Samuel's signature 
also occurs in MS. Add. 27124, p. 5, where he writes "IJ?E> and not "1J7CO. 
The same spelling may be noticed in MS. Add. 27090, p. 143, but the 
superscription there is not in Samuel's own hand. Mortara in his 
NvNti'N 'DSn 1VDTD seems unaware that Samuel was born in Mantua, 
a fact distinctly stated in the text here published. 

506 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

in San Martino, where we know him to have been settled in 1623.' 
The suggestions are rather roughly written in autograph, on paper, 
one page of which is already occupied by part of a Hebrew letter 
describing the Feast of Purim to a non- Jewish friend. 

The MS. from which the text is taken is British Museum Addi- 
tional, 27,176. It runs from page 115 to the end of page 13a. 
Some account of this MS. is given in Hamazkir vi. 54, for it forms 
Part III. of No. 286 of the Almanzi MSS. The statement that it 
belongs to the sixteenth century 13 clearly wrong, as can be seen by a 
comparison of the other MSS.' in the British Museum, which are also 
in Samuel Portaleone's handwriting, and contain dates. 

It is not necessary here to attempt a full biography of the writer ; 
but a few points may be noted. The Portaleone family * occupied a 
prominent position in Mantua, but they seem to have left it for a 
time during the troubles connected with the Thirty Years' War. 
At the Expulsion in July, 1630, apparently no important member of 
the family was in Mantua ; 4 but by the year 1652 we find Benjamin 
ben David Portaleone settled there as a well-known physician. 5 
Samuel himself delivered a hesped in Mantua," whither he seems to 
have returned ; so that the connection of the family with that town 
was very speedily restored. I am able to add another member of 
the family, Matithyahu bar Isaac Portaleone, who is named in two 

1 Brit. Museum. Add. MS. 27090 p. 1435. In the citation in Hamazkir 
v. 105, f'SK* is wrongly given : the MS. has i"2'&. 

' The MSS. concerned, which are all briefly mentioned in HamazMr 
(iv. 147 ; v. 105, 107, 144 ; vi. 54, 55), are the following seven : Add. 26991 
(Almanzi, No. 102), 27090 (196), 27104 (210), 27123 (230), 27124 (231), 
27176 (286), 27182 (292). A large portion of these MSS. are written by 
Samuel himself. The same kind of paper is also employed throughout, 
and all the MSS. are quarto, except Add. 27182, which is folio. The MS. 
Add. 27123 in particular contains much information. Samuel cites the 
names of several of his pupils and of those at whose festivities he 
officiated, or at whose invitation he preached. I hope to return to the 
subject in a subsequent article. Some other dates and biographical 
references are gleaned by Dr. Neubauer from two Bodleian MSS. See Dr. 
Neubauer's Catalogue column 212 (No. 988), and col. 142 (No. 731). 

a On the Portaleone family, see Steinschneider, HamazMr VI. 48. 

4 This statement I infer from the omission of any such name from 
Abraham ben Isaac Massaran's Jinsm ni?3n (Venice, 1634), where a full 
account is given of the sack of the Mantuan Ghetto, and the return of the 
Jews thither after a short interval. See G-raetz, Oesehiehte X 3 . 49. 

5 Benjamin's name is found among the signatories to the Tekanoth, 
printed in Dn35HB»n mSB>, Mantua, 1652. 

6 MS. Add. 27123, p. 271*. 

Notes and Discussion. 507 

Mantuan publications of 1726 and 1 753. 1 Our Samuel was a some- 
what voluminous compiler, the most interesting of his works being a 
MS. volume of sermons in his own handwriting (MS. Add. 27,123). 
From this MS., several items of which are dated, we find that he was 
engaged to be married in Mantua on Purim, 1630, i.e., just before the 
Expulsion (p. 255J). Probably the insecurity that followed accounts 
for the postponement of the marriage till two years later, Elul 8th, 
1632 (ibid. p. 2595). Samuel, besides preparing a series of sermons 
for delivery Sabbath by Sabbatb, 2 also informs us that he sometimes 
preached in the vernacular (p. 65). He even cites in one of his 
discourses two Italian proverbs in the name of his father.' We find 
him preaching in K"3"I1D on Elul 28th, 1626 (p. 1725) ; in Ferrara in 
1626 (p. 2425) ; in *3"ltf>lp, on Chanuka, 1627 (p. 2755) ; in l^lTU 
in 1628 (p. 915) ; in 1t3»D13 in 1630 (p. 2425). In K"3TID he is again 
in 1630 (p. 228) ; in Padua in 1633 (p. 148*). He must have written 
many other sermons which are not preserved. 

