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The Samaritan Liturgy, and Reading of the Law. 121 



THE SAMARITAN LITURGY, AND READING OF 

THE LAW. 



It is not intended to attempt here a description of Sa- 
maritan literature, a satisfactory account of which is to 
be found elsewhere, 1 nor even to deal exhaustively with 
the liturgical section of it, but simply to call attention 
(so far as is possible within the limits of an article) 
to some of the chief points of interest in the latter. 
With the exception of the few hymns published by Gesenius 
in 1824, and the fuller selection of Dr. M. Heidenheim 
in recent years, the Liturgy is only accessible in MSS., 
so that its extent and elaborate character have not been 
very generally recognised. To give some idea of this, it 
may be mentioned that the collection in the Berlin 
library, for example, consists of some twelve stout quarto 
volumes — not to mention duplicates. Much of this, of 
course, is biblical : the rest will shortly be published, 
with a translation, by the Clarendon Press. 

The interest of the compositions consists not in their 
antiquity, for the earliest date that can be certainly 
assigned to any is the fourth century C.E., but in the view 
they present of the religious development of an obscure 
tribe surrounded by conflicting religious systems, and yet 
holding aloof from all. The beginning of the Liturgy, as 
at present constituted, may be safely placed in the time of 
Baba Rabba, 322 to 362 c.E., who, according to a chronicle, 2 

1 See Nutt, A Sketch of Samaritan History, Dogma, and Literature, 
London, 1874. 

2 Called Eltholideh, of various dates. Edited by Neubauer, with trans- 
lation, in the Journal Asiatique, 1869, p. 385 seq. 



122 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

restored the services of the Synagogue. That some sort of 
Liturgy was in use previously is indeed probable, and some 
of the existing prayers, of which no author is named, may 
have formed part of it ; but there is no proof one way or 
the other. It is more than probable that the earlier 
Liturgy consisted of passages of the Law almost exclusively. 
Under the direction of Baba Rabba a new departure was 
apparently made, a large and important body of prayers 
and hymns for various occasions being composed by 
Marqah 1 and Amram Darah. Amram's work is called after 
him the JNTT, and their joint productions form the larger 
part of the Defter (8(,<j>6ipa), a common Arabic word for book. 
Before them stand a few prayers for daily and Sabbath 
use, whose authors are not named, and also the so-called 
prayers " of Joshua b. Nun," " of Moses b. Amram," and 
" of the Holy Angels." These may be from the earlier 
Liturgy. The following from the opening prayer, to be 
said at the beginning of every service, will give some idea 
of their general character 2 : — 

" I stand before thee at the door of thy mercy, Lord ! 
my God, and the God of my fathers, to speak forth thy 
praise and thy manifold greatness, according to my feeble 
strength, for I know 3 mine infirmity this day, and consider 
in my heart that thou, Lord, art God in heaven above and 
upon the earth beneath ; there is none else beside him. 
Wherefore in thy hands I stand, and turn my face towards 
the chosen place, Mount Gerizim, the house of God, toward 
Luz, the mount* of thine inheritance and of thy presence, 
the place which thou hast made thy dwelling, O Lord, the 

1 Several pieces were published by Heidenheim in bis Vierteljahrssehrift, 
passim, more ia bis Samaritanisehe Liturgie, Leipzig, 1885. Part of a 
commentary by him was edited by Baneth (Des Samaritaners Marqah 
. . . Abhandlung, Berlin, 1888), and another part of the same by E. 
Munk (Des Samaritaners Marqah Erzahlwng, etc., Berlin, 1890, v. Jewish 
Quarterly Beview), both from the unique MS. at Berlin. 

2 It is cited as yom ItnS ?V- The text published by Heidenheim, Op. 
eit., p. 130, is here corrected from two MSS. 

a Deut. iv. 39. 4 Exod. xv. 17. 



The Samaritan Liturgy, and Beading of the Law. 123 

sanctuary, O Lord, which thy hand hath fashioned. The 
Lord shall reign for ever and ever, for great is the Lord 
above all gods: righteous and upright is he. This, my 
prayer, is to the Preserver, the Living, for it goeth up to 
the Unseen, before him who knoweth the unseen things. 
Where is any God that helpeth his worshippers but thou ? 
Blessed be thy name for ever. There is no God but one ! " 
The Defter contains by far the most important, the ear- 
liest, and most frequently-used pieces. It would seem, in 
fact, that until the fourteenth century this was a sort of 
Corpus Liturgicum, whence selections were made for special 
occasions. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, O.E., this 
corpus was further extended (as was the case with Rabbini- 
cal liturgies) by the admission into the Defter of hymns 
and prayers by Abulhassan (rrTDn 2M), the Tyrian, 1 who 
died some time before 1070, and Ab Gelugah (rwfai 2S), 
about the middle of the twelfth century, possibly a grand- 
son of the former. Considering the miserable condition of 
the people from the fourth century onward, it is not likely 
that they produced much liturgical work in the interval, 
It is not, however, impossible that some has been lost, for 
even in Samaria they had prayer-book revisers who omitted 
older and better prayers to make room for the recent com- 
positions of their friends. This was certainly the fate of 
some of Ab Gelugah's work, for two long prayers of his 
in Cod. Vat. iii. are not found either in the Berlin copy or 
in the two copies belonging to the Earl of Crawford. 2 This 
second period, which was poor in liturgical work, was 
exceedingly rich in theology. Abulhassan himself was the 
author of polemical and exegetical works, and Abu Said, 



1 Eltholideh mentions colonies of Samaritans at Acco, Gaza, G-erar, 
Cassarea, Damascus, and in Egypt. Jacob, who wrote the continuation of 
Eltholideh in the middle of the fourteenth century, was priest at Damas- 
cus, and there was a congregation there still in the sixteenth century ; 
but it must have died out soon after. 

