Skip to main content

Full text of "Geniza Specimens. The Oldest Collection of Bible Difficulties, by a Jew"

See other formats


Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World 

This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in 
the world by JSTOR. 

Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other 
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the 
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. 

We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this 
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial 

Read more about Early Journal Content at 
journal-content . 

JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people 
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching 
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit 
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please 



APBIL, 1901 


The Oldest Collection of Bible Difficulties, by a Jew. 

MS. T.-S. 6* 6 leaves, paper, size 20-7 x 15-2 cm. (writing 
16-5 x 1 1-6 cm.). The MS. is written in a fine legible square 
Karaite hand, the writing hanging from the lines, counting 
twenty-eight lines on each page. Unfortunately the MS. is 
badly mutilated in some few places, whilst in others the 
ink has entirely faded away, showing now a mere blank. 
The contents are reproduced in the following text, line 
by line and page by page, but it should be noticed at once 
that the sequence of the pages is very uncertain, since the 
three quires, each consisting of two leaves, were found at 
long intervals,whilst there were certainly middle pages inter- 
vening between pp. 6 and J, 10 and 11, but now missing. 
In the present arrangement I was guided by the fact that 
the quire now forming pp. I-IV is the only continuous one, 
and has besides matter relating to the earliest portions 
of Genesis (p. a, 1. ia seq.) ; whilst the quire now repre- 
senting pp. 5-8 is marked with a 3 on the top of p. 5, so 
that it might possibly stand for the second quire. 

As to their contents, it is no exaggeration to say that 
of all the riddles the Geniza offers, this is one of the most 

voii. xiii. A a 


puzzling. At the first glance we are inclined to take our 
fragment as the remainder of a polemical work containing 
an attack on Rabbinic Judaism directed by some Karaitic 
writer. This is especially the impression we gain from 
the contents of p. 10 where allusion is made to Zech. v. 6 
and 11, which verses (among others in the same chapters) 
the Karaites were particularly fond of applying to the two 
great Rabbanite schools in Sura and Pumbeditha 1 . This 
impression, however, entirely passes away when we have 
gone through the whole of the MS. and found that not 
a single stricture is made on any particular Rabbinic 
teaching or traditional law. Its attacks — and they are 
many and vigorous as we shall see presently — are directed 
against the Scriptures, not their interpretation. We must, 
therefore, look out for some person or sect who not only 
rejected tradition but also maintained a sceptical attitude 
towards the Bible itself. This brings us naturally to Chivi 
Albalki, who, rightly described by Graetz, was the first 
Bible-critic, and who was followed by a large section of 
his community which perpetuated his teaching for some 
three generations or more 2 . 

Before attempting, however, an identification, it will be 
advisable to give some summary of the nature of our 
author's arguments. 

As it would seem his Scripture difficulties were suggested 
by the following considerations: (1) That the style of the 

1 See Pinsker, Likkuie Kadmoniyoth ( = i. K.), Appendices, p. 42 ; Hadasi, 
Eshkol Hakkopher ( = E. H.), Alphabetha, p. 122 ; and Jacob b. Reuben, Seplier 
Haosher to Zech. v. See also p. 10, 1. 2, where he mentions a Tanna without 
giving him the title Rabbi. 

2 The literature bearing on Chivi is to be found : Pinsker, L. K., 
text, pp. 26-28 ; Graetz, Geschichte, V, pp. 286, 486 ; Furst, Geschichte des 
Karaerihums, I, pp. 106, 175 sq., II, p. 30, and notes p. 10; G-utmann, 
llonatsschrift, XXVIII, pp. 260, 289 sqq. ; Israelsohn, Bevue des Etudes 
Juives, XVII, p. 311 ; Kaufmann, ibid., XXII, p. 287 ; Derenbourg, ibid., 
XXV, p. 249 ; Bacher, Bibelexegese der jiidischen Religionsphilosophen, p. 39 ; 
and Harkavy, Sepker Haggalui, pp. 146 sq., 176. The last reference 
(row D'rnc) fixes the date of Chivi about 875 o. e. See also below, 
p. 352, n. 1. 


Scriptures is lacking in clearness, being constantly in need 
of explanation, which is not always forthcoming 1 . (2) That 
they are wanting in consistency of phraseology and diction 2 . 
(3) That they contain needless details and repetitions 3 . 
These are of course more or less mere linguistic or philo- 
logical difficulties ; but the mediaeval Jews apparently 
considered such obscurities and inconsistencies in the 
diction and in the spelling as incompatible with the divine 
nature of a book, which is expected to be clear, concise, 
and free from ambiguities 4 . Of a more serious nature are 
the considerations : (4) That they are full of chronological 
difficulties. (5) That the various books constituting the 
Scriptures are either directly contradictory to each other 
or ignore laws and ceremonies in the one portion which 
are considered as of the greatest import in the other. 
(6) That their ethics are inferior and in no way com- 
patible with the moral nature of God. Regarding the 
chronological difficulties they have, without exception, 
been often enough discussed both by Eabbanite and 
Karaite authors who tried to solve them with more or 
less success 5 . Our author, however, entirely ignores their 
existence, and his scoffing tone makes it probable that 
he regarded all these attempts as mere apologetic trash. As 

1 See e.g. p. 6, ,1. 9, about the fringes (n'S'S) ; ibid., 1. 17, about the 
vows ; p. 9, 1. 7, chronological obscurity ; ibid., 1. 10, verbal obscurities. 
Cf. also p. 12, 11. 16, 29. 

3 See p. 5, 1. 27 ; p. 6, 1. 3 ; p. 7, 1. 13. 

3 See e. g. p. 6, 1. 4 ; p. 7, 11. 8 sq. 

4 See D'Dyicn ynpl (ed. Baer and Strack), p. 9 (ma n3«n'\D D"l*A }W, 
cf. Machbereth Hattiyan, ed. Derenbourg, Journal Asiatique, 1870, p. 430) ; 
p. 11 (mmm vfn pwi> *»Vi) and p. 53. The words there — ctnn Sw dki 
T20 rm vb rrnso vna sopnn rvn ■fin waiwn • • • d'owd arm vmu) rrrt dstd no 
la DW') Tiaa vhft, &c. — are probably directed against such a conception 
of scriptural perfection. See also idn ntwo, by Duran, p. 79, mop nrn D« 
nrona nromn mpo lair snpn rrna cnaiansn nwajnafl p? vffy mo intA ^ 
rnm pi. 

s See p. 2, 1. 25, to p. 4 end; and p. n, 1. 4, and cf. ancient and 
modern commentaries to the Scriptural passages referred to in the notes. 
Of ancient works the Sedar Oiam, dating in the main from the Tannaic 
period, is the most important. 

a a 2 


for instance when he says, " He (God) appointed 400 years 
as a share for his children in the slavery of burden, 
and then he added thirty years to confuse the mind, 
wherefrom shall these years come which he fixed 1 ?" Or 
again, when he says, "Inquire slowly into the days of 
David, Samuel, and Eli, the letter of Jephthah, and the 
days of the Judges. How can they reach 480 (years) in 
detail without erring and leading astray 2 ?" Or again, 
when he challenges the student to explain to him " softly 
and without anger" the chronological riddle of Isa. vii. 8, 
regarding " the three score and five years in which Ephraim 
shall be broken 3 ." In a similar manner he ignores all the 
attempts towards reconciling contradictory passages in 
the Scriptures. These, as he endeavours to prove, extend 
not only to mere difference in numbers between the 
books of Kings and the Chronicles and Jeremiah*, but 
touch also the more serious question of law. " How 
is it," he asks "that the arrangement of the forbidden 
degrees in marriage is different in Lev. xx to Lev. xviii, 
and that whilst this book (of Leviticus) records twelve 
forbidden degrees, the book of Deuteronomy in the Curses 
(xxvii) mentions only four 5 ?" Again, how came it 
about that "the Mighty One in his Torah" forbade 
the eating of "things torn by beasts or that died by 
itself, and yet commanded the ravens to feed Elijah 
(with meat) 6 ?" He also wonders how Ezra could insist 
on the putting away of the strange women after the 
Torah in such a case only demands the bringing of 
a trespass-offering 7 ? " Those of the congregation who 
joined in affinity with an Egyptian people hastened to put 
away all the wives and such as were born of them according 
to the counsel of my God. But where have they been 

1 Text, p. 3, 1. 10, and note 8. 

2 Text, p. 3, 1. 16, and note 9. 

3 Text, p. 9, 1. 7 and note. 4 Text, p. 4, 11. 18-25. 
s Text, p. 5, 11. 13-19. 6 Text, p. 9, 11. 3 sq. 

7 Text, p. 5, 11. 20-25. Of. notes in loc. 


commanded such laws in the Torah of the Lord?" Very 
interesting is his remark regarding the prohibitive law of 
eating fat pieces (lbr\) and the affirmative law relating to 
the blowing of trumpets on the first day of the seventh 
month, and the keeping of the day of Atonement which 
" the prophet of the Lord " did not mention in the Book 
of Deuteronomy 1 . 