It seems probable tbat Samuel Portaleone wrote the suggestions 
that follow during some of these many wanderings, or that he was 
invited to send suggestions from Mantua. The terms that he uses are, 
however, quite compatible with the supposition that his plans were 
intended for the benefit of the Mantuan congregation. It is interest- 
ing to notice that a strong outburst of puritanism occurred in Mantua 
during the first half of the 17th century. Thus a severe sumptuary 
law was printed in that city in 1644, and from the copy preserved in 
the British Museum, the sumptuary code then issued was intended to 
be posted up. The code fills a single sheet in folio, is printed on one 
side only, and looks quite formidable. The severity of Samuel 
Portaleone's proposals is thus accounted for. The Mantuans printed 
a good deal at about this period/ and what is more remarkable, the 
printing followed very closely on the passing of the regulations. 

1 This name occurs in the fti man 70 T\ii\V\\ "HD (Mantua, 1726), 
and in the constitutions of the society 1*171X13 ?tO (Mantua, 1753). 

2 See note 1 and MS. Add. 27182, which also is autograph, and contains 
a large number of sermons. In the course of both MSS. he frequently 
refers to other sermons which are not extant. I hope to give a fuller 
account of these discourses on another occasion. 

3 Add. 27123, p. 1135 :— <3"3ip I"j£>2 'OIK h&OTW ♦njf»B> W N'K *B01 
s i"-)t6 *D iD'DVIB m >D *VT1 K13 ; and again, *?B>»n W K'K E3B>31 
KD TSKD »D ND }13 »p ND *NDN "101K t"J?Sl, which evidently is the 
same as the modern Italian proverb Assai sa, chi non sa, se taeer sa. 

4 Besides other publications, mentioned elsewhere in this notice, a little 
quarto book, 1D'3il TJD, was printed in Mantua in 1642. This is not the 

508 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

"Whether the particular suggestions of Samuel Portaleone were ever 
put into force I have no means of deciding. For the explanation of 
some of the proposals, I may cite Halberstam's article in the Graetz 
Jubelschrift, pp. 53-62, and the article of Professor Kaufmann 
(Ha-a$if, iii. 209), and the references there given. Many points iti 
the document here printed seem to me of sufficient importance to 
justify a full translation (I.). The text (II.) follows. 1 

" The proposal of the Members of the Council is one acceptable at 
once to God and to all that know the Law and Judgment, and to every 
man of intelligence who desires to regulate the conduct of himself and 
his household, who is anxious for the good of the public to put re- 
straints and to do what is right in the eyes of God and man. But in all 
such cases it is a good and established plan to find other methods which 
are more acceptable (than your proposals) in the eyes of all, so that 
no one, whether low or high, whether man or woman, shall, God 
forbid, fall into error. May God give his support to the good, and 
annul every evil from his people Israel, that all of them may be 
worthy of blessing. He that listens to counsels is wise. If it be well 
in your eyes, I should propose the enactment of the following regula- 
tions, in substance if not exactly in the terms which I suggest : — 

(1.) No person, whether man or woman, shall be permitted to 
play any game whether withia the Jewish quarter or outside it, 
before noon ; but playing shall be lawful from noon onwards till 
the afternoon prayer, in summer till four, and in the winter till five 
o'clock. From that time forwards and till the afternoon of the next 
day they shall play no game whatever, neither for money nor for 
money's worth. The penalty for disobedience shall be that the de- 
faulter shall pay over all his winnings to the charity box (or fund), 
and if he lose be shall give a tithe of the amount he loses in charity 
as a ransom to his soul for his trangression of this tekana (regulation). 
The games permitted in this paragraph do not include cards. 

same work as is mentioned in Hamazhir VI. 42 ; but it deals exclusively 
with the regulations of householding in the Mantuan Ghetto, and was 
rendered necessary in part by difficulties arising out of the expulsion in 
1630. The regulations are dated 1642. 

