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THE 

JEWISH QUAETEELY 
EEVIEW 

OCTOBEE, 1905 

NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT FROM 
CAMBRIDGE GENIZAH DOCUMENTS. 

The Genizah Fragments in the Cambridge University 
Library, coming as they do from Fustat — which was the 
capital of Lower Egypt at the period they cover — naturally 
afford a good deal of information concerning both that city 
and others in the vicinity, from Alexandria up to No-Ammon 
(Thebes), including Cairo, Balbai's, Eamleh, Eosetta, Zoan, 
Qalyub, Qua, Zoar, Sa, Zifta, Benha al-'Asal, Mahallat al- 
Kabir, Miniat Ghamr, and others ; as also some of the chief 
towns in Palestine and elsewhere, for instance the Holy 
City, Damascus, Safed, Ascalon, Tiberias, Tripolis, Dan, 
and so forth. 

The city of Fustat has not wanted historians. Besides 
such general geographers as at-Tabari, al-Kindi, al-Idrisi, 
Abulfeda, and Ibn Said, there are the works of al-Makrizi — 
his History of the Copts in Egypt and his Khitat— the very 
detailed work of Ibn Duqmaq^the Churches and Monasteries 
of Egypt attributed to Abu Salih and edited by B. T. A. Evetts 
as one of the Anecdota Oxoniensia ; Butler's Coptic Churches 
of Egypt, which has a fine plan of Qasr ash-Sham' in Vol. I ; 
G. Salmon's Etudes sur la topographic du Caire, published 
by the Mission archeologique francaise au Caire ; Jomard's 

1 Description of Egypt, published by Dr. Vollers at Cairo in 1893, from the 
MS. in the Khedivial Library. 

VOL. XVIII. B 



2 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

Description des environs de la ville du Gaire 1 ; and the 
Ifoms coptes du Gaire et locality voisines of M. Paul Casa- 
nova 2 , which is to be followed by a detailed description of 
Fustat by the same author. There is also much interesting 
matter in Lane-Poole's Cairo s . 

From the business documents that come from the Genizah, 
as will be seen, many facts come to light which may serve 
to unveil something of the history of the Jewish race in a 
large city where they abode in great numbers, were very 
wealthy, and had much to endure, partly for their own 
sakes, and partly because of the presence of the Copts near 
them, with whom they were confused at times by the 
followers of Muhammad. 

The chief events in the history of the city for the present 
purpose are the following : — 

Fustat was founded when 'Amr ibn al-'As conquered 
Egypt for his master, the Khalif 'Umar, in the year 21 of 
the Hijra, i. e. 640 or 641 a. d. 'Amr became master of 
the country largely by the help of the Copts who were 
willing to exchange their Greek rulers, whom they hated 
because of religious differences, for any other power. The 
city seems to have owed its site to a dove which nested in 
the tent (fustat) of 'Amr, and which he would not allow to 
be disturbed. He built a mosque, on the site of which 
there stands a building which still bears his name, and dug 
or repaired the canal to the Red Sea that the corn of 
Egypt might be easily transported to the Muhammadans 
in Arabia. 

In 750 a. D., Marwan II, the last of the 'Umayyad 
Khalifs, set fire to the city. In the next year the two 
generals who had pursued Marwan into Egypt, Salih ibn 
'All 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas and Abu *Aun 'Abd al Malik 

1 In igypU Moderne, tome ii. a of the " Description de 1'Egypte . . . 
observations faites pendant l'exp^dition de l'armee francaise, 1818," in 
connexion with which is a fine numbered plan in the volume of plates. 

* In the Bulletin de I'Institutfranfais d'archeologie orientate, Cairo, 1901. 

3 In Dent's Mediaeval Towns series. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 3 

ibn Yazid, commanded their followers to build houses in. 
the plain north of Fustat, and a new town grew up which 
obtained the name of al- c Askar, the Cantonments. There, 
apparently, for some years the governor made his seat, until 
about 763 a. D., when the Khalif ordered that his residence 
should be removed from the palace of the Emirate in 
al-'Askar back to Fustat 1 . 

The Coptic Christians were often in trouble with their 
newly chosen masters, and also quarrelled as of old with 
their Greek neighbours ; and their disturbances resulted 
every now and then in the destruction of part of the town, 
or the imposing of a heavier tribute. 

The Amir Ahmad ibn Tulun, in the latter half of the 
ninth century, built himself a palace and barracks for bis 
guards, and a grand mosque which still exists between 
Fustat and Cairo ; this new quarter received the name of 
al-Qatai', the Wards. He imposed a tribute upon the 
Coptic Patriarch of 20,000 dinars, and among the methods 
to which that personage resorted for payment of the money 
was, as al-Makrlzi 2 tells us, the sale of the churches lying 
in the vicinity of the Mu'allaqa in Qasr ash-Sham' to 
the Jews. 

Of this Qasr more anon 3 . It was a part of Fustat much 
older than the city, and contains to this day a Jewish 
synagogue and several Coptic churches. 

The Fatimite Khalif, al-Mu azz, obtained the rule in 
Egypt in the second half of the tenth century. For him 
the new city was built, called Jbj*11 s^Udl, al-Qahirat al- 
Mu'azziah, and known to the Western world through the 
Venetian merchants in the softened form of Cairo. 

Then, we learn, the people began to build near this new 
citadel, and the old capital began to be deserted. However 
that may be, still in theory and in documents, at all 
events so far as the Jews are concerned, Cairo maintained 

1 Salmon, op. cit., pp. 2-5, &c. 

a In his History of the Copts, Wustenfeld's edition, p. 61. 

3 See p. 19 below. 

B a 



4 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

a secondary place to Fustat for some centuries, although 
the new city became the seat of the Khallfs of Egypt. The 
situation of Fustat on the Nile, says Abulfeda, made it 
easier to provision than Cairo, and living was cheaper 
there. 

It was during the reign of al-Mu'azz, according to Gre- 
gorius Abu'l-Faraj, that the famous Maimonides took up 
his abode among the Jews in Fustat, and became first 
a merchant of gems, and afterwards practised medicine. 

The Fatimite Khalif, al-Hakim, towards the end of 
the tenth century, persecuted both Jews and Christians. 
Jamal ad-Din ibn Tughri-Bardi ' tells us that he ordered 
the Jews to wear yellow garments, while the Christians 
had to don blue, and both were forbidden to ride horse 
or mule ; while al-Makrizi 2 says that the Jews had to 
wear hung on the neck a ring of wood of five rotl weight, 
and as the rotl was equal to 480 drachmas of some kind, 
it could not have been a great convenience. In addition 
to this they seem to have been compelled to wear bells on 
their necks when they went to the bath. This Khalif iB 
he whose name has been since held in reverence by the 
Druzes ; he sought to found a new religion with himself as 
the divinity, and had many followers. 

The Fatimites, although claiming descent from 'All the 
son of Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, were by some Arab 
writers said to be Jews 3 ; the first of the Khallfs, 'Ubaid- 
allah, being a Jewish locksmith before he rose to fame and 
power. Jamal ad-Din, above-quoted, relates that the father 
of al-Hakim, al-'Aziz ibn Abu Mansur Barar, entrusted the 
oversight of Syria to a Jew named Misha, who, however, 
paid for his office with his life. 

In the year 1168 A. D., the vizir Shawir set fire to Fustat 
to prevent its falling into the hands of the Franks during 



Carlyle's edition, Cambridge, 1792, p. 7. 

Copts, ed. Wustenfeld, pp. 64-66. 

See Carlyle's Jamal ad-Din, notae p. 5, no. 10. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 5 

the time of the second crusade : this was a wide-spread 
conflagration and is called the " Burning " par excellence. 

A century or so later, a great disturbance arose about 
a Coptic secretary who was defended from the Muhammadan 
rabble by his master's soldiery until the Sultan objected. 
Then the people fell to plundering both Jew and Christian 
until the Amir forbade it, which only occurred after a great 
deal of mischief had been done. After this the Muham- 
madan officials summoned to a conference the Judge of the 
Jews and the two Christian Patriarchs, Coptic and Greek, 
with their elders 1 . The Ruler of the Jews pronounced 
a curse against every Jew who should do contrary to what 
was fixed with regard to wearing a yellow turban and 
obedience to the treaty of 'Umar. The goods of those who 
did not wear the coloured turban were to be confiscate. 

About the year 1320 A. d. some more serious tumults 
took place, when the decree of blue turbans for the Christians 
was more strictly enforced again. In this trouble for once 
the Jews seem not to have been embroiled, and no regula- 
tions were made for them, or perhaps they had not grown 
slack in the observance of those already made. The Chris- 
tians therefore began to borrow turbans from their Jewish 
neighbours whenever they dared to go abroad, that they 
might be safe from molestation. 

These are the very scant notes which are to hand 
concerning the Jewish people in Fustat. 

Already in this Review 2 Mr. Abrahams has given some 
of the various spellings of the name of the city in these 
documents, but some notes on the formulae used may still 
have an interest. 

Evidently the standard description of the city for the 
Jewish scribe during a long period was 7jn D*"lXD BNBDa 
mniD Ninj Dl^J j this we find at all dates from 750 a.d. till 
as late as 1496, some years after al-Makrizi wrote his books. 
It is a comparatively rare thing to find any part of this 

1 Makrizi, Copts, ed.Wustenfeld, p. 75. 2 Vol. XVII, p. 426. 



6 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

description left out, especially in those documents of a 
particularly religious character, such as the marriage 
contracts, which are mostly in Aramaic. 

But taking the documents through — or at least as many 
as have been examined for the present purposes, some 
hundreds — there is very considerable variation. 

Now the meaning of Fustat Misraim seems plainly to be 
Fustat of Egypt. The Arabic form corresponding to it is 
Fustat Misr, either part of the name being as often used 
alone. Misr may mean any large town, and ten such 
were counted by the Arabians, among which were Baghdad, 
Kufa, Memphis, and, later, Alexandria and Cairo. But the 
name itself has only been attached permanently to this 
district, and while Fustat was called Misr in the eighth 
century and earlier, its neighbour Cairo is only known by 
the name of Misr or Masr to the inhabitants of to-day. 

Perhaps Fustat Misraim may be traced to the influence 
of the Coptic name &fc%\am nx* 1 *"* Babylon of Egypt, 
which was evidently intended to be a distinction from the 
Asiatic Babylon. Although this Egyptian Babylon is said 
to be a height south of Qasr ash-Sham' 1 , yet it is pro- 
bable that the old and new towns, Babylon and Fustat, 
overlapped one another, as Fustat is said to have enclosed 
the Qasr, and therefore to have gone south of it. And, 
moreover, in a MS. list of bishoprics of Egypt, quoted by 
Amelineau 2 , inAyXian. $ocT*ac»m = A>lk«iJl ^jbb, is given. 
It does not seem necessary that Fustat should have the 
name of the country attached, there being only one such 
place. 