2 Or perhaps some of the prayers were only local. Ab G-elugah belonged 
to Acco. 



124 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

probably bis son, wrote tbe Arabic version of the Penta- 
teuch. 1 

The third period of liturgical composition began in the 
fourteenth century. Up to that time, it will be remem- 
bered, there existed only the Defter in an extended form ; 
there were no special services, properly speaking, for Feasts 
or Fasts. The credit of first starting these is due to Pinhas 
b. Joseph, High Priest at Shechem from 1331 to 1387, a 
man who, though his sphere of action was restricted, fully 
deserves the title of " Great." By his own writings and by 
encouragement of others he gave an impulse to religion and 
to literature which lasted through the next two centuries, 
and can hardly be said, even yet, to have entirely died 
away. To his time and influence belong not only all the 
special services, but also the Chronicle of Abulfath, and 
other works on grammar, lexicography, theology, and the 
like. 2 The writers of liturgy, with whom alone we are 
now concerned, are, of course, unknown ontside the narrow 
circle of Samaritan history. The most famous are : Abisha, 
son of the great Pinhas (not to be confounded with the 
biblical Abisha), an author second only to Marqah in 
popular esteem ; his brother Eleazar, often called, for the 
sake of distinction, WON pY"TN TIN ; Abisha's son, Pinhas, 
with his guardian, Abd Allah b. Shelomoh, a prolific 
writer ; and Saad Allah, or Saad ed-Din. These all come 
within the century 1330 — 1430. The evidence for their 
dates is very much scattered, but fairly well established. 
As an instance of the way in which it has to be gathered, 
and of the curious phenomenon of personal history mixed 
up with liturgical composition, the following, by Pinhas 
b. Abisha, from a hymn for the Day of Atonement, 



1 For other writers, see Nutt, op. ait., pp. 138, seqq. Also Wreschner, 
Samaritaniselie Traditionen, Berlin, 1888, pp. xvii. seqq., whose conclusions 
differ from mine in some points. 

2 I am inclined also, with Vilmar (Abulfalthi Annates, Grothae, 1865, 
p. xxxvi.), to ascribe the " invention " of the famous roll of Abisha to 
this Pinhas. 



The Samaritan Liturgy, and Reading of the Law. 125 

may be of interest l : — " Before we read in. the Book 
of Moses the Prophet, I will make mention of that 
which is meet to be remembered ; for that which is 
worthy is stored up in my thoughts, concerning the 
pious ones (?) your ministers. The head of them is my 
grandfather Pinhas, and after him came the affliction (i.e., 
death ?) of my father. I saw not his face, and he beheld 
not my face, nor taught me his words nor the divisions of 
the Scripture. After him was none left save only my 
uncle Eleazar. By him I was cherished, and my heart was 
strengthened. I was left (?) an orphan, yet he ceased not 
to love me. But behold the star (i.e., Abd Allah b. Shelomoh) 
who taught me and brought me up ! The Lord reward his 
work with good, and command the blessing upon him ! " 
etc. The next important Liturgist is Abraham ( s 22p), early 
in the sixteenth century — the last, perhaps, who can claim 
much literary merit. The remaining authors are chiefly 
indebted to Marqah, Abisha, and the earlier writers for 
such inspiration as they can show ; they are for the most 
part either members of the Danfi family, as Marjan (also 
called ni3D 3«), and Meshalmah, in the last century ; or of 
the Levitical 2 family, as Tobiah (also called Ghazal), and 
his son Shelomoh in the present century. The latest com- 
position I have seen is by Pinhas b. Isaac, written within 
the last twenty years. The present priest, Jacob b. Aaron 
b. Shelomoh b. Tobiah, seems to inherit the seribendi 
Kci/coqdes of his family. 

At the risk of being tedious, the above very imperfect 
list is given to show the range of this class of literature. 
The names have been identified and dates assigned (in the 
absence of history) only by a careful examination of the 
epigraphs of all available MSS. 

1 From MS. Samar., e. 5 f ol. 68 b , in the Bodleian Library. The text is 
not quite certain, but I have no opportunity of collating it at present. 

2 The " House of Aaron " died out in 1624, up to which time the priest 
called himself 7l"ljn JilDH The office then went to another branch, the 
priest being called , l?n JilDn. 



