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The two fragments under discussion give two pieces of 
the Arabic original of Maimonides' Guide, viz. : — 

1. Part I, ch. lxiv, and the beginning of ch. lxv (Munk's 
edition, fol. 6^6^°, 1. 9).. 

a. Part II, end of ch. xxxii and ch. xxxiii. 

Before examining the value of these fragments for textual 
criticism, it will be necessary to adduce the proofs as to 
their genuineness. 

Even a hurried look at the facsimiles of the fragments 
appended will show that there is very little probability of 
their being copies from another archetype. The passages 
struck out are not to be found in other MSS., of which 
I compared three (Codd. Loewe XVI, Brit. Mus. Or. 1423, 
and 2423), but they have faithfully preserved the correc- 
tions written over the lines of fragment II ro . Another 
important circumstance is that the missing left-hand corner 
at the bottom of the same fragment does not in any way 
interfere with the completeness of the text, and that on the 
verso several words are carefully written along the mutilated 
margin. From this it appears that the writer of the frag- 
ment used any bit of paper which came to hand, exactly 
as one would do for the first draft of a script. And, 
indeed, the same page furnishes yet more evidence in this 
direction. Ch. xxxiii, as we see, was originally shorter 
than we have it now, and ended before the middle of the 
page was reached. All that is written below it, inclusive 


of the two lines along the margin, was meant by the author 
to be inserted in 1. 4 (after ntfhpjflo), as shown by the 
corresponding marks of insertion. Thus my transcription 
of the facsimile, Fol. 2 verso, must be read with this 
explanation in view. This also tallies with the text as 
we have it now. 

To return for one moment to fragment II r0 , we find that 
the author wrote twice ffePOj^K DK1»6k (" the mighty 
voices "), but, in accordance with the trend of ideas of the 
chapter, he altered both passages into singularis. There 
is absolutely no room for the objection that these are the 
corrections of a copyist. 

It is further to be observed that the chapters are not 
numbered. It is, indeed, doubtful whether Maimonides 
did more than mark chapters by the word fast, as was 
the custom of Arab authors, and it is that the numbering 
is altogether due to Samuel b. Tabbon's Hebrew version. 
In Cod. Loewe (see Monatsschrift, vol. xxxviii, p. 409 ; 
vol. xxxix, pp. 404 sq.), which contains both the Arabic 
original and the Hebrew version just mentioned, only the 
chapters of the latter are numbered, but not those of the 
original. It is therefore probable that later copyists of the 
Arabic text alone adopted Ibn Tabbon's numbering. 

Apart from these, the fragments offer several other 
interesting features of Maimonides' mode of writing Arabic. 
They show conclusively that the copyists indulged in 
vulgar spellings, for which the author was not responsible. 
He never omits the K otiosum. On the other hand, his 
orthography is not free from some of the characteristics of 
Maghribine writing. We find twice .*iiw instead of Vi^t, 
once nTip for fhlp, and several times ^jn for ^wn. The 
variations of the text are so surprisingly numerous for so 
small a portion of the work, that I found it desirable to 
reproduce it in print. They are probably the result of a 
final revision by the author himself. The passages placed 
between round brackets are those struck out in the 







facsimile of maimonides' Dalalat Al Hairin. i (recto). 

- Jl* — * Pp> W*j& >m*> Y^jd* ' 

T-S. 10 Ka. 4 1 , 23 x 16 cm. 

(Fol. 1 recto.) 

nph xb nhp bm 1 fmot&bx nniD naoo na nan* np * oe> j« d^n 
ra n^-v ipi [wtjn 1 ' jn jo nnaa rrim 'n dp apw kib£ 'rbx » w n« 
mDK (♦ . n) ra int npi w no ^ now bhn nnp^pm 2 ^yn nnart 
•W •o tap km « -idnd i« •»•» ran ro^p wnd " dp tt&ip pa* Tin 
wianaA nta ton •oyota nnpa noND in n-ipa nn nwpoi anpa 
na ik-v np » maa i^iai *j«ta iN-mew ^ D&6ata pa^oi wpdi 
riyota nni >by ttDyn^ 3 pwdk •>$> n*>ta nta* ••nta p&tota nuta 
2 ^yn nnfcri nansrv npi pwon na ata * maai wo nn i>y « maa pen 
ta -to Dnxn •ont n^ ^ aNiitai iniaa hn ra "win tap km nnp^pm 
•6 n»w hp '•a wa nd ta& D^yfi inna nhpi nnNi A x)n maa }k 
hnid nd ta (jr»Di) ta nM> Dnta orata ttibyn maaa ik-v npi iw no 
•»ta ta^ ind& ptM* d^ pi mNpta Day pDto jnd^ r6) n&Dy 2 ^yn 
■jtik jd taa nnDby ^raN in ^pnta n^oyn j*6 ( h d naa-riK *bkd 
fi»b IKDJKtai naarrc nnp ^y nstby npB ntaroai nntDoy 


Ikyik tub p\ mvb ra £jn n^pyn ttin n& ^y ta^ tatfptttaa Dtby 
5 nnnp ta nnyatoa tan ntoim Kiw Dtbyn Kmaa& naiNDJita bf\v nb 
(.b . «) pa: ani> ranyota D^yn^ ^yxn ir\ jo^ nnDDni 6 xnniiD 
^nn *by pp]^ ^nn l^n *s 9 fr^ray^ nyonx npi 8 pw d^ ik 7 jwob 
11 ^p kdd ^pi nao ton 10 pDi Ni? way ^pi nn>DK [p^ ^pd^k 
^k NTOta 12 ^i aim [«naia }y ray ^»a] >d ^ nnaan mimy b 
( # # , D)niaa j^nxn ba Nite Sn maa ^y^« xnn nnDDn aonai 13 nhpn 
"«*•« l«nn^N Kin nnsiKa pxn n^D ini?nni 14 >wdd 

niiia ^ tod 2 ^yn rax np^pnni ninni>« nnni? *\bw\ nya i«n« ko 
nd>d *6) ruy d«Wn hm "w *£ pa> }k i^nnn rinnia *6 mwi 

