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First Article: Geonic Responsa. 


Fragment British Museum Ta, parchment, consists 
of a quire of two leaves, the middle pages of which 
are missing, and contains 19 lines on the first, 18 on the 
second, 20 on the third, and ai on the fourth page. It is 
written in a square Rabbinical hand of about the thirteenth 
century, and represents portions of a Collection of Geonic 
Responsa. Although no name is mentioned in the Responsa 
there can be no doubt about their Geonic origin, as 
the first Responsum was known to Rabbi Nathan ben 
Jechiel, who made use of it in his 'Aruk, s. v. ~)11B> \ 
The description of the bonfires on Purim among the 
Babylonian and Elamitic Jews 2 , as given in 'Aruk, un- 
doubtedly goes back to our Responsum 1 . But it does 
not seem that Rabbi Nathan had before him this Geonic 
Responsum, he probably took his explanation from Rabbenu 
Hananel or some other old commentator on Sanhedrin, 64, 
who had copied the Geonic Responsum. The Gaon 
describes the burning of Haman in effigy as follows : 
Four or five days before Purim the young men make 

1 ptomo or ptaruo or finm in the 'Aruk gives no sense, and is to be read 
pVowu as in the fragment. 

1 See also Hirschfeld in Revue des Etudes Juives, VII, 174, about a similar 
custom among the Arabian Jews in pre-Islamitic time. 


an effigy of Haman, and hang it on the roof. On Purim 
itself they build a bonfire, into which they cast the effigy, 
while they stand around joking and singing, at the same 
time holding a ring above the fire and waving it from side 
to side through the fire. 

The purpose of the ring is not stated by the Gaon, but it 
may be assumed that the effigy was suspended from it. 
The Aramaic word for this ring is xrniB>D "the jumper," 
and the same word is used for " stirrup." 

The second Responsum is also of " culturgeschichtlich " 
interest. It deals with the use of JWDN which was no longer 
known in the West, as shown by the explanations of 
Baba Mezia, 47 b, by Rabbenu Hananel and Ra. b. J. 

According to the Gaon po»DN, which the Talmud explains 
by fn-Hon rnb pDa prron my» is used thus. For a silver 
coin a man purchases the right to take ten baths ; and in 
token of having prepaid the price of admission, he receives 
ten copper pieces from the keeper of the bath-house. For 
each bath one of the copper pieces is given back to the 
keeper, and these checks are called JlCDK. The Gaon adds 
that so late as his own time the same system was in vogue 
among bakers and porters. 

The third Responsum is an answer to the following 
question : One of two witnesses who had signed a bill of 
divorce declared that the divorce was not valid, because 
the husband was forced by the ruler of the place, )Mtb^, to 
divorce his wife. In his answer the Gaon treats very 
exhaustively the legal maxim TJ01 "inn WN 311? IVine* |V3, 
showing when witnesses can modify statements made by 
them previously. 


(leaf 1, recto.) 

nr spin ewi "jina jnaijn -reS> *wd pxaipt? tf-iiai 

. . . , s d>j n-iu win ntij *«ne k-iu wn *wi 8 *ow "sx '»« 2 ian nnayn tii 1 

p^a i»a niroi»e> d^ •"J^t ww nTa xman 6 Nn-iiE>Da 'dk n3n-i 

nr ijfo two 8 ivo 7 b»k p"vjo» nm by nnx niroi» n5?n b»d dwo pxt? n5>n 

»3k •>'xnb yn jwi it "£ik& pnani jraota nw3i>ni it ptt65» iwo n ptjot? 5 

NinB> }»t3 din "0 xvap ira vuwd wma xman miroa toxn n3i$> bs 

•am P">ip «* ap3 mk-mp jtreapm no "lit? p-ioix pap dni *i*wkp paip 

♦oik pK93i pap ii? p*iidik (¥)pwp wn *inoDB> jon p»n i^axi "rrjw 

3 "pnao omen *d* jn tenia niKE? -nan 13, >Bjtt< toon 12 ^ poix 

ntron nmnts jvwraa by nmtc pi?ini pro mis ppip omnan 13 o^yi 10 

nwi nmxn n« naini> p^am b>k!>b> nnno 15 poiy aman am d'd' 

)Odub> wn TD3 nn$>n jijqd an^> B>n ptktoi (?) ppnie>i nana amnan jnoiyi 

nv»apm Nmicw ntopa fijnao nnitj ntn e>t<n nvi> bwi nro pvaipi 

paipi nntwi tan nt« ns n^» aannt? didsi m»na nnit? pb\m njnon »dj pi 

16 p3i itrr'ani NnniB>» ton nt »rnn» ntnpj n»rn ua Sw n^ijji nnnta 15 

poppet? i&n hioip»3 fanjo p pnnnn nni? j»»D3 "pawn royo jid^dn 

jnu pmon £>jni fins spaa 1^ pwajp d*d»b nne>$? pnnion n»ai> , , . ,8 

ub» bpnj '•a p»D jntf ntnrui'B' mjnoB nnt?j> ntn anp»i> 

ii> n , '3»k' }Dt bi iraja mrj; -iae> 

1 Sanhedrin, 6+bt 

2 The editions of the Talmud as well as the MS. read WOT. 

' The editions have vxvto, but the MSS. have ra*ra, see Dikduke Soferim, 
ad loo. * ^yb of the printed text is more correct. 

5 The copyist wrote srvu twice instead of wj. 

e Bead xniis»3 . ' Read <B#. * The copyist left out m . 

8 By some mistake the word rrnsn is put here instead of after pi, line 5. 

10 Sic ! " row. " Baba Bathra, 96 b. 

11 Read 'D2»; see Dikduke Soferim, ad loc. 

14 Read aroo or ten on the margin ; the copyist added bzz which he had 
left out in the margin. 

15 Read pcra. u Baba Mezia, 47 b. 

" Only MS. Ham. reads jwsn, the editions and all the other MSS. 
have nun>:n. " [m 'nib zfoh.'] 