126 The Jeioish Quarterly Review. 

Before proceeding to describe the contents of the Liturgy, 
it may be well to say a word as to their language. All is 
not Samaritan which comes from Samaria. The name 
should properly be restricted to the Aramaic dialect of the 
Targum ; that is to say, the language spoken by the 
Samaritans in the fourth century c.E. Its form, however, 
is not very well fixed even by Petermann's splendid edition, 
and a careful examination of his various readings shows 
not only a great variety of forms and of words, but a 
distinct Hebraizing tendency in at least one of the MSS. 
(C.) used. 1 In this dialect are written the compositions of 
the first Liturgical period, by Marqah, Amram, etc. Since 
these are numerous, and the MSS. (at least of some texts) 
are many, it might be thought that they would help con- 
siderably in fixing the forms of the dialect. But this is 
not so. The oldest Liturgical MS. now in Europe (of the 
Defter, in the Vatican) is not earlier than the fourteenth 
century, when the dialect had already long been supplanted 
in popular use by Arabic. Later MSS. vary so much that 
it is often difficult to decide whether, e.g., 'h for rh, D3 
for pD, and more important differences, are due merely 
to the carelessness of the scribe. Even when the text is 
tolerably certain it is often difficult to interpret. The 
following from a Litany of Marqah will illustrate this. 
The text, which is quite certain, is : — 

absb iv -plan ]db row p n^a wbs -in-o ^wrm ?mt»n 
)«i p> Tn» ?m pa bv rb papa pwi pa ]b Tiia nVrr 

: -^rxrs-i p£>tin rrmn ]b rpaa 

" Praise and glory let us speak, before we turn away from 
this place, to him who endureth for ever, the Almighty 
who giveth us life freely, though we anger him wantonly. 
Whether thou give us life or death, both are in the power 
of thy majesty !" 

Heidenheim 2 translates rDN p m5a M^M " dem Gotte 

1 These may be due to local differences of translation. 

2 Viertdjalirnehrift, vol. ii. (1805), p. 487. 



The Samaritan Liturgy, and Reading of the Laic. 127 

bereitet von dem Verganglichen." Geiger 1 corrects " with- 
out ceasing, from henceforth." Geiger translates nV>n "his 
strength"; but the word is nVo, "the power," the equi- 
valent in meaning (and probably in sound) of nbN. 
Heidenheim translates pa *?y rib ppa pNI pa )b TTO, 
" our protector is destroyed, and we bewail our protector." 
Both translate nvnfi " thou art merciful." 

In the second period (eleventh and twelfth centuries) the 
language is still Aramaic, but it was by then "a tongue not 
understanded of the people." It has an admixture of He- 
brew, and many words already must be explained from 
Arabic. In the third period the language is Hebrew, which 
deteriorates more and more in quality, until it reaches its 
complete decadence as it approaches our own time. It 
was clearly in no sense a living language, and was only 
employed, as among the Jews, because it was the sacred 
tongue. 

We may now pass to the arrangement of the religious 
year, which depends upon the two conjunctions (niBS) of 
the sun and moon (1.) of Pesah, (2.) of Succoth. The 
calculation of these is so important that, according to Ben 
Manir (MS. Samar. E. 2, fol. 1 36., in the Bodleian Library), 
the secret of it comes down preserved " from the days of 
the creation, from the angels to the father of mankind, 
from Noah to Shem and Eber, to Abraham, the son of 
Terah, to him who dwelt at Gerar, to him who said, ' How 
dreadful/ to Moses, who received the Law, to Aaron, the 
venerable priest, to Eleazar, who offered the incense, to 
Phinehas, who stayed the plague, and set up the calculation 
on Mount Gerizim, by the oak of Moreh," etc. But the word 
ma2 not only meant the conjunction of sun and moon, 
which regulates the beginning of the month, it has the 
secondary meaning of an assembly of the congregation, for 
the purpose of paying the half -shekel (Exod. xxx. 13). 
"Why is it called niB2?" says Abisha. "Because in it 

1 z. &. M. <?., xxi., p. 181. 



128 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

Israel are gathered together in their assemblies, which are 
hallowed, .... and they take and give every man a 
ransom for his soul." 1 

Taking the festivals in order, there is then a special 
service for the Sabbath of the niias of Pesah, 2 which is 
11 'HS'ia tins — for the first of Nisan— for Pesah and 
Mazzoth — for the six Sabbaths following — for Pentecost 
(ptpan). In the latter part of the year there is the 
Sabbath of the mas of Succoth — the first of Tishri, 3 
amp S-lplS rrsVM JTOT pratD — the ten penitential days, 
mrpbon lav — the great Day of Atonement, when the 
service lasts the whole of the twenty-four hours, the 
whole Law is read, and at the end of it they exhibit the 
great roll said to have been written by Abisha, in the 
thirteenth year after the children of Israel entered 
Canaan. Then follow the seven days of Succoth 
and the festival of the eighth day of Succoth, called 

■oiatcrr -runa-n n^ia nann im. 4 For each of these 

occasions (except the Day of Atonement) there is a short 
form of evening prayer, a form for the morning prayer, 
and generally, as for ordinary Sabbaths, a form for the out- 
going (pl5a) of the festival. On the great festivals of Pesah, 
Mazzoth, Hamsin, and Succoth, they make a an, or 
pilgrimage to the sacred mountain, Gerizim. An interesting 
account of the tlOStl an, when the Paschal sacrifice is still 
slain, and the lambs eaten on Mount Gerizim, is given by 
Mills, 5 who witnessed the ceremony in 1860. The services 

1 During a visit I paid to Nablus in the spring of this year, the priest 
informed me that the DIOV of Pesah was to commemorate the meeting 
of Moses and Aaron (Exod. iv. 27), and that of Succoth in memory of 
the death of Aaron. The T11DS falls two lunar months before the 
festival from which it has its name ; or rather the date of the festival 
depends on the date of the J11QS. 

