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6. piran is interpreted by Dr. Horn, " the sheikhs." In line 10 it 
seems more naturally to mean bardn, " concerning that," and I have 
therefore rendered it as the equivalent of that word throughout. 

7. kudyat properly means "begging"; but in the lengthy descrip- 
tions of the profession which the writers of Makamahs give us, it 
comes so near " theft " that there is no difficulty in rendering it so. 

9. The word ahula is clearly corrupt for hawala. tus is given in 
the Arabic and Turkish dictionaries with the meaning " nature, dis- 
position, origin, race, family." 

11, 12. This sentence is rather troublesome. It is probable that 
durust-bud is a compound meaning " agreement." Since "from their 
hand " of line 1 1 apparently refers to the same as " from the hand of 
Daniel and Azariah" in line 12, it would seem that Hannah must be 
speaking in line 11 ; and indeed the tenor of the document makes 
it necessary for her to say something somewhere. The words istasam, 
satsum, satsim, and satsan, may be all referred to the verb sitadan, 
" to take," of which a variety sitashtan is quoted in the Persian 
dictionaries. The arrangement agreed on was that the transaction 
should be regarded as an ordinary purchase of pearls by Daniel from 
Hannah and her family. 

13. The " suitable vessel " is regularly mentioned in these docu- 

14. The formula bittul hull mudda'a occurs in other documents. 
In one in Arabic which precedes this in the same volume it implies 
that the purchaser has no further claim on the vendor, should he find 
the article damaged. 

15. buzisht is incorrect for puzish, "excuse." The Persian form of 
the Arabic hiijyat renders it hard to recognize, ismerish may be com- 
pared with izmera of line 5 ; in that phrase ra is otiose, and in this 
its synonym mer, of which Jewish writers are fond. 

D. S. Makgoliouth. 


The Greek version of the Bible known as the LXX renders the 
Hebrew word HT'in in Gen. ii. 11 by EliKar. Jerome, the author 
of the Vulgate, follows their example, and also puts " Euilat " 1 . This 

1 I used the edition of the Bible Lutetiae Parisiorum, 1645, and several 
more modern editions, without having found on this point any important 
variation. Josephus, Antiquitates Judacorum, I, 6, 1, has in the table of 
nations only Eu<\as Si Evi\aiovs ixTiatv ol vvv FaiTovKoi (GSetuli) Kiyovrai. 
(Cf. iy\TVi n^in from Yerahmel recently published by Neubauer, J. Q. R., 


is very remarkable, the Hebrew word, if correctly rendered, demand- 
ing the Greek form EwXa, and not EviAcjt, a form, the termination of 
which cannot be explained 1 . The explanation given by Bochart 
(Geographia Sacra, fol. 225, to flT'in-) does not satisfy. " Ex flT'in in 
regimine, vel ex plurali nvin chavilot facti sunt Chaulotai." Why 
should the name of a country be taken from a status constructus or 
from a plural form? The context of the passage in which t\T\T\ 
occurs, excludes the assumption of a form in regimine or a plural. 

The word itself offers the difficulty that it is provided with the H 
of the definite article nP^PlPI y\H. Although such determination 
of names of countries and towns is not without parallel in Hebrew, 
yet, wherever it appears, it is strange, and is almost always due to 
a corruption of the text. Especially in our passage, where a name 
of a country occurs in the Bible for the first time, this ungrammatical 
form is very remarkable. It is of no use to say that the H in n^inn 
was put in order to distinguish it from the Joktanides and Kushites 
(Keil, Commentar, Leipzig, 1866, p. 48) ; for no author would use an 
ungrammatical form for the purpose of distinction 3 . All that Dillmann 
(Die Genesis, fifth edition, p. 59) could say about it was, that the 
Hebrews were still able to perceive the original meaning of the word 
as an appellative. But can this explanation be called satisfactory ? 
There is any number of names of countries in Hebrew, the meaning 
of which is much more conspicuous than that of Chavila, without, 
however, the article being added. 

I believe a remedy can here only be found by having recourse 
to a radical cure. The Samaritans do not read the n in n/inn, it 
strikes us, therefore, that we have here a corruption of the text ; be- 
sides, the H may owe its insertion to its similarity with the following n. 

XI, 367.) Here there is evidently no sign of "Euilat." The editor Niese 
notes, however, to EuiA?/s (among the Semites) a different reading EiriA.dTj;s, 
and from Eusebius the form EwXar ; but these forms undoubtedly owe 
their origin to the LXX. — Of the Vulgate, I used the edition of Ratis- 
bon, 1863, which had the approbation of Pope Pius IX ; there we find 
''Hevilath.'' But the afore-mentioned polyglot Bible, and other edi- 
tions, have "Evilath" or "Evilat." 