1 On the games mentioned, see Low, Lebensalter VIII., ch. 11, and 
Giidemann's Erziehnngswesen (1880), p. 60 and elsewhere in his interest- 
ing volumes. See especially his notes in the Graetz Jwhelschrift, p. 63. 
I can form no precise idea as to the meaning of the Q'Dm DDlp, on p. 510. 
The quotation from T\"$rV\, on p. 511, extends from "fob pXB> until DnSD 
It is from the -p3nn "I3D, § 67. 

Notes and Discussion. 509 

(2.) It shall not be permissible to play cards, and tbe same law 
applies to dice, called dadi, except on Sundays, Tuesdays, and 
Wednesdays ; not on Mondays or Thursdays, nor on a public fast, nor 
on Fridays, out of respect for the coming Sabbath. (On those days) 
the permission only extends between noon and the afternoon service, 
and no longer, under the penalty mentioned above. 

(3.) Even at the permitted time and game, no man shall play for 
more than one crown per day, whether he play with one companion 
or more. IE he wins or loses more than a crown in a day, he shall, 
in regard to all such excess, be liable to the fine mentioned above. 

(4.) On New Moon, Chanuka, Purim, and the middle-days of 
festivals, it shall be lawful to play for double the amount mentioned 
above, viz., two crowns per day, whether he play in company with one 
or more, and he who infringes this rule shall be fined as above. 

(5.) As regards other games, it shall not be lawful to risk more than 
half a lira at any game played for stakes (invito), whether it be 
draughts or chess, or cadurim (= some game with round objects), 
or lots, and so forth, while at cards they may play according to the 
rate that they agree with one another, except that no one shall gain 
or lose more than one crown per day, or during days of joy, two 
crowns, or during the seven days following a marriage, five crowns 
per day, and whoever infringes this rule is liable to the fine named 

(6.) No person, whether man or woman, shall play even at per- 
mitted hours and days, and for permitted stakes at the house of any 
man, unless the express consent of the latter has been obtained in 
writing. Any one disobeying this regulation shall be fined as above. 

(7.) He who plays with a member of a household, such as with a 
son who is dependent on his father, without the permission of the 
latter, or with a woman, without the permission of her husband, even 
though he plays for lawful stakes at permitted hours on permitted 
days, must regard what he loses as lost, but what he wins shall be 
accounted as stolen ; and the householder shall be empowered to bring 
the defaulter before the Jewi>h authorities, or, with their approval, 
before the civil Judge, and shall be able to force him to restore all 
that he has won. Nevertheless, the fine shall still apply that he must 
give a sum equal to his winnings, or a tithe of the sum he has lost, 
in charity. In all these fines, his own word shall not be believed, 
but the evidence must be taken of a credible witness, who shall give 
testimony concerning him. 

(8.) Whoever shall play in forbidden hours, or on forbidden days 
for more than a lira, or on permitted days and times for double the 
maximum stake fixed as lawful, shall pay, besides the amount due to 
the charity box, 25 lire to the treasury of the Duke, whether the 

510 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

person concerned wins or loses ; and he who informs against his com- 
panion in such a case shall receive a reward, while the other shall be 
mulcted of the fine ; and it shall be accounted for righteousness to 
him who tells the truth. 

(9.) Whoever disobeys the former tekana before the publication 
of this new tekana shall pay half a shekel as a ransom of his soul, 
and the Babbis who arrange the tekanoth in conjunction with 
the Council shall release him from the (old) eherem, (= ban) whether 
he has offended once or often, but he shall fall under the new regula- 
tion without penalty beyond the fine just mentioned to the Charity- 
box. And it shall be in the power of the Council, with the ap- 
proval of the aforesaid Rabbis, to divide the fines between seven 
boxes (or funds) : (a) the box for the Land of Israel, (b) the 
box for Talmud Torah, (c) the box for burying the dead, (d) the 
box of Charity, (e) the box for a maiden's dowry, (/) the box for 
maintaining the poor, (g) the box for redeeming captives. The 
value of the half-shekel in this matter shall be three and a half 
lire, i&. ten soldi, for each box. An offender who is poor and can- 
not pay the fine, shall beg for pardon and they shall put upon 
him the obligation to complete the whole book of Psalms in one 
month on Sabbath, and he who does it sooner shall be held praise- 
worthy. They shall invoke a blessing on behalf of those who 
observe this regulation with the approval of the Rabbis and the 

