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520 THE JEWISH QUAKTERLY REVIEW 



A FRAGMENT OF A SHORTHAND HAGADAH. 

A MS. recently acquired by the Bodleian Library (Hebr. MSS. e 68) 
contains an interesting shorthand fragment of the Hagadah for Pass- 
over. The instructions for the several ceremonies are given in Arabic, 
and are, with a few exceptions, the same as in the printed Hagadahs. 
The exceptions are these : The washing of the hands before the par- 
taking of the parsley is followed by the blessing Q'''T' n?''D3 7J? ; this is 
not the case in the German rite. According to the Hagahoth Maimuni, 
this was the practice of former generations — perhaps in the time of the 
Talmud and the Geonim, but not e. g. in the days of Maimonides. This 
circumstance would lead us to assume that the fragment was copied 
from a very old original i. Another deviation from the established 
rite is the recital of a blessing after having partaken of the parsley. 
The form of this blessing is likewise peculiar. The usual initial 
foi-mula is followed by '•n "i N 2 K13E' HD bv nUI [niE'JSJ [N"']ia 
D''D?iyn "Creator of many desires for that which he created, blessed 
art thou, Lord, who livest for ever^" It is doubtful whether this 
form is in accordance with some established rite, or is merely the 
result of the copyist's negligence, of which there is good evidence in the 
fragment. It is further insisted upon, that'each time the cup is refilled 
with vfine it should previously be rinsed with water, a process (^a''E36^') 
prescribed in the Talmud (Berachoth, 6oi a) for every n3"13 PC D13. 

The Kiddush is almost identical with that contained in our printed 
editions ; but the first paragraph of the Hagadah, which usually 
begins N^JJJ NCn? NilD, has, in our fragment, the following form: 

ru]2r>^ [ii]3y [snjK'n • ^N->E"T NjnN3 [nvan n^'p^'p nan [Nn]trn 
[Ti]"''' [T'>>T Wai [b^jyi [Ti]" [i"'q]31 [b]2 ' [r]in ['•Jn [nxan 
[nD]D*i '. 

As regards the sequence of the questions, the MS. has the same order 
as Maimonides, but in a shortened form ; the words nriN DyS P"'aN , 
CDya TIB' (the MS. has )''i'''3t30 IJN instead) and ^ib^ are omitted. 
The next paragraph runs as follows : 

[i];a Qw [wJni'N ■>'• [i3N]'>yi''i [Dn]sm [nyjna^ i^n [iy]i2V 

^ The mistakes met with in the fragment, especially on the first page, 
are such as can only be attributed to a copyist. 
^ The accepted form is : niTinS «niiD nn "ja te Dsncni mm mazi nt3 

' The letters in square brackets have been added by me. 



A FRAGMENT OP A SHORTHAND HAGADAH 52 1 

DN [ittjiTi [«]in [T>]-i3 [Di]i3t3n [^]N3 vh [li'j^xi [n'-jiDJ [jnt]3i ni^jn 

nab [i3*n]i3K m »b (mv) [onajyie'D un [ijm [onjstsD [ij'-jnax 

: nuns [ttjTin uniw 'Kje* ^jsj linx (nuK) tiN [spx ^kj 

The next two paragraphs being omitted, the MS. continues "1333 
min mai D'^a ny3"lN, with the following variation in reply to the 
wicked : 

[N]S ['•j^ " [njB'y n; [lujyn [vjit? nx [nn]pni i^ [nijoK [n]nK «!« 

: W:t: [n>]Nn s^ db' n^n i^'n [i]^ 

In the next section there are no variations of importance, except 
that in the paragraph beginning moyr N\ni the words "ini "in Pa^C 
i:nib^ ir^y OnDiy are omitted. The section beginning ''b'hyn ''DV ""ai 
to WniJiy by ISS? is likewise absent. The following two paragraphs 
are likewise a peculiarly contracted form : 

[r\]''r\ [i^]n3 [iD]vy [n]N [n]N->^ [b]iN [aj-'n [ni]ii in [i']33 

; [dJe'd [N'']vin [u]niNi [idnJjk' [onJ^CD [N]y 
[^]i5^ [DD]n^ [iNJoi' [03]^^ [^i'Jni' [D'3]>n 13N [vy^h 
i3N''Sini [n]^Nn d^d^h ij3 ns [i3n]i3Nh i^i' [nc'JyB' [*]oi' [nn]inh 

:n'<i^^ni mbhn "ios3i [n]in^ [nn]3yc 

The next sentence concludes the fragment : 

: c^D^n ny i'sir' nNS3 nb " n3y ^bbn 

The copyist was suddenly interrupted, or else he would have addeil 
the two words O'D iryc^. 

The MS. is written on paper in Syro-Egypt. characters, about 
1 300 according to Dr. Neubauer. Vowels are occasionally added ; 
the signs are the ordinary ones, but the writer does not seem to have 
always been able to distinguish between holem and long Tcamets ; 
for he writes m3y instead of nT3y ; 'h'^n instead of T^'n ; D''nD03 
instead of D'naib3, N^zrN?, and so on. Probably he pronounced 
long kamets like 0. It may further be noticed that an interchange, 
as in Yemen MSS., takes place between pathah and segol, and between 
segol and tsere ; that a simple vowel takes the place of a sh'ra 
compositum. 

The object of a shorthand Hagadah of this kind was probably 
to enable the Jews to carry copies of the ritual with them when 
compelled to move from place to place. It assisted the memory 
in things known almost by heart, which were thus saved from oblivion. 
(Comp. " Fragment of the Hebrew Bible," Proceedings of the Societij 

for Biblical Archaeology, March, 1896.) 

M. Fkiedlandek.