Even more searching are the moral objections forming 
Class 6. Thus he asks, " He who liveth for ever promised 
the Patriarch ' So shall thy seed be,' &c, and he believed 
in his word, and how could he then answer wrathful ly 
that ' thy seed shall be a stranger in the land of their 
oppressor 2 '?" Again he conceives the story of Balaam 
as described in the Pentateuch as attributing to God a sort 
of double-dealing with the heathen prophet, as well as 
attempting to protect Israel against himself 3 . In another 
passage he alludes to the vei'se in Leviticus (xxvi. 18), "I 
will punish you seven times more for your sins," and to the 
one in Isaiah (xl. 2), that " She hath received of the Lord's 
hand double for all her sins," and exclaims, "Where are 
thy mercies of yore, Lord God, merciful and gracious 4 ?" 
In a similar way he cites the verse from Ezekiel in which 
God first said to the prophet, " Behold I take away from 
thee the desire of thy eyes" (Ezek. xxiv. 16). The wife 
of the prophet died in the evening, whereupon the prophet 
is told " Thus Ezekiel is unto you a sign " (xxiv. 24) ; 
and our author asks sneeringly, " If God wanted to show 
miracle upon miracle could he not (accomplish this) without 
snatching away his poor wife through sudden death 5 ?" 
He then proceeds, " A wondrous thing like this he twice 
commanded Hosea : ' Go ! take unto thee a wife of whore- 
doms ' (Hos. i. 2 and iii. 1). But are such horrible things 
proper for the prophet 6 ?" He also protests against God's 

1 Text, p. 6, 11. 22, 23. a Text, p. 3, 1. 2 sq. 

3 See Text, p. 6, 11. 11 sq. ; see especially 1. 17, the reference to Joshua. 

* Text, p. 9, 11. 15 sq. 5 Text, p. 11, 11. 14 sq. 

6 Ibid., 1. 16 sq. 


dealings with the houses of Baasha and Jehu, who are 
supposed to have provoked punishment from Heaven, the 
latter for his shedding the blood of Jezreel (Hos. i. 4) and 
the former for his having exterminated the house of Jero- 
boam (1 Ki. xvi. 7), whilst according to other prophecies 
they were in so doing only fulfilling a commandment of 
God (1 Ki. xvi. 14, and 2 Ki. x. 30) 1 . Farther on he says, 
" Industriously did he persuade David, ' Go number Israel 
and Judah,' " and then he threatened him with one of the 
three things — among them pestilence (2 Sam. xxiv. 1, 13, 
and 14), but if David sinned what wrong have the people 
committed 2 ? This objection is followed by another where 
he asks, " ' the sons of Eli were sons of Belial and knew 
not God' (1 Sam. ii. 12); they sinned and died, but why 
fell there of Israel 30,000 men?" (ibid. iv. 10) 3 , and he 
concluded the question by saying, "But ever so many 
(instances) like this I could proclaim." 

The impression the foregoing extracts make is that we 
have to deal here with a sceptic, not a mere sectarian. 
This array of questions cannot possibly represent a mere 
exegetical tournament between a Babbanite and Karaite, 
the former trying to show the insufficiency of the Scriptures. 
From what we know of such challenges, they are mostly 
confined to the legal part of the law and religious insti- 
tutions mentioned by the prophets, but the champion 
would hardly parade for the glory of his own sect such 
moral and exegetical difficulties as mentioned above 4 . The 
terms, again, in which these questions are sometimes couched 
are also too sneering and the tone too jarring to come either 

1 Text, p. 11, 11. 19 sq. 

s Text, p. 12, 1. 1. 

s Text, p. 12, I..5. 

* The only Babbanite one can think of in this connexion is R. Jacob b. 
Samuel, the pupil of R. Saadyah, who wrote in a Paitanic style (Pinsker, 
L. K., Appendices, p. 21) and urged the insufficiency of the Law (ibid., p. 22, 
note 5 ; see also note 7 to p. 5 of our text) ; but there is nothing in all that 
is communicated in his name and is known about him (£. K., pp. 14-23) to 
suggest the authorship of our text. 


from a Rabbanite or Karaite, both of which sects believed 
in the verbal inspiration of the Bible 1 . Now our knowledge 
of Chivi's controversial activity is mainly derived from 
R. Saadyah's occasional references to him. According to 
these Chivi composed a book consisting of Two Hundred 
Objections to the Bible 2 . As to the nature of these 
" Objections " we learn further that they were of various 
kinds. Some were of a philosophic nature and of the 
rationalistic order as known to us from the last century 3 . 
Others, however, were more on historical and philological 
grounds, viz. : that the Bible is wanting in clearness and re- 
quires a commentary 4 ; that its constituent books (e.g. Samuel 
and Chronicles) contradict each other 5 , and that they con- 
tain chronological impossibilities 6 . The Gaon, of course, 
only mentioned specimens, but they are representative of 

1 See Text, p. 2, 11. 21 sq., where he says " The word of God is right in the 
whole Scriptures, now seek ye ! Perhaps (the number) of the years will 
agree, Hold your peace," and proceeds to give a large number of chrono- 
logical impossibilities ; p. 3, 1. n, where he asks with regard to a chrono- 
logical difficulty, " whether he added thirty years (Exod. xii. 40) with the 
purpose of confusing the mind?" Cf. especially p. 11, where he deals 
with the moral difficulties and where his tone is particularly irreverent 
and irritable. Regarding the insufficient proof as advanced by Rabbanites, 
see also Ibn Ezra's Introduction to his Commentaries to the Pentateuch, 
and Alcharisi, Makama, j'Dn dj> j'DNOn rrci. 

3 See Barzilai's commentary to theSepfter Jezimh,e&. Halberstam, p. 21, 
the quotation given there in the name of R. Saadyah. Cf. Graetz and 
Pfirst as quoted above, where all the references of. the Gaon and other 
writers as the Karaite, Salmon b. Jerucham, and the Rabbanites, Ibn Ezra, 
Ibn Daud, &c, have all been put together. 

3 See Emunoth W'Deoth, of R. Saadyah, I, 1 and III, ro, the quotation of 
Salmon b. Jerucham in L.K., Text, p. 28 ; the quotation of Ibn Ezra as repro- 
duced by Piirst (as above), I, p. 172; the quotation in the TorathHannephesh, 
p. 20. Cf. the authorities given above, note 2, particularly the thorough 
and learned essay by Dr. Gutmann on the Twelve Objections given by 
R Saadyah. 

4 See Emunoffi WDeoth, ibid., 13 d'iniio nixon '«iid fHtt) nasi. 

5 Emunoth, ibid., mTiD 11 v>v> Monro 11391. See ch. 9. Cf. Gutmann, 
ibid., p. 269. 

6 Emunoth, ibid., cnrr T3 dtohj i**n p Vna jin tttpw ipu> nvio man 12 sis? 
UMim ja, &c. &c. 


classes i, 4, and 5 of objections as contained in our MS. 1 
Another important objection of Chivi was that according to 
the Scriptures God broke his promise which he made on 
an oath 2 , which objection is a representative specimen of 
the sixth class of difficulties 3 . These facts suggest a strong 
relationship of our text with the Two Hundred Objections 
of Chivi. Considering their large number, they could not 
well have been classified under the first ten questions 
of R. Saadyah, and probably were of such an unequal 
and varying character as to include, as our text does, 
difficulties of a mere exegetical and grammatical character, 
every obscurity tending, according to the author, to show 
the imperfection of the book, and thus throwing doubt on 
its divine origin. It would thus in no way be hazardous 
to attribute this criticism of the Bible to Chivi. 

Nor does the biographical part of our MS. contain any 
fact which might not be reconciled with what we know 
of Chivi's life from other sources. Practically very little is 
known of this sceptic's life except that he came from Balk 
— the ancient Bactria — and that he flourished about the 
last quarter of the ninth century 4 . The first fact would 
fairly agree with the Join of our MS., under which may 
be understood a group of countries somewhere near Media 
with which it is mentioned together in the Scripture 5 . We 
further learn from our MS. that its author was eighteen years 6 

1 See above, p. 347. 

2 This important quotation was given by Harkavy in his otto rptra 
kindly copied for me by Prof. I. Levi of Paris, running, in the former's 
Hebrew translation : mawrrt 'n rasa lb -m»i nvnsn nma 'r^arr 'in pro naai 
lrwiw ma SiaVi satan 1 ! lmson irnn -]<« n»in mrrran y-isn rw orreaV jn» '3 
m-iawi '3 m to atni rmmnn, &c. (1. 1, p. 3). 

3 See above, p. 347 ; cf. especially p. 3, 1. 3 sq. in the Text. 

4 See Graetz and Harkavy as above, p. 346, n. 2. 

5 See Text, p. 8, 1. 1.9. Regarding Tubal see ancient and modern 
commentaries to Gen. x. a. It ought, however, to be noticed that 
R. Saadyah in his Arabic translation renders it with psta, by which China 
is meant, cf. Benjamin's Itinerary, ed. Ascher, p. 94 (Hebrew), and text 
and notes, but see also Epstein, Eldad Haddani, p. 30, n. 7. 