1 Ed. froon^. 2 Sic. 3 Ed. j«dd. * Ed. wn Vipcb« TilDbw. 

5 Sic. 6 L. «miaTO. 7 Ed. na»D^. 8 Ed. the words ]*o ]« 

dm^d^w n% ri> «•? no. 9 Ed. froNrortN fi^». 10 Ed. and MSS. -|»m«. 
11 L. bx? NiM >iD b«pi. 12 Ed. iNprrobw. 13 Ed. nnbsp. 14 L. 

n«DD, Ed. accus. 16 Ed. adds two passages. 


aiw»^t nDNta jk i?*i2 "rcph* npi^iD -nmnta (a&a) jn wnoM jkwm 
n&K npfci ro>» ny&o *£« hpiw *£n pai? miw aaj nk>:ki pi^5d it6k 
*a *iwdi (lanrnoi) njnniKi npi?a wd !>a pi>a ndd x (qm^s m d^i) 
nasi i>rio anW>Ki. nasi }n van -wpfo «^i-to 'b&6i 'filial 
tbv on |*c ^k iKmN^N rntnata wiwyaNa nmipta txrbp iwya^aa 
piw *niw •oay^K nin |k 3 an&b nM>« jaa pi^i* a hp vk6k 
nrapo kdjki i^i ♦ ♦ n wh anpn ipi pi»a km ♦ ♦ ♦ n^x D^b 4 tu£» 
|kd&ki ptwta ^y VP* Tin^D 6ai? nmDt&o w^k |k 'hfata ann 

•6y yp*i nyna n»*w nam .to nb)p bhn 

(Fol. 2 recto.) 

6 pv^N p 5 pan MD'^y nwfe wd nn tosd mri k^ imuKi *iki 
tf> nByrfw "jin >a 8 rnN H/K Otw]^k 7 ^ii a*»ar6« a*6a pi 
l^ih mm nmb iKDita b i>*nB* 9 W iwaiiw n^ ^ki^n 9 p* 

maota nn«i^« naoKiD ( pp5o) r6a nnrin ntry ikdi xi 

fining p y»o 'km oaaiw naa*i biiw taw* ha dx^d^« m!>y mi 
'nh<ni mm row twa b«pi » nn n« aai> n^n^ -oni " pi 'now *ijk 
nmniw pi y»o kdi an!> mv mam mm b }k «n[^« hpa w 
nrcta pyoa* am nb ikdi&k jk Wh ^y nam ayn yw miyi ks*k 
aaywa i>Np n a^yfo nwhnhi ya^a pn aa6ifo hvan n!> 10 d^k 
'dip- 'm amn hp 5>«pi (111 nihpn nx awn ayn bi) b)pn m 
p kj kd bi dwp ana anan S>p* ah hp Tihr awn '^ nawni 
y»b^ h!?x in nwi hpiw y«»a m iNnb^N ndj« dnW>k y«Da 
: a^a nnax pi nmn^x p^ p 12 nn6* "h^k in «in ani) n^imi d«^k 
*a m niKnn»^K p y&oa niy ^ mnvao nhp nS*k an^ ph b") a^an^x 
ktom [p]iy* aiyo^ nmaan ^d i? iTm «h *i« anhp w nx^n mo^nbtc 
l^m" 14 ani? «n^iD n^D p* ah im nwi n^i 13 nd^ ani? nhn 
n^iai nK^N^K mai yyx xdjk 17 phft6tf pixn M }^ 15 ^ xi?a pm 

i>K3^inT ND^ 18 nn«i 

1 Ed. rwiraw. 2 Ed. tktw 3 Ed. Dto vin en 1 ? ^wpi. * Ed. mb. 
5 Ed. f na 6 Ed. pnb» bD«n^ to. 7 Ed. four words missing. 

8 MSS. and Ed.. new chapter. 9 jpd5, y»o3^ 10 See introductory 

note. " Id. 1 2 Ed. nnKToto. 13 Ed. m bntt u Five 

words on the margin. 15 Three words not in Ed. and MSS. 16 Ed. ;n. 
17 MSS. pfemta j«in. 18 Sic. 

\fcp& "\' J 


7 ZJr**Zs ^- # **f> 



.tb u£k editb s i^d in kd by\ •ond^k nai^Ka 1( o^k jama 
nni jd 3 p^6a pixn oi>y t6i ^vxan n^ *id nob jd b .cam' 
^ip jd "na nnmta tkd ndk 'nn nna nmn^ p3 4 nuA« 
$>pnon ntai 5 n«hp»D^ $>up jd &6 n^upotai (ta) nanviB^K 
^ip hp na 8 kwdd* d^ oruK 7 Dn»n{>K dk5>d 6 fy:n piv^K n:i 
totd "mo imw ^n ^ipiw mi idwAki^i *a 10 rhD 9 ms nnai 

18 ma ipi 12 hdk^m ww kdd ^i n^D dpisddki ^ n w t6i o» 
^ik *b. kuui m»op it 'ne> '*nta nn nna nhpi ^i ^y D^Dsnta 
nmniw pi ^yn nbp p nix H xhp kwdd , » n^ Dru&c nnn pyjd 
}D *ui kd jkd J>u6k b)pbx *£i yxDD nym pid 1 * n5>i 5>ru hp 
jn 'own 16/ ui ^unpni Dnhp jd un ndi 15 onaui oniwnnDK 
ni^iD }D i>i in Dnpna 'u yDtyi nn« mp niDD roi> nnyi 'ui u&nn 
iu&K i>BD^ tai fftrwi rhnai nnmba n*pa (» bx) *ptai ftoNfi 
pyDDi n«i3N^N jnvi* Dm D^yiw nn^K *£i *b NfWK onyDDKi 
kdd pun nai*Ni 17 minora vi mfo nNiw^N ^n *«k naiv^a 
nihp y«DD *ui |d nin kd iui iimd prm ^m ibiot 5?ip w n:ri 
ibib> i>ip vi xdjx 'ui n6ipn n« own nyn bi 5>xp ndd mma 
mmiw ana mo niw piiuaiw niviw *»k » hp kdk wnrui mym 
Kiau kdd (n ♦ ♦ ♦) minba pj NDn Dps nnnw nno n^ njiyDD^ d^b 
nNV' n^N hp^N mi (i>jma) n^y innaa n^x yiiD^x *b D^DDn^« 
b ndx niii^xnn nnmn *m 18 n^D nn nnn^i (a)iyD£a \wm 