(Leaf r, verso.) 

N3 pou n? njnoa \nb nsn dni pm yrnzb oaaj myaoon jniN po nns yaoo 

na on^i poinro^ anjo e» nisi na neny jcd vroa djsji pnca pni N3 

jo^d m $>yi jcDa wm:6e> niyo npi& pnui * n^Ntai nso nyi oinran i>apop 

-iiytjo bum ihn oinro^ £ waw jorai '*n 'ji d^kdi vip jd^d $>yi l Ntan 

3 'nwi :foo Nxvai jo»d pfou oyai Dys bib 2 D"6aDn pi vby& no 5 

TjPBn "^o "p nn-ioa -vyt^ n$>*y n!> *vun NDan jto p3j?5? 4 pnDNT> 

NDan n*a ?wb ntn p«6n no ina pa e>na pa nWi ha in e«*ia nW 

twai ffyip ina wy, a^i «nw mriN 1a ianau> Dipon Nini nw *w 

p$> nsa w NDan n-aa neta dw psspit? "iw m jnso ^a *Ta"in 

no n^nna '•a new nwn iai p nwyi> pN tit pN py-b bN iaa 10 

i>y 8 "inji nsn n sa NDan rvoa aw Nin ,Tn bxiw pxi> nibd ai ."6yt? 

N3N i lawi Nrw nns noi> wan 1!? ta nisd ai iyee> scan rrci nns 

"oaaani) ib -io^k nns nxvi nw p« '•ail nmoi> w pN$> 10 Nrn n^> 9 )Niy 

pNt? ywa nina n tnx de> b^e* yvra bw invo imp nSti *w ■oaa 

'pn iptbi de> din tw jota Djani? pN tit ptw? tid^ de> din ig 

•vw wow pea n^>n oaan^ sax '-b 'on *vye> •otio n^> nibd an »a 

'oe> pn N'-jrna poo lovy wre* dw "!>n^nioi Nin ls pDioe> iab n»n iiao 
nx nud nnnn p^D \yinn ^vb din.t n« "nono it^nn noy 'oin 'oj p 

1 The Arabic jj»J-. ! crtBi. s =nbK«)\m. 

* Berakot, 6a b ; Tamid, I. 

5 Perhaps <ros ? The editions have vxwn at, some of the MSS. }*o is ; 
see Dikduke Soferim, ad loc. 
' Gen. xxxii. 4. T Gfen. xxxvL 8. 

' Editions : in: with n, but MS. Paris has also th. 

9 Jn3 is ? see, however, leaf 2, recto, line 5. 

10 Sic! "Sic I 

12 This agrees with the text of the Mishnah Tamid, I, 1 ; in the Gemara 
Berak, 62 b, l»sn is repeated before mnD. 

13 Kead plDWD. 

14 See Megittah, 15 a: ?nVnnm '«12, perhaps is to be read -foVioi. 

15 Kead sno. 

x x a 


(Leaf 2, recto.) 

mtrb M«n nan b ni>nn if nWa Hainan onann now nyo nn« 
dm dn unoa »a ianni any ^b» ianat? ht'Dd^ nny a& e»n 
n-i'DD ny *p onn db> px d s k pxni px aw lrnta 5>b> m^ 
irotc ^y TiatA px pi nua anpa ai ^ ibii h . . , t bv rrr anne> '•a 5>y *|*t 
jn iyi nenina nn inDoi x$> anyi taa *£« rb ana i^w am 5 
Bin rot moo '•a way [now tain ny we> 'a bv fjw nsrw Nin 
nTD» naw rna nnKty p'o nn^oa nny ni> una n^ btt rnb 
•pniaa pwa rremi> xh nnt?yi pahs6 mxnni> ttiah nnvi ni>aa 
nan ton TinDa "idsc nan nne> nana n^ttn n^ivi' «h ni> ps 
vt?ayt? ataa prrcj w ann pm nn\n ntaa nTDa nass? 10 
pxi inx ny aaiw wn nyn ksbji npyf» in wnan^ sa wn 
>i«-i ^ah e*K.n nnT- npme nntw ntt snnni> v^y paaio 
prayai byan *eni» npma ncxn pary 5>a oy ann niypnpn nvrb 
«ido 'a onyn w lanrn nna . . . . aa ax bat* i«Ti»a jrnx pn n»a 
nan np^y ravn n5?taa nn^DD na£ rna nrot *ta wayi am nx nri> 15 
onan "•ats'S? inland b» tt^st Minan ivi '•wn next? onyi> nan ii*« nt 
a»nan t&K ptsrvi p^nb' n^b una nn^n matt naix sine niB*6 nan 
nan!? ywi> pna n\n ai> nann n^n nai>a Ta iSti din \>a5> r»tnn5> nbvn 
«tvdo '•a na"6 onD nn'oaa anm anac nrot nn^aan nyo nnsn nyn 
wo yoB> n'N am n»na 'nb'K' an 'on 2 pnDitt m nrxa mm n^aa 20 

1 See Ketubot, 19 b. a Ketubot, ibid. 3 The editions have new. 


(Leaf 2, verso.) 
fiO NOyD WO paDtO pt? ^"On VH naON nONB> Dny t«n3 3110 

^ota nm vn nao« -ioii> [otu law poi icnn t6 shys ton n^jji 

ony^ n?n nann ns rmrf? w ubi* wn ps 'din "w »i3ri 'din ny$> 

not* Dsty taan po . . . . jnn nns emb w ianai vn torno new? 

jnoab ....(?) idioi ton ntas "idio w n*vo» o dw wi Dnj& i>yan 5 

nDNOi |nd wn net? 3i 'on s pnt»n sin !>B3 oan nt n3ia Ny"iio 

mo nrvtn s nvDjn tonx t6 «jwb tynio n^ii» Neat* Njnio 

pi »jjv5> 5,, Da ""an now £ 'po xp 4 .Tyiioi> rr^tsa n^oa Ncm 

7, on rran "iotw ny wo 6 irw ny win pais avn wa 'oin nnx 

ixo wnvh )ba onan Tiy pom 8 nop n»]ro»5> n^ Seam nyi 10 
•ntrna o wiN-inb 03 r6 -idd n5> dnb> jxhrn DaiN at? w ins 
uoo rb*XD V*b ni>NBa ct-b iK>Na hta djik n^ yao rvn 