2 See below, in the order for the Reading of the Law. 

3 They do not use the ceremony of the Shophar. 

4 There is no mention of mm JinCE*, but they begin the Law on the 
Sabbath after WD2TI IJttO : see below. 

6 Nablvs and the Modem Samaritans, pp. 248 seqq. 



The Samaritan Liturgy, and Beading of the Law. 129 

for the three other pilgrimages are much alike. That for 
the ni2on in directs that " the people and the elders shall 
assemble at the door of the synagogue before dawn," when 
certain parts of the Law are recited. Then they march up 
the mountain to the twelve stones which they believe to 
have been placed there by Joshua, according to Deut. 
xxvii. 4, reading Gerizim for Ebal. Taking off their shoes 
(for it is holy ground) "they shall approach them and 
bow down and kiss them " ; then, after several prayers, 
" they shall descend to the altar of Adam," reciting the pas- 
sage from Marqah's Litany, quoted above (p. 126) — thence 
to the altar of Seth, the altar of Isaac, and the altar of 
Noah, where the service comes to an end. 

The other festival services resemble one another in their 
general plan. They open with the F\top (see below) ; then 
follow certain general prayers, among others the \>V 
"]>om ItMQ quoted above, then sections of the Law 
usually accompanied by parts of the Durran or Marqah. 
Next come short ascriptions of praise (rDnttf' 1 ) interspersed 
with either passages of the law or hymns. Here is an 
example of a rDTIBP from the service for the iTDDn m»2 : 
" The God of gods in his greatness blessed and sanctified 
this day of the Sabbath of the conjunction, which is the 
gate of the feasts of the Lord, which he appointed by the 
hand of the great prophet Moses, the man of God. Happy 
art thou, O holy people ! if thou pray with heart and soul 
and say earnestly : And the Lord God planted [then the 
readers answer] A garden in Eden . . . . " Then follow 
more passages from the Law, and afterwards the distinctive 
part of the service, hymns specially composed for the 
occasion. Besides the festival services, there are special 
prayers for marriage, circumcisiou, and burial. The ?)tip, 
a great feature of the Liturgies, requires some description. 
The following is a specimen from the beginning of the 
]TOTn J^tDp : " and God remembered Noah and every 
living thing (Gen. viii. 1) ; and I will remember my cove- 
nant which is between me and you (Gen. ix. 15), and I 

VOL. VII. i 



130 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

will look upon it that I may remember the everlasting 
covenant' to the end x (Gen. ix. 16) ; and God remembered 
Abraham (Gen. xix. 29) ; and God remembered Rachel 
(Gen. xxx. 22)," and so on. It will be seen that it simply 
consists of biblical passages containing a mention of 
remembering, strung together without any connection. 
Sometimes the t\vzp is made up of whole verses, sometimes, 
as in this specimen, of short fragments. Various explana- 
tions of these selections have been proposed. Perhaps the 
truth may be that they served originally, when the 
Liturgy consisted chiefly of biblical passages, as headings 
of the parts to be recited (something like the Talmudic 
D"0» ,| D), and that afterwards, when the services grew in 
length, the headings only were read. 

Now even a cursory inspection of the contents of the 
festival services in the light of the chronology here 
sketched will show that they date no farther back, as men- 
tioned above, than the fourteenth century. The question 
then arises, Whence came the plan of these special services, 
and whence the views expressed in the later hymns ? A 
few passages in answer to the latter question may perhaps 
indicate the answer to the former. If the Samaritans, 
while priding themselves on observing the law in every 
detail, did not develop certain doctrines till late in their 
history, the Pentateuch cannot indicate them with any 
clearness. But it is well known that the Samaritans 
reject all the Jewish Canon except the five books of Moses f 
and from the fact that they have no dealings with the 
Jews, it is generally supposed that they have no acquaint- 
ance with Jewish literature either canonical or rabbinical. 
If it can be shown that the contrary is true, we shall be 
justified in suspecting that most of the later developments 
of doctrine, which they hold in common with the Jews, as 

1 I.e., to the end of the section : see note 2 on the Order for reading the 
Law. 

2 Their book of Joshua, in Arabic, is quite different from the biblical 
book, and comparatively late. 



The Samaritan Liturgy and Beading of the Law. 131 

well as the general plan of the liturgy, may be referred 
to Jewish sources. The Talmudic passages relating to 
intercourse with Samaritans have been often quoted, 1 so 
that it is unnecessary to go into them here. Let us see 
what evidence there is from the Samaritan side. It is ad- 
mitted that their Targum 2 bears some relation to Onqelos, 
and A.bu Said (11th century) was evidently indebted to 
Saadiah in making his version. He was in fact led to 
translate the Law because he found the people using 
Saadiah's work, under the impression that it was by 
Abulhassan. 

But even in the 14th century, when it might be sup- 
posed that there was less intercourse, we find the same. 
In the " Legends of Moses," 3 reference is made to Moses 
Maimonides, who is cursed as a heretic and perverter of 
the Law : and the history of Saul, David and Solomon is 
noticed, with an endeavour to cast discredit upon them. 
The last is especially singled out for condemnation as being 
the cause of schism in Israel by building the " rival" Temple 
at Jerusalem. In the same treatise a passage of Isaiah 
(ii. 3), Eabt&VVB " -QY1 min S2n TP2» "O, is quoted 
and explained in the sense that " the true law shall desert 
Jerusalem, the abode of falsehood," and thus the passage is 
made to bear a meaning agreeable to Samaritan bitterness. 
Heidenheim in his notes, 4 points out several parallels in the 
" Legends " with Rabbinical literature, and argues that the 
writer had a good knowledge of Midrash. He also thinks 
that the use of the phrase " Ancient of Days " shows an 
acquaintance with the book of Daniel — but it may perhaps 
be derived rather from the Kabbala, a knowledge of which 
is, from other places, probable. By far the most remark- 



1 See Nutt, op. cit., pp. 42 and 43, note. 

2 The date of the Samaritan Targum can no more be fixed than that of 
Onqelos. Traces, however, already occur in Marqah of the existence of 
some sort of Targum, though it was perhaps only oral. 