But while the full appellation was given mostly some- 
where on the document, most frequently in connexion 
with the date, any further mention of the city in the same 
manuscript generally dispensed with formality of this kind. 
Thus we have in 1141 a.d. a document dated with the 
usual six-word formula as given above, while a house 

1 Casanova, p. 145. 

a Giographie de I'ltgypte «s Vepogue copte, p. 224. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN PUSTAT 1 

described therein is called BKODB^Na "ltoiw 1 . In 1 143 we 
have the same thing occurring again, the description being 
0N0Db{>k3 *rbx. pston i>N 2 : another example is found in 
1148 3 . 

In 1 143 we have an instance of dating only DKBDsi'ta 4 , 
followed by one in 1150 5 , in which the property described 
is in Cairo; by one in 1159 6 (bnbdb!>N3 TiCKith ym = 
" 1470 according to the reckoning of documents ") ; and by 
one which may be dated about n6o T . 

From earlier times till later than the above dates there 
are examples of the use of "ivo alone. In 1027 a document 
is dated -«03 ril>B>N 8 ("1338 in Misr"), while in 103a the 
Synagogue of the Syrians is 1X03 9 ; in 1076, in a large 
document dated with the six-word formula, houses are 
described in lanes "IX03 10 . In 11 30 again a house is 
described as merely in Misr, while the date stands NDriN 
Dnvo BKBDB3 only 11 . In 1 144 the date runs thus, i?l jtoi 
1V03 njnx we> "line ins 12 : and in 1261 again a street is 1»03 
simply, while the date formula is one of the longest on 
record ; it runs onddb3 n nuo}> i£mn ib>n nrxb nnoB6 
raw N\n di^j "inj by new onso 13 . One other MS. of 1243, D y 
the same scribe, gives this formula with the addition of na 
after 13 u . 

There is also an instance of "NO used alone in the text, 
while at the foot the MS. is described as written at Fustat 16 , 
0NBD33 3fO. An interesting proof is given in two MSS. of 
the fact that the title of Misr was not at once transferred 
to the newer city, as something is described mrwp$>Nl 1X03 16 , 
meaning of course in Fustat and Cairo ; one of these gives 
the date 1426 A. D., 250 years after the latter city was 
founded. 

» T-S. ia. 694. * T-S. 16. 146. • T-S. ia. 544. 

1 T-S. 13 J 3 '. « T-S. 13 J x 11 . • T-S. 13 J 3 w . 

7 T-S. 13 J 6'. • T-S. 8 J 4'. • T-S. 16. 45. 

"> T-S. 16. 5. « T-S. ia.88. 1J T-S. 10 J 5". 

13 T-S. ia. 564 and 549, parts of the same document. 
" T-S. ia. iai. " T-S. ia. 438. 

" T-S. 16. aoo and 18 J i". 



8 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

In some eases the six-word formula is slightly varied, 
once by the addition of &OT (runio N31 Nnnj DI^J ijjn) in 
1239 1 > a * other times by a more Hebrew rendering, DNDD3 
mnD "iron Dl^i bw D'nXD. Of this formula, one MS. may 
be dated 949-958 A. d. 2 , and others 981 3 , 983*, and 1334 5 . 
The last quoted is dated 4994 iTTW, and Mr. Abrahams 
has referred me to a document (Drawer 35) in which the 
date (995) is given as 4775 tb\y P"o!\ The dating nb)V ntsna^ 
only becomes usual much later. " Fustat Misraim " appears 
without any further description in 966 a.d. 6 , 1004 7 , 1134 8 , 
and 1140 9 , the last of which has in it also 1XD. 

On a marriage contract, of which all date is lost except 
-75, but which is not earlier than 1064 A. v., the legend 
accompanying the date runs n:HD3 Dn^D pN3 DW -iddd^ 
• • * bw CNDDS 10 , " according to the reckoning of the Greeks 
in the land of Egypt in the city of Fustat which is on [the 
Nile]." 

Of the Arabic form T£0 DNBDS there are a good many 
instances. One is of the date 1006 11 , one of 1104 12 , two of 
1115 13 , one of ii3o w , one of 1135 15 where the Hebrew 
form is used with the date, but houses are described as 
being 1VD DXDDS3, two of ii37 16 , another of about the same 
year 1T , one not later than 1 1 8 8 18 , and others whose dates have 
disappeared, one of which contains 1VO alone twice also 19 . 

While the spelling of "WD and ")Sp is quite uniform — the 
,jo in both cases always being represented by v — there are 
some differences in the word Fustat. Documents that have 
the more Hebrew formula ftaxno DI^J "iru bw vary in the 
spelling. One of 966 has DEED'S 20 ; several have ddds, one 
of 1007 21 speaking of the witnesses as anso ttt3DS3 amii, 

1 T-S. 8 J6 7 . 2 T-S. 20. 85. s T-S. 16. 49. 

* T-S. 16. 60. 5 T-S. 8 J6 8 . « T-S. 12. 462. 

7 T-S. 13 J 2 11 . 8 T-S. 8 J 5 ». > T-S. 13 J 2 3 *. 

10 T-S. 24. 13. u T-S. 13 J 2 14 . " T-S. 12. 525. 

15 T-S. 16. 158 and 24. 20. " T-S. 12. 562. 

15 T-S. 13 J 3 9 . " T-S. 8 J 5'.'. « T-S. 16. 151. 

18 T-S. 20. 16. « T-S. 12. 55a. 20 T-S. 12. 539. 
81 T-S. 16. 14. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN PUSTAT 9 

one of 1022 * being dated ihn W BV3 ## ]W onso DQD93 
"tjjid b&, leaving out the thousand of the date and pre- 
sumably meaning the 20th Tishri. There are others of 
1024 2 , [? io]39 3 , 1 135 4 , and two marriage contracts 5 . 

Some documents transliterate the ^ of Fustat by ¥, thus 
giving CDNOVS — one of 750 A. D. 6 , one of 1028 7 which has 
also -raco, a WS "1BB> of 1045 8 , one of 1048 9 , and one of 
1241 10 which gives on the verso NV1 Dl^J "iru i»y *wk bkoxs 
row, while on the recto is mru Dl^J ^jn tfnvo BBXB3. There 
is one instance in the direction of a letter where the city is 

Spelt JolkaflJl. 

Documents of a later date, 1544-1802 A. D., seem to be 
regularly DHVD riB 11 , the name Fustat being dropped alto- 
gether, and the date uniformly given fTV^. 

The description of Cairo gives one or two interesting 
details. Makrizi, in his History of the Coinage of the 
Arabs 12 , says that in the year 358 (Hijra) was built 
Aj;*M s^UJl, al-Qahirat al-Mu'azziah. This is about 970 A.D. 
Rather more than a century later, somewhere about 
1080 A.D., we have a marriage contract which speaks of 
rMy&N fhnNpi'N 13 ; and in the next century there is a MS. 
of 1 109 of the same form 14 , and five documents which are 
dated from mnNpi'N rr%&>K , one of 1 1 27 15 , one of 1 150 16 , one 
of about 1169 17 , one of 1170 18 , and one of 11- , the rest of 
the date being lost 19 , while a sixth retains only the unit 
of the date 20 , but is presumably of the same century. 
After this no more is seen of iTTJJDPN ; it is curious that 
the last certain date of its appearance here is 1170, the year 

1 T-S. 10J5". a T-S. 13J1 6 . s T-S. 13J7 25 . 

4 T-S. 8 J io 18 . 5 T-S. 12. 113 and 492. 

6 T-S. 16. 79 (see J. Q. E., vol. XVII, p. 426). T T-S. 8 J 4'. 

8 T-S. 16. 183. 9 T-S. 20. 160. 10 T-S. 8J6 14 . 

11 1544, T-S. r 3 J8i»; 1560, 13 J 5 6 J 1561, 13 J 4 17 ; 1563, 8 J 6 22 ; 1569, 
13J4 20 ; I577>8J8 23 ; 1588. 13J4 21 ; 1748, 13J5 7 ; i8o2,8J6 24 . 

12 Historic/, monetae araUcae, ed. 0. G. Tychsen, Eostockii, 1797, p. 34, and 
translation, p. n 1. 

1S T-S. 24. 9. » T-S. 8 J 4 2 ». 16 T-S. 18 J 1 « 

"T-S. 13J1 21 . " T-S. 8J5 23 . ,a T-S. 13 J 3". 

18 T-S. 16. 41. *» T-S. 13 J 7 I5 . 



IO THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

in which the famous Saladin, as Sultan of Egypt, pro- 
claimed there the Ayubite Khalif, thus putting an end to 
the dynasty to which Mu'azz belonged, the Fatimites. 
Possibly it was that event which decided that the name 
of the city should not be al-Mu'azziah. 

But further : from the date 1038 a. d., down to as late as 
1496, Cairo is described as near to Fustat The first of 
these, of 1038 x , bears the legend QHtmb raioon mriNp b$ "Vjn 
naniD -inn di^j i>jn D^xo ; this is the most usual form. The 
next is one of 104- 2 , a divorce document; the next a 
marriage contract of 1083 3 ; the next a document of 
1094 4 , where roieon n"WKpS>K "Vy has been inserted above 
the line before arm 0NDDS3-. Then follow the years 1109, 
mo, 1116, 1127, one of each 5 , one of 1169 6 , one of 1170 7 , 
one of 1187 8 which, in common with the first three just 
cited in this century, has na*DD*i instead of roiDDH ; these are 
followed by documents of 1190 9 , 1245 10 , 1280 11 , I282 12 , 
1458-9 13 , 1482 14 , and 1496 16 . There is also a marriage 
document of 1816 16 which perpetuates the formula, one 
would suppose, without any meaning. 

There are other towns that are called " near to Fustat "; 
rtiDpn rrvDT -v>v in 1158 17 , rbmn rbnohx "vy in two docu- 
ments of 1160 18 , and zvbp "VJJ 19 in a document without 
date. The second of these towns is evidently Mahallat 
al-Kabir, a few miles west of the Damietta branch of the 
Nile, and almost sixty miles north of Fustat; it is described 
in other documents as on the Nile 20 , in 11 21; as naa^K 21 
(= rattan), in 1202; and in 11 45 simply as n^nota 22 . 
There is a Damlra some miles north of Mahallat al-Kabir, 
and therefore still further from Fustat, which may be the 

1 T-S. 18 J t«. a T-S. 13 J 6 38 . ' T-S. is. 541. 

1 T-S. 13 J a«. • T-S. 18 J 1 ". ,8 i al and 8 Jia 1 . • T-S. 8 J 5 28 . 

7 T-S. 13 J 3". 8 T-S. 18 J 1 28 . • T-S. 18 J i 30 . 

10 T-S. ia. 588. » T-S. 13 J 4". ia T-S. 8 J 6". 

18 T-S. 8. 195. » T-S. I3J4 18 . 15 T-S. 8 J6 W . 

" T-S. 16. 33a. " T-S. 8 J 5 ". » T-S. 8 J 5" and 18 J 1". 