(10.) Whoever disobeys this tekana three times within thirty 
days, and does not duly pay the fine to charity inflicted in this 
tekana, then if within three days after the third offence he does 
not pay the amount fixed as a restraint, then he shall fall under 
the eherem referred to, and shall only be quit therefrom by pay- 
ing double the line, and if he has no money at all, or only possesses 
enough to meet his pressing needs, he shall present himself before 
one of the Rabbis who drew up that tekana, and he, together with 
two learned men who are entitled Glwber when summoned to read 
the Law, shall receive the Council's consent to examine into his 
case, and to pardon his offence if he pays only one tenth of the 
fine to the boxes ; or they shall inflict upon him a task connected 
with the Torah as a ransom for his soul on account of his offence ; 
and he shall be careful iu the future. Peace be upon all Israel. 

" And now I will express my opinion on the question of 
inflicting the eherem, which has been previously imposed, and 
I say that the Council and the Rabbis did possess the right to 
inflict it, for it is not deserving of the designation of ' a stringent 
regulation which the majority of the congregation cannot bear.' 
I am able to give testimony in the matter that in the city of 

Notes and Discussion. 511 

Mantua, my birthplace, the majority of Jews are not players, but 
only the minority, as is the case, too, in the mass of the Jewish con- 
gregations. Therefore the minority must give way to the majority, 
and the proviso that the tekana only referred to the Ghetto does 
not imply that they may play outside the Jewish quarter, and there- 
fore even in the Jewish quarter itself to prevent greater mischief ; 
but the proviso was only intended as a respectful regard for the civil 
authorities, and to avoid seeming to infringe the privileges of those 
who farm the licence to play outside the Jewish quarter. Never- 
theless, those who play outside ought to pay a ransom (in charity) ; but 
it is a good plan to sanction by other means all that I shall detail, 
that they may not become amenable to cheramim, except under 
great pressure. And Rabbi Aaron the Levite wrote, in his remarks 
on the law of ' after the multitude ' (Exodus xxiii. 2), that it must not 
be said that the Rabbis are few, and ought not to outweigh the un- 
learned many, even though they are as numerous as those who came 
out from Egypt ; hence it is clear that a congregation ought to 
obey the orders of a majority of the Rabbis and a majority of the 
Council, and he who breaks through the fence is deserving of punish- 
ment. I also think that it would be well to include in this tekana that 
whoever is in the receipt of alms, whether it be the man himself, or 
his wife, or his children, whether from the box or from private charity, 
who plays for more than a lira with one partner, whether man or 
woman, even on permitted days and hours, if he wins within the 
lawful maximum, what he wins shall be his, but he shall give a tenth 
of his winnings to the charity box if he wins more than a lira in one 
day from one man or more ; if he loses, the winner must pay all his 
winnings above a lira to the charity box. If it be proved that he 
sold his wife's or children's clothes or household utensils to use the 
proceeds at play, the buyer shall be bound to pay one -fifth to the 
charity box, and the man who wins from him, even though the winner 
himself be a poor man, shall pay all the winnings more than a lira in 
one day to the charity box. Subsequently if the treasurers and 
committee think fit to restore to him a half or the whole of these 
winnings after three days have elapsed, in accordance with the merits 
of the case, they may do as they wish, and may absolve him provided 
that he does not accustom himself to this or similar practices. Each 
case must be treated on its merits, and with a regard to the failings 
natural to man. 

" Further, if anyone plays outside the Ghetto, even with another 
Jew, the Jewish authorities shall seek a license from the Duke, none 
the less to subject the defaulter to the fine of twenty-five lire to the 
Duke's coffers ; and in case he cannot pay the fine to imprison him 
until one of his relatives or friends release him ; or if the congrega- 

