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The Talmud, its history and contents. Vol. I. The Mishna. By 
N. Pereferkowitsch. St. Petersburg, 1897. 8vo, pp. iv+178 
(in Russian). 

The author intends to supply a critical translation, in the Russian 
language, of the Mishna and the Tosefta (a portion of which is said 
to have already appeared), and the present volume is meant to serve 
as an introduction for the guide of the lay reader. It is, for this 
reason, written in a popular style, and contains not only what one 
usually expects to find in an introduction to the Mishna, but also 
a complete description of the life of the Jews and the conditions of 
Palestine at the time of the Mishna. It is divided into the following 
eleven sections : 1. The Mishna in general, its divisions, the names 
of the separate treatises, editions, commentaries, &c. (pp. 4-18). It is 
not correct to assert (p. 5), that already Hillel had grouped the whole 
traditional matter extant in his time into six parts (arrangements). 
The author relied perhaps on the passage in Jebamoth, 37 a : fBE> 7?T\ 
'131 ?33D 1?y pDnV mcy, but this passage proves nothing. I consider 
also the author's definition of the first Mishna (n31S?&n nj&>D) to be 
incorrect. The author says (p. 16) : " New layers were constantly 
added to the first fundamental work of the Mishna, to the 'first 
Mishna.' " But the " first Mishna " was not enlarged by the super- 
addition of new layers ; but it was altogether organically transformed 
by R. Akiba and his school, by new opinions, new doctrines, and new 
methods. The searching inquiries of Geiger on the old and the new 
Halacha ought to have been taken notice of. The traces of the 
old Mishna must not only be looked for in such passages indicated 
by the words nJIBW iWD tt or pDIN 1>n r01C?N13 (vid. Frankel, 
Hodegetica in Mischnam, p. 138 sqq.), but also elsewhere. — 2. Col- 
lections similar to those of the Mishna, viz. Tosefta, Mechilta, Sifra, 
Sifre, and Boraitha (pp. 19-25). On p. 19 the Tosefta is described aa 
a complement to the Mishna. " It contains a number of precepts 
which, for some reason or other, had found no place in the Mishna, 
also explanations of, and enlargements on the contents of the 


Mishna." This theory, which was chiefly advocated by Schwarz, at 
least ought to have been compared with the other theories, according 
to which the Tosefta was an independent work and parallel to the 
Mishna. In reference to Mechilta and Sifre the references are 
missing to show that there existed also a Mechilta to Exodus from 
the school of R. Akiba (lUHDB> '"H ND^OB) and to Deuteronomy from 
the school of R. Ismael, large fragments of which have been pre- 
served in the Yemenite Midrash ha-Gadol (vid. Lewy, Ein Wort uber 
die Mechilta des B. Simon, Breslau, 1889, and Hoffmann, in the 
Hildesheimer Jubelschrift, German part, pp. 83-98, and Hebrew part, 
pp. 1-32, and his essay '•Dip? ~\T)2 Wp?, Berlin, 1897, and also 
another Sifre to Numbers named KDtt naD or OnnN COfi ?K» nSD, 
an edition of which is commenced by KOnigsberger (Frankfurt a. M., 
1894). — 3. The authorities of the Mishna, i. e. the Tanna'im, who are 
divided by the author into four generations (pp. 26-39). Here 
he mentions also the friendship between Rabbi and Antoninus 
(p. 38), the latter being said to have been either Marcus Aurelius 
or Lucius Verus. The former is Rappoport's opinion, and the latter 
Frankel's. Gratz's opinion also ought to have been noted here, 
according to which the narratives of the Talmud ought to be referred 
to Judah II and Alexander Severus. — 4. Bible interpretation in the 
Mishna, i. e. the seven rules of Hillel and the thirteen rules of R. Ismael. 
This section (pp. 40-60) is very clear, and the examples well chosen. 
In the case of the fW m?J we find the statement that the two con- 
ditions belonging to it (maiD and ttM8J» t/'» p DIN p<) can be 
considered as one: tnp ?E> WD N?N 10¥J»3 t/'H p DIN f*« (p. 50, 
n. 1). This theory was proposed by Schwarz, and skilfully expounded 
in a separate essay (Die hermeneutische Analogic in der Talmudischen 
Literatur, Appendix to the Fourth Annual Report of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary in Vienna). His name ought therefore to have 
been mentioned here, especially as Schwarz uses the same expression 
(p. 191). We also miss in this section all mention of the thirty-two 
rules of R. Eliezer b. Jose, which served as the standard for the 
Agada, although the Mishna, and much more so the Tosefta, Mechilta, 
and Sifre contain much Agada. — 5. The geography of Palestine at 
the time of the Mishna, its fauna and flora (pp. 61-66). — 6. The 
history of Palestine during the same period (pp. 67-84). — 7. The con- 
ditions of life ; namely, government, schools, education, sects, Greek 
culture, literature, &c. (pp. 85-109). The question about Pharisees and 
Sadducees is dispatched in a few lines only (pp. 97, 98), and Geiger's 
useful and epoch-making views are not mentioned at all. Nor is any 
mention made of the followers of BoSthus, which is of importance in 
reference to the enumeration of the ritual differences (cf. Gratz's 


History, vol. Ill, note 12). — 8. The religious conditions at the time of 
the Mishna : Temple, taxes, release year, synagogue, ceremonial laws, 
proselytes, &c. (pp. 11 0-136). — 9. Agriculture (pp. 137-149). — 10. Han- 
dicraft and trade (pp. 145-152). — 11. Measures, weights, and calendar 
(pp. 153-158). 