» T-S. 13 J 7 U . ** T-S. 16. 140. ,l T-S. 12. 166. 
» T-S. ra. 565. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT II 

"Damira the little" of the 1158 document quoted above. 
For the town of Qalyub, only 8 £ miles north from Cairo 
by railway, one can understand the term "near to Fustat." 

Kanais al-Yakud. 

In Ibn Duqmaq 1 we have an all too brief description 
of the Jewish synagogues extant in his day, say in the 
fourteenth century. It runs thus : — 

jjtSjJ ^iiJI jaa.i > tjjfe ^j^J^yi] ^H-JI A ~>:.) *_^a*> ■>W-J1 tj-J^J 
<U>~i>. !=►.»». ]U*' ,•) Jl r*". rtt*- , ^-N "\>"W *~* - * iiixll jUs? -H4-JI 

We have here three synagogues: of the "Iraqians" 
(which would mean Babylonians) in the Qasr in the Lane 
of the Jews ; of the Syrians in the Qasr near the Postern 
Khabisah; of the Qaraites in the Mamsusa ( = Musasa) in 
one of the lanes of the Darb Kurma. 

The two former are quite plainly mentioned in many MSS., 
and both belonged to the Kabbanites. We have mention of 
the Syrian synagogue during something over a century. 

In 103a a. d. we have the ivna i^dkb^n rcwa 2 ; in 1159 
something is transacted njwtM lliru poKt^K wn '•a 3 , i.e. "in 
the synagogue of the Syrians in the presence of a number 
of people." There is also a long document, probably of 
the eleventh century, dealing with the same, which it 
calls pCNB^K lirviw rawa*. There are also some undated 
MSS. which mention this synagogue alone 5 , as well as 
some cited below which give both Syrian and Iraqian. 

Of the Iraqian synagogue alone, mention is made in 
documents of 1044 6 , of 1099 7 , of about 1182, where the 
houses described adjoin [ppK"i]yta no^ 8 , and two undated 
ones, of which one is comparatively modern in all proba- 
bility, and is pointed 9 . 

* IV, p. 108. » T-S. 16. 45. > T-S. 13 J3 10 (p. 3). 
4 T-S. ao. 96. 5 T-S. 8 J xo 8 , 6 J a *, and one unnumbered. 

• T-S. 13 J 1 10 . ' T-S. 8 J 4 ». • T-S. 1a. 487. 
» T-S. 10J5*, 6J1". 



12 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

Mention of the two synagogues together is made, giving 
their separate names, in 1057 l , and in about 1130 2 , while 
they are spoken of as merely } , nD' l J3?N in 750 3 or nVD'aa TIB', 
in a MS. not later than 1205 (nVD^S TO) 4 , and in some 
undated MSS. 8 

But other documents bring us to what is either another 
synagogue or another name for one of those given above. 
This is the " Synagogue of the Yerushalmim" which occurs 
in a MS. of 997 s , in two of 1028 7 , and in two without 
date, of which one at least may probably be referred to 
the tenth century as it is in Hebrew 8 . This last-named 
document ' evidently places the D , D^n , n DD33 in Qasr 
ash-Sham' (= DViN "TCP) 9 ; while the document of 997, 
which is apparently a will, speaks of a certain proportion 
to be dedicated (e>*tpr6) to the two synagogues in Fustat, of 
which half is to go to one synagogue whose name is gone, 
and the other half to D^tWn no>J3 . Twice, further, in the 
same MS. the riVDJS TW are spoken of, and it seems as if 
this might be the earlier name for the Synagogue of the 
Syrians, changed perhaps with the influx of some arrivals 
from Damascus. Most of the MSS. with cnbwf are in 
Hebrew. 

There is also one document of date 1082 a.d. 10 , drawn up 
Dnxo BKBDB3 . . . D"io3n ntfJ33 , and a letter written to Hai 
Gaon ben Sherira rbn bw n3>fc» e>tn wishing peace wm« UB» 
iru^ db>^>j> mnpn o«S>3an nwas D^DnDnrvtanpn 11 ; this would 
be before 1038, the date of Hai's death. The document 
does not mention Fustat, and there is only the coincidence 
of the " Synagogue of the Babylonians " to suggest that it 
may have been written from that place. The fact remains 
that a synagogue of the Babylonians is mentioned as being 
at Fustat, and may be the same as that of the Iraqians. 

1 T-S. 13 J 1". J T-S. ioJio'. » See J. g. JR., XVII, p. 426. 

4 T-S. 16. 63, verso. 6 T-S. 12. 129 and 8 J 9". 

« T-S. 16. 115. ' T-S. 13 J 5 1 and 8 J 4 s . 

8 T-S. 13. 641 and 20. 117. 

' For further notes on the names of the Qasr see p. 20. 
10 T-S. 18 J 1". "T-S. 16.318. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 13 

Makrizi's description of the Qaraitic synagogue in the 
Musasa will be found below under that heading. 

Beth Bin and Teshibah. 

The style in which the Beth Din is mentioned is of 
much interest, though often very vague. In 1122 A. D. we 
have tt-MO 0X0033 jnapn p rvo 1 , and a MS. (probably) 
towards the end of the eleventh century gives the following 
heading 2 : — 

\3» K300*t DnV» 0N0DB3 JTl3pn p IV3 UN 13*333 rw n^yo 

myo . . . 13 . . . lino writ* 133*11 u*io ip *ia 33 mi ton 

•Nann 
In 1066, a document has the following 3 : — 

p "1*30 N300"t N3"1 IT33 tOOIp [31 .TIN* *3K *10tJ> D"prPN 

; onso okodbs h-un 

which is signed by rp-iyD '3T3 *pl30 and a ["loyo ?] "13 "jdv 
oaipn. 

In 1 1 14, a MS. opens with these words*: — 
. onxo DNDDS31 mnxp^t? -vy3 D'-yupn ow-in wi>e> i3t? to-ixn 
and a fragment without date 5 has OXODS3 DtyUprt Dy«*in , , , 
. , . SO , no vestige of the word before D*3**-rn remaining. 

Before any of these, in 1032, comes a document which, 
as it speaks of the Chazzan and Shaliach of the synagogue 
and is Very biief, may be given here 6 : — 

isd3 pMrcfot -10*333 h*un p n>3 ^ao jnapn p ro *a isn 
nn^ni rroso r&ro -£« roo jo non jo jfo niwhx coata di> *a 
-porn 6 ^>y bip 33 $»xidk> -13 *ni-n a-natc 6 rn-iop pj»S> pjmtn 
n^efca r.VN 7 -i»S3iki y33 -nnn on-ox 3no rip nh-u 1133 }3 j?nn 
pabn -ifyta 1*3 wo -jnwi^N tnn ^n pi^x 3e>io *a -iin£ 

33 no^ 13 *ii>n 

1 T-S. 24. 14. 2 T-S. 20. 125. 

8 T-S. 20. 83 (a document of 1049, T-S. 20. 23, mentions a -a fidv "u taso 
BDiffln inra). 

4 T-S. 8 J 5 >. 5 T-S. 12. 538. * T-S. 16. 45. 

- .A- 



14 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

A document of 1044 speaks of the pn JV3 in the Syna- 
gogue of the Iraqians 1 , so that probably only one of three 
mentioned above would belong to Cairo. 

In 1 1 27 we have two documents together which speak of 
spy pro raw e>Nn jnan n^ro wjhn b& brm pn rvo 2 , while 
one of 1 129 has the same legend 8 , and one of 11 30 is made 
out apy pro raw m-\ ]ran rvtao miita mn nvo bedded, 
and rn^n -ijrca rcn ton *aa, and is signed by tuna rv^ro 
D^iro , . . pDa pro in^N pj pro nnbv p pro*. Where 
this Yeshibah was is not explained, but that it was 
in Fustat is seen from this last MS., which was written 
there and signed by Masliach. Perhaps it would be in 
one of the Kanisahs. There is also another document signed 
by Masliach, where after pro ln^N he gives the additional 
information Q^ron yn pro rnbw *raj 5 . 

This academy, or rather its head, appears very frequently 
on the documents. Apparently the first B>tn found here is 
lww 6 ; then follows ytbo 13 bwov uia in rxebv 7 probably 
some time after 1028 (in which year his father bwcw is 
spoken of as bnpn twn 8 ) ; the next found is «nwn iwri, who 
appears as head of the academy in 1092 9 and in two 
undated documents 10 , and whose son ^3 Twbi tftO «TO *m 
^tOC" was married in 1082 11 . Next comes *|DV 1*3 \mn rxbw 
who is called ra^n 3K in 1092 12 and rnuwi B>tn in two 
undated MSS. 13 Then follows our Masliach above cited, 
in at least twenty-one documents 14 from 1127 to 1138, 

1 T-S. 13 J 1 10 . 3 T-8. 8 J 5 4 . s T-S. 10 J 7 10 . 

4 T-S. 16. 151. 5 T-S. 10J5 20 . 

• T-S. ia. 16, in a letter addressed to " our brother Shlomoh ha-Shophat 
ben Saadiah ha-Shophat " ; a rrirD 13 noto appears on a document of 
1022 (?) who may be the person here spoken of. 

7 T-S. 13 J 9', 11 5 . 8 T-S. 13 J 51, and 8. 183. 

• T-S. 20. 31. >• T-S. 8 J 7 « and 1a. 109. 

" T-S. 24. 1. But in a Brit. Mus. MS. of 1089 a. d. (Or. 5545) he is called 
Head of the Academy. 

13 T-S. 20. 31. » T-S. 20. 86, and 13 J 6". 

" 1127, T-S. 8J5 4 ; 1129, 10J7 10 ; 1130, 16. 151 ; 1132, 8J5*; 1133, «• 
567; 1 134, 20. 63, 20. 87, and 13 J a 20 ; 1135, 13 J 2 s2 ; 1136, 13 Ja w ; 1137, 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 15 

many being undated. After him comes Samuel from 
1 143 to 1159 1 . 

There is a N'BOn bw\ mentioned in 1165 2 , during whose 
headship a document is dated, but he is not called head of 
this academy nor of any other, neither is ^n i'NJro 3 in 
1 1 60 and 1 166, nor ntro in 1171 4 . The next Wi, still not 
head of an academy, is named e»BBn omaN, the " Hammer " 
or "Destroyer"; he occurs from 1213 to 123a 6 . 

After a space of 140 years or so from the last notice of 
the Yeshibath Gaon Jacob we arrive at a new name or 
a new academy. In 1292 a certain ^"HD "i is called cnt 
mini't? nna^ 6 , and in 1295 there is a *m in the same 
position 7 ; while an undated MS. also gives b& nna^ 
8 , which seems to point to the same academy. 