, , . , HTI "130 I^N *1N1 NW *J3 $»3B>3 '3 NJH1D 1D101 03H n*VD03 

no 3yd nH Nyiio b "wnna net* "pnoNT n &*p Njnion nt 

••not Njnio N^n Njnio in$> n^bi rvDawa no p»jn» 12 nne> jjn js 

N3Nn 'oxn van ^Ny-iio i^ni tfn xo^ya Nn^o wfa ro . , . 01 can w 

soman ntj>yo jiaa 16 DVsn ovi N3xn mio "vara Ny-110 pons n5> 

p« iai-131 vn naoN 'on wk 3i ns no 16 pnoiN ias nrn 13*131 

jno n$> nn ana^ \m nr Noyo wo panto iana*i vn Ny*no paoNa 

3ina^ piN"ij£ ion £ pnoitti ntn nyn nt« )^kie» ^eh ans^ 20 

pn ion DNi i»B3 oa "iDio N^n Daixn *aao o n^» nDot? nnann m 

I Read 'onm. 2 ^trofttn, 21b. 3 Editions: ninw. 

4 The editions I.e. omit rrmo 1 ). 6 The editions have p OKI. 

• The editions 1. c. omit im» ^013 D'ffii »»»a now nn» pi. 
7 The editions 1. c. omit '3« nan. 8 The editions omit Nop. 

9 Perhaps rwi'J. " JSofia Ba^ro, 40 a. 

II The editions 1. c: 'mm. n Editions omit. 

13 The editions 1. c. omit n»Tn fan. " Editions : 'yan obij 1 ?. 

15 D , 3 , «n = D , 3n , NT, editions D>:». " KOubot, 19 b. 



Fragment British Museum T b, paper, consists of a quire 
of two leaves, of which the middle pages are missing, 
written in an ancient, square Eabbinic hand, not later 
probably than the thirteenth century. It represents eight 
Geonic Responsa, coming from a collection in which 
numbers 3-8 of the fragment formed the Responsa 16-22. 
As all the Responsa of the fragment, with the exception 
of the last three, are explanatory B'Wis of some difficult 
passages of the treatise Pesahim, we may well assume 
that there is not much missing between the first leaf of 
the fragment, containing an explanation of Pesahim, 10 b 1 , 
and the second leaf dealing with Pesahim, 5$ a. 

The order in which the Responsa are given is probably 
the original one, and not that of a later compiler who 
arranged them, as is shown by the fact that the last three 
Responsa, dealing with three difficult passages of Yoma, are 
not in accordance with the order of the Talmud. If this 
assumption is correct, then we may ascribe these eight 
Responsa to Hai Gaon, as the seventeenth Responsum is 
quoted in the ' Aruk, s. v. Ki, with the words Nlip ren }iwn, 
and Jlton " par excellence " in the 'Aruk is none other than 
Hai Gaon, the Button p"ins, as Abraham ibn Da'ud calls 
him. Mutter's statement, in his Einleitung, p. 195, accord- 
ing to which the author of the nineteenth Responsum (No. 
30 in Harkavy's Collection) is the Gaon Sherira, is there- 
fore to be corrected. Besides, there is no real reason for 
ascribing this Responsum to Sherira, except that the pre- 
ceding Responsum, No. 29 in Harkavy's collection, seems to 
come from Sherira's hand. I say "seems," because Hai 
Gaon could also have spoken of Judah Gaon as his wax 'ON, 
in the sense of great-grandfather. 

Our fragment shows further that Harkavy 2 was wrong 

1 The fact that Eabbenu Hananel, in his Commentary on Pesahim, 55 b, 
also made use of Hai's Responsum, misled Kohut to believe that the 'Aruk 
was quoting Eabbenu Hananel ; see Kohut's note, ad loc. 

a Introduction to his edition of Besponsen, p. viii. 


in assuming that MS. I of his collection is a copy of 
the original Responsa which were kept in the archives 
of the Geonim. Numbers 30-31 * of his collection com- 
pared with Nos. 19 and 22 of our fragment, prove to have 
been copied from an incomplete collection in which Nos. 
16-18 and 20-21 were missing. 

The first Responsum contains a long explanation of 
Pesahim 1 06-11 a, and is a highly interesting illustration 
of the Geonim as commentators of the Talmud. It shows 
that the very concise style of the Geonim in explaining the 
Talmud, as found in many of their Responsa, must not be 
considered as the only way the Talmud was then explained. 
The passage in Pesahim, 106, explained in this Responsum, 
is not a difficult one ; the Gaon nevertheless took pains to 
explain it in such a way that he made it possible even for 
a beginner to comprehend the Talmudic discussion. We 
may therefore assume that the Geonic B>l*is of the Talmud 
was by far more exhaustive than is generally believed, 
but that in answering questions relating to difficult passages 
of the Talmud the Geonim, for practical reasons, gave only 
the digest of a commentary. 

In the second Responsum the Gaon gives as the correct 
reading of the Mishnah, Pesahim, IV, 8, vnpn b& nwtcu, and 
adds that WU is the Aramaic equivalent for Hebrew ffSiy. 
It is worth noticing that the reading given by the Gaon is 
not found in any of the editions or MSS. of the Mishnah 
or Talmud. But perhaps fflW in the Vienna MS. of the 
Tosefta (Pesahim,, II, 19, ed. Zuckermande) is a copyist's 
error, as 1 and f are often confounded in Hebrew MSS. 
The Mishnah ed. Lowe has nWDM, thus connecting it with DM 
" to cut," and in a similar way WU is to be explained as 
derived from Tu " to cut." 