1 The E-sound for the Hebrew n is found in "Ev&x, Naie, and other 

a Lugduni Batavorum, 1707. 

3 The Chavila of the Paradise (Gen. ii. n) and Chavila in the table of 
nations (Gen. x. 7, 20) are different places. Here again a distinction 
must be made between Chavila of the Hamites and Chavila of the 
Semites. Bochart speaks of Chavila of the Paradise, since he compares 
therewith the name of the people of the Chaulotai. 


A correction having thus become necessary at the beginning of the 
word, it will only be consistent to suspect, in the same way, the letter 
at the end of the word and to put a n instead of the n. In that case 
the rendering of nTin by EiiW in the LXX is explained. This will 
distinguish HTin in Gen. ii. 1 1 from riT'in in other passages (Gen. x. 7, 
29, xxv. 18; 1 Sam. xv. 7 ; 1 Chron. i. 9) 1 . I hope to be able to show 
afterwards the probability of this assumption on internal grounds ; 
but as a further external proof I adduce here the circumstance that, 
in the Vulgate, the rtTin of the Paradise is rendered " Evilath," 
whilst the same word in all other passages is correctly given as 
" Euila." It is, however, different with the LXX ; there riT'in in 
Samuel and the Chronicles is likewise translated Eii'Xar (EiiXdr) ; but 
this rests hardly on proper tradition; the circumstance that nTm, in 
the other passages, is given as Eii'Xa, Eu«X«, gives rise to the suspicion 
that the form terminating in t is correct only in the first passage, the 
other cases being due to a misprint. 

The inquiry about the HTin of Paradise assumes in this way quite 
a different form ; for, suppose even that our emendation into riT'in 
be not adopted, the rendering of " Evilat " in the LXX presents at 
all events a name which requires explanation, and quite new data 
will be discovered in reference to the land of Evilat of Paradise. 
The Greek translators must have had some conception or other as to 
the position of Paradise, otherwise they would not have put the 
well-known names AWwnia, for CD , 'Vlypis, and Ev<pparr]s. The question 
is whether we are able to identify the land Evilat of Paradise, 
and whether the name is known to us from other sources also. 

It is true, the Greek and Roman authors do not know such a name, 
but other ancient witnesses, namely, the fathers of the church, know 
the name of Evilat as the current and well-known name of a 

If it were only the testimony of Epiphanius, who stated that he 
personally had seen the river Pishon and the land Evilat encompassed 
by it 2 , it would not be of much weight, Epiphanius not being very 
reliable, and his statement being possibly only a reproduction of the 

1 It is noteworthy that the Arabic translation puts also in Gen. ii. n 
£b«J = Zeila (a name known at that time), whilst in other passages (e. g. 
in Sam. xv. 7) %*>. is put, which correctly renders the Hebrew form. 

2 Ancyrotus, c. 58 (Epiphanii Episcopi Constantiae Opera, ed. G. Dindorflus, 
vol. I, Leipzig, 1859) : xal opuifuv tbv iuauiv W otf/taiv Jjuwv not iftawv jikv 
loriv 6 Tdyytjs napa. rots 'IvSots xakovitevos ical AiBiapiv, "EXX^m Si rovrov 
KaXovaiv 'Ivbhv norajjiov tiaaav yap rty Eii\ar -niptievicXoi, r^v patpav xal rty 
pty&kr)v, rd y.ipT\ iSiv 'EXvfiaiav . . . 

VOL. XI. 3 A 


record contained in the Greek Bible \ But a man like Cosmas Indi- 
copleustes, whose reports are considered to possess considerable value 2 , 
also gives a minute description of the land of Evilat from his own 
inspection 3 . Taking this in connexion with the tradition equally 
preserved among the Talmudic and Hellenistic Jews, to the effect 
that by Chavila the land of India is meant 4 , 1 believe that scientific 
method requires that such hints thrown out in ancient times ought 
to be followed up, and that we must look in India for the Biblical 
ni^in 5 . This will certainly modify our view as to the position of the 
Paradise ; but that is a question into which we will not enter for the 

It seems that even as late as the Middle Ages the land of Chavila 
was known as India; for in the pseudo-Philonic work, Antiquitates 
Biblicae, which was recently mentioned in the Jewish Qtjakterly 
Review (X, 307 sqq.), Chavila is also spoken of as a gold-pro- 
ducing country. The Targum to 1 Chron. i. 23 puts : TIN fJP'in )"P1 
Nn"92"iD nupSD , where " margarite " seems to mean " gold." Also 
in the book edited by I. Levi as JHpW DITUM^ 1SD (The Book 
of Alexander of Macedonia) 6 , HT'in JHN occurs in a connexion 7 , 