3 Translated by Dr. Leitner in Heidenheim's Vierteljahrssolirift, vol. 
iv., pp. 184 seqq. 4 Ibid., p. 212. 

i 2 



132 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

able, however, in this connection is a commentary by an 
unknown author, on part of Genesis. 1 It was written in 
Arabic in 1053 C.E. The author quotes in Hebrew illustra- 
tive passages from the books of Joshua, Samuel, Kings, 
Isaiah, Ezekiel, Psalms, Job, Nehemiah, and Chronicles, 
besides the Mishna. His quotations are adduced for gram- 
matical, not doctrinal or polemical, purposes. Again, 
Abulfath, in compiling his Chronicle in 1356, seems to 
have made a careful study of the historical books of the 
Bible, even going so far as to imitate the phraseology of 
the Hebrew original in some cases. 2 Somewhat later the 
commentator Ibrahim quotes Eccl. xii. 7 : bN y\Wi~\ nTinl 
inb mra -u»n BTrbsn, and Ezek. xxii. 22 : -pra Fp3 -pnro 
"I'D. The same willingness to borrow (of course without 
acknowledgment) may be observed in the Liturgies. In a 
hymn for the Day of Atonement, Abd Allah b. Shelomoh 
says : YWStt) " "n:D BWnn b3 B21 B^DDB Q«»n 

♦ B-rrbsn baa •* bna o d^sbrDi Bnrron lib it^ dwian 
" The heavens declare, and also all creation, the glory of 
the Eternal ; and his terrible works show to us, in things 
hidden and revealed, that the Eternal is great above all 
gods." Cf. Psalm xix. 2 : nu^ai bs "ma ansoa zmwn 
yip-in toe vt. The words nwian ba mi look as though 
they had been added by Abd Allah to complete the thought 
which he considered inadequately expressed in the Psalm. 
In the same hymn he says : BrPBttn a^W T> sba tVWS T H 
nmfcOS bab ima, Fwa TW. " Hast not thou made with- 
out hands the heavens and their heavens, and created by a 
word all the host of them ? " Cf . Ps. xxxiii. 6 : ^ 'na'Q 
DN22 ba T>5 nmi IPSO Emw. Farther on, in the same 
hymn, he says: VlN »TlT IWib anp laTlbs, "Our God is 
nigh unto him that seeketh him," as Ps. cxlv. 18 : a.l~)p 

nasa ins-ipi "ibjn bab vsip bab i\ But Abd Allah 

may have been copying from Amram, whose words are 

1 Published by Dr. Neubauer in Joum. Asiat., for 1873. 

2 See Vilmar, op. cit., p. xcviii., and of. pp. lviii and lxxxviii. sbq. 



The Samaritan Liturgy, and Reading of the Law. 133 

nearer to the Psalm: Tin* :mp pair -pattfb at»pn TNibS 

-pTftbb, "Prayers shall be made unto thy name in truth .... 
thou art nigh unto them that worship thee." The whole 
of this hymn of Abd Allah is exceptionally full of Biblical 
parallels. He seems, like other writers, to have known 
Ps. cxlv. thoroughly, perhaps from the fact of its popularity 
among the Jews. 1 In a hymn of Abisha we read : SEN-in 

nabs pirn hnt N^n napym nasn brb, " The beginning 

of all wisdom and the end thereof is the fear of him who 
fashioned the world." Cf. Prov. i. 7: rvwvn " PINT 
r&~\ (Targ. : '"1 sribm «rnasn wvn) and Prov. iii. 19 : 
O^atC p13 V" 1 ^ "K^ na^na ^ — the two having been 
read together. 

Coincidences of thought are of course commoner. In 
some hymns in the Defter addressed to the Law (i~Q"l n2J"D) 
the writer says : Ton -pTlfiN bb3a"l D^n TEat&b nnw ]NT, 
" Thou feedest with life them that hear thee, and crownest 
with grace them that read thee." Farther on : !2"i tT) b3 
iriN -[Vxn "IDS bn ]naa flS, " Every great plague thou 
makest to cease : all healing cometh through thee." In the 
next hymn: EHpa in iTnn "Ola. in n^lTT ?JT|DN in 
n"Onb tODI "in nnstt753, "It is the healing of life: it 
cleanseththe spirit: it hallo weth the soul: it converteth the 
heart." So in the hymn which follows, it is called naaip 
WITT, "The restoring of our life," and "m bbaa, "The 
word of life." The similarity of these hymns to Ps. cxix. 
in general is so striking, that it is sufficient to mention the 
fact ; but other passages may also be compared, as Ps. xix. 8 
seq. ■. ^nar^a tyntjp •* "Hpa tea: m^a na^an ** min 
'm nrina " nsr zws nr«a rro " msa nb. So the 
Law is called often TTO 2^13. It is curious to observe 
that on Ps. xix. 8, Rashi says of the Torah : /TTNa S\n U2 
'"131 WQW2, and refers to Prov. vi. 23, while the Samaritan 
writer of the hymn quoted goes on to say, without much 

1 Talm. B. Beraeh., 4&, D>D!>S &b& DV "?33 "IVI^ r6nn n^lXH ^>3 



134 Tlie Jewish Quarterly Review. 

consequence of thought : yhft TD3 ^NT H^TlMEiV ^'"l wb 

fram^l rfrbz -van VT OV b3, "It (the Torah) is not 

like the lights (of heaven), for they set and rise every day, 
but this is the great roll which gives light among us night 
and day." It looks as though he had read Rashi's com- 
ment and was anxious to correct his comparison, since else- 
where the Torah is compared to the sun. 

