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By Henry Mai/ter, Dropsie College 

Among the difficulties that beset the way of every in- 
vestigator in the field of Jewish literature, especially that 
of the Middle Ages, the one arising from misleading titles 
is not the least perplexing. The multiplicity and variety of 
books bearing the same title, although entirely different in 
origin, content, and purpose, which are met with in me- 
diaeval Hebrew literature, can hardly be paralleled in any 
of the world's literatures. The underlying cause of this 
confusion is the peculiar fondness of Hebrew authors for 
pompous titles for their productions, titles that often have 
no relation whatever to the subject-matter of their works. 
The choice of title depended mostly upon the individual 
author's taste or whim, and the same predilections were 
often shared by a number of others. Moreover the exist- 
ence of a book bearing a given name did not prevent an 
author from appropriating the title for his work. As a 
result we have, for example, under the name of "Tree of 
Life," twenty-five books (see Benjacob's Thesaurus, s. v. 
D'Ti yy ), assignable to twelve different branches of Jew- 



ish literature. Equally illustrative of the lack of relation- 
ship between title and work are five books bearing the name 
apIT DJW ("Lily of Jacob"). Three of them deal with 
halakic matter, one is devoted to palmistry and physiog- 
nomy, and the third undertakes to show "means by which 
to ascertain any number that another person may be think- 
ing of and other tricks for fun and amusement, also ways 
of writing and speaking by signs so as not to be under- 
stood by any one except those who know the signs." 

I. S. Reggio 1 was of the opinion that these symbolic 
titles were adopted by Jewish writers under the dominating 
influence of Arabic literature. This may be the explana- 
tion in the case of some authors who followed Arabic 
models 2 ; it is not, however, borne out by the facts when 
applied to Jewish literature in general. The Arabs usually 
employed rimed titles, a practice not commonly adopted 
by the Jews. 5 Moreover, symbolic titles occur first and 
are found mainly in the literature of the Halakah, a branch 
least influenced by Arabic literature. It is in the domain 
of Halakah that we meet as early as the twelfth century 
titles giving no indication of the character of the books, e. g. 
Titsyn 1BD by Isaac b. Abba Mari of Marseille (1179-89), 
norinn 'D by Baruch b. Isaac of Worms (1200), imt "11K 

s Quoted by Prof. Schechter in his excellent essay on the subject under 
discussion, Studies, I, 277. 

2 For instance Moses Ibn Ezra's DtS>3i1 fUliy , or Abraham Ibn Ezra's 

noton DTiBi rmsrm run}?. 

3 There are some exceptions, as the title of the second work mentioned 
in the preceding note, that of Abraham b. Hiyya's Ethics which is in full: 

asm irrurrri Syi .nairnn >rAn ripens .naisjjn pbsm ji^n, etc. (comp. 

Luzzatto in Kerem Chemed, VII, 77; S. Sachs, Mil'D , 72), and of his 
mathematical Encyclopaedia: f131DK.~l ^"IJOl HSUM HID', of which only a 
fragment is extant; see Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl., VII, 84 ff.; Bibliotheca 
Mathematica, 1896, p. 34; JQR-, XVI, 743- 

palquera's "treatise of the dream" — MASTER 453 

by Isaac b. Moses of Vienna (1250). Subsequently this 
custom spread to all other branches of Hebrew literature, 
as the instances given show. 

There is another class of titles which are still more 
misleading. The words forming the title would seem to 
be descriptive of the work; on examination, however, it 
turns out that the promise of these "descriptive" titles is 
in no way fulfilled by the books that bear them. Thus from 
the title "Voice of Song" ( mot blp ) we might well ex- 
pect poetry. Instead, the book is an obscure kabbalistic 
commentary on the niJllD of Isaac Loria. A book styled 
n3c6 nwBi "Balm for the Wound," the author of which 
is presumably a physician, turns out to be a commentary 
on Canticles. These instances which could be readily mul- 
tiplied, suffice to show that the Hebrew bibliographer can 
not classify Hebrew books without going beyond their 

The foregoing observations were suggested to the 
writer by his experience with the title of the treatise here 
published for the first time from a unique manuscript in 
the British Museum, Add. 27,144 (Margoliouth, £><?.ym^«/<? 
List of the Hebrew and Samaritan MSS. in the British 
Museum, London, 1893, p. 83). The manuscript belonged 
originally to the Italian bibliophile Joseph Almanzi, upon 
whose death (i860) it was bought with many other manu- 
scripts of Almanzi's collection for the British Museum. 
The author of the work, Shem Tob ben Joseph Palquera, 
mentions it in his commentary on Maimonides' Guide, 
called mion mio (Pressburg 1837, p. 131), under the 
name Dlbnn mJK .* This is the only reference to our 

4 Comp. my article on Palquera in the October number of this 
Review (p. 172, n. 37). 


treatise found in the numerous works of Palquera, and it 
has always been described among the writings of this 
author as an exposition on the nature of dreams 5 . Even 
Steinschneider, the greatest Hebrew bibliographer, sug- 
gested (Jewish Literature, London 1857, p. 371, n. 78) 
that "the monograph Dl^nn mJK of Shemtob Palquera, 
only known by his own quotation, was probably philo- 
sophical, according to the principles which the Arabs and 
Jews drew from Aristotle's 'De Somno et Vigilia' ".' When, 
however, S. D. Luzzatto published his "Bibliotheque de feu 
Joseph Almanzi" (Hebr. Bibliographie, vols. IV-VI) 
where the superscription of the present treatise of Palquera 
is given (VI, 19, No. 251), Steinschneider at once realized 
his mistake. In a note referring to the book he says : "ce 
libre est le mbnn mJK, v. Catal. p. 2539 et Jewish Liter- 
ature, p. 371, ou j'ai suppose qu'il s'agit d'une oneiro- 
critique." As long as no manuscript of the Dlbrin rriJN was 
known, the only information about the work was the pas- 
sage in Palquera's commentary on the Guide referred to 
above. This passage dealt with the reliability of dreams, 

1 So e. g. Jellinek in his Preface to ni3W niJK, and recently M. David 
in the Introduction to Palquera's DD3H fPBWI, Berlin 1902, xi. 

• It is the peculiar fate of Palquera's works to have been the occasion 
for various misconceptions. Thus his encyclopaedic work D'BlDl^'Bf! mjn 
.(as yet unpublished) was ascribed by Steinschneider and others to Samuel 
Ibn Tibbon, until Zunz (Hebr. Bibl., IX, 135 f.) restored it to its real 
author; see Steinschneider, Hebr. Obers., 5. His JIJ'H '"IX was attributed 
by some to one Saul b. Simon; see the article on Palquera in the October 
number, p. 173, n. 42. The author of the article "Philosophical Ethics," 
JB., V, 254, informs us that Palquera "wrote four works on various ethical 
questions," among which he enumerates ilDSn n>B>N*l — a work which is in 
fact, as the title indicates, a general introduction to all secular sciences. On 
the other hand, Palquera's real book on ethics, the 1D1DH t\"\M , is not 
mentioned at all. Of the four works mentioned there, only one, the "1BD 
niSyOfl, represents a system of ethics. 

palquera's "treatise of the dream" — mai/ter 455 

and no other inference could be drawn than that the work 
was devoted to oneirocriticism. Palquera quotes there the 
Arabic philosopher Averroes' defense of the Peripatetics 
against the accusation that they denied God's foreknowl- 
edge of particulars. The text reads: "How is it possible 
to ascribe to the Peripatetics the view that God's eternal 
knowledge does not extend to the particular, for do they 
not assert elsewhere that true dreams' contain predictions 
of particular future events and that these predictions are 
communicated to man in sleep by the eternal all-guiding 
and all-dominating mind? It is not only with regard to 
particulars that the Peripatetics claim that God's knowl- 
edge differs in kind from human knowledge, but also with 
regard to the universals; for our universal notions, like 
our particular ideas, are the results of the world of phe- 
nomena, while the opposite is true of God's knowledge. 
This proves conclusively that the divine knowledge is too 
different from ours and the terms universal and particular 
cannot be applied to it at all." 8 To these words of Aver- 

' fip"mxS« K>nS», QtpilXn niOlbnn , is a frequent phrase in 
Arabic and Hebrew literature to designate "true" dreams in contradistinc- 
tion to false or meaningless dreams; comp. Munk, Melanges, 95, n. 1. Al- 
6azzali devotes a whole chapter of his Mabttsid 'ul-Palasifat to the discussion 
of such dreams; comp. the writer's Abhandlung des Abu Ifimid Al-Gazzati, 
Frankf. a. M. 1896, p. lx; A. F. Mehren, Vues thiosophiques a" Avicenne, 
Louvain 1886, 29 f.; Aaron b. Elijah, D"n J>JJ, c. 98; Munk, Guide, I, 27, 
n. 1 ; II, 267, 282, n. 7 ; and Albo, I^arim, III, c. 9. 

8 "I0N1 (sc. 13T3n 031*111, by which phrase Palquera always refers to 
Averroes; comp. his Introduction to the work in question, p. 8) latSTV ^KTll 

oni n'tsisn jrv nonp nyH»3 t6 nantt" «mv now nnt? n'sSinn na by 
mntnn nynn roiwttn i»npn toia n'ennnon n'tsiea *vmo piisn mSnn ikt 
n>mi dj'ki vby rhvnnm W> naruon n-nsan nyvn isia nouns oik 1 ? y»an 
D>Wy o»jm»n n'^an >a D'SSan vh\ [kSn] na^a D'taion j?t kS 'n> Hints' 
■wann p Syi nena nyn-n nmto ["laini] nsnjn yatao p ids (so read!) 
a"y .'isicai '^133 iKm'tra noniin njpvn nntnv nmos.Upon further 


roes, Palquera adds: "Although to my mind this view 
in itself is undoubtedly correct, namely, that God's Provi- 
dence embraces all existence, the subject of dreams, too, 
has convinced me of it ; for the fact that particular events 
are foretold to many in dreams proves beyond doubt that 
Providence extends also to particulars. On this subject I 
have written a treatise, which I have called D1^nn rfUK 
"Treatise of the Dream," a work on education and con- 
duct — something remarkable." * Assuming from the title 

investigation I found the passage to be ai verbal translation from 
Averroes' Theology published by Marcus Joseph Miiller (Philosophie 

und Theologie von Averroes, Munich 1859, p. 11, 1. 6-13): t ?& *—Q J 

cms. fa ^w>m (C-^ y>\ y>. y ^" *\ o)si ft^ &^ 

k& oUjU UV«I Djj: o-Jj *> Jyt-Uj J& JA\ JjVi 
Vjjl^ iyLU oUOl oU oLSOl Vj J. >f & iS ill j^\J 

<J}£ ->* J^i ^-W o' ^ Os* i«M dlli Ol lA»j}N ^ cs'i*. 

Averroes repeats the same in brief at the end of his work, p. 131. More 
than a hundred years before Averroes, the same view regarding God's 
knowledge was advanced by Al-Bafclayusi (died 1030); comp. Kaufmann, Die 
Spuren Al-Batlajusis in der jildischen Religionsphilosophie, Leipzig 1880, 
p. 49 f. As is well known, this theory of the incomprehensibility of the 
nature of the divine knowledge was accepted also by Maimonides, "Eight 
Chapters," c. 8, and Guide, III, 21; comp. Albo, IV, 3. 

» piBpB «bl f!3 pBD ^>XN )'K nTIDN ?UlDKi"1.1t '^SK ni'fl OJf '3 1D1K1 

1'jj? '^sk nniK fiDK n»wiB3i o^aa KSDJfi ^>aa '*i» 'piS»n nmtwr iDi^a 
'3 pBD 'Sa miD D'aiBfi Dfi'j'jy by did 'aao n<ai 1a nmw no 'a m^nn 
j'aya ni^nn rvun not? 'fiKip rvuK pyn ma 'man iaai n'Bisa rwavtm 

K^B KlflB' flS )flDl «B»D I'i^a DJ niD^fl. Levi b. Gerson, fllDnte, IV, 6 (ed. 

palquera's "treatise oe the dream" — master 457 

and from the context that the work was an oneirocriticism, 
no satisfactory explanation of Palquera's words following 
that quotation could be found. Why should a work on 
the trustworthiness of dreams confine itself to the question 
of education and conduct ? The closing phrase s6b K1W no 
is, moreover, unintelligible, as there is nothing to which 
it refers. All these obscurities are, however, cleared up by 
the superscription put at the head of the treatise by some 
copyist. Here the title mbnrt mJK is dropped and the in- 
formation is given that the writing of this treatise, dealing 
with ethics, was due to a dream. The ideas came to Pal- 
quera in a dream and on awakening he committed his dream 
to writing." This explains Palquera's reference to the 
work as the "Treatise of the Dream" and his explanatory 
remark that it deals with education and social conduct. 
The words &6a Kinc HO are thus only the expression of Pal- 
quera's own astonishment at his dream in which he sees 
additional evidence that God's providence extends also to 
individual affairs. 

In all probability, the original title was mbnn m3K, 
as quoted by Palquera, perhaps with the sub-title mJIK mJN 
riDNi m^>E> nn", which was followed by some sort of 

Leipzig, 176-79) uses the same argument to prove God's providence over 
individuals; comp. also ib., II, 2, and Shemtob b. Joseph, tWYl , Venice 
'547, fol. 17c. 

10 There is no reason to doubt the truth of this statement. This matter 
together with others relating to the present treatise will be taken up for 
detailed discussion in a series of articles which will appear in subsequent 
numbers of this Review. In the following pages attention will be drawn to 
the articles in the notes on the respective passages by referring to this note. 

11 The phrase is taken from Esther 9, 30 and epitomizes the whole 
content of the treatise, Dl^C being interpreted as moral perfection, while 
WiK stands for the achievement of intellectual perfection (see below). On 
the usage of the expression f|*UlK in mediaeval Hebrew) literature comp. 
Harkavy, Studien, V, 118-120, 237, bottom. To his references this title of 
our treatise may now be added. 


a preface, wherein the author related his experience in the 
dream. A later redactor of the treatise must have con- 
sidered the title inadequate and the preface unimportant, 
and therefore epitomized the whole in the superscription be- 
fore us. The editor's last words nr6nnn nxn are indicative 
of this procedure. The phrase, it seems, meant to assure the 
reader that here begins the treatise proper, of which he 
has omitted nothing. 

We turn now to a brief summary of the content. The 
whole treatise, whether it had its origin in a dream or not, 
seems to have been inspired by the following passage in 
Maimonides, "Eight Chapters," c. 4. There, commenting 
on the verse nn« DlWil riDKm (Zech. 8, 19), Maimonides 
continues : vb nvnoK one 'jbd nviwn Tvbrmn on riDKnt? sni 
Dbim abvn mrr nmc nnon mbvo on ahwrv\ .... une*. 
"Know that by 'truth' are meant the intellectual virtues, 
because they are immutable verities . . . ; 'peace' means the 
moral virtues through which peace is maintained on earth." 
He repeats the same in the Commentary on Abot, end of 
c. 1 (comp. below note 149). Palquera divided the treatise 
into two parts, each consisting of two chapters. His pur- 
pose is in the main to inculcate such conduct as will en- 
able men to attain to both physical well-being and intel- 
lectual or spiritual perfection, the reward of which is 
eternal happiness and bliss in the world to come. In a 
short introduction he very appropriately opens the discus- 
sion by quoting from the Psalms and Proverbs a few verses 
which, interpreted in the light of his philosophy, allude 
to the subject of his treatise. 