19 minni i^i dS>iwb l^i ^b n^D nyDD ^ua ^ip 

nnp^x sin jd muta ^^d nn ^DyD^ jhyn* jx "n^n p^ x^ nmb 
yy\ ^int6^ ^i nppm mm nno 21 n6yx jd njxi? nnai n^ 
nD^yxa nixn^ n^i nimD Dnpn 1 ' d^ na^. snb toy [nbd] 22 n^xn jxd 

1 Ed. ntabwn. 2 Ed. j«mna Db^. 3 Ed. and MSS. nom. 
* Ed. taps. 6 Ed. and MSS. seven words more. • Not in MSS. and Ed. 

7 Ed. in win. 8 Ed. and MSS. tew 3?>oi. 9 Ed. tops. 10 Ed. «in«i. 

11 Ed. nao. 12 Ed. quite different. 13 Ed. wiiii and Mnacw. 

u Ed. top. 15 Ed. T-rafcH. 16 Not in Ed. 17 Ed. quite 

different. 18 m?Q not in Ed. 19 Ed. rrmni. 20 Not in Ed. 

21 Ed. ftei. 22 Ed. tenta. 




Two leaves, 14 x 10 cm., small Eabbinic characters. 
The ink is, however, so faded that only little is legible. 
On the recto the title in four lines. The text begins on the 
verso with seventeen lines on the page. 

The importance of this fragment is twofold. In the first 
instance it introduces us to a hitherto unknown work by 
David b. Marvan al-Muqammas, and, secondly, it throws 
some additional light on this author's personality. There 
can be no further doubt that his second name was 
Al-Muqammas, and not Al-Miqmas, as he is still called in 
Steinschneider's latest work 1 . We further see that he 
came from Shiraz in Persia, whence, as it appears, he 
emigrated to the Iraq. Whether or not he lived in 
Al-Raqqa is not known, but Furst's correction into Al-Iraqi 
(Hebrew ^Mn) has much to recommend itself. 

The work itself is entitled Fifty Queries in Refutation 
of the Christians. It is very likely that the title in the 
form as it appears on the title-page of the fragment 
originates with the copyist. The fragment is unfortu- 
nately in such a hopeless condition that only the first 
query can be deciphered, and this but imperfectly. 



Five leaves, Rabb. char. 16 x 14 cm. 

In the Festschrift zum achtzigsten Geburtstage Moritz 
Steinschneiders, Part II, pp. 13 1-4 1, I edited the Hebrew 
version of the above-named work. I am now able to offer 
a large fragment of the original. It begins p. 137, 1. 7 

1 Die ardb. Literatur der Juden, p. 37. 


from the bottom of the Hebrew text, and ends p. 140, last 
line 'n\ Apart from its literary interest as a portion of 
the original of one of the oldest works on philosophy by 
a Jewish author, we are now in a position to correct many 
corrupt passages, and in particular two names which were 
not quite clear in the Hebrew version. The first is yfe btt, 
p. 139, 1. 7 from the bottom, which should be read 
Al-Khalij 9 and btihs, in the next line, for which the 
original reads tbvhl. 



Four leaves, 16x13 cm. Or. Rabbinic char. 

This fragment contains part of a description of a journey 
through Mesopotamia. The unknown traveller has left us 
a little information concerning some Jewish communities 
in this province, but this little is very interesting. Par- 
ticularly must we note his statement that his intention was 
to visit the grave of Ezra. We know from other Jewish 
travellers such as Benjamin of Tudela 1 and Petahqah of 
Regensburg 2 that Ezra was supposed to be buried in the 
Iraq. This statement is corroborated by the Arab geo- 
grapher Jaqut 3 , who locates the grave in the village 
Maisan, on the river Samura, which is to be found in the 
southern corner of the Iraq, near the place where the 
Euphrates and Tigris unite. Our traveller entered Mesopo- 
tamia at Al-Raqqa (the Biblical Kalneh) on the Euphrates, 
but instead of going south-east he turned towards the 
north, and visited Harran, Al-Ruha (Edessa), Majdal, 
Nisibis, Al-Jazira, Sinjar, and Mosul. Whether he then 
went down the Tigris to fulfil his pious vow or not we 
cannot say, and must be satisfied with the scant comments 

1 Ed. Asher. 2 Ed. Baenisch, p. 32. 

3 Ed. Wustenfeld, IV, pp. 714, 840. 


he makes on the Jewish communities of the places men- 
tioned, and their leaders. Now it seems that his purpose 
in visiting these places was not only thirst for information, 
but also the desire to collect a little current coin of the 
time. The distribution of his praise or blame is, therefore, 
influenced by the degree of generosity with which he was 
treated, although he also indulged in a little literary 
criticism. Yet we must be grateful to him. He gives 
various names of persons who can unhesitatingly be 
accepted as historical. Besides this, his accounts are not 
given in dry prose, but are adorned by graceful verse, 
which has a literary importance of its own. For the poems 
attached to each paragraph are not only written in excel- 
lent Arabic, but also in classical prosody. From certain 
standard phrases and figures, one can easily see that the 
author was well versed in ancient poetry, and were it not 
for some hebraisms he could pass for a real Arab bard. 
This circumstance is in so far of great moment, as it will 
assist us in tracing this interesting personality. We will, 
however, first accompany him on his wanderings, and pick 
up all historical information to be gained. 

The people of Al-Raqqa, he says, have a name for steadi- 
ness, but their piety is tarnished by a slight blemish, viz. 
meanness. The best man among them is R. Simhah of 
Tadmor (Palmyra). 

The people of Harran are pious and intelligent, but 
mean and stingy in the extreme. The most enlightened 
person among them is R. Masliah, and the most pious 
Sadaqa b. Zaki. 

The best men in Al-Ruha are Hassan al-Ibrismi and 
Josef the Precentor, but the meanest of them is Ibn Salim, 
although descended from noble ancestors. 

The traveller is better pleased with the people of Majdal, 
whilst those of Nisibis " flee from every generous inclina- 
tion." No person of either of these places is mentioned 
by name. 