1 Although in that case there would be no reason for him to speak of 
a small and a great Euilat. 

2 Cf. Paul de Lagarde, Mitthettungen, Gottingen, 1891, IV, 194. 

3 In Montfaucon's Nova Collectio patrum, Paris, 1707, II, fol. 339; in the 
Topographia Christiana, liber II : iraoav Si rijv 'IvSucrjv xal rrjv Ovvviav Siaipe 
6 i'eiowv irora/xor. xakftrai yap iv rfj 0eia ypa<pfj ttjs 'IvSimjs x&ipas EwA<£r . . . 
oa<pioTtpov aur^y 6vop.aaas . . . xal EviAdr iv rj} 'Ivbiq iarf ras Svo yap ravras 
X&pas 6 Tltpaiieds ko\itos Siatpet. . . 

* It is known that jvcs was already identified by Josephus (Antiquitates, 
I, 1, 3) with the Ganges, i. e. with an Indian river. Both Jerusalemite 
Targums translate nVin by 'p-un = 'ludi/cr/. The old Bochart found this 
so strange that he expressed himself about it in the following terms: 
" At pudendo eirore Chavilam uterque interpres "ip" 151 "' Indian reddit." 

5 The modern commentators who discussed the identification of rr>in, 
for instance, Halevy in Revue des Etudes Juives, XIII, 23, who identified it 
with Chaulan, in the south of Arabia, premise the identity of nton of 
Paradise with Chavila of Genesis x. I, on the other hand, assume 
them to be totally distinct from each other, and consider the name of 
the former not to have been rvWr, but rt'in. 

e In the work nffioS rrjnn (Steinschneider-Festschrift, Leipzig, 1896), 
Hebrew part, p. 158. Cf. the Alexander Romance, also edited by I. Levi, 
in the second volume of the Society D'oro 'S'po, p. 66 (India Phasiaces, 
ibid. 54 b, Bactrii, Scithes). 

7 Immediately before it 'Viy yi» or rfriv ; cf. Thai Iordia (?), perhaps 
valley of Iogria or Ugria (?), in Epistola ad Aristotelem, in Zacher's Pseudo- 
Caliisthenes (Halle, 1867), p. 162. 


which marks it as a country situated in India. A clinching proof 
that Evilat was considered to be a country in India is found in the 
Hungarian Chronicles of the Middle Ages, written in Latin ; they 
represent, on the ground of an ancient national tradition, the hero 
Nimrod, the type of the Scyths, to have emigrated to Evilat, where 
he founded a kingdom 1 . But the existence of an Indo-Scythian 
kingdom is an historical fact that underlies no doubt, for coins of 
that kingdom are still extant ; and, besides, in the above-quoted 
record of Cosmas, Hunnia (Olvvia) is mentioned together with Evilat. 
Considering all this, the identity of rp ,, in, respectively Evilat, with 
India appears to be a fact with which history will have to reckon, 
and I shall be glad if I have, by this article, directed the attention 
of historians to this point. 

Samuel Kkauss. 


Lot 26 of the late Earl of Ashburnham's " Appendix " MSS., which 
was sold at Sotheby's for Mr. Yates Thompson on May 1, 1899, is 
catalogued as follows : — 

"La Guida dello Popolo de Israele, in Hebrew, XIV Century ; vellum, 
l2mo, 4jx 3 inches, ff. 150. 

In the original binding of oat and ebony, inlaid with mother-of- 
pearl. On each cover is a shield of ivory, the one with the arms and 
initials of Galeotto Malatesta engraved upon it, the other with the 
arms of Cardinal Gozio Battaglia. 

A note in the autograph of the cardinal states that this book was 
written at his desire by a learned Jew, by name Aramban ; and that 
the miniatures (of which there are twenty-seven, besides ornamental 
borders), were painted by Giotto, or, in the Venetian dialect, Ziotto 
da Fiorenza and his most distinguished pupil, whose name is not 
given. Both the painter and the scribe were at Avignon in attendance 
upon Pope Benedict XII about the time when this book was presented 
by the Cardinal to Galeotto Malatesta, to be placed in his library at 
Rimini. After the above note is a licence to read and keep this 
book, granted by Benedict XII, dated Avenione, anno iiij (1338). 

An account of the Pope's residence in Avignon, and some notice 
of the Cardinal, will be found in "S. Baluzii Vitae Paparum 

1 I discussed this at length in the Hungarian magazine, Ethnographia, 
IX (1898). 

3 a a