Chapter I. On Physical Well-being («iwn Dl5>e0. 
The human body is comparable to a vessel about to set 
out for a voyage on the ocean ; the soul to the captain who is 

palquera's treatise of the dream — malter 459 

to guide its course and to control its movements and who 
is responsible for its safe arrival in the destined port — the 
world to come. 12 To insure a safe voyage through a long 
life there is need of strict observance of hygienic rules, 
abstinence from over-indulgence in eating and drinking and 
sexual intercourse. The chapter closes with a quotation 
from one of the works of the famous Jewish physician 
Isaac b. Solomon Israeli (died about 950) prescribing a 
proper diet. 13 

Chapter II. On the Well-being (or the Perfec- 
tion) of The Soul ( B>Bjn Dl!)B> ). There are two degrees 
in the perfection of the soul. The first, or lower degree, 
consists in nobility of character, the second, or higher, de- 
gree is the achievement of the highest possible intellec- 
tuality." Palquera discusses here moral perfection only, 

" See above note 10. 

13 See below notes 57-67. 

M This distinction in human perfections is based on Maimonides' expo- 
sition on the subject in his Guide, II, 27; III, 54, which in turn is a modi- 
fication of an Aristotelian theory. Aristotle, Ethics, I, 8 f., counts three 
kinds of perfection, two of which, wealth, being external ( Ikt6c ) and 
health, concern only the body, while the third, consisting in intellectual 
achievements, concerns the soul. Maimonides goes one step farther, sub- 
dividing the perfection of the soul into two distinct parts, the one repre- 
senting the consummation of the moral qualities (ethico-religious aspect) 
the other the highest degree of intellectuality (metaphysical aspect). Ac- 
cording to this doctrine of Maimonides, moral perfection is not an end in 
itself, but serves to make man capable of attaining intellectual perfection 
which is the final aim of human life. This theory is taken up here By 
Palquera. Having discussed in the preceding chapter those means which 
assure bodily perfection, he now turns to the discussion of the perfection 
of the soul. Like Maimonides, he, too, considers morality as the first or 
preliminary step on the road to real perfection, i. e. intellectuality. This 
theory, among others, has often brought severe attacks on Maimonides and 
his followers whose words have been falsely interpreted to mean that by 
reaching intellectual perfection one can dispense with all ethics and 
religion, or as Luzzatto in his biased antagonism to Maimonides puts it, 
"one can commit theft, murder, and adultery, and yet be sure of inheriting 
the world to come, provided he be a philosopher" (Kerem Chemed, III, 6g. 


leaving the discussion of intellectual perfection to the sec- 
ond part. 15 The elements that make up the human charac- 
ter, he says, are partly innate, partly acquired by training 
and education. All good and bad animal instincts are to 
be found also among men. Just as some animals are 
amenable to training and domestication, while others always 
remain wild and vicious, so some men respond readily to 
reason and persuasion, while others are proof against any 
influence through education. The natural inclinations of 
man, which constitute his character, are not the product 
of the cognitive soul or the intellect; they are blind animal 
impulses in man. 1 " Palquera quotes here opposing views, 
but denies their validity. The human soul is divided 
into three parts or functions: the appetitive or 
lowest soul (msnon b>sjh == emfo/iyriKtv), the spirited or 
intermediate soul (rVODjnn e>wn = 0v/uk6v), and the cog- 
nitive or the highest soul (rmiDn e>B3n= loyurrw&v), a 
theory taken from Plato." The appetitive soul is neces- 
sary in order to insure life and the perpetuation of the 

bottom). It is needless to defend Maimonides against attacks like these. 
Such an idea never entered the mind of Maimonides or of any of his 
followers, nor can it be taken as a logical consequence of Maimonides' 
doctrine as set forth in the chapters criticised. For Maimonides, as well as 
for his disciples, and among them the author of the present treatise, it is 
impossible to attain intellectual perfection, that is a true comprehension of 
God and the universe, without at the same time being a strict observer of 
all the laws of God as commanded in the Torah. Luzzatto's conclusions 
have, indeed, been fully refuted by N. Krochmal, Kerem Chemed, IV, 265; 
comp. also Senior Sachs, fUVfl, 67 f. The question whether intellectuality 
(,'ilm) or practical observance of the religious law (,'amal) is of higher 
importance was an object of much controversy also among Arabic writers, 
on which see the masterly presentation by Prof. Goldziher in the notes on 
his edition of Pseudo-Bahya's KitSb ma'am al-nafs, Berlin 1907, 54-60, 
particularly, with reference to Maimonides, p. 58. 

15 Comp. Aristotle's Ethics, VI, 2, beginning. 

16 See above note 10. 
IT See above note 10. 

paequera's "treatise oe the dream" — maeter 461 

race. To keep it from excesses, the cognitive soul must 
have recourse to the services of the intermediate or spirited 
soul, the source of power and courage. Its services are 
like those of the dog that assists the hunter in pursuing 
the game." It is the task of the cognitive soul to control 
the functions of the two lower souls lest they deviate from 
the media via, the golden mean; for a perfect character is 
attainable only through maintaining an equilibrium among 
these lower functions." 

Palquera proceeds to point out some of the traits in 
human nature that go to make up a good character, such 
as modesty, self-control, and abstemiousness. Whoever 
possesses these qualities will benefit by instruction and 
education, and is on the road to intellectual perfection. 
He, however, that is wanting in character, can never 
attain to the highest degree of intellectual perfection. 
It is possible to correct faults of the intellect by 
proving to any one that his ideas are wrong, but 
extremely hard to turn a bad character into a good 
one. To break bad habits requires constant introspection 
and self-restraint. Man's love for himself is boundless ; liv- 
ing up to the rule of yvaBi aeavrov is, therefore, an extremely 
difficult art. 20 Men are properly divided into three distinct 
classes, according as they are governed by one or the other 
of the phases of the tripartite soul. The majority of men 
fall a prey to the passions that come from the lowest or 
appetitive soul. Their sole aim in life is the gratification 

15 The same comparison is used by feizzali, pIS 'JUJD , 67, bottom ; 
Joseph Ibn Aknin, 1D1D *1SD , edited by Bacher, Berlin 1910, p. 108; 
comp. ib., 176, and below, note 75. 

19 See my article on Palquera, JQR., 1910, p. 160, n. 15. 

20 This sentence will be discussed in a special article, see note 10. 


of their sensual desires. Others are dominated by the in- 
termediate or spirited soul, and this manifests itself in a 
morbid ambition for honors and power. A minority follow 
the better impulses of the highest, or cognitive soul, and 
modestly pursue knowledge and wisdom. 21 However, the 
three impulses are necessary for the perpetuation of man- 
kind. It is man's duty to control through his intellect the 
two lower forces and to keep to the middle course. 
Palquera gives a few rules on the manner of observing the 
golden mean. In conclusion, he asserts that all good quali- 
ties of character are clearly indicated in Scripture, espec- 
ially in Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. 

Part II. Chapter I. On Truth. Palquera draws a 
line between moral truth, or truthfulness in speech and 
action (DTiBe» 1313 iT"6nn DDK), and speculative, or intel- 
lectual, truth (-»«n m^nn riDK ), the realization of the 
true conception of things. This chapter is devoted to the 
moral aspect of truth. He has little to say on the subject, 
because truthfulness, as one of the moral qualities consti- 
tuting character, has been discussed in the preceding chap- 
ter. Here he gives little more than a collection of Scrip- 
tural verses, Talmudic passages, dicta of Aristotle and 
others on truth. He quotes from Aristotle, to whom he 
refers also as owb WTrt sjlDl^an 'the famous Greek phi- 
losopher': "Uprightness is the noblest of all moral quali- 
ties, outshining even the splendor of the morning and the 
evening stars." 22 

Some people, divinely inspired, are capable of sacri- 
ficing their very lives for truth. These are exemplified in 
the patriarchs and the prophets. Solomon puts the proc- 

21 See below, note 87. 
" See below, note 95. 

palquera's "treatise of the dream" — malter 463 

lamation of truth into the mouth of God's "Hokmah" 
(Prov. 8, 1-8). Love for truth is man's real life; 
those who have no regard for truth can hardly 
be considered real men. Therefore, the Talmud calls 
the wicked dead (Berakot 186). Lying is the root 
of all evils, while righteousness and honesty are the 
life-spring of all existence. Lying leads to hypocrisy. 
Said 'the famous Greek philosopher': "The liar is pre- 
ferable to the hypocrite ; for the former sins only in speech, 
the latter also in his actions; worse than both is the arro- 

Chapter II. On Speculative (or Intellectual) 
Truth. The highest truth in an intellectual sense is to 
be compared to the summum bonum in the ethical sense. 24 
Just as all men aspire to reach the absolute good, so all 
thinkers seek to attain the absolute truth; while but few 
succeed. For the acquisition of perfect truth, as is hinted 
at by David (Ps. 25, 5), is possible only through divine 
assistance. Two ways lead to the cognition of truth. The 
first and surest way is through the study of the Torah 
and the ideas involved in it, such as the existence and unity 
of God, creatio exnihilo, God's Providence over individuals 
among men and over the species among other creatures, 25 
reward and punishment, and other noble teachings ex- 
pressed or hinted at in the Bible and elaborated in the teach- 
ings of the rabbis. Any one who penetrates into the true 
meaning of the words of the Scriptures will find therein 
divine secrets and truth which transcend the comprehen- 

23 See below, note 114. 

24 See the references in note 117. 

25 Following Maimonides, Guide, III, 17, 18; see Munk ad locum, 131, 
n. 1. 


sion of the philosophers. Various verses are quoted in 
support of this assertion. 

The second way of acquiring truth, which is only an 
auxiliary method, is through the study of those doctrines 
of the philosophers which contain axiomatic truths or 
"first principles" (rWiC&O rrfat^D = a PX ai). The truth 
contained in these principles proceeds, according to 
some, from the senses, while, according to others, it eman- 
ates from God, the source of all knowledge. The latter 
view, according to some, is indicated in the fourth of the 
Eighteen Benedictions : "Thou grantest man wisdom" 
(njn d*m!> pin nriK ) . 2e Whatever is consonant with these 
principles and does not contradict any of the statements of 
the Torah or of tradition is acceptable truth. 

On the basis of a passage of the Talmud (Erubin 530), 
Palquera asserts that our ancestors, living on holy soil 
and being so near in time to the prophets and the other 
holy men from whom they received traditional truth direct, 
were not obliged to resort to the study of the works of 
the philosophers. We, however, in the diaspora, with minds 
dulled by oppression and persecution, find it necessary to 
study the works of the genuine philosophers and to learn 
their methods of demonstration in order to support thereby 
what we know already by tradition. 2 ' Therefore the rabbis 
say, When a man dies, he is asked whether he has studied 
philosophy ( noana nbsbsi, Shabb. 31a). Wherever the 
views of the philosophers contradict the Torah or tradition 

26 This matter will be taken up for detailed discussion, see above, note 10. 

27 Comp. Saadya, mjHl ni31D« , Leipzig 1864, 11: D'J»J?B1 O'lpiH UflJK 

•k'sjd i3j?T» ■" ia "w 03 13 ^*n narw one insn D'3'jy '3»3 umin '3'jya 
jnaa n«nton;and »&., 12: nn [Vj»n] h* wirh iipnai i«j» ...ntn jrm tyi 

JHD3 WtfxK UP'lintS'; see also Maimonides, Guide, I, 71. 

palquera's "treatise oe the dream" — malter 465 

they should be rejected, otherwise they are to be accepted. 
This has been the practice of all the pious men in Israel 
since the close of the Talmud, some of the Geonim, and 
many of the Spanish scholars, especially Maimonides; they 
refuted the doctrines antagonistic to the Torah and spread 
true knowledge broadcast. 

Palquera then enumerates the various branches of 
science — namely, mathematics, logic, physics, and meta- 
physics — and recommends them for study in the order 
given. He quotes, however, the opinion of Maimonides, 
who requires the study of logic before mathematics (Guide, 
I, 34). Of the works written on these sciences, those of 
Aristotle, including with them also the works of his com- 
mentators, are the best and the most reliable. This U 
because Aristotle examined the views of all his predecessors 
and accepted only what is true or nearest to the truth. 
However, a passage from Maimonides in which the latter 
has placed the Stagirite only one degree below the prophets, 
provokes Palquera's opposition. "In my humble opinion," 
he says, "the master has exaggerated on this point." 2 * The 
truth is, Palquera continues, that in our days, any one who 
wishes to add some secular knowledge to the knowledge 
he has acquired through the study of the Torah must try 
to understand Aristotle. He should, however, never lose 
sight of the Torah, for it comes before philosophy 
(Abot, 3, 11). 

In a somewhat lengthy discussion that follows, Pal- 
quera tries to show that the final aim of all thinking is 
the cognition of Him who is the source of all truth and 
the cause of all existence. In fact, some philosophers 
assert that, in truth, God alone has existence or reality. 

28 See below, note 141. 


Again, 'the famous Greek philosopher' is quoted to the 
effect that metaphysics ought to be named the science of 
truth because its aim is to reach God, the highest truth. It 
is obvious, Palquera adds, that since God is the cause of 
truth, we cannot attain truth if we do not know God, for 
the effects are known only through their causes. 29 

In a short concluding paragraph, ending with the quo- 
tation of a Midrash, Palquera now gives the sum and sub- 
stance of his thesis. The comprehension of truth must 
be the ultimate aim of human endeavor. The prerequisites 
to science in the quest of truth are righteousness, or the 
life of perfect harmony attained through adherence to the 
golden mean; mercy, or the conduct that goes beyond the 
strict requirement of justice; and loving-kindness and 
charity, the source of peace on earth through which the 
world exists, 80 as the Psalmist says (Ps. 85, 11-12): 

"Mercy and truth are met together, 
Righteousness and peace have kissed each other. 
Truth springeth out of the earth, 
And righteousness looketh down from heaven." 
As interpreted by Palquera, the Psalmist's words, "mercy, 
righteousness, and peace" stand for the moral qualities; 
"peace" evidently in the sense of harmony, as used in Greek 
philosophy, being their final aim, while "truth" represents 
the highest perfection of the intellect. When character and 
intellect work in unison, then salvation will be at hand 
and God's glory will dwell in the land (ib., verse 10). 

The above is a brief resume of the leading thoughts 
in the present treatise. For details concerning the text and 

" See above note 10. 