Very witty is the author's account of Al-Jazira. The 


town has its name (" island ") from its situation on a hill 
between the Tigris and a little brook called Saqlan 1 . In 
the spring, when the two waters meet, the town appears to 
be situated on a real island. It must have been at this 
season that our traveller visited the place, because he 
describes its inhabitants as surrounded by a stream of 
meanness in which they form an island. 

The most praiseworthy man in Sinjdr is Abd al-Sayyid 
of Mosul, although " his soul pants for meanness as the 
birds for their nests." 

In Mosul he found a large community, but only mentions 
Abul-Faraj b. al-Khadabi, "a better man than whom is 
nowhere to be found on earth." 

Thus far the fragment. Now who was this traveller ? 
I have no hesitation in asserting that he was no other than 
Judah al-Harizi, and I do so on the following grounds. 
We know that Al-Harizi travelled through the Iraq, and 
visited Ezra's grave. A detailed account of this journey, 
as well as the description of that grave and the legend 
connected with the same, are given in Maqamat xxxv and 
xlvi of his Tahkemoni. This journey is by no means 
fictitious 2 , nor are these the only occasions on which he 
speaks of his eastern travels. He also alludes to them in 
several hitherto unpublished poems, two of which I here 
reproduce in full text and translation. They are taken 
from Cod. Montefiore $6% 3 : — 

(Fol. 1 1 verso.) 4 

wan mr» rmnrcn wrn ib>k ni^npn pay by wni wwy\ 
rvmry\ mjn rmbr\ an nvW>a ^nn •on ijw 

nv* lira nn im dm warn p»K Mb *n«n 

nvro ipr\ w&b en pa Dn*M d^k n*re»Ki 

1 See Petermann, Reisen im Orient, II, p, 45. 

2 Kaminka's arguments to the contrary (Monatsschrift, XLIV, pp. 217 sqq.) 
prove nothing. 

3 See my Descriptive Catalogue, pp. 106 sq. 

* Metrum : 2 ten. yathed, 2 ten. yathed, 2 ten. in each hemistich 
(Arab. Kamil). 


nw im lyn ibv oy b$ pw6 ow* town 

nva w ni> 2ina on •o rnrc Ty2 tn*K nraBW 

row roaptti dpi*t DJin nivyi? 'on rub tokidki 

nvn rc» in room on ^ ab iratw *\ma, nb)t* 

wnnna km ^2 k*bk i^k "i^k b p nrriK dk 


This poem I wrote in Assur, concerning the communities 
which I saw and observed in the lands of the East. 

Hear wondrous things, ye children of the world, 

Through them some wholesome knowledge ye may gain. 

To Alexandria I came, and camped 

Among the people like a fish on dry land. 

And citizens did I find in Kahira, 

But they allow deserving men to starve. 

Thence to Damascus did I take my step, 

To people, erring like abandoned lambs. 

Their hapless state I soon forgot at Zobah, 

Whose talk I likened to a two-edged sword. 

Kalneh I scorn; its people's hands are strong, 

For nothing hold they firmer than their wealth. 

In Assur then my memory lost them all ; 

For brutes its people are and beasts of prey. 

Should I the like find everywhere I go, 

Then mankind only dwells beneath the earth. 

(Fol. 10 verso.) l 

wyo -imdji *jbo \irh mm n^2 vnbbn n&j »bokd wxb wwi 

u iv2p: ntatti bz -raw rokai rokia *m trbr t5* 

12^1 *a no«D2 vb&sn jwb6 mra i»p *nM>ni 

uw dp pr6 o n»«i wifcwo «^ vn&m ny tAwi 

nry nty *B2 jnn idp uate nno^i N2W d&o 

m hnn *a2 pn 2tyi mm «2ru ncrx may im 

1 Metrum : yathed 2 ten., yathed a ten., yathed ten. (Arab. Wafir). 



This poem I composed concerning a man in Kalneh 
whom I had praised in my song, but he escaped to Harran 
from before me, and was hidden from my eye. 

child of shame, brother thou to meanness* 
Combining every sort of avarice. 

1 sang his praises in two languages^ 

But came to grief through mouth and speech of mine, 
And when I sought him, I could find him not ; 
For to Harran, they said, he took the road. 
Now even though from me he's hid and gone, 
His wicked name upon my staff he left, 
Like to a mouse that in a hole took flight, 
But in a weasel's mouth left out its tail. 

Now if we examine the names of persons contained in 
the Arabic fragment, we find them nearly all mentioned in 
Maqamat xlvi of the TahJcemoni, viz. at Kalneh : R. Simhah ; 
at Harran : R. Sadaqah and R. Masliah (surnamed Harofe) ; 
at Aram Naharaim : Josef the Precentor, whom our fragment 
mentions as living at Al-Ruha. It is, however, to be borne 
in mind that when writing Hebrew, Al-Harlzi always sub- 
stitutes Biblical names of places for those used in the 
vernacular. The characteristics he gives of the people of 
the various cities tally exactly with those to be found in 
the Arabic fragment. The avarice of the people forms the 
Leitmotiv of all these compositions. This is again empha- 
sized in Maqamat xii, which describes the great war between 
generosity and stinginess. Needless to say that the u traders 
of Harran," "the people of Aram Naharaim," and the "heroes 
of Kalneh " side with stinginess, which covers itself with 
glory. All this cannot be accidental. It is not likely 
that two different people set out on a long and perilous 
journey, with the same object in view, both equally equipped 
with the knowledge of the language of the country to be 
visited, and that both should have met the same people, 

VOL. XV. 3 A 


made the same experiences, and recounted them in the same 
witty and poetic manner. There is yet another point to 
consider. This is Al-Harizi's thorough mastery of the 
intricacies of Arabic language and poetry. He is not only 
the translator of Hariri, but he inserted Arabic verse of his 
own in Maqamat xi of his Tahkemoni. He also composed 
an Arabic introduction to this work \ Each line in our 
fragment betrays an intimate acquaintance with this class 
of literature in general, as well as with the sparkling wit of 
Al-Harizi. The matter is probably to be considered in this 
way. On his return from his journey to the Iraq Al-Harizi 
made another stay at Fostat (Old Kahira), where he wrote 
the account in question and presented (or sold) it to some 
Maecenas. When he afterwards composed the Tahkemoni 
he embodied the most interesting of his reminiscences in it. 
Thus this fragment sheds a literary reflex on this work, and 
helps us to appreciate many of its passages better. It also 
places Al-Harizi in the ranks of Jewish- Arabic poets. 