6 Text, p. 8, 1. 19. 


old when he left his native country, wandered through seas, 
islands, and deserts 1 , and went at last to the West 2 , by 
which probably Babylon is meant. There he met the " sacred 
society of righteousness " devoted to the study of Talmud 
and Mishnah 3 . The head of this society was the Gaon 
" whose horns are like the horns of the unicorn, with which 
he gored the scoffers 4 ," and whose decrees and laws were 
dispatched to Israel scattered over all four corners fl . This 
Gaon was supported by the Father of the Court (Ab-Beth 
Din) on his right, a third one on his left 6 , whilst the Court 
further consisted of " the seven Shepherds and eight Prin- 
cipal Men V By the aid of these Elders " he weeded out 
of the congregation of the Lord all the briars and the 
thorns, and the rebels who decline to listen to their Torah 
dwell outside of the camp like lepers and those afflicted 
with boils 8 ." The favour of these " men of God " he en- 
deavoured to win by gifts 9 . But as it would seem though 
originally a Rabbanite he joined afterwards the Karaites, 
who probably were helpful to him in his study of "the 
Wisdom of the Scriptures," whose vocabulary he accepted 
largely 10 and from whom he learned to abuse his former 
co-religionists 11 . Under their guidance he went through 
the whole of the Scripture and its versions several times, 

1 Text, ibid., 11. 16, 17. 

2 Text, ibid., 11. 20, 21. 

3 Text, p. 7, 1. 26. 

4 Text, p. 7, 1. 28, cf. Deut. xxxiii. 17. 

5 Text, p. 8, 1. 1. 

6 Text, ibid., 1. 8. The function of the >\c ,l ro is not given. 

7 Text, ibid., 1. 9. Cf. Micah v. 5. This description does not agree with 
that given by Nathan Habbably, which however refers to the Head of the 
Exile. Cf. Graetz, Geschkhte, V, p. 433, and Weiss, Dor Dor W' Dorshow, TV, 
p. 12. 

8 Text, 1. ro-13. Cf. Weiss (as above), p. 17, note 10, about enforcing 
measures of the Geonim. 

9 Text, 1. 18. 

10 Such as n>yja, jnno, "Vatuo, &c. (see for this latter p, 5, 1. 1, and p. 8, 
1. 18). The two former expressions, however, are not quite peculiar to 
the Karaites. 

11 See p. 10, Text. Cf. above, p. 346, note 1. 


so that their contents were so familiar to him that he 
even knew by heart 1 , and he was thus enabled " to compose 
large and admirable books known to the whole of Israel 2 ." 
There is thus nothing in the career of our author which 
might not be adapted to the life of Chivi, which, as hinted 
at above, formed till now almost one large blank. 

On the other hand it must not be overlooked that of all 
the known quotations in the name of Chivi not a single 
one is to be found verbatim in our MS. ; whilst others, 
especially those of the rationalistic kind as given by 
Ibn Ezra, are altogether omitted ; though of course it 
is not impossible that the latter found a place in the 
portions of the MS. now missing. It is also very diffi- 
cult to assume that the reverential phrases in connexion 
with the Scriptures, Israel or the leaders of the 
nation, were all meant ironically 3 . It is true Chivi's 
"Objections" could not possibly have represented a 
mere collection of abusive passages, just as little as 
it can be imagined that his controversial activity 
was of an exclusively negative nature. This must be 
clear from the fact communicated by Ibn Daud in the 
name of the Gaon that the latter met with schoolmasters 
teaching Chivi's "Torah" in books and tablets 4 . But 
abusive criticisms consisting in mere denials could never 
have formed the subject of instruction given to children. 
Chivi's Torah must thus have contained some positive 
elements recommending them to the educationalist. In 
fact I am inclined to think that this " Torah " or " new 
Torah invented by Chivi," of which Ibn Daud and Ibn 
Danan speak 5 , was nothing worse than a sort of an expur- 
gated Bible, omitting such passages as proved objectionable 

1 See p. 10, 1. 32 sq. 

2 Ibid., 11. 26, 27. 

* See Text, p. 2, 1. 3 ; p. 7, 1. 21 ; ibid., 1. 26 ; p. 8, 1. 3 sq. ; ibid., 1. 23 ; 
p. 12, I. 12. 
4 See Sepher Hakkabbala, ed. Neubauer, p. 66. 
6 Sepher Hakkabbala, ibid., cf. Harkavy, Sepher Haggalui, p. 147, n. 1. 


to Chivi on historical or moral grounds. A real "New 
Torah," entirely ignoring the Old Testament, would never 
have been accepted by any Jewish sect, be it ever so 
advanced. But admitting all these circumstances it is not 
probable that Chivi would have used in his polemics the 
devotional expressions current in the mouth of the believer 1 . 
Our MS., again, in some places shows such an advanced 
state of Bible exegetics as is hardly warranted by the 
productions of the ninth century 2 . Indeed, all the difficult 
verses (from an exegetic point of view) noted by our author 
formed the constant subject of controversy between the 
various commentators, and his challenge to the rutins nna' 1 
is probably addressed to those who advanced explanations 
to those obscure words or whole verses. All these reasons 
speak against the authorship of Chivi. But it is safe to 
assume, I think, that our fragments emanated from the 
school of Chivi, who enjoyed a certain following for some 
generations 4 and whose adherents probably lingered on 
for some time even after the defeat inflicted upon them by 
R. Saadyah 5 . Such a latter-day Chivite would probably 
adapt himself to his Rabbanite and Karaite surround- 
ings, whose writings he would eagerly study and whose 
phraseology he would largely accept. This position would 
enable him to reproduce the "Objections" of his Master 
without any compunction and permit him to indulge 
occasionally in a sneer and a little violent language ; but 
on the whole his language would be that of a scholar, and 
his terminology the one in use by the orthodox majority. 
His position would resemble very much the one held in 
modern times by many a Broad Churchman who has long 
ago accepted Wellhausen and Stade as the infallible 
authorities on the interpretation of the History of Israel, 

1 See p. 354, n. 3. 

a See Text, p. 5, 1. 3 sq. ; p. 7, 1. 14 sq. ; p. 10, 1. 26 ; p. 12, 1. 20 sq. 

3 Text, p. 12, 1. 27, 28. 

* See above, p. 346, n. 2, the reference to the Sepher Eaggalui. 

5 See Ibn Daud, ibid., dtcbi, &c. 


but would continue by mere force of habit, or out of regard 
for his fellow citizens, to speak of the " Word of God," 
the "Holy Writ," the "Divine Kevelation of the Bible." 
This is the only way, I think, which might account 
for the many difficulties and contradictions our text 

The style of our author is that of a Paitan. This was the 
feature of the time when everything — Halacha 1 , Haggada, 
polemics 2 , history 3 , poetry, and even letters* of any 
consequence had to be written in rhymes as well as to be 
provided with alphabetic acrostics. Our author, like 
Salmon b. Jerucham in his Milchamoth and Hadasi 
in the Eshkol, alternates the alphabet with the jinK>h. 
These limitations, as well as his love for interspersing his 
lines with allusions to and phrases from the Bible, make 
his style occasionally forced and even unintelligible. 
Sometimes he even uses words and forms for which there 
is no authority in the Scriptures and not even in the post- 
Biblical Literature 5 . In my notes to the text I have 
endeavoured to be helpful to the student by giving 
the Biblical references mainly to such passages as form 
the subject of the author's attack. In others I have 
tried to explain their meaning. Yet many more remain 
still obscure and meaningless, and I can only rely, in 
my turn, on the students who, having before them the 
text with the necessary introductory remarks and ex- 
planatory notes, will continue the study of this MS. and 
favour us soon with their comments. My suggestion as 

1 See e. g. the upper writing of the Aquila Facsimiles, edited by 
Mr. Burkitt. 

2 See the extracts of Salmon b. Jerucham's Milchamoth given in the 
seventh volume of the Orient L. K., Notes, pp. 19-43. 

3 See Kaufmann's Die Chronik des Achimaaz, p. 38 sq. 
* See the letter of Chushiel, J. Q. B., XI, 643. 

5 Page 1, 1. 10 jnran ; p. a, 1. 11 -ranion ; p. 3, 1. 17 a^H') ; p. 4, 1. 4 m ; 
p. 6, 1. 10 Drrrnw, 1. 11 onmci, 1. 12 d'iwh; p. 8, 1. 28 rwjDii; p. 9, 
1. 5 ~ph (as verb), 1. 6 rroiDD, 1. 16 )ia»n ; p. 10, 1. 7 tout; p. n, 1. 4 
croson; p. 12, 1. n idiit, 1. 12 ^sid, 1. 14 tusoi, 1. 28 iyuiidn. 


to the authorship of this Text can, I am perfectly aware, 
only be regarded as a mere hypothesis, and I am just as 
much anxious for its acceptance by those who make Jewish 
polemics the special subjects of their researches as for its 
rejection, should any fresh theory prove to lie nearer the 
truth than the one offered in these pages. 