*» Contains an allusion to chapters 1-2. The whole is a philosophic 
reproduction of Mishnah Abot c. i, end; see above p. 458. 

palquEea's "treatise oE the dream" — MAWER 467 

the relation of the work to other works and other authors 
the reader is referred to the notes. It is a habit of Pal- 
quera's, observable in all his productions, to intersperse his 
discourses with numerous quotations, without specifying 
the authors. As he himself remarks in one of his works, 31 
he quotes only men of the highest rank by their names; 
minor lights are quoted by some general epithet. In no case 
are the books of the authors mentioned from which the 
quotation was taken. It has therefore been no easy task to 
identify and trace these quotations to their respective 
sources. Some I have had to content myself with tracing 
to one or the other of his own works without going back 
to the original source. A few I could not identify, be- 
cause the Arabic works from which they are probably 
taken are not at my disposal. It goes without saying that 
in Palquera's text biblical verses, talmudic and midrashic 
passages, or general allusions to Midrash and Talmud are 
given without references. The proper references are added 
in the notes. 

The celebrities quoted in this treatise by name are 
Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Isaac Israeli, and Maimonides. 
Aristotle is also referred to three times (pp. 486, 488, 493) 
under the epithet "the famous Greek philosopher." Hip- 
procrates is meant by the phrase CNSnn E>fcO (p. 474). 
"the greatest of the physicians" (see below note 58). 

A few words about the manuscript may be added here 
to what was said above (p. 453). It is the sixth number in 
a codex, paper, 5 by 13^ inches, containing thirteen different 
pieces by various authors. It is written in Italian rabbinical 
characters, dating from various centuries. Our treatise 

31 ni7j?D!1 "1BD, or "Book of the Degrees," Berlin 1894, p. 12; comp. 
JQR., 1910, p. 173, n. 42. 


begins on leaf 63a and ends 836. Unfortunately part of 
the manuscript is missing between 63ft and 64a, a fact 
that escaped the notice of Luzzatto, who described the 
codex (see above, p. 454) and also of Margoliouth. In all 
probability, however, it is only one leaf that is missing, 
and it belonged to the introduction. The gap - is indicated 
in the following edition by a blank line. 

The copyist, it appears, had a rather limited knowledge 
of Hebrew. A considerable number of mistakes are due to 
his ignorance. These will be pointed out in the notes on the 
respective passages. 

The treatise is followed by an extract from the ibd 
nniDTi ("Book on the Elements") by Isaac Israeli (see above 
p. 459), which was published by S. Fried, Drohobycz 1900. 
The extract, in Fried's edition, p. 12, line 1, to p. 13, line 
13, does not fit into the plan of our treatise. .Some doubts 
may be entertained as to whether it was appended to this 
treatise by Palquera himself, for immediately after this 
extract there are two other short discourses, 82 both anony- 
mous, which, owing to their style and content, can not pos- 
sibly be ascribed to Palquera. Luzzatto, 38 however, evi- 
dently considered it a part of Palquera's work, and, as I 
think, rightly so. There is a lengthy passage from one of 
Israeli's works embodied in this treatise (see text, p. 476). 
This makes it probable that the extract, too, was added 
by Palquera. There is, moreover, some internal evidence 
for this assumption. Israeli's work, the Arabic original of 
which is lost, was translated into Hebrew before the year 
1230 by Abraham Ibn Hisdai of Barcelona. A comparison 

32 Both are written in the style of the later Midrashim and may be 
extracts from such. 

33 Hebr. Bibliogr., VI, 19. 


of this translation with the extract at the end of Palquera's 
treatise makes it evident that the latter is not taken from 
Ibn Hisdai's translation, but is an independent translation 
from the Arabic of Israeli, in all probability from the hand 
of Palquera. The extract under consideration contains 
three proofs for the theory that the soul is not merely an 
accident of the body perishing with it, but a substance with 
an independent and imperishable existence. Palquera, as 
it will be remembered, had also discussed the nature and 
functions of the human soul. He may not have found a 
convenient place in his text for Israeli's views, which are 
also his own, and therefore left them for an appendijc. 

The two translations of Israeli's text correct and ex- 
plain one another at several points, as is shown in the notes. 
The extract being of importance for the history of Jewish 
writings on philosophy, it is worthy of publication in the 
form given to it by Palquera, as an appendix to his ethical 

In submitting this text of Palquera's treatise, it is 
hoped that it will prove a welcome contribution to the 
ethical literature of the Jews. In conclusion, I wish to ex- 
press my sincere thanks to Prof. Israel Friedlaender, who, 
while in London, secured for me the photograph of the 
manuscript, and to the Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America in New York, in whose possession the photograph 
now is, which generously defrayed the expense of obtaining 
it for my studies. 


.b"i pitp^b did uw Tn n-Qncy maN [63a] 

rwpi>B 21D ae n"n man nasi di^ nan> rnai« mat* 
paym j»»pnai maxn ntu nana nw ai!>n3 ntw now 5>"r 

:nn!>nnn n»n m 
C34 aw m«iS> B'w amt< aont? D»n rann K««rr ■>» 5 

aiD ni«*ii> D'anx aw amx cans a^n yann wxn n o u^y 
an!> p*e> niansn B"nn B"n noto J>"n o n»i5> neaNi 
*pjijj!> Q'phsS> iiavn aian aitai ton ahyn "n am *iid 
vw 1 ? "nxa ,tkt>!> njsv new n3ia 3i no fe no to «ia!> 
n t r - iano] nate [63k] uijy ( 36 nmr> inn tiwi jno I0 
noittt? naunn nan nononi ana •oaJ' a<pnon anann am 
C37 ia i3iTtj> 'oi'i i3td5> ppn anu nr o nan!? an«n an3 
Tntm i!» nnno mae pea lea: iok» pb ixj fe no!>B> noto 
naii .anano by wn Boaaoe anmn i>ao nocw anxn 
nnv t?!>i antm J? hv nw irvi»-*nn pn ■o (39 noita nos 15 
ton .any nxoa vb ntoini uie^o mni> nneoi mis iroo 

34) Ps. 34, 13. 

35) lb. 31, 20; comp. Talmud Bullin 142. 

36) I2>. 34, 14. 

37) Comp. Talmud 'Arakin 156 and Maimonides, Commentary on Abot 

r, 16. 

38) Prov. 13, 3. 

39) The passage seems to be a direct quotation from some author; 
possibly however, it is only an allusion to 'Arakin 156, Palquera giving 
the thought of the Talmud in his own words, as he does with the Midrash 
quoted below, note 41. In Palquera's tCp3D , lgb, the same passage occurs 
without reference to any source. The sentence D'lJ? DK03 I'D ANIID is a 
play on a legal rule in Baba Mez. 36. 

DiJtTIOI DTl'DlS Dnm [ r - MB>tt] a'JB>3 "l»B"tJ> T1¥ t3 

iterr naja is mn ijjs anan nanaa owenm .B'pno 
i«a Hint? nan nmi> k^ -inm!' *nv '3 n5>e>OD !>jn in 

(40 "inaj pa ni>ji pa mn 

n^c aj?an ia (41 naixn nai naaj nan .nan ii> pnb> [ 6 4«] 5 
iisiio aijnaja nw np^nn- 'jjjd aia o wa idnj 
a'Kiaan 5>a vn np^nan »b)b ^ tiok *m nn ninann 
i>y rnxE'm &?ajn bi!>b> ma ant? anan ww nam .a"mu 
ai^a piwin Bnyt? 'jti>!> ne>tnn "wn <np!>n nnw^ 

.K'ajn- ai^3 wni nun IO 
(42 a^tonpn 5>»» piv .^n own ji»*nn -ijran 
n^antr iaa 5>ainn a*i!> tpaam nraai> anxn *iij ^^Don 
nvni" nun n^an ta wan aipn S>x na^ B'3 injrf' n^aan 
K>ajn new ta 5>i> ,no!>ij? 5>k na^ nsyoi b>bj!> (43 (?) 3310 
!>"r itdk nan mxnn tva nsna »b) rnajn naS>a:i[ 6 4&] 15 
aniE'fija [ r - awmn] a^an e"i (44 nS njnje> 103 il> mn 
e>ajn npna pay an!> pni aau ppna ai/wi ataj? by 
(45 iaiD tipn3 ini!nne>n !>a a^oc at«3 an njni n'enjxn 
tyann i^ki ie>aj nwia ^ennm nan ptni ana rwB> 
ppn 'jb-d iBia ppna hne" !"3e>an S>a« myaai v!>no 2 ° 
loaan m»n M3i3 minn nnan ■o j/it "mi .ie>aj 

40) Here the manuscript is defective, see above p. 468; the content can 
be supplied, however, at least in part, from the B>p20 , I. c. 

41) Refers to Midrash Ber. Rab. IV, 6: ....310 '3 <3B>3 3TI3 fN nnS 
D'OS D'D 1'3 S'lSD TV1 "IDMIP npi^HD n»133 13B> "IB1K KJ'iH 'l; comp. 
above note 39; Abr. Sab'a, TIBII 111S, Venice 1523, fol. I, co/. 6, 

42) See above, note 10. 

43) The reading is doubtful, but 331B is the nearest emendation 
(comp. Gazzali, pit 'JtKB, 134: PE^H D331D Kin t)l»l) and is the proper 
parallel to 12JH5. 

44) Babli Shabb. 152&. 

45) Comp. below, note 59. 


rMupm py yn b»n aim pn!> 5>naji inva noon napi 
npiai' ana Nine? D^nst? nan na!>ai train ppn5> naD 
noiNi .nbvab naw ioa w&i!n tnsn *iu!> 5>iboo!>i 
i>y mina nvna tnx!> yr wn f 6 5«] di!>b> <a 
fiun nioE>J> wnoe>o J>y now in« io mo^n niiano 5 
tnxn not?na jarr mi. )b nvpn rpn *iy win cpnono 
b« in (46 myxoNno win coon win pTDSon cnanno 
D'ynn o^aNon n!»aNi 5>atpan wa monn b» in nann 
tid«3 nto Viwfo mv man mvoai .aion Iondo nanm 
vm 'a ^ysn m5> niaivp- riiny nnNi> nvm nvnm nmyn IO 
ansa e» top naN !>"t nos nan b>biJ> pnoi *iun tdbd 
ana .Tn «!> (48 nio^n m 5>yi (47 yae> iann» ayn lyatro 
in pen n"t>b in cnan >3» nnN^ n^>n ia B>ont5>n5> <wn 
N^ao ms [65k] ija nxpoa nan ^a ynrn naat?o 5>pn!> 
nmv pnb> noiN w& a"y *in yaon bv rpaana ^n n^ *5 
tnian ia wa Kin nonisoi • nisnan nTotmnn bv wtmb 
.in«ae' 10a n"y ytp^N nyni nnp Nnpi noj5> 5>yan nto 
!>yi win .ptno ninnwvi ia nae>nom (49 5>"t woan t r - insac?] 
Kii'i ni'a m« nnnm n!>b> yn nan !>a» moB'Ji V't don ta 

46) See /QK., 1910, p. 160, n. 25. 

47) Babli Sanhedrin 1070; comp. Yerushalmi Ketub. V, 8; Palquera's 

nnan jvbwi , 14 f.; Gazzaii, /. c, 201. 

48) The author alludes here to the Aristotelian doctrine that the sense 
of touch is the lowest of all senses; see below, note 79. 

49) This has reference to a passage occurring only in Yerush. Yebam. 
II, 4 and Wayyikra Rab., XXIV, 6: 3W3n 1DD TOSl »tfi p miff '1 10K 

e>np Kips ninpn p erne Mints' '» Sa» inns'? j'»np ntfiBS niny nene 
mn »np D'rf>« vh »a »njn« nj hjh n^nb mow n'B3i» p». 

Palquera misinterprets the passage taking it to enjoin celibacy, while in 
fact it is only a general exhortation to holiness and chastity in sexual 
intercourse. Maimonides, Guide, III, 8, refers to the same passage, but 
does not use it as an argument for celibacy; comp. Munk, ad locum. Stein- 
schneider's suggestion that Palquera remained single (see my article in 
JQR., 1910, p. 157) gains hereby much in probability. 

iTKfiBD S^> , tJ>E3J1 Pjy litt >3 (51 11DK1 (50 Tlh^2 n«»1D H'5> 

c^on naanm minn. 'rjjn nae>n»n <a jiti (wn) 
jmb nx 133 (52 5>"t no« t3i n»a!> imw won is -nnnnna 
S»m cis ma: sin p« d« amon np5> W3B>a m 5>ii3o na 
t^Dsai 'n mo tj'sa nai' na «!>n (33 *ia*w nnana sin 5 
^a hwnn ^ nan !>k fat ibk [ 66a l oanm .»!>d na» 
p noixi naa D"»prn *inv 13 dm Dnnnn nihaoo sin 
nini>n ana nnSw a'inn D^ason ^3 p sin ddtibo 13t 
noN3 nwam nnian !>3son <m dj u!> raw (55 nisnn 
!>3 D'^3: nun miwai .(as nmoi tiid p nt by ~wnt\ u5> IO 
niE>y!> k!>b> man naera l>- ini^] m^ '3 tptwwn 
diwjp noant? 103 nun euw cn^v t? 1 ^ onain onis 
ny>T> 5>!pj pwn npi .13 m«n^ nmv rs nana n3i nn 
!>j; lau mojw mrw n a!> it man ton p nixnan rumn 
(«V) npya kti iww [66t] rs p ca:i> '5>a sintr liuana *5 


nos .(57 nisnan runjna tnto mwa waa nan 'asi 

50) Aboda Zarah 20b; Maimonides, /. c. 

51) Hullin 37J. The verse from Ez. 4, 14 is not quoted correctly. 

52) Sukkah 52*. Maimonides, Guide, III, 49 (Munk, p. 41s), gives the 
same exposition of the passage. 

53) Jerem. 23, 29. 

54) Comp. flaan fl'tf XI , 1 5 and the ref erencces given below, note 87. 

55) Maimonides, Guide, III, 48. 

56) lb., Ill, 33 (Munk, 262, n. 2). 