T-S. 8 Ka. 4 1 . 


*by n ^ndd^k rrin 
p in xnsbx ntw^K 


■nNM^K by *n pdm^k ^kde&k nin 
tnp jfcoi rimpbti •»£> in tod n*Doi>K }k pW b\vbx fbotbx 
\tb pa rb W i« ni* *6a too ma idw jksj xi? dk (l)n»o 

1 Steinschneider, ibid., p. 160. 


paa pabv» (?d)id^ nyo nDDK pdd* jki aa p nnatbn ni>K pa* p&6« 
idj;t }ki rtoipiw *a ny» aba p*6« N&aa pa« "Ai rao jao jn aa 
n^aa d^b wk&>k *w*6k p np onpa d^ raa 

T-S. 8 Ka. 6 2 . 

pa pnabaa *nw )k a?*a nn^nm mu p bpyba rthv raa xd^ FoL^i 
nybnaD -tckw p pao Dnj^K im? jk SpJB dd^n nmji cn^a nm? 
pafe nnn *oti frriData mprh iW>i nn«ino n^33 to 
*& ^ ^n ^nnoD ah ^ p pao -mb l^ata nnu kbki ™db!>ki 
kdk pa* }k 5>a* npb na*3D |«a )b mvb mw&x p nsa *po 
apnnb NiNn j«a *6a Koaao kd&o aaa^n kd«i fcrnaa kdw to«n 
••a npnow n^bd poi> *maa jaa ih frara vb kd ^» any* 
ndin^ j«a ih 5i?x nNnabfcc *a jioro dk^ «am j«a ih ♦ tan^K 
*pa spD tj riJN ninw }aa npa , t6s« ftnnta ffw una&o aW> 
• iKDaiw pata nnn ban* ah fan^x npnbn d^ lHin jwb^n p 
ppBi> dd? nniw |K ^y ^kin^n »djk •oavn^s nnta '•a hpiw 
dmh^ni nwniw rrwi pata y^ ^« nwanp n*a abp^ p naa* 
••a ma naw wot^n ^n any* apwi nraw nptaa paAw nn i>«a Foi. i 
pnaiw jy n^nid |aa fcnniw cnta nwi paiw iw? ^k asj&K 
NDnfinn« pnna p pa* kdhm pnaiw }k k^P nn^i Da^x pa 
^«nn nnu dw^«i na o^n^ niinn pata iTW van? nm? nn^ in 
pab« b^roNa bra* mn^K jk a^i na o^m n«a p pa^K ^rr 
jk Nb« paW> snnpnNBD nya n^psa nna»A dw^ni rasboaa ^tan^i 
Dnbw nvn5>K nb rh^K nnbsa hdij^ pab« *a iai* n^ «nbya 
bya iaj* oh Nnsio n«x on^xi nwnta pa^N D^iy Nixi nannbxi 
IK wbp ixn^Ni nn^K pa pnabs jj w^nd j«a n^w n^a oa^N 
qi^n «n*a no* rhnw nwpi n^insi • npao p NaanD ^i^^k 
^nD^ipi «nmpi antra n^D ^ pa^N Niys vd? ^n naab« p 
nnf?N n*D na^ wonmnw pnwpi pnpao p aan» jsn^K k»ki 
^ai^Ni nn^a oaan^N n^a -6^1 fiN^n^K nnw pab« yoj ^n 
h^k aw abp^N jy nn«n^K nNnNaabs ^ia wb nwNn^wa 
p v^w ptai&K di^ Nn^a no* naa^ ftwpbM ♦ na^ob am 

3 A a 


recto* * nn ^ n W ^ ™^ ^ ** M ^ rn ^ nn ^ n3 ^^ IXDIX^X 

nnxi n"i?di rhnxi nx:p '•a di^xi nni>x ^d po* d^ ^x md{m 
?Knob« *yiJ w no* km wan pafo *a no* nnaxab nn!?x ix 
nnmn !>pni nbbb en^xa ♦ ftoxfc? rno xb rtyan n^x *a 
pxi>x oaxjD ••a xk£x no^ xoa xTin xTn x^>x no* xi> 
nni?x jxo ib x^d «sdoni xi^x ?d tihte cnbi* |«a |tfi xnnxupi 
ny^nni?x a^x &W> nnxi n?Di rhnxi rwop *a jk^d* 0*6x1 
hpi>x ••yat^x &xd6x ixoa i^i '•a f&oi xyan pt^x ^ ^d* |k 
yuo» b 6yi pbta 6y 5>«p* tvib>d ddx ny^ne&x nyn^x *& 
vi *nfo ihn axbxi>x *oyx nxoiD^x 6y i>xpi xnn praiD nynoi 
rtotata nipfo 6yi *£ai>x 6y aiw bxp) d6:£xi pmofoi d*6x 
pata *vrixn 6y xnn xnnpi nya^x H a bi ry nauta xnnn*i ^x 
i^xix^x xnnin ^nh pno^xi rbintai i>x^nDix^xi imi>xi nxoah 
xnnm rhrm jy ftoDi jtoo jy rimn riynD^x jx 6xpi xnirrexi) }d 
Eoi. 2 BDina }x*tfxi;x *a pn fteM nip riynt^x jx i>xpi nnxi p ppd^sAk 
fua6 rtota nip Stow nip nhpi nxnx ox-qxiw oa:£x pa *\bsb& 
fxn xnba p paxbx xnnm finD-i? nip 5>ip* d!>i fteM nip $>xp 
Dxnpnx &xa!>xi ♦ nymo^x nx^x nyaa o^n im? nyiD^x ^xp 
win nnax nyuE&x $>xpi owtai nyat^x pn pie ntap ^na hp 
nyaxii mw xi:6x p xnftn^D xn^ fi^noi }ni3k^ nnpn bxn jd 
nxi jd win •'nnnx oa^xi )MDxi?xi npND^K nona nxax^x xn^y 