Ibn Duqmaq 9 , in describing the rfivbn a"n in the Musasa 
(in Fustat), speaks of it as being near the Masjid al-arzi, 
which is opposite the house of the Ris al-Yahud. Perhaps 
this is the situation of the Yeshibah of Gaon Jacob. 

The Markets. 

The markets (plD) mentioned are these : T3ai>K, pstjpSw, 
Pndn5>k, psnta, ONonta, tibx, f\^b», and joipta. 

Of the first, "vaa^K plD^K, we have three notices, as 
follows : — 

vn Taata piDi?to spyoiw vpoba *a n^xn^a cxDDstaa -ixifo 
^ki Y-bspbtt ^xi T-aa^x piD '•a ;rs "j^dd^x pnt^x *by njnxtp 
rue ybow nxxrc&x rvmi) y:n pnm moy am ^xi .ti-id5>x 

(A.D. H39) 10 

13 J 3" and 12. 683; 1138, 13 Ja M ; undated, 8. 179, 12. 91, 12. 653, 20. 37, 
8J11' 5 , ioJ 5 ", M , i 3 J8«. 

1 "43, T-S. 13J3'; "44, 13 J 3 s ; "5°. 13J7"; "52, *3 J3', *3 J 8 s , 
8J5"; "57.8J5 18 ; "59, 13J3 10 ; undated,8J7 s . 

* T-S. 13 J3 11 . ' T-S. 8 J5".", 13 J6 2 .", 13 J3 12 . 

♦ T-S. 13 J 3". 5 T-S. 13 Js 2 *,", 13 J4 5 , 13 J'9 10 , 8 J 6 s , 8 J9". 
« T-S. 13 J 4". ' Add. 3124. » T-S. 24. 8. 

9 IV, p. 25. See also below, pp. 21, 29, 31, and 35, for the house of the 
Head of the Jews. 
>• T-S. 12. 694. 



l6 THE JEWISH QUAETEELY EEVIEW 

N1H TW »D n"nD^N3 T33^N p1D3 "TCD t2NtDDQ3 T&X "IN^X 

(do date) * . . , IBM *M ^X pNpr^K 

T33 $>K pID D33 JDNB^K nSN3 "Y^N STI^IS *S rfaxn TtfD . , . 

(a.d. iii8) z nine 

Ibn Duqmaq 3 says that this mart is so well known as 
to need no description, and it has many entrances. He 
gives a list of the Masjids upon the Shar'i as-Suq al-Kabir 
however*, and says that it extends from the Darb al-Majayar 
to the Sahl Bahr an-Nil (the strand of the Nile) ; in 
another place 6 he speaks of the Kum al-Majayar as con- 
nected with the Kum Ibn Ghurab, and also says 6 that 
the Darb Badi connects it with as-Suq al-Kabir. This 
is either near or in the Musasa quarter just outside of the 
Qasr ash-Sham 5 , a district which must be treated of later. 

The P"iNDj^N pio does not find a place with the other 
markets singled out for " honourable mention " by Ibn 
Duqmaq, but it will be found under the heading JsM k,l~*9 7 
as ^lUI) (i^.l/M (j^. ; also he describes the mart of the 
oil-merchants 8 as being between the cr ^lk*)l ax^* and the 
^jLa. of the linen merchants : and finally gives a list of the 
nine Masjids between the ^UmII Imj» and the ^Ua.. 
There is still a lane ^IjJi in Misr 9 . 

We have a letter addressed in Arabic character to an 
Ibrahim in this Suq al-'attarin at Misr 10 , and another with 
the words ^jUwII s^y .klkaftl! in the direction n ; also there 
is a MS. mentioning inxtDJ^K P1D3 pToriDi'N "OS^N 13 T&bx 
*•&* mnsi'N T&bn p, probably of the year A.D. 1315 12 . The 
person treated with is 1$0 13 yvktt p IKDJ^K riK3"13 "T^K, 
another perfumer. 

One document gives a shop on the }"lKf3t6N p1D 13 in Misr : 
this is another mart unmentioned by Ibn Duqmaq, unless 

1 T-S. 16. 117. a T-S. 16. 65. 3 IV, p. 32. 

4 IV, p. 80. 6 IV, p. 52. « Under Darb Badi, IV, p. 25. 

7 IV, p. 37. s |tin>i , IV, p. 33 ; see also IV, p. 26, line 23. 

9 See no. 18 on the French plan mentioned in note 1, p. 2. 
10 T-S. 10 J 8 1 . " A MS. as yet unplaced. la T-S. 10 J 5 1 . 

13 T-S. 12. 777. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 17 

it be the same as the pnxoy, both terms being used for 
spiceries. 

Of the princes piD mentioned above, we have one notice 
in a long and careful description which, unfortunately, is 
very mutilated. It runs thus * : — 

uwip nty anpw . . . nixb Nny»a p tp&tt vbx "Mibx . , . 
ymn i?i b vre» jn^d ja *tj?d uk yvhb Nruo '•ptwiw y3*6so 
voNcm nonpta pna'^N piD £k -jh jd ihozbx .... [didp]d -vj 

J3D3 *5>n nys'ioi n&N -wn jnnyotai jvin^n 

-int6n uk p np*re p pDni?N ni^x nay un .-6v6n npn ^Npi>N 

DN&r6 f>3Kpo5>« pNp'^N JD H^N S>XW ni>Nni>N 3|>3] ... .3 i>*iy£^N 

«»np jKiay^N jinxes nanye nnyxp^ p^ns^n jvw?!>k 

bvKa^K n&N . . . p "iJnjDcta -)n*i!?n jui nhju nd ms "jh ^ns^n 

vw $>n *nn »bi pinion pspr pnn^N nmo psi wo no »a 

. . . \3n"ix:6n nbo UN NJ33 Pinyoi'N lanDi&N fns&x ^n 

This suggests that the Market and Baths of the pnsn 
were near to the inxyD^x, which are described by Ibn 
Duqmaq 2 , who says that the ruins of these " steps " (J^Nyo) 
consisted of seven: they appear to have led down to the 
strand of the Nile. A further note of the same writer 3 
informs us that pnaD^N *nrp?K dwelt in a ±Ja* 4 which was 
on the right of the entrance from the ^ilk. to the " Market 
of the Steps," and that this j-Jm was near to another 
which belonged to the Madrasah of <jj£j\ {J >\, presumably 
a Jewish teacher, while another, tj±jfA\ Lr jiJLaJi| ^ ^j} ^a*, 
is described as on a blind alley on the middle of the same 
market, and Jews dwelt there. In Btill a third place 5 he 
describes the Khatt ^J^\ as having six approaches, the 
fifth of which came irom the Darb al-Lu'azzin and the 



1 T-S. 12. 660. 2 IV, p. 35. 

3 IV, p. 41, last five lines. 
* Literally kitchen, or any place for cooking. 
6 V, p. 38. 
VOL. XVIII. 



l8 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

sixth from the ^JiL,. A document of 1244 a. d. 1 gives 
the following description : — 

PKpra spjp nato -m pxpi *a ♦Jn«j»5'K 032 niw -od^k laao 
nyaiK inn ra dw yi twn p &«&« uk toomn **£« n»p«oi>N 
ini \km-6ki W>n p p"6n file' n^ton ^n vm* *Sopi>t« 1m $>ix!>k 
NH3N3 rjw> nnw n»pKoi»a pjnyof'K pttpbtt b>x wu* nrata 
in -»-6k ptspr^N ^k nijja »p-tt5>iw Wn P wn pxpr ^k \a-uiw 

!15f"l 13 DiTON »3« (?)TU?K .TB 

This 13D 13QD -would perhaps be the one belonging to the 
Madrasah spoken of above. 

We have also mentioned in the extract given above 2 
JNIBjnta pnKD. This mill would probably be by the \jsj>\j\s 
described by Ibn Duqmaq 3 . 

These places were all on or near the Darb al-Lu'azzin, 
which is said by the same writer 4 to have been in the 
quarter of the piKDjf. It was to the east of a building 

called JsM h\~J (or « S^-Jl), in which were the shops of the 

sellers of wool, which may supply the word pBKW for 
...... S^K nj>3-|» above 2 . 

The DNOni'N PlD and the n5»K plD are mentioned in a MS. 
of A. D. 1 148 B , which states that a house is situated on them 
both ; therefore they must have been very near one another. 
The description is: nb* plD spo *B DNC3DB^N3 >r(?t* IKI^ 
DNDn$>N PlD spoi. If the t3^N may be the ^Ipl jj-., the 
linen-market, then that was upon the Darb al-Lu'azzin 
mentioned above. 

For the marbx plD we go to Makrizi 6 . In describing 
the h])\ JaI Slai., after mentioning its connexion with the 
gate of the Qasr and the Hamam a -Far, he says that it 
leads westerly to the Nile, and to other places ; then he 
tells us there is an entrance to the Jj*i |.U» , and that the 
JwUall j\3j leads from it to ^Uc hj, to the Suq al-Hamam, 

1 T-S. 20. 98. * See p. 17, rprfw 'rt» -M-ftN, &e. 

5 IV, p. 1a, see also under jity* }± **=^, IV, p. 36. 

* IV, p. a6. s T-S. 12. 544- 8 Xft!?o?, vol. I, p. 297- 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 19 

and to the gate of the Qasr. From Ibn Duqmaq we learn 
also of a zuqaq ^Ue Ji^,J which enters the J^UiUl jUj 1 , 
Hamam al-Far was on the mart w,l*U 2 , which was apparently 
somewhere south of the fortress 3 . 

Another document 4 , of A. D. 1086, speaks of v6t* pTSn^K 
•VOtcp^K *S. TO^p is the plural of &,l~3, and doubtless refers 
to fjJ^ mentioned above and to another building iljjJl J*i 
which, we are told, was on the ^Jjjll **}/• 5 . 

The epxta p1D is spoken of in a long MS. 6 which is on 
paper pasted together : across each join on the right-hand 
margin is written the word nDK twice to secure it against 
fraudulent omission of a piece. The document appears to 
have been made out in a shop on this market : the passage 
runs : — 

njtt«M K33i tan b«prn» an |toi ^y *pvi>N piD »b min »» vn 
jDni'N un tw Tin -ina*t 'a tap: pn iwprrM t«to on-ni w 

. , . jo '•ainota 

The western entrance to the J^ , mentioned above, 
opened on to a lane leading to the ?px^K piD. A spsi>K INT 
is also noted as a place of purchase on another document 7 . 

The remaining market is [D1p!>N piD, which is spoken of in 
a MS. dealing with the pftnyiw HD^3 8 , and may therefore 
have been in the Qasr ash-Sham' : but perhaps it is worthy 
of notice that there was a fN^N plJB on the Darb 
al-Lu'azzin. 

Qasr ash-Sham'. 