These passages are only meant as a slight indication of 
the extent of the Samaritan debt to Jewish literature, 
which will become more evident on a careful study of the 
texts. Nor is this surprising. Jewish literature was 
easily accessible at least to the learned among Samaritan 
writers, and through their means the later Jewish teaching, 
by its harmony with the divine law, could not fail 
eventually to gain general acceptance. Much might be 
written on this gradual development of the implicit teach- 
ing 1 of the Torah ; but the source of a doctrine is often 
difficult to trace, while the borrowing of a phrase is more 
easily detected, and it is for this reason that the above 
instances only are here chosen. 

II. 

The order for reading the Law may suitably be added to 
the above remarks on the Liturgies. After the learned 
articles of Dr. Biichler, which lately appeared in this 
Review, it will perhaps not be uninteresting to notice the 
Samaritan system, as the subject has not been hitherto 
treated. The text, of which the following is a translation, 
is in Arabic, prefixed to a MS. (Petermann, i.) of the 
Samaritan Pentateuch, in the Royal Library at Berlin. I 
copied it during my last visit there, and give it here 
precisely as in the text (though the Hebrew quotations 
are not always exact) only adding the references and 
numbering the Sabbaths, for convenience. The text is 
dated A.H. 1172. The cycle, it will be observed, is for one 
year. 



The Samaritan Liturgy, and Beading of the Law. 135 

" If God will ! We will set forth in this place the 
arrangement of the order of the holy Law, according to the 
Sabbath days every year, the course whereof has continued 
from the earliest times unto our day. This is the order of 
each book severally. The order of the first book in an 
ordinary year is for thirteen Sabbaths, beginning with the 
last Sabbath of the seventh month [Tishri] ; that is to say, 
the Sabbath immediately succeeding the festival of the 
eighth, and ending with the last Sabbath of the tenth 
month. But when the first of the seventh month falls on 
a Friday, then a fifth Sabbath is reckoned in that month, 
and an additional division is necessary, because the sections 
must suffice for two Sabbaths in the seventh month, 
namely, the fourth and fifth Sabbaths. If there be a fifth 
Sabbath in the eighth, or ninth, or tenth month, then the 
aforementioned extra section will be necessary, making 
fourteen Sabbaths. When the first of the seventh month 
is a Sabbath, the extra division is not necessary, because 
in that case the order is only begun on the fifth Sabbath. 
But God knows best. 1 This is the complete division of the 
first book in an ordinary year, as follows : — 

(1) From rwN-Q to m« 3?T1, Gen. iv. 25 ; (2) from STl 
D-TM to *&> b«, viii. 21 2 ; (3) from xb bw to -fr <f?, xii. 1 ; 
(4) from -y^ -f? to DrrON TP1 {sic) xvii. 1; (5) from VP1 

1 This is to say, if Tishri . 1st be a Sabbath, then the eighth day of 
Suoooth (Tishri 22nd), will be the fourth Sabbath of the month. But it 
is laid down above that the law is to be begun on the Sabbath after Tishri 
22nd. Hence the fifth Sabbath of Tishri only necessitates an extra sub- 
division when Tishri 1st is a Friday. 

2 The Samaritan text of the Law is divided into sections (pSp), which 
are carefully marked in all MSS.,and their total number given at the 
end of each book. In doubtful cases, as here, this division is important, 
since they always end the lesson with the end of a section, and the words 
quoted in the text, are always the beginning of anew section, except when 
the first words are not distinctive. Hence this 13 1 ? ?X cannot be G-en. vi. 
6, where the words end the section, but must mean the section beginning 
13^ 'PK (N'lOWl), viii. 21, in the middle of the verse. The J'Vp are 
given in Walton's Polyglot, and in Petermann's Targum, but not in 
Blayney. 



136 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

tSTQA to IpQ n, xxi. 1; (6) from "TpD n to )pT Dn-QSl, 
xxiv. 1; (7) from pr arnnsi to pn^ mbm Tibs'), xxv. 19; 
(8) from pTO'' mbin nbsi to vbn SpS''' Sttn, xxix. 1; (9) 
from vbn 3p3P WS^l to rtl'H HXiTl, xxxiv. 1; (10) from S2m 
n3' , T to -p^n r|DT>")> xxxix. 1; (11) when there is no addi- 
tional Sabbath, as explained, the lesson shall be from Ppy>'\ 
-pin to nmarr rpv sn'O, xliii. 26 ; but when there is the 
additional Sabbath, the lesson shall be from ~r)")n jpVl to 
TT»V> ^DVbl, xli. 50; and (11a) from ItV *pvV) to s:n 
rrman rpv, xliii. 26 ; (12) from nn^n rpv sn'O to nt» bs> 
xlviii. 3 ; (13) from "»*TH? bs to the end of the book. 