• .noxDn winno n^n xni^n kd xnx^ii xnm: p jNiax^x ^y ran 

♦ wa^xi nm!?x3 np*pni>« ^y ypxi Db p^^x pmbx ^y ^ip^x 
nn d^ rbtoota x^^x p"Npn ds^n im ^did^n q^k nn 
'in jNnna^N xnmrn ds^p^ Xiippn 11 npnx^ nanyD pna^a d^k 
n^a^x nn (?) xdn ^ nxpnyx ^n^x nn i>w ^a ^xnn '•xn nanyD^x 
nx^ ^ih po^N nip jd nip wai>x }x^ x^xi?x ••a i?nn n^py nip 

Foi. 3 nnr^xi oa^x ^ ri^xi^ x^x^x itt nDii?x nn pdxj waD^x 
*a ''x^x n^?N n^n^N nn *w ip x^ Pixi?n5x win^'nn li^xi 
^ b pxni?x r^^n^x in ddpjjd 1^ bnn w L>ani?x in ♦ idxi5^x 
ii>xp |xn p-'b^x nnm WyD^N ••a rhyhx xn?x ox-'p^x nn , mom 
xnxnDix inxi xnjo m rshroQ x^x its nyii xix hp DN*pi>« 


tw to* jk wriDD^ p ]tfo nowa cpnp in nn Kin pnDK i>Kp 
mto k^ki npnv ^y ^ini rodftQ k^k na^niD k^k p frintfi 
S>i5>y»5w *a n^» N*uva k^k Dip* k5> jwnatai friKonD *iKyni?K 
nna^K pao jk^k "in . «n!> nnw npnK^K mibb nano DK*pi?K jk^> 
;d is? xb vby dk*pd jKma^K nn • (Knnaa natM&N nKariK *w 
in nd in pn^N nn ♦ Kni> ddi k^ *r&« flonpD^ ^DnD^Ki jjiSid^k 
K^py n&n jamata nnan* 5>ip pnta )bxp |Ka p^n^K nini *b6k 
l^ii nn^D jy K[i>] £pi£*t n^ IV T"6k Kin pnDK i>Np KDn kdki 
KiKa ^k in kd in n^a atoata \to prbx kd fop KiK fotpfo fK 
. KDn kdki NE&y kdk jamafo nnafr hp mub nb by i!>i *p fop 
♦ in kd -ra n?fo (sic) **pnfo fopi *^fo in kd n^ in foKafo nn Foi. 3 
*a:)D in *p *aa ix np*pnfo vy n? in w k^ rwona pnvfo nn 
*aa ik np^pnfoa *md m nrf> ^ nKariK aiafo nn ♦ nppnfoa nay 
nifecsmN po* ^ no a?Kifo nn . np*pnfo ^y r\b nariD in ^ j» ^ 
*a pip&uofo yKDnaK fonfcfo nn miai p»* n*> kd yanDDfo nn 
nfiNiNi nnxi jKDt *a nnKi irai nnKi nyai nn&o ddk *fo nnKifo *pfo 
pDD^N poofo nn ♦ Kin KaaKna h b KDnpro aaa^a kd by rnm\ 
ma ^pnfo kdkb yyn ^a todi •'p^pn n:o |«i> pani ^y ^p 
d^ n^Ki nno^ iTsno ''K «nn> k5> h^k pp^K pn^xn pi p|pKita 
t\m n?Ki nj?i jw di> kd jnddk «DmnN panv ^y Ki^K p^ "»p^prn 
nyn ny^ p^ d^ jni p^^d^n p Knj dob^n yi^D ^nD rhttno t& 
^n n5i jND np kd jmdn i^Ki n^KnD tub an:i Nnjn5?ia ;k k^k 
nip 1 ' DK?ni fiBN^N ^ nx^D yaaba wj»i p^ n!? ruinai bysb* 

Kn^y n^n npi wy *iwn Kin ^nD nnnK^ nph pnDK !?kp Fo1 - 4 

. . . recto 

nmi kjdi n:K^ Dbya a^iw pKi spy* p» ^n nKip p tnp 
oni^K nn D^b n^ i>Kp DK?n niDK nm 2m* }kdi rwy nnwi 
fin« |k^ i?i ni^KDD^K .iip^K ^oynoni ^k^dd^k ■>& bun nip 
nip^K Nnwnain torwyi Kn^o ^d Dn^K Nnwanai ^k k>^k 
Dm^N k^^k ^Kp 1 * npi ♦ Knnvayi Kn^D p ntrwo «Dby n^KDa^K 
nn . k^ ck nai na in i>n i^dd^k ^k ^a fi^KDi?K nipbwt i^y 

-lilKD^K ID ^K^N ^y KVpi?K |D^K JK ^Kp*»1 DWtfO^K ^ ^JH fiip JD^K 
1 Probably rjsi ^3? ^p\ 