While this old fortress now stands practically outside the 
inhabited parts which are known as Fustat or Masr al- 
'Atiqa, it has, since the foundation of the town, always 
been a part thereof. 

Ibn Duqmaq gives descriptions of the various houses 

1 IV, p. 14. s IV, p. 104. 

3 See Ibn Duqmaq, IV, p. 33. 4 T-S. 20. no. 

» Ibn Duqmaq, IV, p. 38. • T-S. so. lai. 7 T-S. I*. I. 
8 T-S. 10 J 5*. 

c a 



20 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

and lanes and other noteworthy things in the fortress, 
spreading them, as it seems, impartially over his pages 
among those of the rest of the town, whenever they happen 
to occur to him. 

In the documents under consideration, the name of the 
fortress often appears with the note adjoined that it is in 
Fustat. In 750 a.d. we have a house "TCO BKBVsn tonn *rb& 
JJDE^N "rap iQ 1 ; again, in 1094, there is another described as 
wxhx "rapa "raDa 2 ; in 11 8a a MS. gives -rapa -ran DNtaoaa 

This fortress has borne many titles, some of which do 
not belong to it. For it should not be confused with the 
fortress of Babylon, which is said to have been on a hill 
to the south, which still bears the name of Babylon *. It 
seems, however, to have been called Qasr ar-Bum from 
early times, perhaps even before its usual appellation was 
acquired. This convenient term Bum would serve equally 
well for any garrisons from the north, Greek, Boman, or 
Turk ; or might originate with the Greek Christians, the 
Melchites, before they were ousted by the Jacobites (Coptic 
Christians), who betrayed their stronghold to Islam rather 
than let it remain in the hands of the rival Christian sect. 

Ibn Duqmaq frequently styles the place Qasr ar-Bum 
al-ma'aruf bi-Qasr ash-Sham' 5 , and this description recurs 
in the Fustat documents. We have a house described as 
•yoe^N "rapl fpSM D1-6n "rap3 "ran DKDDS3 in a document 
which has lost half its date but must come between 1089 
and 1 1 88 a.d. 6 , while another MS. of something like the 
same date evidently had the same terms 7 . The name 
G\~bx "rap also appears on a fragment of a marriage contract 
which may be somewhat earlier 8 . 

A few Hebrew documents bring us another name bVlK "rap. 

1 See J. Q. R., vol. XVII, p. 426. 2 T-S. I3 3 a\ 3 T-S. 1a. 487. 

4 See Lane's Cairo Fifty Years Ago, p. 146, and Casanova, Noms coptes du 
Caire, p. 145, both of whom quote from Makrizi. 

s See his description of the Mu'allaqa, IV, p. 107. Casanova, op. cit., 
p. 183, gives much information upon the names of the Qasr. 

6 T-S. ao. 16. ' T-S. ao. 17. 8 T-S. 12. 615. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 21 

One has the remains of a date, .... Wl DTINOI ^N, which 
will be either 1306, or 12 16, or 1260, according to taste 
(i.e. Wt, r\"WV W, or ffw), the MS. being in Hebrew; this 
makes it, even taking 1260 as the date, not later than 
959 a. d., and possibly as early as 895 x . The next is of the 
year 966 A. D. D11N nvpa Dn*D OKDDai*; another of the year 
969 a. d. 3 ; and another undated*. This is exclusively a 
Jewish appellation, being the Hebrew equivalent of D1"l?N 5 . 
The proof of identity between DV1K "rap and yowhx *«p lies in 
the 969 MS., where the court described is in Fustat in the 
Qasr DHN in the place which the fl"tt may call the place of 
Bu Sargah. Amidst all the ambiguity with regard to 
other Coptic churches, there seems to be only one church 
of St. Sergius in the neighbourhood, and that in Qasr 
ash-Sham'. 

The " ghetto " of Fustat seems to have consisted of 
a portion of the Qasr ash-Sham' and a part of the town 
outside the Qasr, mostly comprised in the district known 
as the Musasa; there seems, moreover, to have been a 
communication between the two through the property of 
the Els al-Yahud which was in the Musasa. 

The indication of this is given by Ibn Duqmaq in the 
description of the Khukhat Khabisah 6 where he says : — 

eJU* ufjW isr^ j •^ftl' *— *P c^- ^ i**" 1 " J°**- **>^ "^ 

»,ta ^ VS& Ubj^JI (^o £J~\ Jj^jll ^J-^j uO** **\ijt& Ifcla-bj 

icl»a. Ljli-b rS^>i Ii*jil si* ^* 5-U elLo d-aLall) ^11 

"This postern is in Qasr ash-Sham', between the 
Synagogue of the Jews and the masjid al-arzi there ; and 
it cannot be entered unless the Ris al-Yahud remove 
stealthily from the wall a gate which he opens from his 
house, which is in the Musasa ..." 

1 T-S. 20. 85. " T-S. ia. 46a. s T-S. ia. 499. 

4 T-S. 12. 641. 

5 mis rrata (used in the Talmud and Midrashic literature for the 
" Boman Empire ") is the most familiar instance of this. 

• IV, p. 30. 



22 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

From a MS. 1 we obtain the following in the description 
of a house : — 

nsp . , . atnax p j"o ^n Tiro 11 *pixhx ini nbmb» nr&K . , . 

iin^N nD'oaa spy nata Kirn j?db6n 
From another document comes this description 2 : — 
PSk^n iwiw *rapa -rao dndd&3 .-iund in [nf>n] (vita) nata 

[?H»n]pta no*»i> 

The tower or bastion of the fortress mentioned in both 
these cases will probably be the same. Makrizi 3 simply 
says that the Synagogue of the Iraqians is, like that of the 
Syrians, on the Khatt Qasr ash-Sham', while Ibn Duqmaq 4 
says it is on the Zuqaq al-Yahud near the Mu allaqa. 

It is not easy to gather up and reconcile the points 
suggested by these and other fragmentary references. 
On consulting the various plans of the Qasr 6 there are 
shown two bastions on the south-east side and one at the 
corner facing south. The first MS. noticed above gives 
a house whose eastern side is next to the bastion which is 
called the Synagogue of the Jews, while the western side 
of the house abuts on the road leading by Suq al-Kablr to 
various streets and the district of the Musasa. It has 
a north side also on which is a fundaq (or khan). 

Now while the ordinary terms "'pns? and '•ana are used for 
east and west respectively, in Egypt the usual expressions 
for north and south are replaced by nna (the river side) 
and ^ap (the side of the Qiblah, that is, facing Mecca) : the 
Nile is not north but north-west of Fustat ; Mecca is not south 
but south-east roughly speaking ; so that these terms are 
very loose, and may each mean anything within a quarter of 

1 T-S. la. 694 : this is an unfinished form, having blanks in the 
description, for instance, of the fundaq, where it says larcobN pxsSt* 
rp-ttmbN mejnVm, after which is a space. T-S. 20. 17, which is the witnessed 
document, written by the same hand, is unfortunately too fragmentary 
to assist us. 

3 T-S. 12. 487. s Khitat, vol. II, p. 464. « IV, p. 108. 

5 See the plan in Butler's Coptic Churches, vol. I, and a small one given 
in Baedeker's Guide, 1902, p. 70. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 23 

the compass, and the terms for east and west seem to be 
intended to fill up the other two quarters. This being 
so, it seems quite probable that the bastion facing nearly 
south will be the one in question ; and, indeed, this seems 
the only one which can have a house near it described as 
on the Suq al-Kabir. It has already been suggested that 
this Suq is just outside the Mu'allaqa Gate of the Qasr. 

The description of the Khablsah given above says that it 
is in the Qasr between the Synagogue of the Jews and the 
masjid al-arzi * there. Ibn Duqraaq, under " Synagogue of 
the Syrians 2 ," says that this Khukhah 3 is near that 
synagogue ; while under Kanisah Barbara 4 — which is a 
Coptic Church still remaining in the Qasr, north-east of the 
synagogue — he states that the church is near the Khiikhat 
Khablsah, and that a masjid separates the two : and a masjid 
al-arzi is said in another place 5 to be between the Khukhah 
and the Kanisah Barbara. 

Now this gives us inside the easterly wall of the Qasr, 
starting from north-east, the Kanisah Barbara, a masjid, the 
Khukhat Khablsah, the Synagogue of the Syrians, then 
a house described below under Zuqaq Mahatt al-Laban as 
between the synagogues, finished by the Synagogue of the 
Iraqians at the south corner, on or very near the bastion. 

This being so, and the Khukhah being only approachable 
from the Musasa, one is led to suppose that that district 
extended upwards, perhaps from some little way south of 
the Qasr, along its eastern side, that it was near the wall 
of the fortress, with perhaps only a row of houses adjoining 
the wall, and its various lanes all leading out eastwards. 

There are two references to a Zuqaq (Ben) Khablsah 
among the MSS. :■ — 
ntoa s]nj?Di>N rwaa pt<p? ''B wprbx in^k .tonpib^k npao^N 

1 Masjid al-mu'allaq and m. al-arzi seem to be the respective descrip- 
tions of a mosque in an upper stoiy and one on the ground. 

* IV, p. 108. 

3 A khukhah may be a postern, or an open space between two houses. 

* IV, p. 107. 5 IV, p. 8x. • T-S. 6 J i l . 



24 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

spyni nraa p pxpv 'a nta ndj^k axa jo riD^a^ npw^N 

1 rwoD -wna 

The latter describes the zuqaq as in the Qasr. 

Of the streets and lanes in the fortress the most pro- 
minent is the Khatt Qasr ash-Sham'. Makrizi 2 speaks of 
this Khatt, stating that the Mu'allaqa church is upon it, 
and that it has zuqaqs and darbs running from it. Ibn 
Duqmaq 3 says that there are ways from it to five places : 
(i) from beneath the Mu'allaqa to the Suq al-Kabir, (2) by 
Zuqaq at-Turmus to Suq as-Sawwafin, (3) by Darb Mahatt 
al-Qurb to Suq as-Sammakin, (4) to the Khatt Dar al-Walaih 
and Hamam Biiran, (5) by Darb al-Hajar to Suaiqat 
Mahars Banana. 

There is a mention of the Khatt in one of the documents 4 
which speaks of a house in Fustat Misr " in the Khatt Qasr 
ash-Sham' on the border of one of its lanes called Masjid 
al-Qubbah." This lane Ibn Duqmaq 6 says is in the Qasr, 
and entered from the Khukhat Khabisah. Under the 
masjids ° he describes " Masjid al-Qubbah 7 , that is, Qubbah 
Rumaniah which is a covered way " : also he speaks of 
another masjid on the Zuqaq Masjid al-Qubbah, and of 
another at the end of Zuqaq Mahatt al-Laban which is 
said to be ^.Ull ji, i. e. "having two gates," the first from 
this zuqaq and the second from one of the zuqaqs of Masjid 
al-Qubbah. 