As regards the order of the Holy Law in an intercalated 
year, the first book shall then be divided between eighteen 
Sabbaths, beginning in the 7th month and continuing to 
the last Sabbath of the 11th month, including the fifth 
Sabbath which must fall in one of the five months, to wit : 
the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, or 11th month. But a subdivi- 
sion is made at "nib'' fpvbl to allow for the fifth Sabbath, 
whether it be in an ordinary or an intercalated year. 

The following is the division of the first book in an 
intercalated year : — 

(1) From iTHWQ to 9*P Diwm, Gen. iv. 1; (2) from EHSm 
W to van ONI, iv. 17; (3) from 'Oan vjni to Tab bs, viii. 21; 
(4) from inb bs to -jb lb, xii. 1; (5) from -jb ^b to Tm 
D"12N, xvii. 1 ; (6) from Dins TP1 to *TpS "1, xxi. 1 ; (7) 
from Tp3 ^1 to p* Dmnsi, xxiv. 1 ; (8) from pT Dmnsi 

to pr\& mbin rrbsi, xxv. 19 ; (9) from prr2> mbin nbsi to 

Vbn 2py» SBn, xxix. 1; (10) from Y»b:n Spy HttPl to Dp'O 
npV, xxxi. 17; (11) from 2p»"> Qp">1 to ran HSni, xxxiv. 1; 
(12) from nan S^m to SpJ7> nan, xxxvii. 1 ; (13) from 
apy» nan to -n'-jj-, jp^, xxxix. 1; (14) from ^'«,n *p'l''l to 
ITb"' ^DVbl, xli. 50; (15) from TT>b , < fpfbl to Pp'n Sn'O 

mrnn, xliii. 26; (16) from nmarr rpv sn^i to niaa nbsi, 

xlvi. 8; (17) from m»t» rrbsi to ">Tt» bs, xlviii. 3; (18) from 

"•"ftp bs to the end. Throughout the reading of the first 

book shall be said, after the lesson, the first 1 DV i"lN T)»tP 

1 The text has " second " erased, " first " being written in the margin. 



The Samaritan Liturgy, and Reading of the Lata. 137 

rDt&n, Exod. xx. 8 (where the Samaritan text has TiatP 
for TDT). 

In some intercalated years it happens that there are 
two fifth Sabbaths, the first of them when the 7th month 
begins on Friday, and the second occurring in the 11th 
month. When this happens a further division, besides the 
above, will be necessary, and it shall take place at ma p, 
thus : from *>~\W bs, xlviii. 3, to JD3 p, xlix. 22, and from 
ma p to the end. But this is of rare occurrence. And 
God most High is above all and knows all ! 

The order of the second book is for eight Sabbaths be- 
ginning with the first Sabbath of the 11th month and 
extending to the last Sabbath of the 12th month. If the 
year contain an intercalary month the Sabbaths are to be 
reckoned in the 12th month and in the last month. If a 
fifth Sabbath fall in one of the two months in which this 
book is read, then the order is for nine Sabbaths : the place 
(of the extra division) being ntPQ VO>\ Exod. xv. 22. The 
following is the order of the second book : — 

(14) From niDB nbs to -0"P "O, Exod. vii. 9 (8) ; (15) from 
"-QT "O to pns bNl, xii. 1. On these two Sabbaths, after 
the lesson, shall be said also the first -iiattf, Exod. xx. 8; (16) 
from prM bsi to wbwn anrn, xix. 1. This is the section 
appointed for the day of the conjunction (i.e., HDart mas), 
and after the section is to be read Ht&fi "O, Exod. xxx. 12. 
If there be a fifth Sabbath, as mentioned, the lesson shall be 
from prtN bsi to rti»a SD^I, xv. 22, and (16a) from nana OT 

to lapbam anrp xix. l ; (17) from wbvm anna to ^np^ 
nann ib, xxv. 2 ; (18) from nann ^b inp^i to -oin nti, 
xxix. 1 ; (19) from -mn nn to na;a bN jm\ xxxi. 18 ; (20) 
from na?a b« ?m to D^BTlpn JIN BW1, xxxvi. 20; (21) from 
D^anpn ns tOV* 1 ") to the end. From the Sabbath after the 
conjunction to the lesson -);nn nn> there shall be said after 
the lesson, ~QT nnsi, Ex. xxxi. 13, and on the last (of those) 
Sabbaths (i.e. No. 19) the passage mentioned closes the 
lesson, and the reader shall read with a loud voice mbbnn 
n»T ma, xxxi. 14, and the congregation shall finish the 



138 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

reading from the place mt&n nsbsnttP "On THat&l, xxxi. 16, 
to the end of the passage. On the last two Sabbaths {i.e. 
Nos. 20 and 21), after the lesson, shall be said bs ^ -q-[ 
ms, Lev. xix. 2. 

The order of the third book is for eight Sabbaths, every 
year, without addition or exception. They are the first two 
Sabbaths of the first month (Nisan) and the six Sabbaths 
in Hamasin, ending with the Sabbath of Amalek. The 
order is as follows : — 

(22) From nH7» bs Hip"*! to pns ns "02, Lev. vi. 2; (23) 
from pns DS ^2 to pns HttPl, ix. 22. On these two 
Sabbaths, after the lesson, is to be said HyilD, xxiii. 2. 1 

(24) from pns NB^l to the first nffi>S IS tP"W, xiii. 38 ; 

(25) from nffi>S IS ami to «n n s> xvi. 1; (26) from -nns to 
MTttpai, xix. 9; (27) from dDl^pm to >7STa, xxiii. 2; 
(28) from i-RUB to VTlprQ OS, xxvi. 3; (29) from VIprQ DS 
to the end. On the Sabbath of DTI, the Sabbath of ma, 
the Sabbath of n^S and the Sabbath of pn, after the 
lesson, shall be said DmSDI, xxiii. 15. On the Sabbath of 
*Tl!$n and the Sabbath of pbn3?, after the lesson, shall be 
said my no rtyzw, Deut. xvi. 9. 