W t« vhtt ftonino k^> m«6 adnata nn&ra ^nh pnhc frn p^ 

DionD^s nriK y&ataaK orbx nn ♦ TK?oi?Ki rhKyno^K by an^a ^n 

on the fy rb nannni onh> na*nna Swsfo* rite Diono^N 1*6 onh* *b 

margin Nn . . ' LL L L 

*b kb nanyD ^k ni> na^nna nxp?? T\nD?x aanarwa nnan nanyo 
na^noi pmybb inriD naaa pwotaai nwaa^Ki bbybx jd a«nahc 
nnr jn irn aoayaD sin fop* npi na Da*Atfi n^a nbaiw napb ^k 
linfc nan K^>a !>yaa?Dta nhaioa DiDroho Swah* nham oaniw 
rva Waa^ nan tb T\y\b& tan by hpfo ann nriaa \tb np*pn 
Foi. 4 ^y pi> npvnta *6y hwaa naj tb btty&vbtt nan o^ n«i k^k 
verso jaco^a |tt W np naaa ^n ;d Nayotaa &6 tapa oox^a TKaahc 
npnh vb hi ry n«a^i ynnaoi naa naaa hi ry nxa^xa tbxy 
hhf» h£ ^Kjn hyao bJ? hfc«aht in b nxn^x p nnaa tayaaah* 
ahraa na n^h^ jNoaaiw p* t& ^yaafc^N ntaiw pnh rf> nai 
pan* by bxp n^k '•awnn^Ki ^sddji ^wnin pan* *5>y ^ htohn 
ko na»i nn^a *h* nay ana* ah r6 hwa^a twam tub KDnata }&6 
ana 1 * ah i?yaahs twam k^ ^k wdki m^ ^k nay anan nriwiv 
snyaa^ kd c£y )*6 noaa *b nnnm fsoa^s naa hroa nn»a bx nay 
bnoa nn^a bit nay anan 5wb5>k warn to kdki ami* kdd 
D«nh* b& nay anan nnaam DiDnD^x ^ya jxa Dxni?N "»a didto^k 
jd nnxi D"»h nsp^ ^ axnai?xi p^sy^s "»a piotd^x ba i^iai 
^n n«an^ ^ni nn^a ^t* ^yxa^x nsan"» «i> n^s ^w pWx pnn 
Eoi. 5 )kb n>a T«n n^j ^to naai> n^ naxaD xb) rbwoobx nxina rrw 
recto noaai? nwioa xmfr sod nnsn yaa"» kd-»b nnoi?Ni naaio^x iNDa^N 
Dion^N x^ Tirtai KiTB nnhv s»a sn^a n^xr b «ni> nasao t6i 
n*B nnni^ NDa iTB tnti rb bsmwr* bz rb nasao tb) onbb nNtoa 
pKa^« Wk ma ^N»Dat>K byzbx «D^a nnsnoi nnanyD bx nawi 
Nnnsn "»a nannniota Dsna^s "»a psa^s ^yai?x bhn nnxnsa 
innnn snoaa "»a innnn ^n^s na«ni>K i?no «yo Nnnoi? rbnnoi 
i»ann nn«n ^a -pnrv h^k sm^ ^noi ♦ nan&Diw snn Nnannna 
i»nD aanD nas jna naoi ♦ r6 nannna nannn aasno^N ysnt^ ^b 
na^BD^K innnna wbd^k tiNnan nnn^i innn^ ^b» iKDa^N 
man nnsi^ *b6n *b nsa^naD^ nam pNBn«i»« nn . syo NDnnanna 
kod« anhap ••a NonpNariKi ^ni?« *a jnwi^k tkdi ona^i jNoa^K 



Tn ♦ pyaiwa Nrrcya tndj*6n anpn wonj^N in ♦ Kya mm 
kd dt? i^wiN fipvaWw in ♦ jrcaDiw '•a nKwrota yKDn?N .tdkeid^ 
nbv cponnn anaii> >ta ^n db^^n pi&> namta in naa tnjaFoi.5 
••^ i^di pit? rhrrofo* in nana^a BNiaN ppyiw in ♦ ywDn?^ 1 
bvb) ♦ o*b p hkd^k d^kh yNnnaa&o y*na^K in '•nn^N 
d^n ja bp jd ^t indq nanwa tnifca in d\>6n }n jd* kjnd 
na m» W& mjp on ir nfo *b£k 5>ri& nai Tya *6k pa* n^ 
msa Diy |n^q tap*a rmaa yy& on ktm |«a pc DJxbN i>riD nai 
*6i nai *Ta dtp ma bap* my on ktijid }Na kd i>a *a iwp> *jbTai 
*pn* *nn oroiw ••a ni> rhrc Nb ob \vb ob nmy hp* bwp mp* 
jn!> tiji ^k my }D ^kdmIw nni£« ana jabtn Tn ♦ myn in Tim 
pban NiT^ ^ «b p ww ban N^a yxno^i *y*atD naiaa pao ba 
jiaiw i>yai> anmpi N.Ta annaa anam *nta frabata nipi>Ka pani 
pi?a ntn Nni>yaa naaj*6Ki iNvnta dktjk Nnj*ian i>nD tkdb^ki 
n«aiw *6k ynniD «h yrnD «i> tn yNinaN ah yNTajN n!> p^ani 

♦ . ♦ .Tw&DK noTpni niwn b? 

T-S. 8 Ka. 5*. 

(sic) tf&*ai>N Dai> D.TDNia Tpai> *DTDa .K*f>#>N ripT^N HTK1 Fol. r 

L recto 

WTK nbp D.Tai 

Dibfc Dnaxay omvhx pa 4a 11T N^y^N fipi^a Kamii 

&£ yn «pn^Ni fombx ijtd onrunnDK nd!? d.t&& 

ntoa^a mn n^p irai mmniw nnw 'n &e&k *>.tn jd 

«nD^ nnnNDD p Dip hnBob td jonx hdth ny^DN np^ Tawii 

Nnan^ Nnaon'' n^N wpni nana *uai>N n^ D^a ^n jy ^ 

«na^ nnba NniNi kteo hjd nn "»n^a im^« d^dn wdhdb nmi 

«na^ na*»D jy idd^n ^ny 5^ NDa NnhtN a^D ^y n5r mwaw Foi. 

xmp nti^n jn Dna^ onoa rsai maw yw aNTt6« ^6? Tpi 

NnDn kiTtw jd b^bn udd n^n fin^Da ci ntnddn d5 ntn 

on b bpv) ri^H pya D.T^a n^i?p f\bm sn^a }«a }Nin fti^TD «nw 
D^y^ ••n pi !>aa^i ne^K Dia ^y jiDBKno DTai?N i&e£k jd (sic) pony 
xnTND ni?p Dn^ai >a«r }a« fipTv fcaniw ••it [jdi] mhtD 7 n ♦ Dani?K ^ma Tawii 