512 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

tion wish to pay the fine for him from the communal funds, or the 
Parnassim wish to pay it, they shall be permitted to do so ; but they 
shall then be empowered to banish him from the city for six months. 
In all these cases a simple warning shall be held sufficient, or the 
public announcement in the synagogue, with the sanction of the ruler, 
if such be necessary ; or with the sanction of the auditor, and so 
forth. Further, the power shall be given to the Council and their 
Rabbis, or to the chief of the Beth Din, with the sanction of a 
majority of seven good men of the town, given at a meeting of the 
latter, to conjointly endeavour to lighten the stringency of the 
eheramim, and to substitute the lower form of ban, so that, e.g., 
the offender against any of these tekanoth may not be permitted 
to go to read the Law in the congregation, nor to be numbered as one 
for minyan ; nor shall prayers be held in his house if he die before 
he has duly purged his offence. This penitence shall consist of 
charitable gifts, or studying the Law on Sabbaths in the congregation, 
or in fasts in a fixed measure until it is probable that he will never 
repeat his perverseness. He shall also publicly ask pardon of God, 
and he shall declare that he regrets his offences or transgressions, and 
that he asks the Divine forgiveness ; and when they see that he is 
contrite, they shall receive him again and lighten his punishment ; 
and when the time has passed they shall absolve him from the eJierem, 
and shall include him in the benediction said on behalf of the con- 
gregation. Previous to this, when this congregational blessing is 
recited, they shall say, ' excepting those that transgress the law of 
the tekanoth, which were established to keep the people far from sin, 
and to bring them near to good conduct,' or some similar phrase. It 
would be well to make regulations in the sense o£ these proposals, 
but it would be best neither to make the penalties too stringent nor 
to loosen the bonds in the case of those who give themselves over to 
their passions to separate from the congregation. They shall also 
appoint a benediction for all who accept the tekanoth of the congre- 
gation in matters which are a fence to the Law. And the chief 
principle is that their motive Bhall be the service of God." 


bi '33^1 aipDH \)3"? nxo mn w nmn wis rkyo nana (ii» 
•*aai navy napna n^-in hy& bjni J? can b ^asVi pi m »jnv 
"pta wya "i2»m aits n jwjjVi Nroo myth D^ain nama psm irva 
o^opnon 'nnK "an sivo 1 ? naiaai nana nxy nta «sra !?aa jax mxi 

Notes and Discussion. 513 

*rk net* \n e»« \n bina \n pp \n nn« me «a» km San ^ya nnv 
*?tne» icy bo jn b ba»i aion •?« D»aD» 'no -m rn nbpn Die 
wya nan: Danbo wya ana djo Dan nsyb yoitri nanab idt* obiai 
: eoo nans k 1 ? dk \pnb nan nanb anpi Tarn neaa jpnb 
pa pm* Diea pinsb ne« pa e»« pa ens nit? bv t6e .njiejo 
ny nV«i mxno t6« aisn »sn Dmp mb nsm pa 'mrr nuaea 
.nmsoi niye ra nv spina oki roye a"a ny p^pa ok nraon nye 
*6 D^ya pins Diea iprw *6 ovn nixn nns n-inob iy t^ni nye 
npnsn naipb min»e no b jn»e naiyb Djpa noma me «b noma 
Sy naye »ab npns 1 ? TDane no b n»a neyon jrv tdb» dki 
: D>DSpa xb> m.nn nn»nn nyea pmxn mi leai nnaaS napnn 

DK '3 n"NT 'P3H N»31P3 n»m D's!?p3 pm^> nmc n\V »6 n^e 

t6 dji nuv n^yna t6i »eona vb\ »jea *6 n on o ovai '« Dva 
ny -j^ki dvh nisno nvw -wnn nyei nae.n maa \jbd *ee ova 
j ^j£> "own Djpn »aai ba nnv *6i nroon nye 
bv t6 ovn »b^> nnion pinsai irvnn nyea dj n^e^e 
nnn^eai nnv in 'n oy pa ova nnx move nnv pinvb dik Die 
: spun ba naun nnna oapn v!?y "?im nns moyo nnv n^DB' ik 
•-a by pirutn nn»n n»n* nyion bini omsi naun rvnac pv nT3"» 
)K a oy p3 'N dik oy |*3 ov^> nncy o pja ban Mn nonnn 