57) Most of the following rules are taken from Maimonides' famous 
Epistle on Hygienics, addressed to Al-Malik Al-'Afdal, son of Sultan 
Saladin. This treatise was translated into Hebrew by Moses Ibn Tibbon, a 
contemporary of Palquera, in 1244, and first published in Kerem Chemed, 
III, 9-31. In his enumeration of Maimonides' medical works Ibn 'Abi 

'Usaibi'a quotes it under the title 4.9c^2.H _xV Jo* d (.Regimen sanitatis — 
Hygienics). Some of the manuscripts of the Hebrew translation bear the 
corresponding title: niK'-OPI mi"ljn(3 10X0) 1SD . Steinschneider, 
Hebr. tTbers., 770, and later in ArabiscJie Literatur der Juden, 214, however, 
doubts whether this title of Ibn 'Abi 'Usaibi'a is the original one. From 


'ltanD Twn!> rrnn nixmn rnnnn o (58 n^ann aw 
m'DK' iP5? nt nana !>b rum njiwnn n5>w? nans/ai ^sono 
mxri' rron i!>s (59 a"3tDin idkk> no aita nei .rnxnan 
D^ro vfooi rpn mnw nan «mtf idid j<niae> ids ib>bj 
siBDon lnona!' trw m« <»» ina axon k!> o Kim n'Di 5 
*ini town? hd 'as n!> lniN "i}/B» k^>k [ r - idik] dik «6a 
worn mjmn vw 1P3 1 Kim nw pkd idik »!>a i>3iK 
iy .WB33 nr W «5>n mom iiDjm s!>e> na nniK wd,i 

iW» IK bKOD mm JTDD VW i>33 M^DH '3 JM"m .183 

ddi [*• pjnai] wnji ions k!>d ms '»e n»3 '3 [67a] 10 
m!"3K njui» n^aa b» n a -idikh pixi .one wtn ^« dji 
5>3K'e> ins pki D^nn an nao dik ija ana <i!>brn.(eo 
pnn ^3i/rn k^k> iitd !>!/ into nwsrro 1^8 mKrp xl'tr m,!/a 
riKT '3 mwino nvpD can b»b> msn n^sxnD jnD'i iikd 

the passage before us it would appear that the Arabic original used by 
Palquera (comp. below, notes 58 and 59) bore the same title; for the words 
niX'ian rUiianD are not to be taken simply as a general expression 
for hygienics — we would then expect flJinjna, as is on p. 476, 1. 14 — ■, but 
rather as a direct quotation of Maimonides* work. Other parallels to the 
following passages are found in Maimonides' niJH niaSri, 3-5, and 
Tirv>n 1BKB, pp. 36-38. 

58) Refers to Hippocrates; comp. above p. 467; Steinschneider, Hebr. 
Obers., p. 658, n. 35. The passage is quoted from Maimonides' Epistle (p. 
10), mentioned in the foregoing note, but not from the Hebrew translation 
of Moses Ibn Tibbon, which is entirely different, running as follows: 

nyu'n jo jnatwi tram j»twi \a lotpna nwnan munn taipisx ibkb...; 
comp. ib., p. 11: rvana ni«nan mann 'a taipis« ibnb \ih mp iaai 

flJJU'fJ ]0 JliaBTl; see next note. 

59) In Moses Ibn Tibbon's translation the passage reads: D"lNn a'Han 17 

>a nTi D»jn D'»Sna Sxa rvn» n'S? aiai> "ib>k inona »» ina idsj? 
mi5?E" »7« *«nts inv manaS kibdb jn> mn 'aaa irm «san »S nn« 
aitwri natrnai nytf-^an >*no ini; Sax' wm 71307 Saints* no >B7 wSj? 

leua nt nt?j?' kSi nSnm -nnj?n kSb* »-o nj?»an inana npian »a'ay; 

comp. fiazzali, Ethics, 134, 136. The lines over the words show the chief 
differences in the translations. 

60) Judah Ibn Tibbon in his Testament (J13n J3N ItlW *1 HN11S, 


[r- won] anna !>3Kon nwi nye> ~\nxb $>03n nixnn 
5>3K' k!>i («0 naniDDsn bv 133' k!> ini>3K'BO les. itvt^n 
m («0 S>wnn!> nep dj !>3ko !>i/ !>3j/nn!> bp pn ioxo 
dm u ( sic ) 5>pyn>i pin !>3Kon uo33 nDEpp qik ^ao 
nana Nine »d anoi iiwa non ii>B> nsoiovsne 'o sin n.n 5 
moipo$>i .unjo a^rvp no >aa nw *m« !>ai [ 6 7&] 
&03D3 nnix nin!> man, bv n!>i D'jnjom mono rn^jD 
wkb> Siena J»mo nw Rim pen 13 {5" !>jiid tiro b» '3 

JIX-PO lniPU^ »D DTK '330 B»l niK3 tltO JTO !>331 3mo 

k^c no i!> 5»wb» noo npan nov ia by onion o'oitono IO 
uo33 i!oj/rvB> •>» 3"a]/Nt tnao nvo inim mini' 5w 
ism n!>v co* niK3 13 nm nms' k^ D'jnti nwton 
cjieon D'jiton '3 -low .(ei nwvaoi nix»!>ro nun mn!> 
S>3iyo wkb> no nj/ ioimn amsmni 5>iam D'w ivo ppuo 
inxn pono {owe noo inr nno [68a] ^job* no nxoi J 5 
inn ani> lyaen ipaanea i!okji ounyn pa (62 -iokj uminai 
Q'K&iino B"i .inv bw m '3 n^Sn rut? 'jso 3ion anion 
nnoi jawbw iiw aimi ip33 !>3Kon b"5>b> bsww live 
an^n k!>k !>ax' k!> anmi -itmn ipaa man ^awt? neat? 

edited by Steinschneider, Berlin 1852), p. 10, admonishes his son: pmm 
fllS'3K yiQTW rf>'3« ^3«n ■?«! p'tnn 31J?n )S. This may be the source 
of Palquera who changed the sentence slightly to fit the text. He quotes 
the same in tfpSO, 6a, introducing it by D3nfl 1I3N1, and adds to it the 
following epigram: 

son ib»n in» bstm V?ij5» 
noD» a"ih puk «)U nw» 

l'V»3 B»K itt'3' ^OKO B»l 

. nown muD K'vri 

The same rather common-place thought is expressed in the rime quoted 
by Judah Ibn Tibbon («'i., p. n) in the name of Samuel Hanagid. 

61) Comp. Maimonides* Epistle, p. 30. 

62) • Ex. 16, 12. 


ny n n!>i (63 nonn man oy 3!>n tew i&v 11x1 na$> 
now [ r - wim] nynv3 cyn d^n n^r <a nbn 
neon ppno "inv Kin teyr\i n^d dn^n pnn '3 [ r - now] 
nxiann "m l>y iniriB>l> pas n^n< ptfi .nr mi 5oyrv «}>eo 
k!>k inwB>!> 'iki pxi nt ujdu unjfc> 103 ny 5>D3 k5> 5 
T^ am ^d («0 n5»a«n *ian xi> (64 haarn ins [68&] 
pif j)in Titan 5>» p>n ivrie'i 5>aj/ru k!> pnyi fim pton 
■pSio kiito •'Jbd S>iayn< "hik5> pa 5>ia»n diip pa -nao 
nnsn 5>y inint^ ■"ltn pk la ioai .y-in won nun niivp{> 
(«v) tjyo, titjorr i>y imn&>!> ^iint? •to nTPoatwi iai>ai *° 
iniot? , »i' > , 5?id Mini niprrn ins uoo nw «nani u»o 
rvntpi j no inw w uoo D^yo 1 c?n mint? to ptn 

.(65 k>k ?y e^a p^ d^opn 
imsnaa dian rumna iixo ^yio nan uoa -on -"jam 
npin runorr n.t nox .(ee ^jwh pns» Tonn ims iat i^ni ^ 
CD^n QH^ion tesmri? nnnoon d^axon ni»ax -ioi!>a 
nn , noi> nan bo "inn ni&p-on dnoiK> t 6 9«] an D^aio 
am cno i!mn onni &naNn» rnnoa cana &nfc>i d^iay 
n^nn nnm d^nn nxisna mso n^yio nimm n ta ioai 
(sic) ci^-i DiDyBK> ty cnim Taw na ai tot oni> b">b> 2 <> 

63) Maimonides' Epistle, 30. 

64) lb., p. 28; comp. tfp30, 156. 

65) Maimonides, /. c, in the name of Galen: D'JBpn vbtt 12ip> Mf»... 

ofo i3D» lysn np'tf >imi )<*t '3 dwSxj iom isa... iimd orf> pno Min o 
nsty n^itypi tim V'i mjriaw nts^tf "iriM dm '3. 

66) This passage is probably taken from Israeli's Arabic work on 
Diaetetics parts of which exist also in I^atin (Basle 1570) and in Hebrew 
translations (unpublished) which are not at my disposal; comp. Stein. 
Schneider, Arab. Liter., p. 40, No. 3. — The text before us offers some 
difficulties due to incorrectness of copyists. The construction of the first 
sentence is not clear, nor do the words DflSlt 'fl^DC "]3 give any satisfactory 
sense. D*t3?n is used by Palquera also in his other works for TWTv) = 
kumores; comp. e. g. tPBJn , c. 2; t5*p2!3, 14-16 and passim. Dltt^D is the 
Aramaic spelling for Dlfl'D (tPpiD , 130, i5*) = "obstruction." 

palquera's "treatise of the dream" — mai/ter 477 

mn p 5>yi .an!>in awn 5>k i>!>n nsis-n n^nrr nnv 1 k!> 
injiat? n^ann i>K y>jnJ> nenn Sw^ adrift ana aitan 
lo^ k^p nrrfi "ia!>a npnn mnjna n"i>nrt riKiBio i^k 
-ipbk <kb>i am^x mann iwai nipirn dtu?^ kS>k d^ddtt. 
a^oys n^w na ^ , aipin a^asoa mrtB> runonn ^a anim 5 
[r. Qiay ?] epjD a^im laua B"t? [ r. i»^] ib)>. niai 
Dirba "idki .i^inoa »tw [69^] naaa bibb b»b> >d!>i D'dji 
Kipjn hnort »b>ip "wi laan 'bibb nnniB npin runjnm 
own nvan '3ki 'jraon u>jj> !>k iiTWi natdv mya 
film fumna Dnanina iKa-irui a^p a^rt ar& lyiKt? a^an 10 

.t«a ny ^nn arr^yc !>pn anriKi 
Kin (67 y\wvTfi\ b^bjst nm^ .twwn Di^a wn -iwn 
moann ina aiKa nvyaD irw nnano B"i mnnn nio'^a 
iia!>a nupj jno b»i nuipmn nimipon |w nvyaon 
jno nuion n"a (es mmy 5>a 'a anoixn lpim .bnnai 15 
n"a» B"B> 10a 'a "onn aval pi bik ijaa niKsaj nunm 
Ijapi k!>b> 10 oriDi aian ica [7°*] nvrnea naion 5op» 
kS>b> 'e anni ann ioa iikd !>na wpa fe ini^api bki 
ano e» bik m U'oy p aipym nyaKfi b^jb bib>3 intop* 
mya nnn (to *U3*» i»5>m paen Kim ni5>pa ioir>n bp^ ••» 20 
^d anoi naS>a nma nau Kin 'a nK» !»d3 mano pana 
xh Bat? (71 tdkj l^yi 'nan Kim niaaai wpa lm^rc? 
pn!> i»h miam b'jb aisn im^ap' 1 k5>» 'DBnoi al> iBn 
niann una cnana i^iKn [hk] cinan bk (72 idkj vi>yi 

67) See note 14. 

68) Innate qualities or natural instincts; see above, note 10. 

69) In the manuscript here follow the words D'JB 0W3 with dots 
above the letters as a sign of cancellation. The copyist made the mistake 
through homoioteleuton, but noticed the omission before he proceeded and 
corrected it. 

70) Prov., 17, 10. 

71) lb,, 10, 13. 

72) lb., 27, 22; comp. B'pSD, 180, bottom; niSj?Ofl, 40; and 6azzali, 
Ethics, 153. 


ntj>yn id nnnnrr ]&:n& 1D31 •inl'is vi>»D non t^ ^i?a 
tsji n!>ts3i> nmym minytJ' !>■ i^a«] i&ik irajy 
s!>b> ik nmyi [7°*] kS> dm nmyn na i»yin cidi3,i 
D-' '!> rrnvo b>bj!> pw (73 rvwni .oyo twit? ik Dujy ;nn 
e» '3 nr tiiiDni. nvm «I>1 m^onon aki t?son ni5>iys ^yan? 5 
in 1K-W31 nn&i nprnn !>ipn< Diana wawvn dik iJ3e 
ivt nV icaa D'Dyain djivi 'So ipnx* pwo 131 lyoc 
m& nvx .TT'vn '3 DneiK b» p 5»»i . iSov «S>1 pint?!* 
Dj'Kt? n"33i nijDp3 mii^no nanw no Divan rmion 
n^nnnni nto niuam taim rujiK3 a!>n 11103 omits 10 
131 ni3ion pan 3iyni nV ion t3 !>yi wm S>meo 
'o one! .ni3iD nj^t? csm niJ>iy& aba armrmwns 
»b b« mi^no i3i rraioa 3iyn> \7 Ia ] 13 lost? 
anpon ikb> ay i3loni3ioS> miwn So 13 DnoiK b»i .tan 
S>y iiyo nxuni .pjpni juynm npitpnm mam oysno 15 
nim: nision Rite* dik,i SonDnso o Dnnai !>1D3 
di«3 msnon o^n 'rr niSwn .niot Dnijo p» marione 
Sok»S> dik,i man n!>B3 i!>« o (74 yirm nun "n nisnS 1 
n!> («<0 tPDnt2>03 !>nj njyn i!> im kS> i!>ki in inb» k5> 
yunn imo mannS* niaion nyijoi . 13 pontpo mn 20 
n^iinoo nnin k!> am nS> upbk rrrr Ki> (75 [ r - nyunnJ 

73) See above, note 10. 

74) Comp. 6azzali, Ethics, 66, 120 ft. 

75) The passage is somewhat obscure, but becomes clear through a 
parallel passage in Palquera's nAyDfl 'D , p. 46, where fiyiJJin '121D is fol- 
lowed by niyXOXnO nsm. The words nyUfin >m accordingly denote the 
movement away from the media via in the direction of the two 
extremes. The point that Palquera wishes to bring out here is 
to show that the rational soul whose task it is to check the 
passions of the appetitive soul can do so only through the aid 
of the intermediate or spirited soul, a theory which is taken from 
Plato; comp. Edwin Wallace, Aristotle's Psychology, Cambridge 1882, 
XXXVII, top. The same thought is very frequently expressed by dazzali 
in his Ethics, pp. 61, 67, 93 et passim, where also the comparison with the 
dog is made; comp. above, note 18. The whole passage is also in rinj?Di1, 

palquEra s treatise oe the dream — mai/ter 479 

!>sk h'jDwn B'wn wpn '3 vtok p iw ivjDjan e>bj3 
[71&] tiivhc 103 '3 i"xn. ^sk 3ion t?pH3 rraion 
p loa O«0 p 3^33 y»nD' nonan iivi> ^v k!>bo 
mwien !>y noy pmnnt? H3 jvjDjna rrmon ynwi 
i!> more nyn 'n!>in aion i?imn>e> ib>b«i . (76 novsp 5 
-pvn ti3k!>d3 nnn 'B3 vvb Kin- ni/unn n nw rtajm 
rwn '3 (77 noi'BK ioh p !>m .mi>p3 t3Wib>» ^ a!>3n rpn<n 

'3 nt?B« D1« ^3 ]?3D3 U'K tPDJH 'p!>nO ION 5>3 nWXDK 

nramtpo p'N mptn nvoran rwaj a<nt5>n n:»nn d« 

46; comp. also »'&., 36, and Joseph Ibn Saddik, JBp D^IJ?, ed. Horovitz, p. 
37; Horovitz, ZWe Psychologie bei den jild. Religionsphilosophen des 
Mittelalters, III, 177, n. 91, where reference to Schmiedl, Studien etc., 
Wien 1869, p. 145, is missing. So also Saadya, Emunot, Leipzig 1864, p. 

r4s:D'inKn ninsn Sp p» ipk sin rnann na bzt< (comp. Guttmann, 

Die Religionsphilosophie des Abraham Ibn Daud, Goettingen 1879, p. 219, n. 
1), and Abr. Ibn Ezra on Eccles. 7. 3: mtjtt tPB3n h$ rtBtMPt "laiflflB' inKl 

nnn nsant? ny nmx inynts' naarta poprmS fiBtwn nans nnn. 