Fol. 2 


rbtxxo) rhttPD d"e> nnb 4ksk Dip |*nn *b bn ipb 

ffooBi NDnai nby rhw kikb 

NysNini fiSy *a«? pa mm 

Dnsa baa^ p^k np Druah 

D**6 ^5n^N nw *b djumA Ni« 

*aD«a to^n ana* amn totA 


ana vn namta p«a 

5>i«a ofoKin spy's 

jho Dmnaa baabKai 

■mp baa thxo p« n:yi 

nbas Dnabai tbjhtt *b rbnv nb'b 

m«D rwnobK *a nap nvp> 

nriNQ anatai pn^« ^ anb d^b 

raw ru« km nvps nb ihp 11 

Foi. 2 na*n di&ki baaba an pi?i 

jNDn DnionK pi ruon nyKDj n.tb jkb nxnn^K hjhd k&k 
S^ on^Bi w baa DnnyKD* n^D ^1 jsmbs *pyi ^onn^N 

Mutaqarib nrfot HKDD OHMD fyabtf ^J? 

nnpN np n'obaa jaBm 

n^N *B *y*h ma ^y 
kt a iD> rann obi 

Fol. 3 b W»» ir«N baabtf bntf JKD& NDnabtf ^« '•DW D^ND pfet *rim 
recto » / 1 

pjra DNn Wk p onintK 
^ DiTBi nsDDi m? yo nabtfi n^a Drya jkb bn?&bN ny«»? mdmi 

anabai ^nwd^n bsbaa lany Dip bnjDbaa }« 

aonao ndin naba pn^i iin k& *bw birabN paorf 

bwpbtf bip 1 ' Dryaa panw riynna neni 

pavwi pDnao baa ymai pa»o irax panoa Dip 

panan b^sabtfi DnxaDbtf pi pa^ni ppBwy mv« Dibbx *b 

b^pba b^ Dryai rrvrabN nwD? ndni 

fh*D» pbai bia pya D.nb (»)i^k i^a nnn?^ mn> 

nnnj^Ka J nt3« irav« "rpi D-6y ^5a nn: ona t3>n> 

Tota nay win^n |»i nb^p nyxm Nrr»B }kb n^D nano ndki 

^Nf6N hp* ™ ^VID^ 

nx? pn« ^pyi?xi w^n dh^ 

nNfia6« JD^nD n^y n^a 

ntoiN^ Inn nvo^« ^no 

n^DnN N^a n?&> naa^ 

1 Sic. 


Fol. 3 



Fol. 4 

ntqjD '•b ^n yoa rbb 

np nnao^K n^D^ nay pb 

hdb: n5n ^aa^ nSai? 

Hi n^ }id> ib ran ppb 


>a pb kh^k pno "h jto kd nmaiDta ixhihx rrim &i»k&k fop 
ntenDfo mra nm?x 6fo i>y anry Tofo fhan^ p^nyfo *fo nao 

anfoa fin w foca nai ani> riyaD? wpb faa foiofo rbna ndki 
un o*nfo »tb pifo foafoi n?ofo ivi ♦ • ♦ fowa }om forca 

i»Npfo hp> iTSI tttfttfo pK Jpafo 

nKDn nnw^ •orp nawn hni? i^na ^app in r6fo *dk Foi. 4 

naoy eppifo pe6!? ijns r6va wofo ^a niapofo nafo ana Ta ^ 

nNDD inroafo pid fo:i ana Drop anaoofo pio npaj ip^ " 

nabi dm D*fop*e rum araap!? n^n pa n:on ipi 

nano Dtftefoi ono nwfo an!? EofoSo \mbt& *p rorD ana 

hxn fo^foi to pni>N r6 nana *po na^fo *pn na«a 

TN1J "JN1D N^» ^» Nh "PD ^flD r^fo n^3 ^ KDQ 

Translation of No. VII. 

1, Al-Kaqqa 's rich in worthy men 

Their virtuous ways are known to all, 

Yet when I tested them 

I found their piety mixed with faults. 

%. Tadmor had given up its noblest man, 
Whom people for his bounty call Simhah. 
A man of riches, not regarding wealth 
A profit, ever in the fear of God. 
He loves to smile; in times as dark as night, 
His shining appears as bright as morn. 
His children all their noble stock betray, 
As musk exhales its aromatic scent. 
Joshua well in letters trained his son, 
Doth conquer with the arrows of his wit. 
Writing when with enlightening pen his lines 
Thou seest chasing shades of night by his light. 

3. Harran is blest with some distinguished people, 
Of genial character and peaceful mood 


There's none like him in intellect and lore, 

Ben Zaki joins decorum to devoutness. 

No praise, however lavish, can describe him. 

As for the rest, greed closes up their hands, 

And none can open them in east and west. 

If any dare to blame them for their meanness, 

They cut him short and say : " Thou art no friend." 

We saw the noble man decrease in wealth, 

But growing rich the mean and greedy fellow. 

4. Edessa's land has cultured people, 
Some e'en are marked for leadership; 
Precentor Josef is, indeed, a worthy, 
And Hassan is his peer in merit. 
The others, they do love cupidity, 
And grant no space for noble deeds. 
Ben Salim's is excessive meanness, 
Though boasting of munificence 
Rasing mountains, charity to evade, 
Obstructing, as it were, his hands. 

5. All Majdal's people know enough 
Of noble deeds and gentle breeding, 
They value nothing more than goodness, 
Regarding virtue great as gain. 

6. Industrious are Nasibin's people, 
Unscrupulous in amassing wealth ; 
They love it and they yearn for it, 
And flee from every noble deed. 

7. Jazlra's Jews between two waters 
Are fairly good, yet rather hard 

The stream of greed surroundeth them, 
And like an isle they lie encircled. 

8. A godly crowd are Sinjar's people 
Indeed, they are possessed of sense. 


Abdul Sayyid, the virtuous, 
Knows all the ways of kindly doings, 
Yet for cupidity pants his soul 
As little birds pant for their nests. 
Were he as gen'rous, as he V clever ! 
But he is like a fruitless tree. 

9. Abul Faraj ! thou art for bounty famous, 
Thou labour'st to support the poor. 
If other marts of help are bad 
Thine of benevolence stands high. 
Happy the land whose chief thou art, 
Thou sheddest lustre over climes. 
When the hand of time describes thy glory, 
The morning is its paper, night its ink. 
In praise thou'rt likened to an Indian sword 1 , 
Whose sheath is faith, whose belt is kindness. 
There's none like thee in God's own land, 
And none so noble in the universe. 

Hartwig Hirschfeld. 

1 This simile is rather frequent in ancient Arabic poetry.