Of the Zuqaq Mahatt al-Laban there are two MS. notes 8 , 
as follows : — 

pa ,% ^n b wnin **£« ntn^N rrm ana pn »nae> n rb -isnto 

mvna "rbtt w oona ^nicm wjhn xpaa jsmioyo^K pnD^a^N 
. jsan^N n«UN p -iea twvb nyrto "rbx pbbn pNpra ^nvo^N px?6tt 
pn^N ias -i«-6 mitoota xonp nxana nanifc&K -isnta 
. p^>N pxpta eynyo^N pxp6t< >a jvfotnfo 

1 T-S. 20. 96. » Khi(a(, vol. I, p. 288. ' V, p. 38. 

4 T-S. 12. 720. » IV, p. 16. « IV, p. 81. 

7 Qubbah signifies vault: for the Saqtfat Masjid al-Qubbah, see Ibn 
Duqmaq, IV, p. 49. » T-S. 8 J 5*. 12 . 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN PUSTAT 25 

Ibn Duqmaq 1 says that this lane starts where three 
ways meet in the Qasr, one of which goes by the side 
of Masjid Ibn al-N'aman, and another to the Darb al-Hajar 
which leads to the Mahars Banana. He says it is not 
a thoroughfare, that a Kanisah of the Melchites (Greek 
Christians) is upon it at the left of the entrance, and on 
the right of the end is a masjid du babin. Under the 
description of the Kanlsahs of the Christians 2 , he gives the 
Church of the Lady Mary as situated on Mahatt al-Laban 
on the Zuqaq al-Iskandrani upon the left of its entrance : 
and the next, Kanisah Firianus, is described as on the 
right of the end of the said zuqaq, having two gates. 

The Mahatt al-Laban appears to have been connected at 
the crossway mentioned above with the Mahatt al-Qurb, 
which led to the North or River Gate of the Qasr, cy aH ub 

One document mentions the Zuqaq al-Yahud 3 , and 
a house situated upon it: according to the historian 4 it 
was not a thoroughfare, and began on the right of the 
entrance from the gate of the Qasr from beneath the 
Mu'allaqa ; it was so called because of the Jewish synagogue 
upon it. This description seems to imply that it led to 
the southern, or rather south-east corner, where was situated 
the Synagogue of the Iraqians. 

The Zuqaq at-Turmus is mentioned in two MSS. 5 , the one 
simply speaking of a house as 1VD3 Dcnnta pNpr v a, the 
other apparently noticing a masjid on the zuqaq, possibly 
the Masjid Mu'allaq noted as on that lane 6 . 

On the second document which has Zuqaq at-Turmus is 
also mentioned a »JN"ir6N pNpt 7 which, apparently, "was 
previously known as ddk^x, being in the Qasr. Un- 
fortunately the MS. is very defective, but the description 
is worth quoting : — 



1 IV, pp. 15, 30, 45. a IV, p. 108. 8 T-S., unclassed at present. 

1 Ibn Duqmaq, IV, p. 15. ! T-S. 12. 88, 24. 44. 

* Ibn Duqmaq, IV, p. 81. 7 T-S. 24. 44. 



26 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

yo[wbx njxpa *|i[ny»i« orbx -ixp3 -ran] dnddb3 -iNita mm 

no [nd*i]p *py< }Nai ntarta pt«p?3 pjnyoi>K paprta '•a 

p yaiobx "wpfo 3x3 p bi p n[-iB» or rue* ^y] naNT&ta 
»5>y -iN[ni>K] . . . nspnts p •> , . e> pio . . . petrol a«a rmw 

D^NI 1 rwrfo* 3N3^>K TINT pNP^K tttn *B i>3*l p i*U»' 

nn^N nynx *nin sn^y !>»n[e»] -itnfo tora ow £y fo^p . . . 
mn^K n»t&D3 [nanycta -i]tn^>x ^n Tiny ^3pta ini h«i>N 
i»yxoDxi> *ni>K -itniw >!?x ww n[ru]ta im vmbx irbm mpbx 

, . . p3i snn [? NOia] rforaaiw •otnni>N3 nanyoiw n[K*i]i>K '•a 
pN3i mn^N -rata 13N3 epyn n3|>$to tronantw p:jo[?ii>] 

pxprta .... iJDcta b v"w in^s «[nn] »ai ruNcnp 

Do-inta pNpra fjnyD^N 

As there is a lacuna before nBXTS this may not have been 
the name of the lane. However, neither that name (as 
belonging to the Qasr), nor yxin is found in Ibn Duqmaq. 
Neither does one come across the pDX"i3, the turners 1 , 
except in these MSS., where, however, there are two 
more references, one of which makes it clear that this 
pDNTai'N 3X3 was a gate of the Qasr: |N3"6n »B wa-Wtfi 
yeefo* nvp asa -iv» dxddbs ystap^i nniw y33 nciD-iota 
ptMroiw 3X33 einyo^K, "and we entered into partnership 
in the shop known for the sale of oil and pots in Fustat 
at the gate of Qasr ash-Sham', known as the Gate of 
the Turners 2 ." This is of the date A. D. 1104, while the 
above-quoted document is of A. D. 1102. The next has 
lost its date; it speaks of a house 1Vp3 Jpnyefcx Vp&X '•a 
•hx mo i^Dota ibnj iy Sao pttpn ynyebi* pxpfox <a yovbx 
pt3K[*i]a?x 3X3 3 . This last gives another lane apparently 
unmentioned elsewhere, ^3D, not a thoroughfare. Also 
with regard to the HliT^x "va$>x 13X mentioned in the MS. 
of 1 10s a. D. it is noteworthy that twenty years before, in 
T082, there had been some trouble with a person of the 

1 Joj^i. signifies turner. 2 T-S. 12. 525. » T-S. 16. 72. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN PUSTAT 27 

same name with regard to the synagogue of the D^aa, for 
he is spoken of as follows l : — 

tjo noins p b onriNi min tsd j-dni Joviiw ^k pnt&K }» 
. . . d^k }» ya\ pn, &c. 

In a document of the eleventh century 2 appears a house, 

I^DK&K pNp6t? '•S J»b6r 1Xp3 SpJW Onfo -Np3 "V£D DKDDB3 

*o^ki ihnb^k »5>k N»mnN ni>N paaata nsn my ..... . nj» 

yj bbib6k -inm pxpn ejnjjo^ pNpriw ^N 

Ibn Duqmaq states that the gate of the ^.Ul iota 4*^) 
was on the Zuqaq at-Turmus 3 , and that there was an 
entrance to the Khatt ^jJill Jo-Ul from the lane of the 
^Lll cyU ^ j.Ua- 4 . Under the description of the (j>\3} 
i±~J\> tijjA] a~J&\ 5 he says that the church j^Ul oli is 
there, and that the gates are from this zuqaq and the 
Zuqaq Mahatt al-Laban. 

The Zuqaq BBIK^K "intK does not appear elsewhere, 
neither does the Zuqaq pNDD^N (of the poor, or humble), 
which is given in the following extract from a docu- 
ment 6 : — 

*li">y»i>N pspt^s »a nsoa j>db>^n nvpa muiD^K -in*ta* aim 

Pndk&k pspra 

Among the other localities and buildings mentioned as 
being in the Qasr ash-Sham' are the following : — 

}3 fpv ifo*? spyn n:ta n^s yoeta -rcp3 nsoa vh» in^n 

7 yt6*r^>K DHT3N 

The document in which this occurs is of the date 
A. D. 1094, and the name of the house was possibly very 
ancient ; for in the document of A. D. 750 8 the undesirable 
person to whom the owner of a portion of the house there 

1 T-S. 18 J 1". » T-S. ao. 16. » IV, p. 15. 

* V, p. 40. » IV, p. 16. « T-S. 20. 87. 

7 T-S. 13 J 2*. s See J. Q. B., vol. XVII, p. 426. 



28 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

described agreed not to transfer it was p 'ONPTi'^N }>"D?n fp\i 
K«3 p *|nj»i>K EHTT3K. His name had possibly remained 
attached to some house in the Qasr for some 300 years. 

The next house is ^NnD«i»K DVTDK p ^j?RDD«b »r6t* "\mbtt \ 
mentioned in connexion with the Winbtf pxtf and the 
fONia^N 3N3, which have been dealt with above. 

On another document 2 are ita^?« INI, n«JKui>N jnNB>3 ->K*t, 
unjoiw Dtca p jimo *in*d nar,j?D^N -ixar&K "itn, u^nta pD, 
taM , . . Dp -|*n (?), and roKOD l&n. These appear all to 
be connected with the Synagogue of the Syrians. Another 
MS. 3 speaking of a house on the Khatt Qasr ash-Sham' at 
the end of the lane of Masjid al-Qubbah, says that its south 
side adjoins fliTJun rmrt pD3 nanyoi'K "\tnbb. In the 
document * which names the Church of Bu Sargah a house 
is described with its boundaries, but the description is very 
mutilated. Houses are also named as being in Qasr 
ash-Sham' in a marriage contract fragment without 
date 5 , and in another fragment 6 , but the description of 
both is lost. 

In another undated MS. 7 ?Dn p '•lSn ^J? transfers to his 
son (jDpn iJ3 bt?\D&b) a house in a court in the Qasr, which, 
on its north side, is near the courtyard of bivn *1DW 13K 
(the uncireumcised), and on its western side joins the 
courtyard of ""l^n "hi) mentioned above. 

In a document 8 which speaks of fBton W~)fin DD* p WD 

n wn a house is described as msoj&K rhariDo5>K -\tnb& 

j»e>ta "Hfp3 1V»3 vbx. This finishes the references which 
are clearly connected with the Qasr ash-Sham'. 

The Musasa. 

The first thing that is noticeable with regard to this 
district is that the mart called j^JI i*iy> the market of 

1 T-S. 24. 44. ' T-S. ao. 96. » T-S. 12. 720. 

4 T-S. 12. 499. * T-S. 12. 615. « T-S. 12. 555. 

' T-S. 12. 641. » T-S. 12. 585. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 29 

the Jews, is nowhere mentioned in the documents. Ibn 
Duqmaq does not give it special mention, although in 
speaking of the Musasa he constantly names it. 

It would seem, as has been suggested above \ that this 
Musasa extended down the easterly side of Qasr ash-Sham' 
and beyond that fortress to the south, that it was almost 
next to the wall of the Qasr, and therefore its lanes mostly 
opened towards the east ; the reasons for this assumption 
being that it was connected by lanes with the Suq al-Kablr 
and the Mu'allaqa Gate of the Qasr, and that on it was the 
house of the Bis al-Yahud, whose property extended to 
the wall through which he could obtain access to the Jews 
inside the fortress. 