Somewhat similar is the view of Aristotle, Ethics, I, 13, p. 1102&, 1. 29 ff. 

76) The phrase nBX3B> niNflBn is a combination of Platonic and 
Aristotelian terminology; see above, note 20. 

77) In the ni^yon 1BD, p. 46, bottom, this quotation from Plato is 
fuller and runs as follows: ljt» B>Bjri 'pSflB 1HK Sa [JlipSBN] fUBTt p tyl 

snap 1 ? rapi njn" mwi rnanon roan * n»nn dk >a 'ib>bk ms ^a yatsa 
(one ms. reads: rvnnO * fu»nni D'aitsn b'^j?bS m»no nj'Ki na»A mnooi 
j'tfriE" itPBK >« maion e>Bjn ^>ip^> myaiir dj'k niptn nvonan ni»Bj »nwi 

WySONH. The words between the two asterisks seem to have been omitted 
in our treatise through homoioteleuton, as runnfl may have been abbreviated 
into '<nn. The phrase "att> mn»Bl yiOB^! PttPp, suggests Abot, V, 
11. The whole passage seems rather of Aristotelian than of Platonic origin; 
comp. Nicom. Ethics, II, 9, p. 1109a 11. 24-26: did Kal Ipyov earl oirovdaiov 
eivat. h tKaoTQ jap to ftfoov \afiuv Ipjov, olov kvi$\ov to uiaov ov wavrbc 
aXKa eWorof. Maimonides, "Bight Chapters," 4, quotes the same in the 
name of the philosophers: »0 XXB>B> pllTll MW 133 1"1B« 133 D'BlDl'j'BJW 

piBi tana rwfnvn mbytfo nnon mbyvh b"i ehi nihyab j»taa turn; comp. 

Gazz&li, Ethics, 95: 11KB HITp K1H <J?SBKn toaj nflB» by TTPOfTW JHl; comp. 
Shemtob Ibn Shemtob, nWll, Venice 1547. fol. 4<}d. 


i&v ictti 13 nnan yixn tn^jn rtj»B> ica* 's n-ia-ioi> 

.?mnc i>y maion lajnna 
w one nw idi DnS"n 'yaa tmprn v>n D'aiDii^am 
nni) mvn wii2T\a \7 2a ] iTntr k!>k noisy inixni d'jb 
-n.oyni nwrr lain nan nnpB k>bm nt$>an o wna n!>mn 5 
na psi n*m runn «!> miy wbj t^ano wkc '»i iJ>xk 
row k!> e>i>n iniNi is d'jdphd koid i^unty inai (78 aiD 
nnw 'a p ma t?i>n niK.n iron* w siian [r- 'BiOi^ 
inai t?Bji> Hint? roun n*rp vb yaoa mm rnaion ib>bj 
t!>p a>B3n yixn ta ma *iua nwn t5>v tanaxft yiXDtp 10 
nnn nnxn nuvna Iwn pya n«nn o 101x1 .nnon in' 
nam »won nn (79 idinh to« nan ini« pinion sm 

78) On this discussion of the value of modesty comp. Ibn Gabirol's 
Ethics, I, 3, Arabic text, ed. Wise, New York 1901, p. 23, English transla- 
tion, ij. 63 f., and 6azzali, /. c, 107. 

79) This has reference to Aristotle's Ethics, III, 13 p. 11 186, ff. 11, 2-4; 
ical 66i-eiev hv dcKaioc kiroveidcoToc; eivat, art oi>x y avftpuiroi ia/iev VTrapxei, 
hXX y ££«'; comp. above, note 48. The idea that the sense of touch, on ac- 
count Of its function in the act of generation, is "a disgrace to humanity" 
was first introduced into Jewish literature by Maimonides, Guide, II, cc. 36, 40 
(Munk, 285, n. 3; p. 312), III, cc. 8, 49 (Munk, pp. 53, 416), and has 
since become a canon with mediaeval Jewish authors of all descriptions. 
Kaufinann in his work "Die Sinne," Leipzig 1884, p. 188 ff., gives a whole 
collection of passages from various authors who accepted this view and 
likewise quotes others who opposed it, among them Nahmanides. To this 
collection are to be added both Palquera and the anonymous author of the 

spurious annD rhzn in rmn man, p. 43 (also in D"aa-in niaitwi pip, 

Leipzig 1859, II, 35), as also the Karaites Elijah Bashyazi, W7N fiYW, 
Odessa 1871, fol. 196b, and Kaleb Afendopolo, see Steinschneider, Cat. 
Leyden, 131. Isaac Abrahanel, njmr> y'DtPD , Amsterdam 1644, fol. 90, 
bottom, and Moses Ibn Habib in his commentary on Bedaresi's DSlJ? fiaTD, 
Ferrara 1552, fol. 320, may also be referred to. Comp. also Ibn Aknin, "IBD 
1D1B, 76; Goldziher, Kitab, 46; Steinschneider, Polem. Literatur, 304, where, 
however, the reference to the commentary of Shemtob Palquera on Maimon- 
ides' Guide seems to be a mistake for Shemtob b. Joseph b. Shemtob of the 
fifteenth century. Among the opponents is to be included the Kabbalist 
Abraham Sab'a of Lisbon, about 1500, who in his 11DH 111S, Venice 1523, 
fol. 8a, col. 2, top, attacks Aristotle in the following words: NXDi SO DK1 

palquEra's "treatise of the dream" — mai/ter 481 

'33 io vnw nawnp anew trn .ntnnan di? tiring 13 '3 
DnrtDDC D,n3-in *ikb>3 [7 2 ^] oyw ants>ats> b"j/ki dis 
onatr n'Dsi'Dn train m i^troa dik 'jsd [r. DnnriDo] 
imaa n *wb>j fa^ira nan ima on3 d^ lasts' a"ys '3 
tri>n nisi mwnni mjni nii>yon ifir 13 nK-ints> no nan 5 
cpmynn jid kjeti n«n» m&a m ni*ni> !>3in an t3 5>$n 
(so w!>nd e>"3n'ts> tatr ^3 ipbjd K>"3nD man i-pi-pt? 15? 
31D noi .m^ro intrao -inr itra^o intra w id-w p 5>yi 
iri>« pitrnntr idd trpaRtr noi ion (si taann 131 D'in nni 
n^Duani nixnan .trsjn ni5>u;a nnntr nm d^vb dubtt 10 

nta 'n ian '3 137 wn nein ttwon tfin ioir n»n rS ni3>a pat? 7)?'73 »sva 
nan nSiyn »»r6 mxn n« riRiaa nrnpi ntou msa R'» >a ibh inisa ntn . 

Of the same opinion is Meir Aldabi of Toledo (1360) in his J131BR '7»3K>, 
III, 5, beginning. The Jewish philosophers before Maimonides expressed a 
higher opinion of the sense of touch. Ibn Gabirol, for instance, ppfl 
tPBiPI nitO, Pressburg 1896, II, brings it into relation with the under- 
standing: ,-U'an J'»0 Rin 1B>» EWBH W\r\ ; comp. Horovitz, Psychologie, p. 
140, n. 154, and Wise, /. c, 33. In ni7J?Bn, pp. 68, 69, Palquera quotes 
Aristotle directly as saying: rrtnjfl 13nBin RID 10R VWOn BMIil; 
comp. also 6azzali, Ethics, 139. 

80) The same is found in the Apophthegms ot Honein (D>BlD17'Bn >"ID1B) , 
II, 19, No. 10, ed. Ivcewenthal, p. 45: B»»3JV R71 D1K '330 B»>an>B> '0 
V3'V3 "py 1B>B37 1'R 1PB3B. In Gazzalis £rt.«, 107, the sentence reads: 

inSitn iSxr nmne -inv R>n i»B3» nnR3 nnn«a ts>ia>i ib>b3B ena» R7ts> »bi. 

(Sazzali's sentence is found literally in Joti. Alemanno's pttTW lytf, Halber- 
stadt 1862, p. 21a; comp. also Ibn Gabirol's Ethics, Arabic text, p. 23: 5 J 

*- i; u'cf^-i ^ c,*ri «iA3ia ^Ul ^* ^ci-j, J JiUS Jo. 

The Hebrew edition, Pressburg 1896, p. 30, has erroneously S'3BV6 for 
B>"3fin7 ; comp. Bahya, Duties, II, 5; S. Duran, Comm. on Abot III, 15, 
and KBIT f"IR Til, c. 2. 

81) I do not know to whom the author refers here in particular. In 
ni7j?0n , 36, nearly the same is quoted in the name of the "prominent 
ancient philosophers" ( D'SlBlpH D'BlD17>Bn 'ITIB ); comp. chapter 10 
of (Sazzali's Ethics. 


ie>bj rrrin ?ai t> tun 210.1 nTv m p rrnn dxi onnpoi 
•naan ni5>yD» n^D pki man m!>yoaB> [73 a ] nji^ya 
nw «!>i 'ni Dt?n o-na T>mn nbyao tovbyi rbra imi 
!>ap' 310 inmni ne» iyaots> »»i dwynn nnaa *6k n? 
•fr- miap'] inibp' nJ> nan want? »o 5>a« dnain nto 5 
b>bj!> !»in<i iiaytyn n^p 5>j*in n^oyan tra:i!> njpo noiom 
msa niRia iw nni^n. nyoi . («0 n^inn nnoivn 
D^aKaft man 5>» mn!»a noun 'a p^a nou Nine niton 
an«' dm pi rwom tuan arw ok pi vo* i>a p tse" 
iyn drn» awt nt (82 tnpn nra taton ion pi noann 10 

82) Ps. 58, 4. The phrase BHpn 11113 1310 is used by Palquera par- 
ticularly (see below, pp. 489, 490) with reference to the Hagiographa, see his 
miDrl miO , 23, 63, 85, 112, 135 ; Samuel Ibn Tibbon, D'Ofl lip', Pressburg 
1837, pp. 22, 62, 68, 100, 1741. (comp. also 137); Levi ben Gerson, 'n rlianSn, 
Leipzig 1866, p. 184; the Karaite Aaron ben Elijah, D'TI }>y, Leipzig 1844, 
p. 193, and pj? JJ, Gozloff 1864, fol. I2id; Simon Duran, DISK \X0 . II, 
14a, bottom, III, 496, 93a, top; Shemtob Ibn Shemtob, mtyil , Venice 
1547. fol. 16c; Moses Ibn Habib, Commentary on D^IJ? fUTIS 4", 160/ Isaac 
Abrabanel, D»jpt fllBJ?, Amsterdam 1739, p. 16, and H30N B>N1 , cc. 14, IS- 
This usage, as far as I know, was first established by Maimonides, Guide, 
II, 45 ("Second Degree"; the Hebrew phrase is also in the Arabic original 
which proves that it was intended as a technical term), to signify a lower 
degree of divine inspiration than that attributed to the prophetic books; 
comp. Munk, ad locum, 334, n. 2; Profiat Duran, IBN ntyj?D , 13, top, 
especially Maimonides, rDIETI rn37PI, 12, 4, and the very interesting discus- 
sion on the subject by Abraham ben David and his opponent Shemtob ben 
Abraham Ibn Gaon in Jljf 71J13, ad locum. Maimonides' view, adopted also 
by the Karaites Judah Hadassi (^3B , S, Alphabet 53, letter 'p ; comp. ib., 242, 
'B\ 375, 'H) and Aaron ben Elijah, D"n }>J? , 169, finds some support in 
the Talmud, where the order of succession is always D'31fl31 D'K'33 fHlfl; 
comp. e. g. Rosh hash. 32a (see Tosafot, ib., s. v. S'nflD), Baba Batra 13b. 
There is, however, no statement in the Talmud that the prophetic books rank 
higher than the Hagiographa as is the case with regard to the Pentateuch, 
Meg. 270; comp. 7Njnj )31p on Asheri Meg., I. c, letter N"3. The Gaonic 
tradition, quoted by Asheri on Rosh hash. 326, that the Hagiographa have 
precedence before the Prophets, does not refer to the books in general but 
to the place of single verses from the respective books in certain liturgical 
pieces. In tractate Sopherim, XVIII, 3 (misquoted by Asheri, /. c, see 
SsJflJ pip > ad locum) the Hagiographa are called CUS'lIp '131, and in the 

palquEra's "treatise oe the dream" — malter 483 

-inb>d tjiT'irnoa tant an amno lansx ns?D >3 3?3 nn toaa 
nsK mo3 (83 tokj tDnnai ttsao [73^1 owm DHl^H 

flJP^ *lfc>BK ^N '3 [ r - 101Jl] 'INI D1031 TriSH 1 1033 
(84 "ID6U 1331 IE" 1»3BB> '•D »!>K Hl»!>t5>n ^J? 8>fiiil. ni^D 

.sib iwo rvrw in iy30tj> 'd n^nb !w «!> ici>nn <a 5 
5»y n'moion !>3s 310 13b> ^d!> 3ion noW i^bn 13 iia«i 
n^ptw nnoe:rt romm ima itm* nni> rmp dn inn 
minn niion. !ok t^no niD< 11x33 in tibid3 Dmyo 
no^ ti'Ba!' !>3« te'^nriv' *)&?bn monoi 5>jinnD nunn 
n^nni .dv !>33 man d^b.' onsn^i •'Ton ^ini* Tiov 1° 
[74a] iy ib»B3 pjy mprfi b>itt>b> m^n v!>k invB> no 
insB> ninon ny-pa mans nti> tioxd sin ^3 inpw 
ny-pi .\pvrb tiw nnarn dhd iDrw in ib>b;o tpw»fc» 
q-jn mo inn ^3 '3 (85 finnan naann ion ib>bj5> dinh 
nnii nniN n«Ti ie>bj t'JW nyo^ s?303 ik>bo!> wan* ■>i3ii> 15 
5o [ r. iNiva] iiNxa l^ru '3 (se not* pi kw hod hnj 
mnNni u')&!> nn«n [r-pEinB 'je>] pbivto dw i:od -m* 

Musaph Prayer for the New Year's festival, as also in the daily fltt>np 
the verses taken from the Hagiographa are always introduced bylBHp '"13121 
IOkS 21113; comp. Isaac Ibn 6ayyat (died 1039). finals' njNS», Fiirth 1891, 
part I, p. 26: '131 p"ri3 D'2in3^> P'lpi «TI 1T11DOT 10K >«n '"11; Euzzatto, 
Kerem Chemed, VIII, 7: 111' snpfl »3fl3 IflO INipJC OH Drl D»3in3Pll 

sins imp '13131 rutwi awi «|DiD3 nnoiK i3« nrvSjn owsam minno 

ION 1 ?; comp. also Bacher, Die Bibelexegese der jiidischen Religionsphilosophen, 
p. 93, n. 4. 