The third Responsum contains the Gaon's explanation of 
the expression QB>n i>jn in Pesahim, 86 b, where he explains 

1 It is very surprising that Miiller had entirely overlooked No . 31 , which 
is therefore missing in his EitUeitung. 


differently than Rashi does. According to the Gaon the 
gentleman referred to in the Talmud introduced himself as 
Win 31, because he wanted to indicate his degree of 3"l, and 
this explanation is more probable than Rashi's, according 
to which the name on 31 was given to that man when he 
was born. 

The two charms to which reference is made in the 
Talmud (Pesahim, 1 1 1 a) are given in the fifth Responsum. 
The first charm runs as follows : " God of gods, save me 
from an evil encounter, from the evil Adversary (=|W), 
from grievous sickness. Guard me as the apple of the eye 
[is guarded], for in thy hand are power and strength, and 
thou art God." The second reads : " Forsake me not, and 
abandon me not; hide not thine eye from me; be thou 
a guardian unto me. Answer all my petitions unto thee 
with yea, and not with nay." 

The last three Responsa are explanations of the Talmudic 
passages, Yoma, 66 b, 44 b, and 28 b. The first of these 
three Responsa was known to R. Hananel, who made use 
of it in his commentary on Yoma, but it seems that he did 
not know the Gaon's explanation of Yoma, 28 b. In the 
Responsum dealing with Yoma, 44 b, the Gaon quotes a 
Midrashic passage which is found in the Pesikta de Rab 
Kahana, but unfortunately the text of the fragment is in 
very bad shape, and it is therefore doubtful if the source for 
the Gaon was the Pesikta or some other Midrash. 

(Leaf 1, recto.) 

tntm p rwsb xb jw 1 pro tb\yb 'dn 'am ntuna -iidn tone >q by «i»i 

)W imb -did 'tut /m w now fun h-hoki ntn unTsn by wepm 

i-mir "I abm ijdo bsab my xbv -won pi nnx p»nn by pp"in 

nanp nj?i> -jiod ww «*i3 iidn kw jota bhpd poynn^ n . . . 2 

-»b*o u»» i>aw» »in« vwn vb\ Vit ipiK's ^pi nop ixd id . . . 3 5 

piDi too i>mi> nw nb& "W3 jdt -inx p»n npns^ wn »a m . , 4 

1 Pesahim, lob-na; Menah., 67b-68a. 

3 [irro.] s [noisn.] * [mow.] 


)b imn xb mrvw ^tb unnb non ponn ps 'ok Kin p vnn w& . . . * 
ntny kw jvai sptrpa vbtt. imp pNi nait?o "pna t6s ia poyn . . 2 

WOO ^3N^ N3 WK1 1*TO B» TtD'K »3 Kin IttT Wn30D naiK>0 DW • 3 

8/ oa mpnni wno nn NV1 pjitD-p *r> f>yt5> n-vxp inn 4 10 

writ? 'is nm ncwa J>aw ndb> 'ii.t 'n b>swi n^ t>ni 
na^noa "natw wp n!j an two •>« innw pon npna paya 

*6tt IpID WW 7 !W»1 *J»f>B> DWT3 K^>K jmtJ W.N1 UnaDD 

ewi "iewa 'nw 'n wn k^> 9 tot »w na 8 naa »aj by 

mm n^c nr »a mox bk ]0 n . . b "b ntypm *3k nrm npna payb 15 

poy tjnna ipDyt? wao npna pay!> twn wa inn pay^ 'nw 'n 

naopiNi penw xi? bx D>poy3B> ynb&n n*3 jnwp wwe> nn naitpo 

ins pn^ naiPKin wnin h> «a« pTai nan ^ man imai mw 'ia 

Na law Kin Tiar woo inn pDynom TWpne> p^a tnn pay!? noxi 

in^> Ta»ah ponn jo inn wn nyion Tnx p-iian i>3K nfas n^ 20 

. , nib ew «h nri> 'Tin* 'n wn tj ■»ai> n^a« t!> Kin wa» . " oy . . . 

1^ mm pnb> nna 'Tin 1 ' 'n nsn on^pn noi? $>nb>i ton 

1^ wn&? E'nns 'oan nan on^pn n^i 1^ twtm pona 13 by 

b wn vbv pona f.TTan i?y Dvoyat? pntan nn mvpi» itdni 

n^p t6 'm.T' 'mx 'niiT- 'm "nafs^nb Nin oa itm vby pmb ivxi 25 

n^ax^ ton nsip snna 'a te^p ab pams faanii «3N na^ T«a 

vi>y Kin pin pons bx lnnDw n^a« »t^ Kia 11 vb& wvm "\^tb 

«ai n^ax ^nb w t6& "\wn tub vsh mib i^y myii isn&b 

pxsio rnoiK nvib* wnwtw ^ noiB>ao nns pitb pnaf> ,| tw ai 

w^k tfwp '•a ipiTe noy &6i ^pi nop k^o n\tb> abwr ">p\v nti 30 

loib xin 15 xnn3 ^k 3m pb pn^n rw rnntpo Ki>K nwo 
waoDc piai moiy p^cip p 16 . , . vba i3in p owai» na»NB> ,, ai> 

I [nn\] a [j7t»rrt.] 3 [owo.] 
* [m<n "3N rropm.] 5 «m© n»a? • toco. 

7 [Tropin.] 8 Read nsj. * [w 'mttoi.] 

10 n:ii ; see Dikduke Sqferim, ad loc, where it is shown that the correct 
reading is. im, not as our editions have it, N31. 