It can be easily perceived from this summary that the author 
omitted nothing. He also notes, as far as necessary for his objects, 
the literature on the subject, even the most recent editions. 
Although it was not intended to give a complete list of references, 
yet, much more might have been included even within the limits 
the author set himself. 

On mentioning the three recensions (sic !) of the Mishna (p. 5), 
Frankel's arrangement (Hodegetica, pp. 223-253) ought to have been 
re ferred to. Of the Arabic text of Maimuni's Commentary on the Mishna 
(p. 13) there appeared also : Peah, ed. Herzog; Challah, ed. Bamberger ; 
Aboda Zara, ed. Wiener ; Sanhedrin, ed. Weiss; and Chullin, ed. Wohl 
(of the two latter, only a portion appeared). Schwarz (p. 20) edited only 
the Tosefta to Zeraim, but as for the Tosefta to Sabbat and Erubin 
he wrote only German essays ( Die Tosefta der Ordnung Moed in ihrem 
Verhaltniss zur Mischnah, kritisch untersucht. Vol. I, Sabbath, Carlsruhe, 
1879. Vol. II, Erubin, ibid., 1882). On p. 26 sqq., Loeb's inquiries 
about the first chapter of the Pirke Aboth (vid. Revue des Etudes Juives, 
XIX, 188 sqq.) ought to have been noted and utilized. In reference 
to the psalms of Solomon (p. 101), an abortive attempt was recently 
made to re-translate them into Hebrew (Frankenberg, Die Datierung 
der Psalmen Salomos, Giessen, 1896 ; cf. Abrahams, in the Jewish 
Quarterly Review, IX, 539-542). In respect to the history of the 
Ketubah and its Byzantine origin (p. 109), cf. Kaufmann, Monatsschrift, 
XLI, 213-221. In reference to the 154 Sedarim of the Torah, and 
the triennial cycle, we look in vain for a reference to Rappoport 
(Dtp XTDvn, p. 11 sqq.), and to Biichler's instructive essay (Jewish 
Quarterly Review, V, 420-468). It is not proved that the 1"D"U 
D^CH (p. 129, n. 2) was identical with the prayer which Christian 
authors mention as having been recited by the Jews at the conclusion 
of their prayers; vid. Krauss, Jewish Quarterly Review, IX, 
515-517. On pp. 132, 133 we fail to find any mention of Gratz's 
essay on the proselytes in the Roman Empire (Die judischen Pro- 
selyten im Rdmerreiche, Sfc, Breslau, 1884), nor is it said that the laws 
were collected, besides in the Mishna, also in a special treatise 
(D'HJ TOUO). It is still very doubtful whether the Babylonians had 
already a regular cycle of nineteen years (p. 155, n. 1) ; at all events, 
they did not have the cycle of tbHN liij, cf. also my essay on Ben 
Meir and the origin of the Jewish Calendar (Jewish Quarterly 
VOL. X. P p 


Review, X, 152-161). It is also much to be regretted that the few 
Hebrew words quoted have been for the most part greatly mis- 
represented through printers' errors. 

Although Pereferkowitsch's book has many faults and gaps, it must, 
nevertheless, be admitted that, on the whole, he has fulfilled his task 
in a satisfactory manner. There is no doubt but that the author will, 
in the course of his labour, gain in depth and completeness. It is, 
therefore, to be wished, that the continuation of the work will follow 
soon, the more so as it is the first attempt of the kind ever made 
in a Slavonic language. 

Samuel Poznanski. 

Warsaw, November 23, 1897. 


C*inn "yoy (so). Aram&isch-NeuhebrMsches Wdrterbuch zu Targum, 
Talmud u. Midrasch mit Volcalisation der targumischen Worter 
nach sildarabischen HSS., u. besonderer Bezeichnung des Woti- 
sehatzes des Onkelostargums, unter Mitwirkung von P. Theodoe 
Schaef, bearbeitet von Dr. Gustaf H. Dalman. Th. I. Mit 
Lexicon der Abbreviaturen von G. H. Handler. (Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, J. Kauffmann, 1897, pp. xii, 180, and 128. 8vo.) 

Although such a profusion of dictionaries of the Targums and 
rabbinical scriptures is already in existence that a new one might 
appear superfluous, yet the above mentioned one (of which only one 
half has as yet been published) brings with it several good credentials. 
While omitting all etymological discussions, excepting the originals 
of words borrowed from Greek, it confines itself to the bare trans- 
lation of the vocables. By this means the work has been so con- 
densed that it will be within the reach of nearly every student 
interested in the subject. An important improvement, however, 
upon all its predecessors is the following. The appearance of 
numerous Yemen MSS. with superlinear vocalization led to a 
new examination of the whole work of Targumic grammar and 
lexicography, chiefly in connexion with Onkelos. The significance 
of these MSS. for a more critical treatment of the Targums was 
pointed out very strikingly in Prof. Merx's Chrestomathia Targumica, 
but it was left to Dr. H. Barnstein to start a systematic collation 
of the new MSS. with the standard editions of Onkelos. The result 
of his researches demonstrated clearly the superiority of the Yemen 
recensions over the European ones. Prof. Dalman 's own studies in