Ibn Duqmaq thus speaks of the Khatt i*>jA\ 2 : 

" It is near the said Khatt (Qasr ash-Sham'), and on it 
are alleys and lanes and covered ways 3 which will be 
noticed in their place, if it please God ; and it has five 
approaches: the first enters it from Darb 'Umar from 
beneath Saqifa Khira, the second from Darb al-Salsala from 
Tajib, the thh-d from the New Darb from Mahara, the 
fourth from Darb al-Kurma, the fifth from Mahars Banana." 

Makrizi 4 , in speaking of the Tajib, says : — 

jjS^iJI j^pail ^y» Jojla. %J>\ A*rj*u\\ l_J,.> L-i« i^» ill*. ^5 aLaI iiJu* 

" This joins the Mahara, and on it is the Darb Musasa at 
the end of the eastern wall of the fortress." 

He also, in giving a list of the Jewish synagogues, after 
stating that there is in Fustat a synagogue on the Khatt 
Musasa on Darb al-Kurma, and that there are two 
synagogues in the Qasr, says 6 : — 

1 See p. 23 above. 

3 v , p. 38. There are three forms of the name used, nstreo, mmo, and 
rrcrann. 

3 i_ajU«ij Asjlj **>})*' * Khi{af, vol. I, p. 297. 

« Vol. II, p. 471. 



30 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

.jk^MujU Ajl*i)3» iuifi (__^*»» ii»> ii c«J) iUjjl uj.Jj i j*> <43uj»^« 

,jl J^iJI tfi-j>,.\ *l— tjtr^i t^J^-'j ajI^w ^«* > - Ju*^L>V1 iill J-3 dJij 

jUI -Jill ,rtjJ Lis* oolTi-^SJI jia 



y-V. 



The j^JI a&^- mentioned above seems to have been a 
portion of the Musasa, for the jSo ^.1 jlsj 1 is described as 
having three entrances, from al-Darb al-Jadid, Darb al- 
Kurma, and from Darb Abi Bakr on the Suaiqat al-Yahud 
on the Musdea, "and all these places are now in ruins." 
Also under the heading t,jpU)1 a»j>. 2 it is stated that «i» 

J«4-JI *hy~*. LoUAU li-a'-U. 

This Mart of the Jews is mentioned under the headings 
of several of the Darbs of the Musasa 3 : Salsalah, which is 
said to enter the suaiqah opposite the Jewish butcher's 
shop {*y(A\ 'ijy? cy^iU); Ibn Bakir beside the Salsalah, at 
the middle of the suaiqah ; al-Mu'asir, which is on the left 
of the entrance from the suaiqah to Darb Mahars Banana ; 
and this Darb Mahars Banana, which is at the end of the 
Khatt al-Musasa, and is the road from the suaiqah and 
Darb Ibn Bakir. 

Of most of these lanes there are notices which will be 
dealt with presently. 

The Mahars Banana is mentioned on a very small 
piece of paper which contains the following rough note 
and nothing besides : JK33 Dan X3 pxriDK 13 nay fWfita 

a ntsQ nay ftnm p\o a xpa^N ia nay. The xa probably 
signifies 2^, half s being frequently used to denote |. 

Of the fragments dealing with the Musasa district one * is 
full of references which are of interest. One of the 
properties to which the deed refers is a quarter of a Jinxo 
((jja.119 water-mill). This is seemingly its description : — 

nynsc m»a p na'po nnina iwtod^k taaa nro bndd33 \ni 
nonpta n , , bx ntoi a'ani rwivoo^N ^k to i^dd^k pnta^K ^n 
k . . if rnoi'K pnot«i>tn pnehn p i?i n«ai pobm nxay anm 

1 Ibn Duqmaq, IV, p. 14. ' IV, p. 30. 

» IV, p. 26. « 1VS. 16. 17a. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FTJSTAT 31 

Non tnmbx nanyoiw painKt&K pa nd *a . , . . iw mm fyaa 
*a nan np p« D'DNp poa rwKn^K cj-iyni inhd^n panea 
QN^aa nd[^p] «pyn nsi baspn w mmiw [? pixata pa] ^d 
np ia« p« h^k, &e. 

The vellum, as is evident, has lost much of its edges and 
both top and bottom: but enough remains to show that 
the property was situated on a lane leading perhaps through 
the "covered way" (na*pD) of Ben Khlra from the Musasa 
to Tajib, another road. 

The following quotation from Ibn Duqmaq 1 — useful 
because of its mentioning again the house of the Head of 
the Jews — supplies information which suggests the words 
supplied in square brackets above :— 

*bl ,Aj (_**kAl I^^jaJI (j^*)l ^.1 Silo Uyiao jjjji (jjlsll ^1 ii-A..) 

♦ l^jlSCo ,i ij^i-» (j!>j iu>laU ^Sls jjl l^law ^ elluJj J ^s" u*"S^> j' A 

The MS. later on mentions [? p"iSO^K] |3N .TOpD and other 
places, and speaks of a certain fDrDK UN, whose Jewish 
name seems to have been *\bn na», and p« ma^N '•ax yvfyit 

The mills and millers that appear in the records are 
chiefly situated in the district of the Musasa. In the 
document above we have two mills at least, the first 
called that of JDNno the miller (fNnoi'N), and the second 
the dwelling of ^p p« D^DNp, and possibly a third between 
them belonging to p*l?K pN D"D»>K UN, who from an extract 
given below seems to have been the father of |DNnD. 

There is a house of Jjfi\ ,^1 ^ ^ *• 2 which is near the 
Zuqaq j^JI, a lane which leads from the gate of the Suq 
al-Kabir, near the Darb 'Umar 3 . This will probably be 
that of }DNn» the miller. There is also a letter addressed 
to i^J^Jl c r°^' >>' £#*^ which speaks of him in the text 
as taxbx p panada UK yvkx i . Perhaps we may connect 

1 IV, p. 49. a Ibn Duqm&C[, TV, p. 23, line 3. 

'IV, p..ai. 4 T-S. 10J7 1 . 



32 THE JEWISH QUABTEELY EEVIEW 

him with the (ji)^\ j^sA' (_ili. described by Ibn Duqmaq 
under the Saqifa J of that name, which he says was opposite 
(jLJl i-J^iJl u^s-^ , another mill, while the Jew after whom 
it was called dwelt in a shop adjoining. These may be two 
of the name |DXn» but they were both connected with 
mills. 

With regard to the mill known as the np }3K tfONp pD 
we have a Zuqaq (£j> ^\ 2 which is on the right of the 
entrance of the Darb 'Umar, and a isj ^\ ,j±£ also, near 
the Suq al-Kabir, the latter perhaps the same as the mill. 

In the MS. quoted above (. . . . 1VO DNQDS2 Til) we have 
a road joining the Musasa and Tajib and Darb 'Umar and 
"the Suq" which is probably the Suq al-Kabir. 

In another MS. 3 }Kno^ Wn pM fiBVTJ»ta INI is given 
as in the Musasa and seemingly near the pD3 nanyc&N nxl 
rv6npn t?to ms?. 

Under Ibn Duqmaq's description of the masjids in the 
Musasa * we find under masjid Ibn Bakr that on the Darb 
of that name there was a lane leading to the houses of the 
,_r~£j] t^.j which is mentioned again under the masjid 
muallaq near by. The dwelling of ixnata twn may be one 
of these houses 5 . 

Of the lanes and streets connected with the Musasa the 
most prominent is the Tajib, which was mostly in ruins in 
the time of the historians. This is not a street from the 
Musasa but is joined to it by some four or five of the lanes. 

Ibn Duqmaq gives a list of the eight masjids on what he 
calls the remaining ruins of Tajib 6 . He speaks there of 
Zuqaq sijjT ^1 and of Darb iLUI joined to Tajib by a 
lane, and a ^-^s 5 s,la.. 

Makrizi makes the Tajib join the Khatt Mahara, and 
says that on it is the Darb l*>y»X\ at the end of the eastern 
wall of the fortress 7 . It was one of the oldest parts of 

1 IV, p. 49. 2 IV, p. 22. 

8 T-S. 16. 137. * IV, p. 8i. 

8 Another mill jx"u»rtN }irwto has been noted on p. 18. 

6 IV, p. 8t. ' I, p. 297, see above, p. 29. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN PUSTAT 33 

Fustat, being named after the mother of one of the soldiers 
of 'Amr. 
In the documents the following entries occur : — 

a»np nanyota ayn cm *rco3 \xbx ttrobtxo to« *rhx -\tnbx 
inritti bi 3$>o 5>3i pn b nroi>D ni> ^ddi maw yj ff?tn pD3 
1 . . . ay }3K jx-ioy wk Y&bm rmx bvbi rns »a ^ pyno 

The person for whom the document was drawn up was 
nsons^s 13N "ptht* J3 *did y&bt*. 

b>qb6k pKpt •© (irnyD -13 }taji>x laata 13n) »i» »ni>N in*6k 

13K }3N 3N3vi>K ^a^N ON n31B> 3W B33 TO ronfo} INtt 

The Bwta pNpt and the WW do not appear to be 
mentioned elsewhere. The Tajib was also spoken of in a 
MS. dealt with above 3 . 

The Zuqaq Jw ,ji\ is thus described by Ibn Duqmaq * : — 

J^- ls 5 -' l * r i>' i cr°J **/*M v»-> r^»j «*iJ*^ M;«*M jy* eMl~~* *£»^ *Jj 

At the time of his writing it was all ruins. 
In a document of 1203 a.D. 5 a property is thus spoken 
of:— 

■•a T03 p [p]np[t]3 *inyoi>K [pNprtaa vita] niexbtt itaba 
i[w]bx , , . r pea [nan]y»^ wbx 3*h,n rmra nnpm ^m 

.... &ata •at* 

In a fragment which belongs to the thirteenth century 6 , 
mentioning rrbnti nyie* ii no km mata us t/b£k, and a 
btvm, some property is described as *|ny»i>X pttpib b)8 *a 
[? "V3]3 pN3, probably a house formerly called the house of 
N£2W }3N: this may be the same zuqaq. Tnibt* 3~n^N is 

1 T-S. 13 J 3 s5 , a.». 12x5. " T-S. 8 J 6". 

s T-S. 16. 172, see p. 30 above. See also below, T-S. la. 562, p. 34. 

* IV, p. 14. s T-S. 12. 602. « T-S. ia. 483. 

VOL. XVIII. D 



34 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

mentioned again in another document, and is spoken of 
below 1 . 

To the Zuqaq JN3T *l» there are two MS. references, one 
of A. D. 1076 2 and one of a. d. 1120 3 ; the former speaks 
of |tat i» pxpn t\rwhn pvpb* *fi rwtrai&a irco *nta p-itni>K : 
the latter, of which much is lost, mentions ?r\ba pKlta 
JK3T ID pKpT3 *|*nj»fo *JBtO "wiw pNpti»N »D ffata "IVO BKBDB3. 

