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CRITICAL NOTICES 537 

Spanish-Jewish Chrestomathy is the Spanish- Jewish proper, or, to 
speak more plainly, the Spanish printed with Jewish, or so-called 
Rashi letters, with a transcription in Roman characters. If this had 
been done, the book would be of use to such also who can only read 
books with Hebrew characters, and the learning of the Ladino would 
thus become easier and more general. 

M. Griinbaum's transcription is usually correct, and I shall only 
note here some slips. P. 67, read instead of siendo el, siendo en 
m3?''N? n"3, hazeiio instead of hazerto, and y con este se le instead of 
se te perdona. P. 68, read Le dimando como te for lo . . . pasas en aquel 
mundo ? Loamos el Dio for d Dio. P. 69, in the Conplas de D3'^3 1"d, 
rather incompletely reproduced, is found nTU'D n? "lU'DN, which 
Griinbaum transcribes : a cenda la mi3D ! It should be : hacender la 
menora. P. 75, desnudo xj ixirio: In the Ladino is read INVNI, 
i.e. vacio, and means, in connexion with the preceding desnudo. 
"naked and bare." I'litOiMtt = ajunfando, ^i('^:Hm = usanzas, not 
asanzas, iorfragtiodo rend fraguado, &c. nN''ti'N3 (p. 73) must not be 
read faxiado, which is nowhere found, but paseado. Abide (p. 89) is 
Old-Spanish, and means " before," &c. 

The book, which is enriched by the learned author with many im- 
portant bibliographical references, lingui.stic explanations, and several 
indices, is a valuable contribution to tlie Spanish-Jewish literature. 

M. Kayserling. 



SERMONS BY M. A. LEVY. 

Les Doctrines d' Israel: Sermons par Alfred Levy, Grand Rabbin 
de Lyon. Lyon: Schneider Freres, 1896. 

This volume is a collection of sermons of very unequal merit. 
Perhaps it will receive respectful attention on account of the position 
of the author, but depending entirely on its own virtues, it would 
hardly be welcomed with enthusiasm and delight. It is evidently 
a conscientious work, animated by a pure and lofty purpose ; but it 
cannot be regarded as a rich contribution to the best puljnt literature 
of the day. In the preface (iii) the author sets himself the task of 
combating ignorance of Judaism from within and prejudice against 
Judaism from without, but the promise is hardly realized in the 
performance. To the general reader we fear the work will prove 
somewhat disappointing. It will appeal more readily to those who 
have preserved a natural taste for sweet and wholesome admonition of 
the old-fashioned type, and herein lies the main interest of the 



538 THE JEWISH QUAETERLY KEVIEW 

sermons contained in this collection. But in justice to the preacher 
it should be noted that it is not at all improbable that some of these 
addresses, which are not too inspiriting to read, give the impression 
that they would have been stimulating to hear. With the exception 
of the sermons on state occasions, there is, however, an old-world air 
about the topics chosen, and a placid manner in which the subjects 
are treated. Pages often follow one another without a gleam of 
poetry or a spark of inspiration. 

The arrangement also is far from being up to date. The selected 
sermons, ranging from the year 1871 to 1895, follow one another in 
chronological order, and are not divided according to their matter or 
the occasion of their delivery. Even the chronological order is not 
consistently adhered to, for in the Funeral Addresses, one delivered 
in 1886 (p. 326) and another in 1889 (p. 335) come after the one 
delivered in 1894 (p. 313). 

The sermons comprise three for Passover, entitled "Feminine 
Piety" (p. 107), "Patriotism" (p. 252), and "Moral Freedom" 
(p. 293); three for Pentecost, ''Ye are God's Children" (p. 31), 
"Eespect for Life" (p. 191), and " The Virtuous Woman " (p. 229); 
two for New Year, "Creation" (p. 131), and "Prejudice" (p. 273); 
one for the Day of Atonement, " Reparation for and Pardon of Sin " 
(p. 151); and one for Purim, "Purim and the Alliance Israelite" 
(p. 171). The author's inaugural sermon, "The Mission of a Rabbi," 
begins on p. 79. Addresses at the consecration of a synagogue, 
"The Brotherhood of Man" (p. 55), the reconsecration of a syna- 
gogue, "The Temple" (p. 4), and the sermon delivered on the 
occasion of "The Centenary of the Revolution" (p. 2H), constitute 
the remainder. 

Many of the sermons contain attacks on anti-Semitism. The taste 
of such passages may be justified in the place and under the 
circumstances of their delivery, but the wisdom of their publication 
may be seriously doubted. While such attacks may confirm wavering 
French Jews in their faith in Judaism, they may be the cause of 
counter-replies, swelling the number of anti-Semitic writings. 

The two best sermons in the volume are those entitled " Feminine 
Piety" (p. 107), and "The Centenary of the Revolution" (p. 211). 
These are pre-eminent, not so much for their homiletical value as for 
their eloquent historical summaries of certain episodes in French 
Jewish history. The following passage from the sermon on the 
Revolution is a fair specimen of the author's style at his best. 
" It is because we have proved to our dear France that the love 
of religion and the love of country strengthen and complete each 
other ; that when necessity arises, even certain religious prohibitions 



CRITICAL NOTICES 539 

disappear before national obligations; it is because, from the time 
she gave us access to every career, we have served her with ardour 
and devotion in every path of human activity ; it is because she has 
seen us and ever will see us ready to undergo any sacrifice and 
encounter any danger, even to shed our last drop of blood in defence 
of her integrity and honour, that she counts us among her children, 
and shows us the same tender affection as we feel for her. Whatever 
our detractors may say, France has not children more loving, more 
devoted, and more grateful than ourselves" (p. 221). 

In England, where duelling is no more, the following extract will 
be read with interest : " But if it be our duty to follow the opinion of 
the majority, it is on the express condition that that opinion should 
be in conformity with the immutable laws of truth and justice. To 
follow it under all circumstances would be to expose ourselves some- 
times to the sanction of great wrongs. What, for example, is more 
iniquitous than the duel ? Is it not the height of absurdity that in 
order to save our honour we should have to incur the risk of 
receiving a mortal wound from him who has committed an outrage 
on our dignity ?" (p. 287). 

The author's treatment of quotations is tantalizing. Sometimes 
references are given, at other times they are omitted. In the former 
case, the quotations are usually familiar, and the best citations from 
Talmud or Midrash are left without any indication as to their 
exact source. 

Although the volume is unequal in parts, one cannot fail to 
recognize the piety and the learning of the author. In closing the 
book one's only regret is that, as the primary facts of religion and 
morality are changeless, nothing would have been lost and much 
gained by these principles being clothed in a more modern garb. 

S. Levy. 



THE PSALMS OF SOLOMON. 

1. Die Datierung der Psalmen Salomos, ein Beitrag zur judischen 

Geschichte, von Lie. th. W. Feankenbeeg (Beihefte zur Zeit- 
schriftfur die (dttestamentliche Wissenschaft, Giessen, 1896). 

2. Lea IHx-Huit Binidictions et les Psaumes de Salomon, par M. ISBAEL 

Livi (Bevue des Etudes Juives, tome XXXII, No. 64, pp. 161-178). 

3. Review of Frankenberg's essay, by Prof. E. SCHtrBEB {Theologische 

Literaturzeitung, Feb. 6, 1897). 

I HAVE placed these three publications together for obvious 
reasons. The review of Prof. Schtlrer, indeed, effectively disposes 
VOL. IX. N n