II Read an©? » -nm? " vim. " So in the MS. 

ls Editions : Nnvn, but MS. Oxf. : wina, see Dikduke Soferim, ad loc., and 
'AruJc, 8. r. -\2, II, 166 ed. Kohut. " ? ^. 


pom 13 wn 1 nw Hs xb pn 'onc 'Tin 1 " 'ib "3K f>K> ipi*VB i>y 

nH tovi i>3 nosn T'sn 2 w^pn wni nwo ^ia *6 

pe> 4 nx . . p raipj n-iaiae> 8 db£ -pnn nm mini '-, i n nwo t>H3 35 
-wn naat? nns wn &6 noS naojo xnm ^3eo nan »b i>y 

(Leaf i, verso.) 

wn -kwo Ninn jdwi }D H13 uw iai> isinn }ot?n p panDnh nnnp^» 

niBiatya p-wn pm *ik ^ idk^ 'w '-i iws? nxr i>p mt?.-ii 6 np-o pyb 

)b wn vb ph nno-Ni n3K> ^ nnoin taea uod dik ^ma -on ^a bw 

\ . , n now ^acaE* loan *pK iwpm mini npna pyb wn iwu 

7 . , . i?an jam nw> 'n ii> wne> na^a nta nan uaso nm 'iini 'n wn &6 5 

9 . ai>ai 8 top^a ik «*wia thy l"iia 'in '"im 11 'n i3Jiy aba ntpip uni &6 pdbj«? 

11 . , . no^x by i»id wn |Naty 'nm* 'tjk 'im 1 ' 'in 10 na pnoxi imjjp n^ 

... nan *a $>y jn^ "vnni nae> ncx ^y *]od otn na^yn n« -idiki wiro 

. . . M 3j?n n« i-cnn jk3b> jiqtix pam twpi vn «!>i ;db> nt6o maiae* 

♦ . ^a b w . . . ♦ b& nnaiaty in 1 '!' iidn do nwp n*5> Nia 11 ncb> iwn n^i 10 

14 nta nti> upniai mtm hoc panD^ s^ iwn 13 njn 

.... pnpno s^nn^o cooea -iroo n w }va s^o 15 tf^p 

-on 16, »a by pw b& maias? jn^ widni iwn p •©$> nnx -vnDi nnx nDis 

ra na^nno ir psi m^ps ns^y np^y bam nmon jdc3 ii> ^nn 11 sb& 

13-itm nitypij N3 iji«i 11DN 7&p . . . jnv auy^ mis pTnowai is 

, . . 1T DB3 ih jnenp uji? t6n mew . . . mint? 'ani» wtypm nxta my 

ko^k indt bn ixn w"idni 1313 upnpii T-no 'nini 'm bn3 ab bin 

ioa 'mni 'n n-n^ ib>bn ^nn nx u n^ipi bn npiW soi>jn ion 18 j33rr 

-iirp NinB» pnnj b& ^>3n nre> nlj^b 19 N^m Kin nd^p bw "\v\> t6m m 

1 About the same space is left empty in the MS. 

1 ljrrvn to. * qhd 1 ). * Read rwfm. 

* Empty space in the MS. * [num.] * ['Vi.] 

• This is also the reading of MS. Munich ; see Dikduke Soferim, ad loc. 
9 [-utei.] " Read K<rcp ru. " [raw.] 

" [nyjsn.] « [rura.] " [s 1 ? pm» pm.] 

ls Add jnua jnio. 

16 This is the correct reading, not as the editions have it : n:rr 121. 

17 N'pD'Bi. 18 So in the MS. 
19 Read ato. 


D«o 13 mbd? inN *rco 'inn nt* wipi N31 nnx nso l wavi> 13 20 
PDB3e> *in i>3m ntin dm ja ie>y t6e> 'o3n nw 2 pni wwb> nys? ■>b^ 
nri? n? pan D^ann »a e^nno kina $>an ;m ^ nox upnai 33j6 
m-oja srvpp b« now Ta^i nr {>« *|Ki in 11 d^b nra iitio nnxtyai 
nwp$> noca3 it p« rcwjn ithd nnacai xk non it pxi KsiwD vb 
^■m tovn »ata 'mm 'i J>p pima KX031 Dmna*n 'am 'mm 'n noy nm 25 
NaTt bs njn •-a by p& b& nnaiaty nyru juai nn jiaa pan nira ab 
idnb' 'mm '-& ii> iK>pn new myan -inx pon np»ia jiaa mw ^13 i6n 
Nine> pma -oa maiBBa po nt?Na nati> now h> "jod *6i nsyyn n« 
pima nvdji rvby nm mn t6 ii> nnroo nmn £ki mbo ns'oy b s niDN 
'-> ^ wyn $>y p-vst? "an nani> wpm ja nnx mrm jotna pam 30 
weypn cui nn i^axi ma3$> en fpn^ s moats' man n?a t6 ^nan tow 'mm 
jo nDN nn? uioo i>y hna dik p3ya DiT3B> naT upmai }33tin pam 
oyon p imnn 'oann i^«i mspoa wmnn dk naia pa* vbw nrn oyon 
pwan by wtppm nnion nx i^y niDt6 iran dn nana pa 11 «!?e> nrn 
-inp^ pna 11 ja wn xin 13100 ^y hna ms Qyo sine nnrjt? ^ nrn 35 
iidn nn 'oann *|Ki did nman new Dipoa pins' 1 ja niaaa e>mn nB>Na 
newa mpi> pa 1 ja koe> ibwi sh 13100 by i>ina Dn«B> '•a b *|t*i pii^p 
mo 1 ' on ii> irp'- t6 ns maan '•a j33Yt xnjn ^y wpn^ai * .... a iwn 

(Leaf 2, recto.) 

7 i>nwi» 'mn 1 " 'm 6 a«n t?33on <T3 nh^c nipy3 tax 8 jd*33 3*^3 i^ax 

9 itya^i noiyn nn^p nnnn ny^ iy d^o^ 'a V3a^ b« »a 8 nyon 

nasbo n^ya nmo 't 13 naiD mw 'n mn i^« w^pn nstoi N^nn nyn *iy 

"n^a e'33o n^n 'oik n>n i6x 10 iT'a mpy3i i"*2 ^330 nvn now n\n n^ 

m3ni>i 'i^ Kin wbw u nnn dvb> '•si' n^nw nha^ 1T3 nnpysi 5 

1 in3T?=i3 , y. "ReadjKi. 8 KeadiDW. 4 [ni333.] 