83) Jerem. 1, 5. 

84) This and the following sentences are quotations from Aristotle's 
Ethics, II, 1, beginning; comp. VII, 8, p. 1151a, U. n-15- In TfhyOTI 
69 f., Palquera quotes the same under the name of Aristotle; comp. B'p2D, 
8a. The additional sentence, occurring there, comparing bad habits with 
paralysed parts of the body (i«Ss, see also ib., 43, and Steinschneider, 
Hebr. Vbers., 843, n. 417) is also taken from the Nicomachean, Ethics, I, 13, 
p. no2i, 11. 18-21; comp. 6azzali, ;. c, 76 f. 

85) See above, note 10. 

86) See above, notes 10, 20. 


DTK !>a (87 Darin ioki .& mix n«iJ k!> ta hn unnxe 
nnoivn rr^Bcn e>Bjn «jmni i^n 3ina kw noa aw 
pk D^uyna tikd annum io«i .Duui/nm D^a^aa 
jjjmm .onnnn !>» nai dibo inn 1 ' on?' b"b> ann ^n 
rm^yn b-bjh mm) [74b] nmm miB-noa mna'nn b-bw 5 
mna B^B>n n^x^ wpbm dik 'jai -noNn wpi ninana 
S>aB> ^D dhdi ann> Dm n^inn nixna orma 5>a dhd b" 
nnai D^iBwino d^dj/d am nsjh naannh ~iKBnn!> onjia 
■wkoi ,1113 mmi oj?» Dm nam wt orma 5>aB> to 
om 'man *nix!> s!>n ntea!' dim ninan nf>«o nai pkb» IO 
Kin yixoa mnan n!>ND nna S>a not? ta !>y idvjto P^>n 
jtid!^ intaa wijjid Dxj/n 'p!>n» p5>n 5>a 'a *:bd n^yo 
mjown B»Bjn mj/xoxi noann ma-ton trajn mj/xoKi .Qvvn 
o^uynno B>-na Dnxn. nrn msnon niyxoKi mnjn [75 a l 
n^vam (ss nay ■aijn xnpjn Kim mivn 'aa k^>k D^jBun j 5 

87) The same is quoted in nifyan , 10, in the name of Aristotle. 
I have not found the passage in the latter's Works. For the following 
sentences and for the division of men into three classes see TYPyOT], 37, 43- 
47, 70; Isaac Israeli's finiD'fl "ISO , 57 f.; Gazzali, Ethics, 37, 61; Abraham 
Ibn Ezra on Ex. 24, 25; Abraham Ibn Daud, HOI HJIQN, beginning of III, 
p. 98; Maimonides, Coram, on Abot, 5, 21; see above, notes 10, 54. 

88) i. if- , which is the equivalent to the Aristotelian oufpoavi ti- 
the author adds here the Arabic term because there is no adequate expres- 
sion in Hebrew. The translators of Ibn $addik ( JBp ubiy , ed. Horo- 
vitz, 38; comp. Horovitz, Psychologie, 198, n. 165), of Gazzali (.Ethics, 92), 
and Palquera himself ( fllSynn , 28, 45) use mjj? , those of Ibn Daud 
(/. c, 98) and Maimonides (Bight Chapters, 4) have nipB-IDH and flHTH 
respectively, while Hillel b. Samuel of Italy (thirteenth century) in 
CBjn '^UMXl , 42116, 456, uses man 33 . None of these translations 
expresses the Greek ctufpoavvri . Al-Jorjani, Ta'rifit, ed. Flfigel, 156, 1. 20 f., 

gives the following definition of the Arabic term: » »4U ^-»-A 4 i*M 

"Temperance is a condition in the appetitive faculty which keeps the mean 


nin»5>n rntDam pDimn!> minim i5> tonn^ '» dnx mo 
^k mDjm .d"T« "oa ri3K>a dnnanB> dnniBtjn ^ana k5> 
tvin mwi> ia tiv p« tind !>na 'ni>K nan nnanxi noann 
nam .ts'Bjn. ^n mtparn ni>njn nanai n^> da ta Kin d« 
umina nnxiao taam nmon nnan ^>a o mna (so Wo 5 
[75 & ] n"y nabw niwa *i»Dini n"v dwajn nanai nt?npn> 

.nSnpi ^b>d3 
tp&o (90 ^D'jfin niana nox e»ts> ^20 .""itsri "ij?tsn 

between licentiousness ( aKoXaffia), which is the latter's going into 
excess, and insensibility ( avaiafrrjaia ), which is its deficiency. The 
temperate man then is he who acts in conformity with the demands of law 
and manhood." Ibn IjCutaiba (ninth century), 'Ujiln al-'Ahbar, ed. Brockel- 

mann, 375 relates: ^«j ^tLvJl £}> <L-*i-l jj) t «UjV ^J -kU JU 

ia*UI j&J» y^l^m jy H\ ^, jfraS&j ±\p\ 01:, 

"Said Almutarraf to his son, O my son! the good lies between two evils, 
that is between excess and deficiency; the noblest part of all things is their 
mean, and the worst kind of procedure is running." Comp. Nicom. Ethics, 
II, 7, p. iio7&, 11. 4-8; Goldziher, Kitab ma! mi al-nafs, 18-20; fiazzali, 
Ethics, 92; comp. also Sifre, "|ni7$?n3, beginning, and Talmud Men. 986; see 
my article JQR., 1910, p. 160, n. 15. To the references given there are to 
be added Ibn Aknin, "1D1B 1BD, p. 26 f.; Moses Ibn Habib on 071$? ns'nii 
24b; Simon Duran ni3KJ30> 480&; Shemtob Ibn Shemtob, FWH (Venice), 
7c, 11b, 3$b, 4gd. The immediately following passage D"!N '33B n'7XBni, etc., is 
found verbatim in tS*p3D, 24^ DH^On, 47, and is probably adopted by Pal- 
quera from the "Brethren of Purity"; comp. Dieterici, Die Abhandlungen der 
Ichwan Es-Safa, p. 614, bottom: i.( \j ,*)] -fa ^\ obWJl JU<«I /j*j 

^yl jy>'\ ipv>£ >— » J- f ' Jl ;*"J f^"* • The res P ective portion in the 
typSB was translated into German by M. Sachs, Die religiose Poesie der 
Juden in Spanien, Berlin 1845, p. 345. 

89) See Job 33, 3. The usage is peculiar; see, however, Hadassi, SatPX, 
Alphab. 163, 'S, 164, 'B . 

90) That is truth in thought; comp. above, p. 462, and mbjJDP!, 35. Ibn 
Aknin, 1D10 1BD, 78, 1. 25. Maimonides, Eight Chapters, II, 0"13J? ni37i"l, 
II, 3, claims that right or wrong thinking and opining even when not 
followed by any actual deed, are also to be included in the category of 
lawful or sinful actions, though no command or prohibition is appli- 
cable to such actions; comp. Scheyer, Das psychologische System des 


iaia rpi5>nn na^a twain snye* Me>5> nycn n.t p5>n5> 
rni's^n nnono n5>UD!> Dipt? no poo nw s"y*o a'n&B> 
.■nix! m!>nn naxa wm t r - nin'sin] 
ne£ Cn]»ij-iK iyi i.y!> nan nox nee .jw*nn nyffn 
atano prrui now la-ut^ imina n!w uktd mis (91 ipk> 5 
nnto pisn Nine i^rn stitwi pmn ipK>iai» (92112*0 
i^> mrr pis [>• pn] tn (94 ^"t now fimn pis pis (93 
(95 Dwi> i/rpn snDi^cm .pis i5>k> ik!>i pis i^c tn nwt$> 
vbyei b5»a nvD^n ptnn sin [7 6a l it^vn Kim? Pism idk 
o ai,yai ipaa mitn aaiano cnI'Ej irrp d^sj D^ye x o 
mpaim aran npnin idiIo men. in .a"y ro!>B> n^yo pisn 
ni^yan nnnna Kin irw id) njinxa nm nwe no«a 
iki nan ima !>y (98 next? 10a n^ya b>m ni>ra by mini 
ioki nmai ijb>». nin. *6 xoby ^bn ba n^ [r. 'an'] nan' 
aran i»xn bxi nprn ktw s"y«i nasi .iidk (97 oann I 5 
anoiDi Tixo B>wn ^na cm Man b»i .inbyin nipne B"yxi 

UKSttt? 1D3 riONil !>. 0D1&!>] DDJIe!' H3 JinS> DDSy 

nr Dm!> wi pxi rVy owajm rnaxn ikboi n"y Dmaxa 

Maimonides, Frankf. a. M. 1845, pp. 103, 106; Rosin, Die Bthik des 
Maimonides, Breslau 1876, p. 55, n. 1; Ibn Aknin, "ID1H 1BD, p. 49, 1. 25 {., 
p. 50, 1. 5; Simon Duran, m2N pc, III, 37a, 48a. 

91) Prov. 12, 19. 

92) Ex. 23, 7. 

93) Deuter, 16, 20. 

94) Baba Mez. 49a. 

95) Refers to the Stagirite; comp. above p. 467. The passage to which 
Dr. Husik of the Gratz College called my attention occurs in the 
Nicomachean Ethics, VI, p. 11296, 11. 27-31: mil Sia tovto imWiuac KparlaTrj 
t£>v aper&v elvai doKelrj diKaioainrrj, KaX ovd' eanepoc obre st^oc -&av[iaGTbc... 
nal fialiffra apery. It seems to be a quotation from Homer which I 
have not investigated any further; comp. J. E. C. Welldon, The Nicomachean 
Ethics of Aristotle, London 1892, p. 137, n. 1; see also A. Ibn Daud, 

sibi ruiON, 99, 101: rtnon niSj?o mm iwrn. 

96) Baba Mez. 49a; Sanh. 97a with slight variants. 

97) I do not know to whom he refers nor have I found a parallel in 
the other works of our author. 


toam ^k toa Kin o nn!> [766] c»n!>i Dn!> k^k ^yen 
ms ^ao n^n^xn D'b>:k!> k^k [r- Dm"] onv k!> , n!>Kn 
(99 iidks ruv^ii noann !>k nonvo noxn ninim (98 
on nam n»K o (100 p nnx idki idui Kipn hddh kSi 
.bw 5>nai ona r« o noK !>3 ima ysn >nEB> nayim 5 
nnDn» ann nm p mhyon. nnono riDKn "inw iD3i 
(101 naiKn tdk nan .tidk .mK i:>k i^K3 vtoai niynan 
.i"n i^D3 riDK iriD i:pkb> 'di noKn. man "n ipv o 
ikipj nun nanpi run: nwin oa pkb> <:bd o *icb«i 
tan -iptfn nana (103 idjub» noa hi (102 dtid nn^na 10 
n:n b-bo (104 iniK njo no^i 'rv "nib tia 1 k^ DnpB> 
nyi Qiata ma' n:m "W ny oota ma 1 (105 ~idki 'n k:b> 
^ myin (106 idki w ny 3T3d!> [77°] Knpi nnK pjy w 
.njiDK3 n&»w no nnyn W uin djidk <t?jn npB> , nsB' 
rujinn nvyn in^ir^ tnun o nnK ny nwaj !»sd (iot idki x 5 
mm iniK nonni at3B> 'd lasm ib>bj i»SD riDK3 nsnoi i!> 
.nmo nw p!>n nei ion kjb» npB> pb>5> pjjn wdd Kin 
nnD3 inyn n3» nriK v:v o (109 Drawn ibhb na'i dos 

98) Comp. rrfrgon, $i. 

99) Prov. 8, 1. 

100) lb., 8, 7-8. 

101) Source unknown to me; comp., however, Maimonides, Guide, I, 42. 

102) Berakot i8fc, Maimonides, I. c; see particularly Goldziher, Kitib 
ma'ani al-nafs, 50. To the interesting references given there may be added 

Batiayusi, nfnxg , 27 and 52: ntytoi d'je" D'WKfi nimn 'Span irtN 1D«1 
n'pn ina, 

103) Ps. 101, 7. 

104) Prov. 6, 18. 

105) lb., 6, 19. 

106) lb., 12, 22. 

107) J6., 14, 25. 

108) 16., 26, 28. 

109) Palquera seems to have made a mistake here. The passage to 
which he alludes is in Sifra, section D'ttHTp , c. II, § 14, referring to 
Lev. 19, 14. The author, misled by his memory, brought it in connec- 


dnann un& 3T3n 'a (in dann -1081 inxya lWaoa (110 
•tfjyrin >jbid 3t3o e»i (112 nasi .d'Kiajn dvp pixm d'vnn 
mo "a jrm Kam dDipa mnn 'jbo 3T3d b»i 3T3a 
"iOKje noa hi sun disn n^n^i naunn ma5> nano 3tan 
[77b] dann idki .sin* hjh v':eb xb '3 men. i?a ra lea (113 5 
mana 3T3o Kin 'a tunno 310 -inv ataom dwdoi^ ynM 
vi inv Kin nnn Dam ,i5>yaai maia arao sunm na^a 
no8i n5> p8t? no (n^i) ib>B33 [nsn] sine 'jao dnwa 
.noKn ^y noiy dhyn '3 (115 b"\ 
13 ioi8 die 13 183' d'pnv "5> nj/K'n nr ."wn "ij?t?n 10 

dik lw ioai (117 'njxn S>30>3 3ioa 'jvyn ioca no8n 
p loa wn no wt k^> one> 8^8 druia 1^8.1 3ion !>8 mxiv 
d'j'trontj' 8^8 dnain n^8i nesn vwrb ii8rr d'j^ynn an 
b8tw 10a 'n!>8 yi'd^ nosn rwna novo di8ni d'oyo 
inis '3 w ^k nnx '3 'no!>i inoss 'jamn (us in J 5 

tion with Deuter. 27, 24; comp., however, Jacob b. Asher ( O'lltSH 'jjja ) 
on Deuter. 27, 18, who quotes the same interpretation in connection with 
the verse last mentioned, for which I do not know the source; comp. also 
Hdassi, bsVX , 349, letter '1 , 350, 'a. 

no) Deuter. 27, 24. 

m) Comp. Nicom. Ethics, IV, 7, p. 1127a, 1. 28 ff. 

112) This is a short rendition of Aristotle, Ethics, I. c, p. 11276, 11. 
10-20, where also occurs the exemplification olov fidvrtv, ao(j)6v, larpdv; comp. 
tfpSQ , 156. In ni73?D, 59, Aristotle is quoted directly and the passage given 
more in full. 

113) Job 13, 16; comp. b. Sotah 416, 42a. 