: "?*3ai Von wpa "?in» nr b nswm nm> 
1DM3»« pinv bs 'D^ »xno nnv n»n* «^» mpinvn nst? nno n'twn 
i-«b«i 'nna bv mpinx bs jo n^nnas ps o»dbdb3 ps T"y^a 
k^i tvyv vbv nabi *n^*a id^d*^ no 'sa '••sbp W p^nsai Nxvai 
md* 'Tai nnoy 'a nn»e> *>& "»m Voa Dva nn* nnoyo nnv n»DB* 
: "^n Dips ^b» nsiyn !?ai tn"h nintsy ntwn nam 
onx me jvaa pins'? ne>« ps b»n ps on« dib' bv xb n>w 
^3 men ^nb win niy^3 i^b«i nm»n di*31 nnion prs i^b« 
: ^'33i b"in Djpa ^>ib» nt bv naiyni khibd anaa n'arj 
nn ^3 V3N jr6iB> by iDian p paa n*a js Dy pnwn n^yoK' (i2«) 
nnion 0101 nnion my^s ^bn nbys men »n!?3 ntw oy in 3Kn 
bvi m»3 bti sen* nnn» dni iovyS n^oan n^oa* dn nn^nn nyeai 
isiaSi BBwn oab nmtra in bvrw »oan *»■? itosnb n^a.n Syan 
my^a npnit 1 ? jn* nnn^ no be wpn nsbo miTe no b nnm* 
nw «b niDJp.n i^n bsi npi)h nn^n my^a |n» n»DB» oto xwh 

• vby n»jw pic wy «b« ioxy »a bv jow 
nnv ">n»nn Dva t6c ik nn»nn nyea sbc pinv^c »o be n^roe 
miDom aivpn myeno ban nmon dvi nmpn pta is nn« o^o 
nnr6 'O'b neom D'ney Djpa bw npnxn naipb nnb a«m»e no nabtt 

VOL. V. K K 

514 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

rvxv naa nan n« yvhw >di tdbdh pa nmon pa nn» Diann 
; n»«n tjd^> aB>nm npnsi wpa a»in> nam ipbn 
napn ODnenn dv ny nnaye> napnn Vy nayt? »d b nwn (12J) 
mana nupnn ^ya '»Danro v<?bj msa^ V^n jvsno yna> ncnnn it 
p« roan "oys pa nn« oya nay pa mnan )b nw nynn nb» 
npnxn nsipb mate? wpn »aa dn »a iTvh ^a ntnnn napna wa» 
pa opM> onn ."mn rn^yo rnana iym nbvzb nai men nwi 
m^ca nsipi mnx mm nio^n nsipi nn« ^toe" p« naip maip 't 
naipi mnx nSna w&rb nsipi nnna a»cm neipi rnnx 'HDn 
m paj6 ^pt?n roxno niy»n royae* '"up nsipi mn« '"ay none 
e>pa»i d^ n»a pto »ay n\n»e> »di naip W> '*uh nnpy >sm 'd^> 'a 
nat^n ova '« cmna fa o^nn nso b ob^mb biy vby bw n^no 
mana nauan nxt noityn $>a^> •pvae' >d wna>i naww rn Dnipn bi 

: V'aa nynn n^yoi "aann n^yo 
*6i di» ">vhw n,ma nam napnn naa B"a naiyn ^at? upro nn»BT? 
0*0* hb'Sb' n,e>»a oat? pi» tk napnn »b^> nana npnsV Dapn yna 
tonn t« ^'aa a"D yn aixpn nwn yns* xb nn?»Wn cyan nn« 
«nne> in b p« dni Dapn ^>B3 yns' ny mtano noa» *6i «\nn mtan 
'pan mm ^ya '»ae> mana torn napnn ^>ya "aanno 'n mb^> ^» pirn 
e>Be>B^> nynn n^yoo ''trno iw mina Knp^> on'^ya 'nan o^a 
w msip^> ojpn nn»E^ m'B' »*y '»bx nayc? n» by & ^no^i una 
Sa^> tn lianV nntn naye* no by cbj msaV mm W v^>y .1^0* 