5 Pesafyim, 55 a. 

6 The use of the word a«n here is very strange, as the question is only 
whether by putting the nVnnrj back he would be able to use it after nnprr 

8 Our texts have tm, but R. Hananel reads also viva. 

' [ro-nvB 1 !.] w [rtiano.] u [rrvsp mnn.] 


'dv orron 'T3 'dn «h 'a s in»i V tip 2 ay 't dv»d ai!>pw 1 -^,,. 

rra Nin nn 'to nas^D niB>y!> -win n^n n^b> n~\d? nsann ne^p 
7 rot6» n»t?y3 imo 't 'iw 'n 6 -dn 'yn '^>d ''n 'ini pcpo 6 ia... 

HD UNB> 8 N^a3 *1DV» 31 'DN UpTa riNf $>yi D'W 'a N3WJ 'T3 N^> 'T3... 

"nbie'h .Tvrnr6 10 3^n 'to i^bn nh^c vra mpya dnb> Nin p >nii "ibd 10 

-iidnb> ">as» 'jvj C33D nvt w Wasi nTvp nnnn ny ny aw 'a v:sb b» »a 

'dni spr 3*6 wpni mrm 'T3 eoa» nvi nwe^ jni> e* 'iima bx 'to K'aa 1 ? 

12 , . vbn rb)y& ito mpyai 't ^ swa as rM> warn lanDNi w nW^q 

rW>n pm N\n , >nde> res »a» Nn &|dv 3n pnai 'a* 'dn noh nyDiai> ^n a«n 

pw i»^a ton i»3M ^b wtb) 'nob> nu^ ir nae>» nxv»: 'din ^ndb' rya is 

nnx pwa pT-ai 13 ^n 3n N3i 't M raao n*n nwi> jn^ e» *n»b> n'33 

TON3 n!?1 WOP n"33 N^ It m\TP 'l fUB'D HN TOJKl!> pan* UN f'N 'DN1 

caao n^n 'dn n^i 'au kojd nvi miff 'n 'dn -ie>n nn 'T3 nwp^ idine> bbi 
nw a^> inx av n^n rmp inn nyt? ny "6 pN 'na !>niew »aao 'T3 
ob» i^ nvi i^ni 'v tip nxpoi ibid nyi bnw nyco 't dv nvpDi 'id dv 20 
hne6 iniN 10 p3«rei 1^33 am nxpo 'din ia«n *rnN dv nspoi d ,, d^b' tiw 

JICNT DV nSpDI N^D inN DV N^N 1^ pNC VBOJJ M '"1DN DSpD in N1.T nn 

nha nyiDOT ba twa Nin n? "janDN n^ nspo pin 'a av 'spoi 

P Nin p n^ wa '•nd 1S vnpn b& rvpwi 'mn is bz murb la^nn pxc »a 5>p ^ni 

V^3 jniN pnip pN po a^np^an '«n nia^N nsnpnp |ni 16 ini3 nvrxia n^n 25 

pn>no inn 1 - wn vm t$>npn ^ nia^N '-aay jn^ nwan n^n nxia nsiN 

-inNi» p«3n pi>n»33 tNia T-na ia« nmp n^n wnpn vb 'ni3N 'dini jniN 

17 }^N3 n^yo pN 'din B^ant? '•Nni 'osn DT'S wdi pna 

19 , . .nN^ona na nnxi me> enpn "wat? ~pv \n~by phn 

1 [niDD'M.] s Read ■». J ['r tomb finrn.] 

* ? s 13TOK . 6 Read iom. 

7 ['an ffiOJOT -m« no 1 )] ; instead of Tl, beginning of line 9 read 'm. 

8 This is the correct reading not Waa as the later editions have. 

9 ? w See n. 6 on preceding page. "■ Read nbnwVi. 
" [w.] 1S Editions and MSS.: mi. 

14 This is also the reading of MS. Munich, see Dikduke Soferim, ad loc. 

15 Pesahim, 55 b. " See 'Aruk, s. v. tea. " [W 't pTi.] 
13 MeUah, 13 a (Mishnah). 

19 [j'teio }W na J'toin] ; this is a free quotation from Mishnah MeUah, 
III, 6. 



1 n^jjD pNt? >s> by *)N 'oan 'oin Tae> n!>n 6iai jn^Yraa 3° 

8 2 jru -D win am sn 'wn |na v* niDW 

(Leaf 2, verso.) 

na ^n am i>ya ino 'inai win an )rb 'on tob> no ii> inoN pnv na |om 

itrvai 'hai "a^pr na'-DD pma an ''inpi nawa ^n *iidd jva rh 'in nw 

won ii>« jno na wn an w na'ui 'n n»5> nnpi bok>3 n^ paoan 'pan 

no^ti jna na win patyin mvm >3N *o d»jw tur-n ^ jru na win aai> 

*3n i» aai> yni3 nan 7 »ai . . w d^ti* anN win an aa^> »moNe> jvoi 5 

,..3n3 o«D3i taa nna3 Naa an 'on '•no ..., 9 a "pnoNi an 'wi 'c 

10 D'nan noN* nnn pai wa fwx in ^pn in ab p'aen bnb> 'in nw p 

yn ^noi yn jbb^di yn wan ^ntn abx ba noNW jua i>N ana 

12 di ^n anann e>Nn nxo3 ^n nriNi nmaai na ira »a py na pcwa 

14 now ">b nw »3oo na*»y a-6yn xb won ah "^aryn n!> noNW in 10 

nr nani> an^a i^n cnan bi in^ noNn ba"\ pn noNn iWn new b 

•oinW n^ nrb 'on 15 Nan cbivb ino 6a nry^N 'n hn iW 'wi 'a 

^ nWn nnm nai wiW ai^aN i>y 'oan wn^a na 'hai \3ii>a i>y n^n 

noH in Nan ahyi' p^n )b pNi mawn b»n ne^a van W3^a bv n3k> 

naina N^a awj^a pswpi nainaa aw3 "an 'on 'ivr anna jb Nn-aD 15 

awana nry^N 'n 36am Nan nbvib pbn obvixb li? w na >eb) pwp Nh 

Ninn -a Nn-aa ♦» noiw ^y 1W Di^aN i>y p^nb>d anNt? ny an^ noNi 

anan mnn^ai 'hai Non noi^ noiNn i?a 1T jnsv 'n 'on *3on3 na ^Nioty 'n iont 

la i>ai n^nna an^Nty Di^caN bv ani> noN 'Nany^ mo rrobw moNi 

1 [mpa taa pViran.] a Pesdhim, 86 b. s [^ sVpw.] 