114) Nicom. Ethics, I. c. I have corrected the text of the quotation in 
accordance with the parallel passage in Hl^l'Dn , 59, adding HUH and 
eliminating the word fni which gives no sense. Comp. Bahya, Duties 
V, 4; VII, 8; Honein's Apophthegms, I, 5: Spnni atan D'StSlBDlN CniH tyl 

nin« bs icrfn iflo Sa eptrnS man 'n». 

115) Abot, I, 17; comp. b. Taan. 76; Baba Batra 786; Pes. 666. 

116) Ps. 118, 20. 

117) Comp. Ibn Saddik, ]V$ nSlJ? (ed. Horovitz), 67, 1. 8-10; Mehren, 
Les rapports de la philosophic d'Avicenne avec Vlslam, Louvain 1883, p. 13. 

118) Ps. 25, 5. 

palquera's "treatise of the dream" — malter 489 

naan ent? km nnK inn jnn nosm [7 8 «] dim 5>d wip 
Trim .njiB>N"i!> h^edd kmi jtw m b»i mipai nnpyi 
pidi nmnn n»H' km took!' tipdi ipjn unw kmb* nwKin 
mm km inn atyn nwsaa nvnosn niinna na bhav 
dis m ib»k3 inrwm mynna d'kxem "ikb6 inssoni 5 
t> i>y V3dh inwi twyni idchi D'k-qm ist? (119 waai 
noi nnsnran mynn ni>«J» nam noi mayo ns-w 'a 
nan wti mini itow noa ana ?"t traann nxatJ' 
DDnn -nam <a (120 anpn nna onanam n"y Dwa:n 
jtim5>k nniD inn i!> visarv dnnai [78&] nnaa i>y maKn IO 
nna "man ^kc pi npnan 'aana usbo nvnas niy-11 
o!>iyi> pt.x nnpnv (121 imina m^s: nanai ^y ^ bhp5 
T>nny piv (123 nrr ip-rx nax " 'dbk'd C122 na« imini 
rrnnn pnisvwi njnw naKn '3 naxai.Cm nMKi 'J^an n!>iy5> 
km '3 t r - km] am no inn nrtrani C125 a!>iy5> nanpcy J 5 
a^aoni hbW? unt5» k^i piv anc an no nnym k»s> m^a 
ipnvi noK ant? a'as^am a!>iy^ wbj nMn [r- araam] 
pya hkiih km (126 an na 'w xh b5>ij>!> ara ana rsi mm 
nna^ k5>b> (127 naK arm cdib'ii [79«] naK ant? Swn 

119) The change in the expression »3'Q2 — 'tf'SO is significant; see 
above, note 1 5. 

120) See note 82. 

121) Ps. 119, 18. 

122) lb., 119, 142. 

123) lb., 19, 10. 

124) lb., 119, 144. 

125) Pes. 54a, Ned. 396. 

126) The text is in disorder. The words Dfl i"l!3 seem to be an erroneous 
repetition from 1. 16. The sense is: He who grasps the meaning of the 
Torah ( rU'tfBn) and knows what it is — "restoring the soul" (Ps. 19, 8) 
— , and what its precepts are — "righteous and unchangeable" — ,will realise 
that it is Truth. 

127) A phrase taken from Dan. 10, 21. 


jidk mb Kin (128 irm njna un: Duncan nnmn !>ai n^yi> 
ipnon "oannan nn njits>ini> nbeasi siaya irwn mm 
niioBnon dmm nnas i>y onian ana d^noxn (129 
Tin jnu nfonan nbx nnns 13 anoiK e»i nvwtnn 
muno nil>VKJ tn <a anois nnn«i dttik tnu nnntpi csnnn 5 
uiato nJ'Bna ran: nr \>x ^ dhoin b» tn (130 m^ ^acn 
itjw no nnnaia bpioitn p ^y ran tn^ win [nn«] 
5>"n n!>3pi minn. nana nai -inio irw ni^winn mi« v!>y 
d!>ik [79b] W mnaa an5> nw D-wton '3 mn new 
tf»K (is2 tnpn nm dnanoni n"y awajna ibpi Cm I0 
C3nDm ijntf sin ina tiro nois 5>y tra^p vm b^k 'ed 
ipnan '•oan naii> doibsd prr \& (133 t r - n^na rnnsty] 
jppid tanD3 DaS>sp o^nnxn S>as no^n dwi vn pya py -o 
ona nvnn am* maixn laytrai ml>:n *nixa DnnDJi (134 
*nv!> H3 rrppnn nsa nim aw nwva!> wyT rrnw : 5 
■>B3n nfio iidW mv mnoxn nbpn ixo y-pt? hd^ nma 
DW' nwsaa nvnasn an<m»Ki S>y iiDyi'i n^naxn npnorr 
wpbs ny^3 ni\tb q^niw (135 5>"t n»KE> ieoi mm 'rp 

128) Eccl. 12, 11; comp. Talm. Hag. 3b, to which passage the author 

129) Refers mainly to peripatetic philosophers; comp. Steinschneider, 
Hebr. Obers., 6, n. 43. 

130) See above note 10. 

131) Erubin 53a; comp. 11HJJB, 66; 6azzali, Ethics, 153; Maimonides, 
njcnn riDipn, ed. Hamburger, p. 49. 

132) See above, note 82. 

133) Baba Batra 158b; comp. Kusari, II, 22, and Palquera, fHlBfl iTllB, 

134) Erubin, /. c; comp. Maimonides, /. c, and Guide, I, 71. 

135) shabb. 31a; comp. trpaa, 326, top: n»n*nn fiiaann nj>H»e> 'jbbi 
rhtht mrh n»ny nyap jnn nva din 1 ? D' £ 7«itrts' S"t iidn mwi mo^»a 

Jiaana ; Maimonides, Guide, III, 54, whence the whole is taken; 
comp. also Profiat Duran, IBS ntPJfB, 4; Simon Duran, Comm. on Abot, 3, 

palquera's "treatise; oe the dream" — master 491 

[800] -Q-i iniD Nint? nnnana nx-pt!> nai .norm !>fi!>B dx 
bj? inS>y 5>ki n nw i>a !>"? U'aan na> ix. mmn nana 
nan tko '"1 (137 ^"r D-iaaa (136 maiana naxn i;db»i ia!> 
^■wat? trTonn wan mn in .pit ina^p 5>aw win n*b 
tied 'aana ami !>"? D'Jiwn nxpaa iiai'nn man in« 5 
nana inoi mnn naxn pud rant? 5>"r D"aam unni 
b»b> npnan 'Dan new .i:min tjw nntr na ipnan 'aan 
laa ant? cina ts» nrpnn m ^y naxn J^na n^snn ana 
navi mniai'n [ r - niaana] nioana S>asj>!> -mm nyvn 
naan i>y !>ati>n Dnana nne> Dna b»i .i^ac? $?in tnsn 10 
D'Kiajn [8ofc] ninasa d^'I/dp nnai .rrann naDa 
D"ni>Kn Dnana n^'yat? nnai .yaan naDa Dn>ayyai 
(i38 Q"aann anai ,d!>vn n^ann am niniwn naan nEea 
5Dynni> nnana riav 1 'enjan niai>B>n n^an ;wn!> nvinm 
ta nnxi nnon S>y nimaio p nnxi n^nn naa^aa ni>nn 15 
'aan naoi (139 [ r - taa ny] p hv nvn^a ta nn*n nvyaaa 
lament? naa twoyn n^a o»ne« nnnan ant? npnan 
nnaDn -ikb>d nnr nasn !>« D'du Qne> npnan 'aan an 
ma sin] "nam w mao 'cnae new («0 itavnw naD on 
[r- anai] mai wbI> iw ipnan 'aan nan. !>aa nasn [ r- 2 ° 

136) See my article JQ/?., 1910, p. 168, 11.31, also Simon Duran, niSK ]M, 
I, 2a, and on Abot 4, 25; Shemtob Ibn Shemtob, fllBTI, 43«. 

137) Hagigah 13*. 

138) Guide, I, 34; comp, Ibn Aknin, 1D1I3 1BD, 116; Senior Sachs, 
HJl'n, 66. 

139) This is an instance of the thoughtlessness or ignorance of our 
copyist. His original doubtless had the abbreviation 2"$ , which he read 
against all sense p 7J,* . He repeats the same mistake three times in the 
following. The spelling IttlPlK is also to be charged to his account. 


ions nBDi Cui D"3!Din aroi C140 mBD3 rims 
barn *v5on Kin i!wi v5bJ> vn ne>K 5od [ 8i «] cpp^edd 
p i>y owaj rm ^ni>« s?Be> Dn^y vzww '» "u^s ^usn 
.nn y'r mi j^en oTijn nxipi> ^ ntrum J r - tm i»] 
trains jnon [r. noana] nam nipaon "o ids ("2 ^m Darn 5 

140) Abraham Ibn Hisdai in his introduction to Gazzali's p*(2t »3TN13, 
p. 2, has the same praise for Aristotle (from Al-Mas'udi?) : flpj 1BD1N. . 

rhon npSi d^iSdoi D'Dann on ijn nsja qiam tAa o'BiDiVsn nijn 
n»nn yy -pi n« iidb>Si njn 1 ? o»p:n D'ann ii-in in*6 up 1 ? nSosn "pSe-m 
'ia pox™ niotoi moan reas iStro -\B3 tfottn lSacn ennis> re lare 

JIuAtMl niyirt lnia'TPIP real. He, too, adds the opinion of Maimonides 
quoted in the following by Palquera without, however, criticising Maimonides, 
as does our author; see the following note. 

141) D"aD"lfl niaicn J*aip, Leipzig 1859, II, zSd. The text of 
Palquera in this quotation is more correct than that in the J*aip and 
agrees more with the one quoted from a manuscript by Kaufmann, Die 
Spuren des Al-Baflajusi, 39, n. 1. Palquera cites the same passage verbatim 
in miDJI miD , 107, where read D'N'33, J?BB>, 1'JbS, as in the present 
treatise. His criticism of Maimonides in the last mentioned work, p. 106, 
is even harsher than it appears here: 1D1N BJ?D31 S"t 1311)3 xhbT\ JN33 S3K 
*M3H pU*7 131ty . It shows Palquera's independence of mind that he did 
not shrink back from criticising his master, whom he otherwise so greatly 
admirers, if, as in the case before us, he did not share his views. 

142) This 7113 D3H is none other than 6azzali. The passage occurs in 
his Mak&sid-'ul-Falasifat, a work in three parts treating of logic, metaphysics, 
and physics, which I have prepared for publication from a manuscript 
in the Royal Library of Berlin. Gazzali begins his metaphysics with the 

following remark: IjA e Ji* \j j\ "/yOj "^-Ja." rJui *^jV ffi^ 

jO i 4_5 _»^£Jj |^' <)' V ' " rt ' s customary to treat physics 
first, but I preferred to treat first of metaphysics, because it is 
more subject to doubts and the opinions in metaphysical problems 
differ more widely." It may be noted in passing that Gazzali 
was censured on account of this abritrary deviation from the 
accepted rule; comp. Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl., X, 72 f., and Hebr. iibers., 
31, 310, especially Kaufmann, Theologie des Bachja, 24, note. Two pages 
further 6azzali says (in the Hebrew translation of Judah Nathan Bongodas, 
manuscript of the same library, the Arabic original offering here a lacuna): 

triatwi rvjnian rearm nniofo «<n nicann ntrtea E>iae>n jn npim invm 


•o pbd pki .t r - tw is] P to ot\ rnn^xn noanai 
xw ny'Tn nnnn ivd irpp no 5>k iidd5> inn ma nvnn 
caoon ono pdrw (143 mm to iidjw mx ipnon ivo 
iw «i>i Dwajfr nai wyn ip!» s^ ia!>ai uruioK di? 
nnin5> kvi nwow wi ipya wi nnTi nns 1 jb laafo 5 
13 idiki .(144 inoani> imw nnp k5>k> ••o5> mp^ ioa nn 
toa rwion no«n 'a a^ •>nani> [816] ddhedh lain 
iipd Nintr njiE'Nnn nexn vwrb nrvtoni na njian onain 
id3 riox nia5> K^m tick toa tol> noxn rununi noxn 
noK in!m pxi riDN win nos dm!>k '"m (145 K'ajn idkk> 10 
n^SDjno in?>it5> a!> 'n 1 «nai> Kin D"pn nwxon 'a 5>"n 
ikb>» in5>it» noun Nine' m^von Dt^n tun inv Kim 
inht niK^soi ini>ni> nwven !»i/id Rim? ueo D'RXojn 
pat? (we ipnon 'oano nvp hdk mn nt toi 1a ntoi 
ntopa j?it lain nr phi rob ntorp Kiian k!>k nwxoa 15 
0«V) invn noivj/n nTpnni .ipnon ivo jb>io xm k!>k nato 
mxo o iotnai>i lain nta nmn!> [82a] ipnon *Dani> 

niHiBtm epna nta cm omjriB>rf> nvpn ja nipim nvpaon »a ini' na. 

He expresses himself similarly in the introduction to his work, which was 
published with the first chapter of the part treating of logic by Georg 
Beer, under the title Al-iiazssati's Mafrasid Al-Faldsifat, Leiden 1888, p. 4: 

Uj • • • aJjjI* IUlIj v I_,-H gpj; U&1» iUULI U'j 

"As to metaphysics most of their dogmas are contradictory to truth, 
the correct being an exception; in logic most of the doctrines are on the 
right way and the false is an exception ... In physics truth is 
mixed with error and what is correct thereof resembles the erroneous" 
(that is to say, the true doctrine is not discernible from the false in want 
of proper criteria). This passage was made use of by Palquera, CpaD, 33b, 
without reference to the source. 

143) Refers to Aristotle. 

144) Comp. Abot III, 9. 

145) Jerem. 10, 10.; see above, note 10. 