The order of the fourth book is for eight Sabbaths, but 
in some years it extends over only seven Sabbaths, namely, 
when no fifth Sabbath falls in any of the first four months, 
for the beginning of this book takes place on the Sabbath 
nexb after the festival of the Pilgrimage of the Harvest 
("i^pn 2n 12n»), and extends to the first Sabbath of the 
fifth month, as follows: — 

(30) From ^D 13TB3 to nnp "02 WVn ns StW, Num. iv. 
2 ; (31) from nip 133 won ns HUM to pns bs -Q% viii. 2 
(1). On those two Sabbaths, after the lesson, shall be said 
pns bs -I3T ; (32) from pns bs "131 to -p nbt£7, xiii. 2; (33) 
from -p nbt» to mp np^i, xvi. 1 ; (34) from mp llp^ to 

n^Dsba nana rbvr>\ xx. 14 ; (35) from n'osba na?» nbaro 

to DPCS, xxvi. 11 (10). On these four Sabbaths, after the 
1 Then follow Pesah and Mazzoth, with their proper lessons. 



The Samaritan Liturgy, and Beading of the Law. 139 

lessons, shall be said "Omp MM ^2, xxviii. 2 ; (36) from 
onas to npban im, xxxi. 32 ; (37) from npban ">rpi to the 
end of the book. On these two Sabbaths, after the lesson, 
shall be said the second nMSOJ, Deut. v. 12, to the end of the 
section (ver. 15). If there be no fifth Sabbath in any of 
the four months named above, the lesson, from DnaD to the 
end of the book, shall be taken as one. — And God is more 
wise! 

The following is the order of the fifth book for eight 
Sabbaths, beginning with the second Sabbath of the 5th 
month and extending to the second Sabbath of the 7th 
month, called the Sabbath of Hiscanti. 1 If a fifth Sabbath 
fall in the 5th or 6th month, the order shall be for nine 
Sabbaths, dividing at QMS D'OS (xiv. 1). In some years 
this Sabbath, called Hiscanti, does not occur, because, when 
the first of the 7th month falls on a Thursday, it (Hiscanti) 
coincides with the Day of Atonement ; and if the first of 
the 7th month fall on a Sabbath, it (Hiscanti) will be the 
Sabbath of the ten days of Penitence. In such case the 
order of the fifth book will be for seven Sabbaths, and the 
completion of the Holy Law will take place on the last 
Sabbath of the 6th month, and its lesson will be increased 
so as to finish the book, from Jim DT>n to the end of the 
Holy Law. 2 

The order is as follows : — 

(38) From av-Q*Tn nbH to Vliab lNn, Deut. iv. 5, and 
after the lesson is to be said the second "TiOttf, Deut. v. 12 ; 
(39) from VHfib 1M1 to Cflffai "O, vii. 1. This is the lesson 
appointed for the day of the conjunction (i.e., M*ODn M113S). 
In the last section of it, -jbMttP "O mm, vi. 20, the reader shall 
read with a loud voice "OWDM 1 ? " SQtW "il»M, ver. 23, and 
the congregation shall finish it together, with a loud voice, 

1 nJ^Dfl should stand for FD|)pn, but it apparently has some reference 
to Num. xxii. 30 (VO|pn\ the only place in the Pentateuch where the 
word occurs. 

2 The first Sabbath of the 7th month, haying a proper lesson in any 
case, is not counted. 



140 The Jewish Quarterly Review. 

from IDi^l, ver. 24, to the end of the passage. After that 
they say Ntttfl O, Exod. xxx. 12 ; (40) from 03N , a , > O to 
VF-ttS DMN "O, xi. 31; (41) from tmv DHS O, to D-iaaitp, 
xvi. 18. When there occurs a fifth Sabbath, as mentioned 
above, the lesson shall be from vrav DDN "O to DMN C32, 
xiv. 1, and (41a) from QHR D^n to D^tSDW, xvi. 18 ; (42) 
from C&SW to the first ntPN ffi^H rip 1 * "O, xxii. 13; (43) 
from rra?w ttrw np 1 ' o to ntn nvn, xxvi. 16 ; (44) from 
mrr nvn to isn^ "o rrrn, xxx. l ; (45) from lan 11 o rrrn 

to the end of the Holy Law. If the order happen to be for 
seven Sabbaths, as afore mentioned, then the (last) lesson 
shall be from nm DITT to the end of the Law. And God 
is more wise ! 

After the Sabbath of the conjunction, shall be said at the 
end of the lesson pE^l, Deut. xxxiii. 28 (?), and on the 
Sabbath of the lesson ntPN ttTM Hp" 1 "O (No. 43), the end of 
which is the passage nhsn "O xxvi. 12-15, the reader shall 
read with a loud voice, WiS lt»« b3D TPH7J7 (ver. 14), 
and the congregation shall finish it together from F]ptpn 
"]W1p py»a (ver. 15) to the end of the passage. And God 
most High is above all and knows all ! " 

A. Cowley.