Beside these houses the following places are named: 
cbiKbx r\tn ^bd^n nva^ ; nyxp^N tan ddi <b t£k rrpDaiw ; 

3"3n ; epKQp ps3 epyn rUK3 -INT (on the south of the houses) ; 
r|N*ie>N$>N3 nanyD^N «..$>« (on the north) ; *inj»i>K strobx 
HSNoniw |3N3 (on the east) ; and apparently the lane JN3r 1» 
on the west separating between the houses and "IN"6k 
mnta i»h }3sa r\xa nam©,**. 

Ibn Duqmaq, speaking of a b; <j>tej 4 5 says that it begins 
opposite the Masjid j^oJI ; that it formerly penetrated into 
the Suaiqat al-Ashraf, but did not in his day. He does not 
mention the Musasa. 

D7JD^»N. Other mention is made of a majlis (assembly) in 

the documents: one says 6 fFB p pnpttt tbb *B 

. . . D^D, and, D^D ^N jrai> 0$>D DD1 »B. 

A small piece of paper 6 reads : — 
ntro tiido 3N3i . , . obxbtt r\tn %cbn nyxpiw frbmbw 
p nbi }d -moota jn3 tQtaba pspriw »a . . . . naWw pj«pvi>« 

The note of Makiizi on the synagogue in the Musasa 
already quoted 7 informs us that the Jewish tradition was 
that this synagogue was the (j-1^ 4 of the Prophet Elias. 

There was a house named nyxp (nanyota mttiofo -\tnbtt 

*• See p. 37, line 8. a T-S. 16. 5. 

• T-S. 13. 56a. « IV, p. 18. 6 T-S. 8. 343. 

* Without class-mark at present. ' See above, p. 39. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN PUSTAT 35 

TWP), as appears from a document 1 which seems to describe 
it as being pttpbx sin nx 'a n*"iD^a taata pioa -wo taxDoaa 
*i£*0 T^K. This had been the dwelling of pi )DNn»f>K UK 
. , , ^wata and was in the part possession of NME&N 13K 
at6a p jm* iwti>K *iW>k, ^asi^N sidv, and Dixaoi'K as yehx. 

There is said to be a place called tSJ^JI ^.1 iete upon the 
Hart ls^jJ\ ^ which adjoins the Suq Barbar, and which is 
on or near the Zuqaq ^ 2 ; but as nj?Np may signify 
courtyard or place it may be a general term here. These, 
however, if not the same, must have been very near one 
another. One may note the tank described as "irpoa^N 
which is in the middle of this nysp 3 ," and that the term 
ffcm used at the beginning of the quotation means a portico 
or vestibule. 

Of psta^N * (the repositories, the magazines) we may 
have another note in Daw xb-tDbx mat '•a *\b* nwoiw 
mentioned in connexion with the house of the Head of 
the Captivity in the Musasa 5 . 

S>»ta *in*£k. This house is described as blibta "iN"ii>K 
"IKS&K *pv nne> nonp^N in one document 6 , and in the 
quotation above simply ntsnp^ !?M$>N Mnbtt 7 . It is spoken 
of by Ibn Duqmaq twice 8 , as being separated from a masjid 
JLy» by *]^ail X»all and as having on its western side the 
zuqaq <—&*-. ^ ell*. The Suq of the same name is described 
as being separated from Mahars Banana by the place of 
S»y\ j\i 9 . 

There is another document speaking of nanpoPK "I8*i,s 10 
n^wai»K which may possibly refer to the same house : on the 
same MS. are "psafe^ ifebx, . . . . ba bxmbvi, mwbbi* "woo 

1 T-S. 16. 117. 2 Ibn Duqmaq, IV, p. 13, and p. 84, line 16. 

' See above, p. 34, line 9. a-£~J = piscina, and signifies a tank or 

o 99 

basin, primarily for the ablution before prayer known as *J-*j, but 
afterwards used for any tank. 

* lb., line 10. s T-S. 16. 137 ; see above, p. 32, line 15. 

8 T-S. 8. 150. T From T-S. 12. 562 ; see p. 34, line ro. 

8 IV, pp. a 4 , 34. » IV, p. 36. » T-S. 12. 5 o. 

D % 



36 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

xblbit '•bv b&hbtt, tfwhx 3[*)*lf|. There was a Ua/M jtej 
near the masjid JLy* mentioned above 1 . The ruiD'9?K "WDD 
does not appear in Ibn Duqmaq. 

siN*lB^K3 nani»5»K . . . 2 . In the reference given this 
place or house is stated to be north of a house of which 
the south border is spNBp px "INI and the east p« 3sn3 
'DNDn^N with |&or ID on the west apparently, separating 
the house from nmbx 1^ px INI. In another MS. 3 the 
spewta "iki is on the north of a house of which the south 
side adjoins jn»m!>k 13j? lulba, the east a road to the HJ1D3 
and the west iddn^n p prbn rfyrfat dde> itabti. This 
house is described as in Fustat in ruiD3 on the road leading 
to PP"!»«6k and PDX3D'>d!>k. Ibn Duqmaq notes a ii-JU 
L-jj^^l 4 which was on the right of the two entrances from 
Suq Barbar to Suaiqat Nuam. A suaiqat v-il^l is spoken 
of under the ^ ,jfcj into which that lane used to enter, 
but did not in the historian's day. 

nDlNpDi'N 3TI is spoken of in a document of a.d. 1261 5 
in the following manner : — 

3-n btn nsoa nrooofo D33 vi ^bx wayo "M* mnn inn 

riDiNpo^K 3-m epip 

Ibn Duqmaq describes the Darb as being eJJUl j^-j Jc 
lAA\ J1 sJusL*, and that the Darb as-Salsalah was on the 
right of the entrance of this Darb into the Suaiqat al- Yahud. 
The house with which the document deals is called rMN&K : 
and may seem to have some connexion with a ruined part 
described by Ibn Duqmaq, called the -ylil +j> 6 , which was 
immediately south of the Suaiqat Nuam spoken of above. 
Another MS. 7 apparently speaks of this ,«j^in 13 14 a. D. 
when two owners of houses agree to build a strong gate 
upon the place: pa 1 " jN^Da p*ni 3N3 toid^n we 'ba by by's>) 

1 IV, p. 24. s See above, p. 34, line 12. 

•T-S. 13 J 3°. * IV, p. 47. 

5 T-S. 12, 549 with 564. « IV, p. 53. 

' T-S. 13 J 4". 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 37 

nN&N ynnbtt •by ataiw. A ^lil *ft^j is recorded 1 , i^-j 
and >«-ffj* both meaning a spacious area, a piazza. 

There is one document which is full of detail, although it 
is badly written on a narrow strip of vellum not more than 
3 cm. wide 2 : — 

6 nan w irw ra mt? iiv^ni w onias •to jn sopjn prw d 
*a *r6n nxi^N yoa }» w6k >bv p nn !?f -onn yew to baiist? 

tflKBON^ T*wi»N [3*i]*6k 13JJ ^ miw |J> flTON "WOy DTIO 

ptatmiw apafo 'tatai "itwpfo rnoj»&Ki nspinoo^Ki bmbx pxoo 

njDD^K klKpDta Kil^X TOD iWD^K pnoS>K >b JHNB^N 1H 'ONni'NI 

aons }VD )d na^fo "kpj&k nan 

TOii'K 3-|*6k was called one of the lanes of T03 J3N pspr 8 
and it communicated with the Musasa by that zuqaq. 
Possibly N'HNB'3N7N refers to the house, and means the 
same as that described in the following 4 : p"US *13J? INT r6n 
Ttnbx Knnxia na-it? pnam rwpi annax p riant? um^ 
tf"JXB>aKbx. There was a (^.A^ii.'M ^5 ^b which belonged to 
Abl Bakr Mahmud bin 'All and was on the v-*^ i*>-j. 

The ncH pa pxpr, and the -ikdjj d-ihd recorded in the 
document may be found under the heading i»V^ ^) ofy 5 , 
where it says that the zuqaq is entered from the c,li, 
; l»c u^s.* and is open to the ^j ^s : and these latter are 
spoken of as coming the westerly one from Tajlb and the 
eastern from Mahara 6 . We have here the name run 
(pilgrimage) given seemingly to the masjid on the Zuqaq 
Dalama, while the historian only records that there is one 
there. 

The few lanes and places of the town which are outside 

1 Ibn DuqmSq, IV, p. 36. 2 Not yet classed. 

3 See above, p. 33, line 22. * T-S. 10 J 7 11 ' (2). 

5 Ibn DuqmSq, IV, p. 24. 6 IV, p. 29. 



38 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

the Qasr and not in the district of the Musasa as far as 
can be seen, must now be recorded with less attempt at 
order. 

rpnoiw. This is spoken of in three MSS. 1 , one of which 
gives n«-iD7ta "K03 Ttpx "IN17K and the other two mention 
it in intimate connexion with the Suq al-Kabir. The 
~*1\ jfejj ("lane of the mistress") 2 is said to begin from 
the gate of the Suq near the Darb 'Umar, and is so named 
from a concubine of Pharaoh ^j h^ ; while in the 
enumeration of masjids 3 there is a i±jJS i_^.s mentioned as 
near the Darb 'Umar. 

A 3ro?K 3T1 is spoken of 4 which one may perhaps 
identify with the ^~$\\ i_y 5 which was on the right of 
the entrance from Mahars Banana to the Hamam as-Saidah. 

A TJJDK7N yvhx ltn 6 may be upon the Zuqaq \ **Ji\ 
JaJiill where was that person's house. 

A nmri7K 3K3 7 may perhaps be referred to the description 
of the (^WI^uji ^.1 &,L~3 which was on the Suq Wardan. 
This is said to have been a Waqf and the written waqf was 
nailed to its gate, and it goes on to say Sl^il l^Jb o*Sj J 

There is also one notice of the 7*1 ya J'73 8 . 

These notes, rough as they are, may serve to further the 
researches of others into the history of the Jews in Egypt. 
There are a few other references, too vague to be included 
among them, and in the quotations given houses and 
localities have been passed over in silence because the 
historians do not appear to mention them. A few of the 
MSS. referring to the synagogues should be interesting to 
an Arabic expert, and of course there will be numerous 
documents in the collection that give other details which 
will have escaped an unpractised eye. 

1 T-S. 12. 552, 12. 694, and 16. 117. 2 Ibn Duqmaq, IV, p. at. 

3 IV, p. 80. * T-S. ia. 605. » Ibn Duqmaq, IV, p. 26. 

• T-S. I3J3 M , Ibn Duqmaq, IV, p. 18. 
r T-S. 8. 101, Ibn Duqmaq, IV, p. 38. " T-S. 8. 130. 



NOTES ON THE JEWS IN FUSTAT 39 

It only remains to record my gratitude to Mr. David 
Yellin, of Jerusalem, for his kindness in giving me infor- 
mation, and revising the proofs as far as opportunity 
served, thus rendering me a considerable service. 

Ebnest James Wobman.