* ["[IDDC.] 5 Mislmah Sarihedrin, I, 3. 6 Sanhedrin, 13 b. 

7 'Ovn'aiB. e Pesahim, 11 1 a. 9 [d'ITOD 'ITS!.] 

10 d"doi ■>» Dna ^nnoffi, see Harkavy's edition of the Teshubot ha-Geonim, 
p. 8. 

11 Troo. 

la b» ddidi ; from nsks to in is not found by Harkavy. 
18 mwn vb not found in Harkavy, but given by Kabbenu Hananel in 
his Commentary, ad loc. 
" row Harkavy. u Yoma, 66 b. 16 Sanhedrin, aia. 

17 Shabbat, 56 b. 


n& rm» nri> nro arm . . . 1 ']ysb u*i 'so j»b» nW -m -idn t6e> *ai> 20 

3 nj Dr6 rrn xi> 2 di^ ba Wi 't« nai^n oni» inn 1 ' t^E> na 

4 b»ibo pi pvrtt paai pn pas nnnon nx ia |»d3db> 

6 'hai Dna tax at? wsth 'y& B pmnj ii»B« non 

8 'wi 'an ton ins pww p^niJ *a "p»^ T npm:» non toxic 

JBTPB p u ">m ^13 10 1JO»D1 'KBWD ^p NTOEH 25 

13 tow D^acnn jniN 12 .ts33 nayt^ norm rout? aipo 

ia e»i 14 ijo»di n»na xrbo ne-p ppa at? ae^i 

18 nnao> imp poinn p -\r\v fDinn nn mTno 

inc 'a-in anuoa ian awi snub p nnae* jib6 "ip*» «ah "]jd>di 
&wn jd 18 n»n nnt? aib navn t& 17 . . , . 'din ton pi "tornado 30 

ne*p man sjh» 20 naa ivan tjh ia"6 ptn 19 . . . . nnvn ny» ripp i>xi> 

tapan t*m ijd^di a iTws» .-rp n*vay mmn idsj? noon jd -iiw ton 

23 'n ptt na nn»i it?a navin nmt* .... totm 22 tmo }»wi -ma nr nan 

-ltsaa on* niDnir .... 24 niDmrD an* 24 nxid 

"trwE* tnun ijd»di nd«pi» tocp ^ ie>p 35 

1 [nm or jv>Dn.] 2 rbma, 44 b. 

3 [prwru] ; the editions have p'nws. 

4 [mDiDT Npcea] ; see Pesikta, ed. Buber, XXIX, 186 below i 1 ? e» pvwsi 

'm 3T01C D1T3. 

5 Pesikta, ad loc, p'rwn, but see '^rwft, s. v. pmci:, ed. Kohut, V, 396. 

6 [n'apn xte maS fmh mm j's nnw wi.] 

7 ulftoia Zara, 3 b below. 

8 nitj mn io«T «rt is the reading in Harkavy's text, Responsen der Geonim, 
p. 12. 

• Yoma, 28 b below. 10 [Vnai ^rn *ui.] u [Nnnsorc.] 

18 In Harkavy : nay nVi man 'vs. 

15 Harkavy : '31 atC'Si turn jwpj died jwvtr. 

11 Harkavy : yoin S© jpsp nbm mjt ; read Nfrt instead of nSn. 

16 [n\dd'«?o lwp sibow.] " Gen. xix. 11. 

17 Harkavy : mVi prn pnarwa. ls Harkavy : nnss. 

19 Harkavy : norn. " Harkavy: -nra ^ri 'n3i. 

21 Tbma, 29 a. 

22 Read nit-io ; Harkavy : -nra ro'nn jm« nn« i^»a? nna mn piom. 

25 nn» j<n ; Harkavy : nioinj d'ts nsto nn« -ram »nrm na nsto -jj'N. 

24 Harkavy: nVn. 25 Harkavy: iWf 'nV® nican nnmra. 

26 Read N-na?. 



Fragment Taylor-Schechter, paper, consists of a quire 
of two leaves, one of which is here given. It represents 
the remainder of a collection of Geonic Responsa, 
of which the whole of one, the beginning of another, 
and the end of a third Responsum are preserved. 
The complete Responsum deals with the expression moa 
rurctnn occurring in 2 Chron. iii. 3, which the Gaon tried 
to explain by the Tannaitic tradition that the standard of 
measurements was changed in post-Biblical times. In his 
somewhat lengthy discourse he remarks : " Know that the 
Books of Chronicles consist of two parts ; of those Ezra 
wrote the Genealogies till DTix )b (2 Chron. xxi. 2), and the 
rest was done by the men of the Great Synagogue." His 
remark shows the source of Rabbenu Hananel's explanation 
of the Baraita, Baba Bathra, 15 a, and it is very probable 
that the Gaon read in the Talmud ih IV as ed. Pesaro has, 
and not X? nj? as all the other editions and Tosafot have it. 

The end of this Responsum seems to contain a reference 
to Saadia's Arabic translation of the Books of Chronicles, 
of which nothing is known 1 , but the text of the fragment 
is unfortunately in very bad condition and therefore this 
fact is not very certain. 