I. (x recto) 

n*S>j> urj? dk>£» nvp) : nnona nonnn bm • ^naty on 3it?n 

pt6 mn o DiTie o^ mb • ono nb bm )mrb • orw 

ij-n iw nbm nn-io ^n iaD : nna djdd em*w • onw 

D3D T> O I^NKTl ^1N DTO3 mrP * 1 n^JD1 nwi H31N01 

•cbq 'D'tamei anDjmn *aati> : nmi>n nna^ px ^>k • ni?m 5 
ah neon on^ ue>n Tins • 3 pp bin ^n«3 ohp nae* * p" 1 ^3 
cnro tw • D'om Dawta d.T'b nj>D : nnxb law nS • ps 

• D013 hpi> D3JW D1M3 5>3n5> Wl • ffOnKD HXDpa EMS 

■•n^ds lym ww ' p-inan $>]> ob iN3^ tea!? : nn: nvo \ij 

nan Warn • p-inan nj? H33 now nn H33 -i»ik nt • prop 10 
dn oyc ban pi?D nop : nna xb Dai • p-w pto wtn nm 
n»oae>Di cpna • )bw dn >a a^nb D.-6 na ps* • i^nb* 
»B»nao onjiai q-mH :nnt< -town pyrtfl • b&m wpw 
ttoan cm • 3ni -ipe> iptff'i noxn mjp • 3ra -m i?y nvo 
ivoty :nn Dn^j? Mn • ary t6 cdbpo (?)naa Dfwjn 15 
inb' 1 ' • ohpy nsytsa tre 11 on»a» nam • o^p • • • • w»e> 
: nnaa onoipi -m n^ t^nopn * ohpn? ipbs Dtytr. 
h> D'oy ibdw • nyaaa iBip niro msixn lypfi 
nnto ton • nj&a na*i njnnyn mta toxin!? • 4 nyhxn 
tnpon jna n»t6 • cbn hp won *jrt«a : nn»n p 20 
idsj? nacon • d*^k« tjn twno -at -inv t6 • D^ya ba 
• rnns : na'pn d^d w dn • cbno 3113 

'W P3N ' *{»t3 IpP «^> '•a DJDN * ^N 1NU1 D3^3 131ET1 

5 ari3Dn jd man ^n^NC :nhj? ya by ^\ab d • • • v 
nnya • D^ipn D'ainasi dwmi min3 nrs • • • • 25 

• man njni nn p^jfi : nioai mma 

anai 3ni a^nst? b^n • d-u!5 • • nssnij 

"]m iu«nn nuwp :m^ 103; 

%* Notes to the Text will be found on pp. 370-374. 


2. (1 verso) 

wxini> • nta maim *pjwv ttb nn nan • rb>avn nai^ 

pi2 :my nip bskw dib6 • nh^D n^> "p-\b anaon iid^d 

ipnai 11 mxp ba ombx ana» nspo * tpnx nn» noN *» ^dsb'd 

t6 q»ob> hnS : nw mta -it?Na • lpiyi Dnny un» 

naD* >o >>a • now "po ivan »a »njn» • root tn • -frttm 5 

• iDpn jdx t*m ii» 13^5? j nit? i»ani> din * ncana D*pne> 

nnp pa» • iova tin piw ttw nr '•n * idipd nr »n ibti 

*a omn vbt idoi • ipan »a pN noo dU? : roa <by 

nw nyii? *»t2N' dn • ipjn Dnn twasn wyn • npnn 

noro • -ie* din.i nN n^y -«?n d^n ntO : ny» ai> na^ 10 

• -ik»o 702^ nts>« tin pan pa • "itsnpo pasrn it?pa 
*aai» iron n^> rrob -rea b«n :ropn nnai> -iwi man 

it?y no ro nyi dindi • nix mua ru *aa^ dn >a • mni din 
nioa D'nnD ; * mx n^> "jin 'a • niNn nca taN tab r\nb 
nan • mw nND in dv dp ii> nnai • nan Tina din nyD 15 

rfh : mini rya i^bn -laaa nj -i?n • .-wa ny*p dn 
o.T6y tjw mb !>am pph • id^xi mien din u apj nc 

• icfoya ici'va T>hn n^> nNd D'e6e> ny noi • mb 

• .-man >y*rv Da!? -ibovi nD : 2 niB> tub -ib>n iniiona 
D'ne'yi nN» vo» i\*ti • mci hacn -nib pp inn Niian >a 20 

^ini * wan anaon ba « nan -le' ,, : 3 nwpi axpa • rue' 

♦a • o^aab n$>i "imNi> wi • iDn jiaj $>n rowan own 

db> * mra ddv nin ne> "©ata : mpm pjoa ie>aro 

dj?» N3 ,, JE)' , yi'n • 4 ma: anaon jd pm mn Hj?i>a nni 
♦ • • 1T11.T iti N^nn nya pn : nnn maD \vK>b • my* 25 

• • • b ' yxa no • miynh mini' n:n cjdi* -iaon ono 

ow D^nn d^bt; Tinai • mya rrn ooy 

mvtrb nB'N oy piN yan 


3- (2 reeto) 

horn }rran pa 'oai pa mi>m • mota rtaya BT>n$> 
rvnan bhy *n : 1 mnrb n»a ona onw ^ • n-niyi> 
p nnx t«i • nana po«m ipr rw na • waDm axn 
nani> • to pto mm rvrv *u ia • nnom ^sa injy 
niDisn bo noi> • not^ d^b> xi> dk }bT : 2 mnNn ns 5 
• nay naysai nrciNn ba nvn bv n^> • '•'nan imayn 
'nemo cw mw inr6 yaw tnnn oval : 3 nisn^ vim 
intoi 6 nB>Bn insai • *viw ids rviBipD nconai tk 
B>nan :nre nasi rrenana nyaB> ^Din n»»»i 7 ne>W 
spin p nnfco • i>aD nnaya iy-i£ • bn ru&» niKB ya-ix 10 
: 8 mnn -ib»k own n^x rosvn pKB * W>ai> nynn d>b6b> 
rbwb b^k puk'V on • crnn we*i iyBB> pan nal 
rutrv ton • nnjn ;b vipn rua* 1 p ab Tib • ontpye 
one<j; nona yaw • o^sa jiaa pm n^n bO : m^a 
i^ba vcd nno • dw run naioa 0^31x1 • D^Bnn 15 
iwcBn Tn »d* my ipl : 9 nvn "ib>k mioa • tv&nsn pan 
ya"it6 ijw ts * caawn w nna 1 ' maxi ^yi • a 1 ^ 
nB»a b»n 5 l0 myoi myn ^a * ttonaa d^ibbi wnd 
D^ya-is treDJ iniD •nnxi * wota nbna hxB^ n^n t6 
: " nw-6 a^B yai» * innnoa abvatb D^yansi • im^i»^ 20 
nai i>Ni • raton -idhi nt6n b»j * njian na^ mix nsu 

* rnns : ruiaj topan }d 3B>ni • ruwn 

NB'ya -iaai • M ni>K *jta woi>»{> wi DnB»y na&»3 kdN 

,3 NB^?a ndn^ BW tve^t? wb»3 tni * rbrica map nB 

* rm"i»B» b i^b D-Yirr Nin axnt* p j nnna -iar * • • • y 25 

iiyi : I4 n3B> mcy o^nB* aaBnrr p aiwi' &rw n3B»a 

15 awns p q-iv^ Bran na^a • naBnai n^» dbbw * • • 

♦ ruiaj van nahsoi vas ^na -jta 


4- (a verao) 

-oa iniosi • ' a^ya-it* p bbbw p tnw yft : nr6y nnp3 

mt?y aw rot?3 i?V) ' 2 ffjnsi aw p 103 pp mn 

nxr K^n • awnynij not? 4 rnt?y nnta myi • "cjrapi 

din niatai i?nv p tajn-r rtt : nry nom • ttjny nn 

Dnt?j? rat?3i • s n^ox niaW> mt?y t?on njt?3 • nit^i't? 5 

vrbw ont?y rwai • 6 mxoN p nnty Dy3*vS> j?3t?i 
nt?p3 8 «3 -j^o yaw d^b>3 myi • 7 mm p ewi> rat? 
promt* ^d rat? mt?y t?on t6n : nnoa nat6»m • mon 

• Dyn i>y nnry "^on oya-i^ mt?y t?on n3t?3i • Dyav Dy 
raot?n • Dyxai ob t?to3i • nyaa yam entry 3t?m tki io 
• raot?t6 Tvini oyam ni»a nt?tnn pat?ro • nn on km 
ot?n jUETiaT :raoi aut? yatri ant?y ma!>D3 nn?y "iaa 

rot?a • run oyam p nnar -£o tni * natr rnt?y yaiK • • • 
r\xn rnx -inaj "ft : nrfo yvi ran • 9 rat? raiot?i D>e6t? 
naita^ yt?in mai' mt?y D^nt? rat?ai ♦ 10 nps^> mt?y y3t? 15 
my Din : ntah ub^» * npia iddj p« aw root? rba * " npi? 