146) May refer to Batlayusi, see above, note 10. 


kxbj W> no«m nwsan nn5»ni» i^rnan Kin 'n* K-nant? 
J>3D («V) riDsn nwvan cm tun nnv ntyiv Kin p dk 
nw!> ymn aann nast? no vom .ariao sin p d^vddh 
•>jsd naxn jutt nwsm naann xipm tpjnai (147 noa 
.newan wwnn Mjrrn n^ani naan wn. nn^antj* 5 
ins bi nn^y jru k!> dn naxn in: & i:n:x p naiaanai 
Nine> inn ini« imaem anpian ana ava^ anaino 
i!> awtu taw anann -wb><> nE>i? nab xm a no n^ana 
inia'anc ana ava' arann anann p m tram .pwm a&?a 
[82&] n^ana E>Km .nonm atom nam imo^onen amo 10 
nwxaa nJ>r*r «>n sysn nnw 3«mv p 5>yi ana nwann 
bbp mn dtp sin nan^> ni>y wne> na !oi a^ann anann 

147) This lengthy quotation which is the basis for the preceding Person- 
ification of God as Truth (see above, note 10) is taken from Aristotle's Meta- 
physics a sTmttov end of c. I, p. 9936, 11. 19-31: 

bp&oe $ Ixu ml to mXeladai tt/v fii'Aoaoftav imorfytp Tf/Q 
alr/Vetac. $eufnjTiKfjs fisv yap Teloc. alr/ftua, irpaKTiKtjs 6' ipyov ■ [ml yap 
eav to nag i X et aiamoaiv, ov to atSiov alia np6e ti ml vvv Seupovaiv 
ol irpaicrtKol'] ovk la/iei> 6i to ah}&ss avev rsjf alriac eieaerov 6s fia- 
liara avrb rav alluv, Ka&' 5 ml role; alloic birapxei to owumiuov, 
oiov to nvp dep/iSraTov ■ ml yap toic alloig to oItcov tovto rye 
■dep/ioTijTos ■ flare ml alti&eeTaTov to toic voTepoic alriov tov alrftimv 
elvai . Sib rag t&v ael ovrav apxac avaymtov ael elvai afa/&etrr&Tac ov 
yap nore allele, ovS' helvaic alriov n eon tov elvai, all' kiteivai toic 
alloic, &o& smo-Tov dj i X u tov elvai, oirro ml ttjq aly&eias. 
Palquera's translation is based either on Averroes' "Middle" commentary, 
which contains also extracts of the Aristotelian text and which was used 
by our author also in his D'Elpl^Drt rliy!; comp. Steinschneider, 
Hebr. libers., beginning of §§ 84, 85; or on the "Long" Commentary 
which gives Aristotle's text in full. This accounts for the paraphrastic 
character of the translation as compared with the Greek original. The 
thought is rendered throughout with exactness. After WyDn (1. 6), 
however, a whole sentence of the Greek is omitted. The word thyh (p. 493, 
1. 4) ought to be inserted also after D'«SD:n («'&., 1. 3), where it is of 
essential importance, corresponding to the Greek Tac rav ael bvTav apx&f. 
It seems, however, that the equivalent of ael in the first place was wanting 
already in the Arabic translation, for it is omitted also in the translation 


xintf no rpn.iK> mo a"mvi lain lniso wjim iann ims 
p ioDi .nesn Dtra tun inr Kin nes tint? onm!> n!>y 
nwxon n^ana essoin ona-in ni^nnn iwt? a^mr 
k!>i qj/s nisxoj nS>i dj/s msvoj trx 'a d!>ij?!j nosm 
ormna n5>j/ on^> axon k^ ^ao nox mrna n^v nni> K*pn 5 
rn nn ^ nox dnrna onann nat^ nbv on bx rnxve; 
u'jya noaa ijuy Dnanno nnx !>ai B'kxoj tanvna n!>jm 
[ f - iaa ty] ta ^y noxa w;jd nitoxoa ivm niK'xaa 


n^anm miaon wn noxn [83a] rwn •o "laann nam 10 

noxn vwrb ns/xn am djmxoi mtryon ~wv aint? pivni 
sin inn mitre b^tb cpaion owon n^ew aint? nDnni 
rvn (150 -notoa -iow pi (149 csoaan ovp iat? d^bti naD 
j/nini (151 iptJO Di!>Bn pnx itwa: noai -ion 'ui tx-ik i"i 
ni5>i/en nu^> mru?^ laxo'tr is disvoj vn totn imsa ^a l 5 
w vstd anpi !>k-ib» ijaa ni^atrm mn>rn maion 
noi!>a Di^trni nonn ipbtj pi oaina maan iiati>!> pism (152 
nosn msnn -osoi .m« •>» n^an nn ma m ipait? 

of Moses Ibn Tibbon (not "Hillel of Verona," as Kaufmann, 
Attributenlehre, 334, has it; see Steinschneider, Introduction to 8*8311 '71I3JU1, 
13), in nmi man, f. 32a, see with reference to that passage above, 
note 10; comp. also Steinschneider, Hebr. C'bers.,, 174, n. 498. For 
niXSHi in the phrase Di?B niKSHi sSl DJ?B fllKSDJ p>K '3 (1. 4) •* 
ought to be in both places nVflHS . Moses Ibn Tibbon, I. c, has correctly 
flj? N73 flj? ni'DBK piNC 'B?=oi r yap Tore a/Ly&clc, so also Moses Ibn 
Habib, Comm. on D71J? FliTD, Ferrara 1552, fol. 86b; comp. also Kaufmann, 
Attributenlehre, p. 334. end of note 204. 

148) See above, note 139. 

149) Mishnah Abot I, end; comp. Maimonides, ad locum: 1J"1N3 1331 

wsn'twi nnnn niSyn «m diSbtii fii'73cn niSjmn sin nasne* 'in piss 

pBD N73 iS IB'BKB' ninStM niX'SOn IT.T ne^IWl 17K; comp. ib., 5, 21. 

150) PS. 85, 2. 

131) JT6., verse 11. 

132) lb., verse 10. 


t^otPD *ipkwi nnxn n«o n»K (153 ion mso torn misi 
J?J? d'kij vrrsj> idi!o [83^] pim 
nm rrtpima V'r itrw nan ttukh it Dinn^ TPK-n 
its'yj Bis Km!> n"apn «3b> rwa nnx .piDsn nn (154 
onoiK nnoi x-d' (155 cnois ono niro niro rne>n '3k!>d 5 
*?nu «m» «13' 1 idik ion itwaj ddki nDn "i"nn sm^ !>s 
Nil'' idik ptc nnpe> kS>» Hint? ma' S>k inix nasi DHDn 
no hddp [nl^iai xni 1 !>« "idik ai^i mpnv ata Hint? 
no8 iteni (i56 n"nn runa na^m notm to: n"an n&?y 
mao mao nna no n"an ^a!> rwn ^k!>» vtok nmx J o 
nan r» ddk ni>yn i^ [ r - ni'D3'D^ D'Dan] pddib^ki 
.tiko -D3j pjy nn npxn n«o riea i"nn 

153) J&., verse 12. 

154) Chapter VIII, § 5. 

155) The manuscript erroneously repeats OHO after D'lBlN. 

156I Dan. 8, 12. 

palquera's "treatise of the dream — mai/ter 497 



rnixriB' aiam annn ^i*o 
nxj/ sh mpo wn njiBWin 
inacno iDan inj/nu ja dtt 
b»bjd aano o-wn ^ d-iano 
Ktpun nam mo* iai:n si«i 
!>j?a orpi imiv itfEJi irniv 
son 'a mpo njrN csjni wo 
ntB»na' DNt ?ae>n bvx yiTdxy 
N^nc main mpo xine> loan 
tibj ^nti' nt^ni siijn to nmaa 
int? ijbo n-ipn sin "mo 
i!> "io*o isk»ijo -nan!> mpon 
imani> mpio u^k mpon:? 
nDani> mpo at? ohxi ixnjo 
B>sjni inb>i:d man inx 


nBDa ^Nnt^n pns' anai [840] 

awm atj'in nyni (157 nniD^n 
ru'Ki mpo nwtnn mivn 'a 
dian 10 m iDan lnyno dvj> 
ibui *iui pbjo 33-110 dian '3 
tj'sjni imix its>a-:» noni iw 
pit dvj; wn ik mpo n^K 
"idn'I nt K'inai dki bivn av 
miaj N i nK» ins/a mpo xw 
Nine "mo maj !>3K> 3K>m 
Tisn> mpon pit? ^ab mpo 
d5>iN 'a naj -m s6 ikcud 
man nns nDen? mpo at? 
Kin ^a ra wk t^ajni ikb>ud 
nmna ins mas^ no"p 

157) For a general discussion of this appendix see above, p. 468 f. 
The text as compared with that in Israeli's nniD'n "1BD , 12, is in many 
instances corrupt. I have corrected obvious grammatical mistakes and 
inserted entire phrases which were evidently omitted by the copyist on 
account of homoioteleuta. The whole passage is quoted also by Gerson b. 
Solomon, O'HBTl "IJ?t5>, 58a, 59b (ed. Rodelheim, 80a, 82a), and Meir Aldabi, 
njlHN 'S'atr, end of c. 6; see Fried. /. c, 51-53. Of the three proofs 
for the immortality of the soul the third is used also by Joseph Ibn Aknin, 
the noted disciple of Maimonides, in the fragment printed in niaitPfi f31j3 
D"aain, Leipzig 1859, II, 45&. Joseph Ibn Saddik, jap O^IJ? , 34, 
has the first proof, but in a different form; comp. Horovitz, Die Psycholo- 
gic etc., 169, n. 64-65; see also ib., 166, n. 58; comp. Aaron b. Elijah, 
D"n ff, c. 109. 



mNtw n»"p trn •o p nj^K 
np!» rum .nun id rnien nn« 
K>B3ntJ> Niii dij& '» nta naia 
n"3 n» may mpo mm i*>k 
niox'3 ini>n !>« woo nxvi 
Diwan YV bx 't^wn nnnB' 
kw p nwK B>&:m natm 
B'SintJ' 'am .rv'n nVm Kxon «5> 
mpo dk nriTi rnp» nn^n ii>N 
nt'Ki haj mpo dk pan 
nm mn m mm nn-we 
vnnn iioy^ '» ii> mme> 
mm nnK jid nnn nm idw 
mm i!>iaj3 baji iobo top: 

UK. fKl inK "IDKD3 D'1B> 
K^> 1jrtiKB> 13 CSJil QiSSlD 

ji3E«t5> nmoni 5>wia n^ ssoj 
oki .ijod nmsn nnK nin 
Kan Kin mnntj> ioik tok' 
sbtm mnnn noiyn minK 
niont? ^ noto risen kwb> 
mpj is 0sar\ nen mn i!>k 
!»13J nnn nn« "idkc3 arnjo 
i5>uj b5>!ob> no nt? ibpi nns 

n^tfa m i>y nsinm .nunc 
mpo nmn i5>k t?Bjn.B> bwb 
[t. nsvi] kvi n"3 ?ii J map 

[ 84^ ] inVif b« woo 
vy^ ^nn mint? nK'X'3 
p t?s:n p«i (i58 Dunsn 
.n"3 nhta xxon k!> wn& 
mpo nmn i^k wn nsinm 
tibj 1« P3i [mpo ok nmnl 
\b nwe> 'iki mn nnwpo nt 'ki 
nnn nm idw vnnn mors? ■■» 
^3j3i iot?i snp3 mnn ins jid 
•mK, no«o3 ant? mi iton 
us pKi nnnt?m pi!>n i»3 

»b UWK '3 «fBJ3 P D'KX1» 

iwt? 5>kui mran n^ ksd^ 
dki .woo nmsn ins snn 
nnns K3 (159 mont? iok 
nmn "6k 1^ into nssn sin 
ins 10K03 omit? impj tk p 
d^3o nt? i!>3pi nnK ^3J nnn 
t?a:int? t3 *i3nn fKi (leo d5>uji 
"!>3 i>y3 'y3D »iwn o^tm oxy 
nioni (lei nsa >n ( J ^) 

158) Ebony wood; see Fried, orf locum; Horovitz, /. c. 

159) In the manuscript this word is followed by i"lTlBtP with two dots 
above the letters which is to indicate that the scribe wrote it by mistake. 

160) The text seems to be corrupt; it is perhaps to be read: C^SsD 

t : - : 

161) This is the well known Aristotelian definition of the soul 
(eyT£/Uf;££«i r) npirrr) aa/iaro( </>vatKOV bpyaviKOV), which was accepted by 
nearly all Jewish philosophers of the Middle Ages; see Steinschneider, Magasin 

palquEra's "treatise of the dream" — master 499 

a*v Kin B>Bjnts> p bj<k dm 
!>]?3 ^a 5>jn <jno *iij tr^o 
mna sin mam nan nrn 
Kin man 3"k Piun id cejn 
lan k!> fiiJ3 B'Bjn rnwv» nan 
5>»& D'KXia uruKtr 'am .e>Bjn 
nmnn !>k naiaa 1313; caan 
3icnn n«xaj '3 nana D'pimn 
D'Ksrn onsns ncvni no-mi 
nnnaK !>y movnc ny naiaa 
i>ya. dki h!>xk DX3pnt5> »5>ae 
13DD kxm naia Tiny* cbjh 
!>3 nDan ^30 pnnatr no 5>k 
nt3 mk-i nnr sin toxin? pb> 
n'nn m xb dki nni>iyBa 
1D1 noxye nnv rnroa nnhya 
nnr ni>i3?Bn rrnnt? npcn 

'3 "lUjn !>»1fin DXVTO n"!333 

k5>i i>jnan hkd n«a nbiyan 
<aa» nlnvan tikd Swan 
PKi mpa nhysni oxy 5>yiBne> 
mpana 1333 -mv nxync pbd 

Kin t3 on tpaan nine [850] 
B>aan niK^xa nan E r - Kin] 
us 't^twi naiani .(162 *naa 
nsiaa i3ij/ tj>aan 5>ya cKxia 
naaa D'KXiin onain S>x 

^3BT)1 t313Tin [n]KXD3 '3 

nam nwvn onaia newii 
ii>3a DxinaK bv vmvw ny 
5>yB, dki n5>xK [nxspnt?] 
[r. hbuI \bm ni3y CBan 
pirn mpoi> O'O naaa kx'i 
toxvc c"3 naxy loan ^3a 
nri> mk*i nnv f r - Kin] K^n 
inr nni'iya rrnn p k!> dkk> 
iptjri tai naxyo] maaa 
[maaj nnv nhyan n^nnc 
n!>iyan '3 nnsn !>yiBn Dxyna 
i>yiBn k!> 5>yisn tik» hk3 K'n 
Dxy ^yiant:> 'aaa n^wsn hkd 
oxynp pBD pxi] mpo n^iyam 
csan p dk [nipana 1333 "iw 
dki nni'iyaa nnaaa nnr 

f. d. Wissenschaft des Judentums, 1892, p. 256, and my article D'7t31t3D1N 
in the Hebrew Encyclopaedia 7K"1B" "1S1K, II, 209, 213; see also Moses Ibn 
Ezra, Zion, II, 159, last line; Joseph Ibn Aknin, /. c, and in 1D1D 1BD, 
p. 172, 1. 30; Levi ben Gerson, 'ft 0101170 (1866), 249; Simon Duran, 
H12S pO, II, 13a. Avicenna, following Aristotle, gives the same definition 

(ZDMG., XXIX, 346; Landauer, ib., 380): „i- J*_jl J^ ( lj jd\) 

162) The words VBiT\ "1BD H7 in Ibn Uisdai's text are of essential 
importance and seem to be omitted here only by the scribe. They are found 
also in the quotations of Gerson b. Solomon and Meir Aldabi. 



mm nrvp ca:n p ok 
nnwi nnhya dki nniniffin 
mm !>p nDantj' ^ao nau 
hjo» ini' m!> man kw 

.fiun to .man nna 

noan '5>aa new invn nnhpa 
r 8 5^] rriKi aw lorn !>p 
Kin tusks p dk nnv nr!> 
mien nna m«e>ji na^p 
.t*o iv Aunn