(Leaf 3, recto.) 

nhw m6 dki 3did pann dk i? any ni> thy nan mm mnm nan 

jnnn t6& rvbv pro ota *pa pxi nwb \b ^nn vb& rb m aaj6 mo 

2 dw nana nan oyta no nbm -\m) f jjwm 

rnoa 8 nDN Tixn nvhtun rva n« nmi> nota noin nfoi 

nan nsD o sn nmnn man tvn it 4 ik ciw met? rmewn 5 

5 Dins ih ny u on* tniy o^n Me6 inarm pbm Dion 

1 See Steinschneider, Arabische Ziteratur der Juden, p. 55. 
a Eead mm ; a Chron. iii. 3. 

* The Masoretic text has the pi. m»N. * Eead 'H. 

5 See BabaBathra, 15 a, and Dikduke Soferim, ad loe. 


*ioin 13 noN new Dm nmx una niman noa ^» 'nxe* . . m 
n»n on »a niipton moa ovifon na ns nmi? noin? 
tanfc"6 pu 2 ian ne>D a nam iT>n Tai rnns mo Dmu 
ruptn wm vroa nx nc&p mo nai jnyu nnw nnvn nos 10 
jrvnu w n^ y> pwa ox»5& ibv n^ nets' mm rbnn »a £ye>ai 
jiiDn aye na nvv fa nm nmm nvi neraa pew jni« 
n^y is^Dint? rwn nncai s , , , . y , . . vn n^y ib^dihi inaDm 
n^h? rnns noa w nai yp nu pai> mo yaxN "tn 
pan nnno im n^ca «h nnx yaxa rsn rt^y ib*dwb> 15 
yxs& )rb pat?n» iTa !>yi *po . . . , p»5w» wi na n^n 
unea ntw nmn "nw .... [nnnei n^yen je pmnni> 
nnna net* \nb nn»n 6 . . . . yasx rsn mo b& by mn* *a 
&n D3i 7 dw anan m*» na w inx nscj no n-iDn 
onan rbn 8 bi :n»^y latnn yj wyes? tfin mia'-p mo *va 20 

nwe an 9 o^a xnaooa nmno nnoa unjtyoa n^mae 
ftpn antn nareo pn "nwaa ib& vm mosh 10 . . , . in 

T u D»Bnp mDa nw» mei>na trnaoi u 

, . ne« . . . . 15 naD nw w n3 .ion pm» an dk 

, , i&y tx>y& 18 a . . n pbum 17 njy npiN *|N pax 16 25 

(Leaf 3, verso.) 

yae itna cm :tno una naW iymn!> 20 n , , 'e 19 yoiy nw anni 
roeo n-ion mo b& nm raw o& w yae nwa nnps no 

I Twosni? 3 Erubin, 4a; ibid. 48 a. 3 [»3SN >sn.] 

* [pais.] 5 [n^U'i.] * [nwi.] T See Erubin, 3 b-4 a. 

8 nte. 9 Chap. xvii. 10. 10 [mai ta.] 

II Our Mishnah reads nvsij'i vn mosrT ta, ed. Low has : rnmz but the 
Talmud Menahot, 97 a, quotes our Mishnah with the addition : unpm vrro. 
The reading of our MS. nwaa W can be explained only if we take 
lVa> = '1 bffl as a gloss to nwa, which means a cubit of six handbreadths. 

12 [ TiD'm 321cm.] " Menahot, 98 a. 

14 na new not in our texts of the Talmud. 

15 ottbb. M [na W '21.] 
17 wan ps corrupted into n» npi«. M [win.] 


wwoa pubo pi jmx *m nsoo n$>na rnnto jdvk ntn 

n^iav wnto HP ^ nnx mon jwa vn took w 1 D^a snaDoa 

row nwax nmto dp $w rwm 2 n>aiyo pp i>y nnxi 5 

rovn maw *n*aiyo pp i»jntn yass »xn ns?o ^y run* 

noh ysss nana ^ by rrw nKXD3 y3*K *xn n^y irm» 

l^oia paoixn vrw na s&k mop nnxi rfoia nna iiok 

riNtb nooi n^yo *vb ism^ sta na n^naa pwoi naopa 

nai>ni lajrva ipio 3 nwas w iw niox ba 1"ko "ai lays? 10 

i&x mi 6 viana nnoa 6 ianii2>D DnDa trnBon *dib p <a )moa 

mto ure> $>ys? nire 9 n man jwa in niox s . . . w T i3W 

tw vbyi tpitd iye> 10 nno xnaDoa 13W im vnpo ^b> 
na^b niun imp n 1 . , n '•a ll ninao Tiobna Eniaoi nirc man 
xion an soya w ^ . . o w n^a naaa 18 row -aw dib niata ns 15 

ini p^y niabo now 15 nw na ion in wok ia prop 311 

now Nnn rinyh w 'Oi ioni "w^rj jxb isa 16 p«o ljrw na ok 

i^ni 'ai iot6 ^ niwm ^n n^N "pay ?a iyvi 'as? T^y nia^o 

in^x ^n nnn « ti xano idin jam* '•an n^oxp 18 . . . . >W> 

nia . . a nwa nosa nea wn nans? " ,vai vane oas^i 20 

TTob^ 1D1H 1K>K 13 13 STUB OVD n3T ..... 3H33 p nflKl ySTVB 

a . . 2l nt iaii :ns?o ^ nox nw nsewin 20 n . . .3 

no nt psi nhi3 niyta ih ai wa b$ n p 

vin man nx nmn dsp fe 1^ . . am n5»n 

1 ciyani nan iicsn 2S aiao . . . nW ik>n 25 

1 Chap. xvii. 9-10. * Our texts have rvmra. 

3 Compare note 11 on preceding page. * Kead wiD. 5 Bead wnuvo. 
e See the explanation of the Mishnah Middot, III, 1 given in Menahot, 97 b. 
7 Kelim, XVII, 9. 8 ['no.] * [«'n.] 10 Middot, I, 3. 

11 Menahot, 98 a. M [ii w S.] ls Head nnwno. u ['«>a.] 

15 Bead »nno. M p'no in our texts. 

" These two words are probably added by a copyist after Aoot, III, 1. 
18 Editions: rw-ti. 19 jrai. » [rrosa.]