• Dnwi iap3 onv naai * 12 onvb ant?y rot?a yt?m i?v *a 

ot? yata : nrvb dn • ama w ^t?o'' *6y bt?iD nrw 

raot? a^cn naiai • 1S rwh& wunrt) .mt?y raiot? pain' 

"•SW w£wn • M (?) nmn a>w mt?yi nt?^t? a"t?nni Dot? jo 

mt?y raiot? nha ♦ • tyrf 1 : ntno ^n nrno ho • nt?nio m 

yat? rat?a niso t?t?i B'ata nya-ixi • 15 raiot? rat?3 0k 

t>3 ram • "ran 11 ayim na^oo m?K"D pi • rao* 5>an 

twnm • • • • -1 • • jn ♦ • • 17 nja'' mpi* bit D^an D^as^on 

• • • • ant?yi (1) nt?on • nma * aniDNn n^o pa^m as 

nyat?3 • ♦ ♦ vnrb it?y3 pi • 18 Dnt?yi ny3t? 

• ♦ • • c^n n3T mw3 • w Dnono 

ffw rvb nt • a^ans 

♦ ♦ • 



5- (3 recto) 

arax bn Dyja bv\ • •bn laa l^Nin ay ^ae^ : nanjn 

1NDD'' N$> f Kl ' ^b VJ3N ib DJ1 N»D* !?nN3 "1B>N i>3 * ^03 

•63 nr3 nsJ : J nsiat? nomi nprn to • ^3 Wis tus 

^31 ^S^H J3 • 131D3 niC "1PN DJ? ftW ne>N * 131J?3 B1DN 

"tan in 11x3 pe>n ba bni • 2 i3in i>N ano S>ia* -te>N enn 5 
p«f> nona BTim • i3nn*i naa« ah "pN * 13111 vW 3E» 
« »an3 run • wan ia»3 * lawn no« awaD !>3tP : nsbvi 
nuj> ijtp n^ 03 ttnpn mm • vj$> • • W> bts awpn nvna 
nxnpi * wa ij?idd 3Jj vjid nn vju nny 13 *|N • 3,| ani> 
Ni3a • i>yn£> yin no biKtw npioV : n3 lay n!j * • an^N 10 
Nin aa * W103 t ansi no an " ' * » d« * Wan no bw 
* 4 nsiann bib nxono • W»» W * * wm vj ♦ b • • • Wa pj> 
V3Ni ianmi mann ax ♦ nny rrm aw tanas bn enD 
idki V3N» imnsi insi m n3 twyi * niv^ "vmrb ioni 
acwiy j3 0*112? :n3i»B'3 aoj> noana BN*nini> -i3t vb 15 
• rnnrna Btwiya nbc^ ncaD$> asan • rnieo Torn *6 

: nsian "»b naiya ♦ rnnn pnn mnN manna? may? 

jno p3nN bn vj i3t n!? • ne>y aw urns nsp vj Ba • • • 

t\vn : 5 n33i "jDjn • ian nm nnman bi * notai n^3 

nyttn -non vnas bb>n !»n • nanna nnat? ay nanN 20 

orb i6 ny ' nayxa nnaa 'Wid BWN n»S ♦ nabo 

s'vinf' ♦ won bp nxo bj?3 ynnn» np© : 6 n3s5>»n ins 

mvD nbo a^pn nnra ps • 'win nxya ano iham ♦ • ♦ ♦ b 

3B>3 is -i.ib> miD : nsnyi nTan aSy ay iw&o • • • • n 

nc in mn • iiff p 3ty3 ioa nai by • nnys ni>v *3 ty in 25 

n3D»n hnt : 8 -no'' na3 nNi f»mi ma • iTaa m n» ' • • • 

n3iai> pno myi • nnsb pno iyiD Wn3 • • • • 

10 n3TNa B"«n po^a nm rbton • nsana »nyi» i>nN3 • • • • 


6. (3 verso) 

naoi nona ••Ditan r\~\m :mw b^bj 

nona nan wa • noy^> nr^ n? o^oya warn nt& * nov m« 

: l ni>iyn ois mn * noBO ppDin jiB>toai • nojo oi« naoi 

yap • njo ns i^ noa yp * naioxa bob* mn3B> yaitf 

nmaB> yaB> b^b> "tiyi * rw ny noi> coya yaB> onw 5 

db>"> :n^>na nhon ^ip^'nic a^yaisi ye>n ,2 n3mi> cacn 

no^i • unoa nB>ei> 3B> "no yiu t6i * wnr6 hb>o n!>B»i 

♦ uiyoi> 3B> on T^n on jru r^^ ' wyoi> wn unK nab i!> 

onnaa "ana !>y • nn)W)b nix n«re ne>p j 3 »"6d una bm 

paa t>n * oniTwa nbn Wia span nnp*. bv unai • omv6 10 

oyW? cn^K m2 : 4 n^nn noyos * onmoa nbnm niren 

am • onwra ^in "a isn -inn -iron • D*ie>n dj> ii> nip 

si> Tina ♦ onxon pa wro "1^0 ni>B»i • nnnn^ inn 

• vrnan ii> naT "ib>n !>a *uni> • twa mrei iyaD : nhi>D 

• vras* 105? nana nii>« ♦ mpa nwoa ^po n\n ax "a 15 
: 5 nWyn an * inj^a mta B»n • i-pd Danx ^vni ion pi 
nu vi>y aipn • mju nw bob* noa p two* btV 

piB> D^niw ♦ wai> as pa mx new a'-pnn ni>K * myatn 

myi * r n^pni nanan i>y p noi? coacn tiD 6 j."6yo 

'"n^aeo awn "jy»n pna * n^ooa awn Niao tti ao 

jffn wi * ni>yji to B>DBmi * ni>nn nw pbrv inn ro ^ 

xb mi • onain ntaa a^nn $>y T'ntn t6 '* N"3D : n^ax 

• x • ma onyion bz Tarn -nwo • amaai njrnn ov "tar 

•vy bhjD :ni>iyi nata • 9 omB>i jnx n^asi rwerm 

na^mano bs cab ni'N vm nw • nmora b^ o^pon 25 

• • • • nrmb aono ba int any b^? t>ni • nnr6 

n^sij Dni"ni> * tminb psn nyB>3 ii>3 i>NnB«i 

"• • 3 "pay -i"aB> naB» njB>o '•a ion nay? : I0 n^pS 

Bb a 


7- (4 recto) 

nany • niepni> naina tid3 ptwoi • nionp pyi> na • maipo 

"W3 3B» '•arid • nihna nw paprrn mD : .miDE>i 

p>ie> w • mi»npD3 ;w • mhna reap: tid • nitaoa i?on 

• emerwi NnDBnmNi c?in*n ema "p^ J ' 'Twin 

ntan »x? a^at? ay vbo noai • ernn diids ia$>o -pN 5 

p rwo 101 • awn b»S>e> pnnD :mwi miyni> • mnn 

Q3BT1 a*rpa • aw ntao n$>N bum p nxi new * owns 

• ■ry^om n^Ni Siaa pm "u^p : 2 n-nah epj& • cmidns 

*i»NiB« naDDi tit ni3Ji • 'a-hwo istrcD r6ani rvan paai 

ana • Q'^jno nm one id^j no • 6 a^iaa !>inb> nmoi 10 

• noien a*»ya 8 taij3K>i 7 ysw nrw pi :mina$> roan 

ib>k ana*t ani • nomn a^iaa 10 n*an pini 'anroD nswi 

natt? : Nipoa a^aa ippru no $>y nynb aina$> ni> px 

■ a vbi lorn D»n yan do ijm i»a • • i*i>ae> p-ona a^on Wu 

"nat? yyi» ttobv 13 B»nD dw • 12 v6d3 u pa*i D3 nxe*! 15 

"ww • i^oa M B»aay jva 3ie>ay 15 niyi>nD myrta • vSy 

new t^ rnion :mnn pnnn innxi * 17 i^nna d*p* 

* w djuo lam ipo» w pV r6y 18 nap *riap • awes nun "px 

21 'Sm T»in pn • b^n meh tid' on bk b>ni3 pin !>a myi 

; micwai bp&D2 mD3 • 22 bjh run ntwn iW> nipm jo 

n]hvxn bv • vion nnby »b«31 • »my rwrtpb »ntup sup 

• »moiN ^an by "vvbxi pi»ci • >mvb npainon nawi 

:npna p "brrtm • ti»j»^ *iciyi 3"w dbk -idn!' 
•*nW>a noan u$re» noxn :mn« 

• **ni>uy p« '•Dam iiiay »d pw • nbra tr\pnn ub »a 25 

• ruBta iiD^n mnh i>y onpiC : ntsmpn p*wn mian 
nnjn wac n^ sipoai • ruts" a* umoa anoan i^n 

ba ' a^ raj'' ana vnp as"i : nnin aab ■o-runai' 