n»n rvstrasr ok noixi naa boinB» oinn nbon payb *yT ninx 
lmn an pw? mta nxnpa naw i!?'Dni) '^ann n^yoai nyim nVyoa 
mbio na»« mn^io px naitMD Tyt? nana ny oni na n)Dy^> "Vis* 
n,aSn m^»npn b on ann *>yc wa oiyon on «*?{< oopnv ^KnB« an 
nwe> «^> na^a oaa w.n roprvw xtrvvw noi ann tin vm oiyon 
oi pm^> orb nw p V'a^ai onin*n naiatw jnn pins'? na!? nmo 
wtb k^> «^>n n!?na nnv nbpbp n^ inu* k^ na onin\n naiaB'a 
men onaiB'n nie'n o^oaoa i»n» N^tf nia^on maa du?d dn »a m 
maa^ onto yma cprnvn »xma o"D onmm naiac^ pn& pvrxn 
*b\ triBNK' n» ^»a onntt oo^Da jpn^> nana w nam nxyc? n^>n 
P«b> D»an »nn« pna .TKn.n mai Sna pnna vb dk D»onna pb»' 
♦«xi»a i^bni nana onn na ynan kV noyio D»oan nat^ nop 
iyin am D'»ann an nan nioc^ bnpb ">)vr\v Nnanota n,a^»n onxo 
napnn n,ma bteb mi® *b nana my (i3«) : nnsa -pnx ~ni pisni 
pa naipno pa vaa pa mt^N pa wn pa npnv ^>apo KinB* »d bat? 
t»a '« onx Dy nnx Nno^o nnv pnx» new npnx n,nn nnwo i"? wv 

Notes and Discussion. 515 

jvit dk men *D3 mmon nypai imon ova toss ne* pa e»« 
^ nsip^> nn*»jm jn> pa to> nw nnw no fa *imon iuwn >B3 
oto "\nv )» 'K dikd '« ova Kioto nnv rrrw no fas npnx 
npi* fa> naipt> -innr6 a«w xnoto nnv ioy mrw no fa tdb» 
pin*^> rvan to is vnua ik vaa i« mew naa naot? man* dki 
i^bk woo mnon p« npi* fa> nsip^» n»e»onn nn^> 3»w naipn 
nn^ 3»w 'k ova nnx Kioto "inr.rvrw no fa >ay sin dj n»n 
D>Dr©m D»«ajn wya nsn* dk '3'roo npnv fa> nsip^ nmon fa 
wiro w nye>n "ps ^ d*d> 'a nnt6 to i« >*nn A !?woS \h nth 
*sb\ nye>n >b^> fam ia K*vai naa wxy brv t»to> nafai A *!?non 

: din tone' no 
-inK mn» oy i^bn DHin»n nans? wn ea^> pn pnx»e> *o fa iiy 
ncom Dne>y wpa ^ib» dub fa fae> nn» oiann tooo nun top* 
ny oniD«n n»aa ny> \nh no no tree* n^> oto oiann yvb wb 
ik im fa>o inna^> ^npn w oto vamx ik ranpo nnso ma* 
faai D*enn nw nj?a "vyno wnn^ DT3 niann nw ts Dorian 
dk jn«n mena nD»n noa nronn ik runnnn p»aon nta k*V3 
nfao Ta nnnn nw its) nsi»31 yown nfao niena ik T3^ wnmr 
•vyn »3io nyst? an nosDna jptn ain ik onfa> omnm njmn 
«l^nnS D»Dinn »{?3iy ^)pn^> nn» uni )W& Tyn »aio nyaB> noyoa 
«np^ lW ton njpno '« Vy naiyn ^»3i» kW pas ns^a nB»»a t^jiyn 
mo> d« imaa ^>Bnn^» «^» t6i mspy ^sa ni3D»V k^\ "naxa n-nna 
poya is npnva \n n*nn nawnn nty'B'i njijn nyt&n to jotn ^n 
nnn» «!?»• nann anpt^nyaixp nw>C3 nvayns ik nisxa nae>a mm 
^>y onnno sine no«»i Snpa 'n nso n^no wpy dj\ my niD^ 
lNTt? ^>3i n»3 D\pono n^no B»paoi -oj;e> nnuyn 1« nyoB> myon 
mi&n inn»n' ptn nny nnNi eoiyn itoo i^p'i into?' y3a«> u 
^>y onaiyn ns^o no«» -na**n D»3naDE'3 p^> ompi •p^B' »o ^aa 
anpi «^*ai nvatn b* oanp^i jiyo oyn t^^Tanb vpmv nwpnn m 
nyinn Tnn^> vb nx\ >sno nnv n»aan^ ton tpn? *i«n D»nann i^>ot 
♦o !?a^> nnuB' »o wpnn imn jo ems^ dw nu coxy on^pBD^ 
onam Tpyi rnin^ a«D ont? onana nnvn niapn ioxy ^y ^poB' 

: d»ob^ nruitt n^nnt^ 

I. Abrahams. 


In a note contributed to the Jewish Quarterly Beview for 
January, at p. 347, 1 ventured to suggest that the middle part of