8. (4 verso) 

vmmi vxm» ' d*xibj ni:a yanto new ^ne* b bn 

nyae> pp j newnn pa apy pw • D'-mm D'wt inv 

onain ^"aet) onann nyae> • ovipn nnx pa by D^y 

n»^ : D^fnsn i>aa ttttttiwo * wy rha nyae* • D^ny 

: ntniD \:b nix ne>B mini * o^ni d^bcpb 5>Nne*a 5 

"•an mnj nyae> n^yi • rfai rw bsn ant nnuB nn'B2 

pNn i>a jnx i>y cncyn • n^Naem ru^B nwn »aa 

i^nbe>b ^cni pwn po-D p n'O ax sin • ma 

• nhbn pran nman ^D3 ruiBPi own nyaen • ni?nni> 

Ta i>nan tn itoi wD j'neniaD mm tane^a tyrofen 10 

cnoan bs\ • dw6di D'anD 5>a * bnpo bnam • copm 

o*jnis»a Dae>iB '•' , my$> pno • d^nc yiBe> onmnh 

moV t'nennn fone* rca anaa iana^i • mw ^yai 

• ihyiD nv ianpB "iw • ib naae> Dyn new Man nnxan 
yansa S>*ne* m^a bb diS>b> nam • ibn Dnr6 * fo e>aj 15 

d^ni d^d" 1 TiiaD : 3 nenai> nnx mm Dm • i^o nvn 

•n»W> * mien suni) Dsnfon nw*6 spa mai • m» pto 

: nwbn nuy hp pto • nmaja mini mro ^aerai 

nuo 4 bw p«B • niaoD tin* me'y roiBe» p ny3 

nau nabm • np'> b nxi '•as jw i>a n« viaryi * nin 20 

coe* innonD : rwnb tnpBn noan • mt^ ewn nub 

• • o • • icin nyi won tnpnn Tixnp ny • cm* am r6ua 

ncmp pe6 piDsn ne»y new D'Bya ne»e»i ne^en 

(?) iam ny • dw nxna pnni> iy pnnani • d*bi*W3 ry!>n pi 

net* ' jr6n anB7 : ne»rv nnB^ »a • d^b-iitbh Qiaa na by 25 

tsWn w&y ' D'inD *aa fn • d^bd nyaixi ontry 

• • • • ff-rnDDa ah 'iba i>N-iE«a djhi • onao cn^bji 

njjoai topsn pnnaa ""nBant^i ■•ni'ByK' nt b2 ;>\vbw 



9- (S recto) 

y<)tn ' -)ok p b p« »a • loaa tripos p aii>B>3t6 px an^ 

rui en ne^t? o^eat^ rbf\ tw ' -\Kmb nsse b 

imins lare "vaD j 1 noins n*no na" 1 new • nen noen 

iT^K TIN , '3TI1& nra 7W * nbai naio So tawi nS> • H^D3 

b>n-ii • a wain s|D3 frown irh t'natoih ac av • n^abab 5 

:noiD3 iny bn • b'oidnsi no«3 nan • 'a'aioe* s|D33 -non 

dw Tipm • oyt3 nVi nrm nan • ainaa nut nx"i>Q 

J?13 • B]>B3 "lJOn JH» D1B3 • BJ«3 DnBK nn* n3B> EW1 

n W3i armn pao • anjn b^cwi ibdo an3 : nat«o5> 
pnna bdtt : 4 nat5>o!>i «^ • onta *w dv nrwo • an^sn 10 

naao wsr> t6) ' ip aai nhpB>03 11x3 • ipi> ip 1^ w 

ov»n bn "py j 5 nooai n3?33 inirnn |n • ip* bbb>o new 

fnwi nan p-mai' • nroo p«3 jrmn emn* • n^n -ica 

S>nan nt^a nxy nxr no * .T'Bix w po3i nsp • n*nr 

DSTiNDn bv jjae> nijnD : 6 hbt; avitan new • iwin 15 

aowN-in ^nan nw * pjun vpob a^aa nso mjn * paea 

* enim ;ue> no Bian S>3 ta2 : 7 nbti py io tpam ami * 

no t\bnn nnan * BnipS> pno runnel to b s«3* t»n 

noan nun!? • 'nN^Tn mxp : 8 kb>31 an "£o • enip3 roe> 

sap mm * nnoi a^a!^ ?y 3^>n new b • nt^a tnpon 20 

noi> • • • b a'aan j ne>eno e>an anni> • ntnn ^33 * * • 

o^auai • anoxia B^osn '•in • wbo nin ^33 M nn3*K • * * nrb 

ij?a »3 • an!? no nosni idnd anion • • • • m • DiTaa naai> 

♦ " ntyps a^an binxd'' anion nibttV) j na^a a^n m«3 

•T33N T>NB>n ny Sia3 nby • "ntyi'a w lornN' a^bn t6n 25 

• d»n5>31 raovB' ani'NB' nniD nnDai? wwi * 13 ncnn ^p3 

a<2-\ ' • • " ai»Bm» iin3 ia^ nvai r>N no^ it annjn 

nan by nw bdv • 11313 bsn ntoi isi' 1 : nobynrb 


IO. (5 verso) 

Tina ■onpan • wna tov pna *ror • vw *oy nWai 
: nnry n ntytai • mm pnxn man * my 
mono rrow* • nxyo wii» new wo« nnnx 
:nyin * b$ nani> • -t^ who *mb yen ram • nsit? tn5»aa 
naa • na^n Tina nae»vn na * na de6i mW> jdii anol 5 
top 1 ' nioi> n»i> new • nae> i>w ira^s t^w^ msw 
nai^ ae»nn nun nnio} : nyenn nsr nam ♦ nam ■'ana 
na r6 ma^> nowi • nyaa na n*mn « wp $>y • nyna 
imw nal j^nyn i>N nyno inv am a • nyae> pxa 
naxna nyioo wa *» nine ^no • nnai niaaa pns i>y 10 
: nyanon nar yioe> ax t6 • nn cab voam * nan • nnm 

• c.nWnoa nioi tanm Dmae* o^pr nvn • c.nta Down 

Damn at? xh * wrbtt iNn> sh ioi> nie^n px new 
Tin ^n oniN nabe»m * D^aa npn my Drool : nyenn 
nnya a • wbm aw on <aa bz ba m s«n iaoo • Q^nan 15 

dim • wwb ne£ "b jna ^n wrbx nf • nyen e»«a 

pnnnS • D'nyrc tit c^aa b man^ • onn o^m anna '•a 

aa na i^n : yioe& Drfaa nTV sh • nna dn new 

-iiya oii>B> *jta nato • mew ja n^on di^b* • maea inn*? 

nan pnim ioen • ma"©' 1 n^aya t?o vnx mmm • moin 20 

ctam nn ynt nDatt : 2 nyir pn mm • mmnyen noe> 

■•nan ne^ • no 11 «i> new dvi ^ina mm • noyoa n^nnera 

xnai nw nyp : nyneoi nxnai • noyo ^3 o^oa ,rt «os 

ohyb T^o 1 & ^ lenpa nan • nnsi buna* iwa fca 

lyato my mm si? a * nra ae»i> nafen jnro • nny ^y 25 

: 3 nyie>n jnwn •<so nv nann • n^na ^oy by bwo 

niyi • nn^ox 6 mvn anm pnn • nnina 6 njvn n^yn 4 tbtt naf 

• nnyaa mn 8, >dp a^ ae» bin • nmoai 7 t,b'B > ^aa n.^ xnp 


II. (6 recto) 

nwi * anuN oM?2 a*yn? nw nnx ^3 jnyiD -ijjdi 

• anw naiy bk »a Tarn t6 Bi>iaoi * anaa on!? anix 

n^ • a wa nw ^K-tB^** n'a )iy nxer? : s nyioci? vaa 

• • • • a*yann co 11 nw n»a jiyi • awm ni«o e£e> 

'b nai? minto • awv "i3$> btrwb awn nta npa 1 ' 5 

• ant^yi yseo rut? a^e* isdD : s njni nosra • BTinyn 

NOjn ^n oa-jj? noi * annas an^an njxi nn^nn pso 

nl?N bn2 : 3 nyTin twe> anpa * anaDo npaca a&>nni> 

wajna w • noa Dirsa pw pn ont^nn o^jxn 

• nopj qpj a-ina nn« -ioini pymi • no nwa p n^ai 10 

♦ n»oa p wn^e no bk i^ni ainD : nyrw ny anix nbn 

• niw pyr nai> yno • mnnn ^n^ ahy ptmb menrb 
raV } 4 nyynnn njnn p^ni • nnsfo? Bit6 new nnt* rfa 

• nan anyi> avn -ma we>x noni • nw»a nono woo nnpi? 
•n»iyn we>N3 on >a i>ia» n^> :na< niN$> nix rotnni> &>pa bni 15 

li> • o^aa ytJ>ir6 ms nra n^d jnywa nioa * 6 nsnij;^ 

na noj na npi -jS • obw niyo bmut new ii> np 

njit nnpi> • diwi* wan ?nrw nwa iw * a^ai 

♦ono NB^a hn • b»vnv ion NW $>y "iipai> ntt j 6 nyix 

pno • i'SJis n^on '•am nra pm * bv^nb nnon ayar 20 

* nbvnb ^o ib « a v pro ion amp : 7 nyn bm rib'by 
mb ww 133b 13 • nbzb ny nyav na nra> new 

3e> p nnxi • 8 n^B i&»n nwb nia^n • ."Maa zmtt 

jnnb • n^nna inrco nop '•a • n^ya an^y pxm 

-ion • nniaj fn Tiy w ntO :njnn nc^oa bh^n 25 

nnNi • nruoa ivt 1 ifli'N '" nvy "\b • nn'-ca it6 n^.t 

••b naa^ sin i» bn •■a • nnwo no "<b naan si» nnx am p 

th n« n'-oni npC? : nyie^ ni>an n^a * 9 nnoao nwsens 


12. (6 verso) 

•>33N wbw -ion nnw ' mw nxi buiB* nx noo lb • • • • 

naob ijna *a • myn won no Ntan Nin m • moa t • • • • 

nncy: mra n^n : » nyeni nn'aaa Don xbb * " • 

inoi won on • '•bx '* nx iy*v «b byba ^ ivi n a 

nnox :nj?HiN nbaa noai noai • 2 ^ji pj^t? d 11 5 

pens mxbob ••ncpa dn * pm nbx tn*ay 
: nxn pyi nyoe> px • jwvn "Din iinsi d\jb in • pnwn 
spa -it?y npona ^ maw nawn :mfiK 
pai "inb ton mo • oniyp inbi Dniyt? noni * chion 

: 3 nara moxa * anr^aa »awnn • onwi *pa 10 
4 iioyn by naxa woya -nan • isDon nr n^ pxo iaitt? 

* naoa avian to • isb> nota nnn nox • navio 
iyop • -nab nrn pjyn ba inI : navon «»jb> pa irrov 

• -nanb in 1 ' ibon nai • mavoa battel twnan nxr 
p:y ae>p : 5 naxob nai • inn bv ntsma nan vn natt 15 

unna sy pxo • n»nai ue»p» ^baai • .fni* tawo law 

• naiD ejnita nbiy • nnt* maa innx nana nyia * nw 

pam * loatyo -nab twnnb nwaa asm am s|yv2* 
D>bnano vn> *irp inn paya • won nibiyo mxo iDn 

• oniaiy tib' DiDxa -ie>& : 7 nany nooa moxa * ioxb 20 
twa ponn ab ' dniynr by onp onaxb >nbann raatei 

.tn pjy : 8 naan pxni • Dnnon .Tnn jw >a nyna 

«b by • naiaob la^nm vnbw notn • naa ixbon *a 

by oioy "UD : 9 naDia vby n'aa • nat mbam vaaa Don 

• nenn o^oya "D^bya "iiaya p^asi • '"pT^ byi nyanx 25 

: nahwo ini D^oya * nwNb ib n^n o^yj nS o^y: 

nna pa: oina raionnn nana^ni • nwxa oanx kbO 

ry by nw rbao : 12 naix tnn by * n«WK epaa «bi • nwnna 



1 Read rmi for -urn . For nnun see i Chron. i. 18, but the point is not 
clear to me. 

2 See Amos vi. 5, cf. Sepher Haggalui, p. 55, 1. 5, and Harkavy's note to 
it, p. 58 (No. 45). 

3 i.e. Jubal, Gen. iv. ax. 

* See Micah iv. 7 and Zeph. iii. 19. See also below, p. 7, 1. ai. The 
meaning is not clear to me. 

6 Cf. Exod. xxxii. 16. The Rabbanites have airo as a name for the 
Scriptures, see Prof. Blau, Zur Einleitung in die Beilige Schrift, p. 17 sq. For 
nroD, see Hadasi, E. H., p. 70 a. 

1 See Gen. i. ag, ix. 3, and Rashi and Nachmanides to these verses. 
Cf. also Sankedrin, 59 b. 

2 See Gen. v. 3, 4, and iv. 1, a, cf. Gen. Rabbah, c. 24. 

3 Gen. vi. 3. Cf. Ibn Ezra and other commentaries. 

4 See Gen. v. 6 sq. about Sheth, with nan at each person ; xi. 10 sq. 
regarding Shem, omitting the nD'1 except in the case of Terah (verse 32) 
and Haran (verse 28). 

1 See Gen. xxxviii. 1, and cf. Ibn Ezra about the chronological difficulty. 
See Seder Olam, ed. Ratner, II, and references there in the notes. 

2 See Gen. xv. 5, 6 and 13. 3 See Gen. xv. 16. * Gen. xvi. 11-21. 
5 Exod. iii. 8, 17, xxxiii. a, xxxiv. n, Deut. xx. 17. 6 Exod. xiii. 5. 
7 Exod. xxiii. 28. See Commentaries to all these verses and Gen. Rabbah, 

ch. 44. 

* See Gen. xv. 13 and Exod. xii. 40 and Com., and Mechilta to the 
latter verse. 

9 See Num. xiv. 29, 30, xxxii. 12, and Joshua xxiv. 29. The argu- 
ment seems to be based on twin D'-kb? nDTO which is not evident. Cf. 
old and modern commentaries to the given verses as well as to Exod. 
xxxii. a. See also Seder Olam, XI, XII. 

10 See Jud. xi. a6 and 1 Kings vi. 1. See Seder Olam, XII to XV. 

11 See a Sam. ii. 10 and xv. 7 and Commentaries. See also Seder Olam, XIV 
and the references given there in note 18. 

12 1 Kings xvi. 8. * 3 1 Chron. xvi. 1. ■* a Kings ii. 17. 
15 Ibid., viii. 16. 


1 See 2 Kings viii. 16. 2 a Chron. xxii. i, 2. * 2 Kings viii. 25. 

4 Ibid., ix. 29. 5 Ibid., xiv. 23. Perhaps we should read -pi for an. 
• Ibid., xv. 1. ' Ibid., xiii. 1. 8 Ibid., xiii. 10. * Ibid., xv. 8. 

10 Ibid., xvi. ro. ll Ibid., xvii. 1. " Ibid., xv. 30. 

13 Ibid., xxiv. 8. For the Paitanic use of SOtD see Zunz, Literaturgeschiehte 
der Synagogalen Poesie, p. 634. 

14 2 Chron. xxxvi. 9. 15 See 2 Kings xxiv. 12, 14, 15. 
16 See Jer. Hi. 28, 30. 1T Jer. xxvii. 1, 3. 

18 See Jer. xxxi and 2 Kings xxv. 27. Probably we should supply >fn. 

19 Probably referring to the contradiction between Jer. lii. 12 and 
2 Kings xxv. 8. See ancient and modern commentaries to all these verses 
and cf. also Seder Olam, XVII, XIX, XXII, and XXVII. See also for all 
the chronological difficulties, Hadasi, E. H., Alphabetha, 125, 126. 

1 See Num. xix. 14, 15. 

a Lev. xi. 30, see also ibid, verse 55. Cf. Siphre, ed. Friedmann, 
p. 45 a . See also Bashi, as well as the Mibchar by the Karaite Aaron 
b. Joseph, to the verses both in Leviticus and Numbers. Cf. also 
Hadasi, Alphabetha, 293. 

3 See Haggai ii. ir sq. * The reference is not clear to me. 

5 See Lev. xviii. 7 sq. (mm»)» ibid. xx. 10 sq. (rats?), and Deut. xxvii. 20 sq. 
(rr»o). See Commentaries, particularly Nachmanides and Ibn Ezra. 

6 See Lev. xix. 20, 21, and Ezra x. 10, 13, and 19 (ina ovS vb raHtam). 

' Ezra ix. 1 and x. 3. K. Jacob b. Samuel's reference to this latter verse 
as proving among other verses the need of tradition (Pinsker, L. K., 
p. 23 (o'U): to wairrt rma irro), &c, may perhaps have been suggested by 
these lines. 

8 See Lev. xxiii. 27, 28, and cf. Commentaries, Nachmanides to verse 28 : 
raws i» ms naswo *»n rrn a"«i. 

* See Exod. xx. 21 and Lev. xxxiv. 3. 
10 Bead miNO. See Prov. iii. 10. 


1 Lev. xxiv. 17, 18 (with tdd: and ibid. 21 (without H)D:), see Ibn Ezra 
and Mibchar to the latter verse. 

2 Lev. xxv. 8, see Torath Kohanim (p. 105, ed. Weiss). 

3 See Exod. xviii. 27 and Num. x. 29. Cf. ancient and modern 
commentaries to these verses. 

4 See Num. xv. 38. Cf. Ibn Ezra, ibid, to verse 39, and L. K., 
Appendices, 126. 

5 See Num. xxii. 20, 22, 35, and Joshua xxiv. ro. Cf. also K. Saadyah, 
Emunoth WDeoth, III, 9 niDtWH, &c. 

* See Num. xxx. 17. ' See Deut. xxvii. 12, 13. 


8 See Deut. xi. 30 and Judges i. 9. Perhaps he means to say that 
the definition in Deuteronomy is insufficient, considering that the 
Canaanites were scattered over such a large area. See also Eashi, Ibn 
Ezra, and Mibchar to the verse in Deuteronomy about the difficulty 
attaching to the word niTO in this connexion. 

9 See Deut. xvi. 1 sq. and xii. 21 sq. See Ibn Ezra to Deut. xvi. 8 
ttnpm -anno Toarr p« <a iin»n ovi rronn dv -vain nti. Cf. also Nachmanides, 
and see Mibchar to Deut. xvi. 1 m'jn ona pN >3 -iiDai twin ov 131 ttf -p'oVi . 
Cf. also Adoreth Eliyahu by Moses Bashiazi, p. 108 a. See also Bashi and 
Nachmanides to Deut. xii. 22 regarding the a^n question. 

10 See Num. xxxv. 29. Cf. Rashi and Nachmanides, and references 
given there regarding the Da'nnvrt. 

" See Deut. xv. 18. 

1 Esther ii. 19, 21. 

2 See Dan. viii. 1 and x. 1. 

3 Ezra ii. 59 and Neh. vii. 61. 

4 1 Kings vi. i. sq., viii. 22 sq., and 2 Chron. iii. sq., vi. 13 sq. 

* 2 Sam. xxiii. 8 sq., xxiv. sq., and 1 Chron. xi. 9 sq., xxi. 1 sq. 

6 1 Sam. xxxi. 1 sq. and 1 Chron. x. 1 sq. 

7 Joshua xxiv. 26 and Judges ii. 8. e 1 Sam. xxv. 1 and xxviii. 3. 

9 a Kings xviii. 13 and Isa. xxxvi. 1. 

10 2 Kings xxv. 1 sq. and Jer. Hi. 4 sq. 

11 Nahum i. 4, Isa. Ii. 15, Jer. xxxi. 35. Cf. Jonathan and Kimchi to 
the verse in Isa. 

12 2 Sam. xiii. 25 and Gen. xix. 3. Kimchi, Shorashim, s. pc. 

13 2 Kings xix. 29 and Isa. xxxvii. 30. Cf. Commentaries. 

14 Isa. xxxii. 4, xxviii. 11. Cf. Abulwalid Merwan Ibn Gariah, Sepher 
Hashorashm, ed. Bacher, p. 246 and Kimchi, Shorashim, s. lbs. 

15 Ps. lviii. 7 and Job xxix. 17. Cf. Ibn Ganah, p. 544 ; Kimchi, 
Shorashim, s. r^n. 

ie Ps. cxl. 4 and Job viii. 14. Cf. Rashi to the verse in Ps., and L. K., 
Appendices, 212. 

17 Perhaps allusion to Job viii. 15 (Dip' **Vl la pwr), which will also 
explain the mnn pnnn (cf. Neh. iii. 20). 

18 Isa. xxxiv. 11, 15. Cf. Commentaries and L. K., Appendices, 214. 

19 Ps. xcvi. 12 and 1 Chron. xvi. 32. 

20 Lev. xxvi. 39 and Ps. cvi. 43. 

21 Ps. xvi. 15. Cf. Delitzsch's commentary to this verse. See also the 
Sepher Haggalui of R. Joseph Kimchi, p. 161, regarding the difference of 
opinion on this point between the nipnn naan. 

22 Isa. lvii. 9. Cf. Commentaries to this verse. See Ibn Ganah, 
p. 504, also Kimchi, s. ~nw. 


43 For this expression which seems frequent with the Karaites, see 
Salmon b. Jerucham, Orient, VII, p. 163, and cf. also Hadasi, 148b, 148 c. 
E. jH"., Alphabelha, 55, nWD 'nan, but see also the Kabbanite, K. Samuel b. 
Jacob Gama, introduction to his Aruch (Graete-Jubelschrift, p. 121, rrt"!>D ''Tim 
In MS. T.-S., 12, 146, dating from about the year 1000, and also written 
by a Babbanite, we read hWd pas pcnm 

34 Cf. Mishna Sanhedrin, 4, 3, B, and Tractate Sopherim, XIX. 9, ed. Muller. 


1 See above, p. 353, n. 7. 

' The word can also be read icnnr» with Doleth. 

3 See Ibn Daud, ibid., p. 66, about the claim of the Gaon B. Hai to be 
a descendant of the house of David, to which the lStfin i<2> inpn "TO!* 
probably alludes ; but Aran, the founder of the Karaite sect, had the 
same claim (Ibn Daud, ibid., p. 63). It is not clear whether he means 
by raw min the oral Law or only one Torah, in which case they are Karaites. 

* See above, p. 352, n. 5. 


I See 2 Sam. xviii. 18 and xiv. 27. 

3 See Exod. xxii. 30, Deut. xiv. 21, and 1 Kings xvii. 4, 6. See Kimchi 
to this latter verse. 

' 2 Kings vi. 25. 

4 See Isa. vii. 8. Cf. Commentaries and Seder Olam, XXII. 

5 See Isa. xxviii. 10, 17, and v. 7. ' See Isa. xxviii. 25, 26, and 29. 
' See Lev. xxvi. 18, Isa. xl. 2, and Exod. xxxiv. 6. Perhaps we should 

read mwj for mis®. 

8 See Isa. lxvi. 23, and Zech. xiv. 16. 

9 Bead n*« it, the second n being only repeated from the last letter 
of map. 

10 Perhaps allusion to Job vi. 6. 

II See 1 Sam. xxxi. 3 ; in 1 Chron. x. 3 the OTOM is omitted. 

12 Perhaps he refers to Isa. ii. 6 and Exod. xv. 14. 

13 See 2 Kings iii. 25. " Neh. iv. 16. 

1 See Zech. v. 8, 1 1. Cf. above, p. 346, n. 1. 

2 See Jer. xxii. 10, n, 2 Kings xxiii. 31, and 1 Chron. iii. 15. Cf. 
Ibn Ezra to Dan. i. 1. 

3 See Jer. xxxiii. 22 and xxii. 30. Cf. Kimchi to the latter passage, and 
Pesikta, ed. Buber, p. 163. Bead wun for wain. 

4 Psa. Ii. 1. See Ibn Ganah, pp. 33 and 196. 5 Zeph. iii. 1. 

• Jer. xxv. 38, xlvi. 16, and 1. 16. 

* Ibid., xxv. 26 and li. 41. 

8 Ibid. li. 1. See the 'Wan 'cr Y'a v/'-n nno a" 1 ). Cf. also Hadasi, E. H., 
Alphabets, 172. 


' See Ezek. iv. 9, 12. 

2 See Ezek. iv. 5, 6. Cf. Commentaries and Seder Olam, XXVI. 

3 See Ezek. i. 1 and xxix. 17. Cf. Commentaries and Seder Olam, ibid. 
* See Ezek. xi. 1, 2, and 13. See Kimehi to the latter work. 

6 See Ezek. xxiv. 16, 18, 24 (ddtoV). See Hadasi, Alphdbetha, 165. 

6 See Hos. i. 3. Cf. Ibn Ezra. 

7 See Hos. i. 4 and 1 Kings xvi. 7. 

8 See 1 Kings xiv. 14 and 2 Kings x. 30. 

9 See 2 Sam. vii. 3, 1 Chron. xvii. 2, and xxviii. 3. For the nrom "pv 
cf. Amos v. 22, &c. 


I 2 Sam. xxiv. 1, 12. 2 See 1 Sam. ii. 12 and iv. 10, 17. 

* Hos. iii. 2. See Rashi and Kimehi to this verse. 

* See 2 Chron. iii. 15, that is "fitting." 5 Hos. v. 5. 

* Hos. vi. 2. See also Gen. xliv. 9. See Commentaries. 
' Hos. vi. 5, 6. See also Deut. xxxii. 2 tcdd rp»\ 

" Hos. x. 10 and xi. 3. Cf. Ibn Ganah's Sepher Sashorashm, p. 378. 
See also Job xv. 31. 
9 Hos. xii. 5, Exod. xxxii. 27. 10 Amos i. 3 sq. 

II Amos ii. 6 and viii. 5. 

12 Amos iv. 2, 3, and v. 9. Cf. R. Joseph Kimehi (as above), p. 31. See 
also Prov. xxvi. 23 «jnn hs nDiso F|D3.