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584 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 



CKITICAL NOTICES. 

THE HEBREW MSS. IN THE BODLEIAN. 

Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Vol. II. 
By Adolph Neubatjeb and Akthuk Ernest Cowley. With 
an Introductory Note by Bodley's Librarian. (At the Clarendon 
Press : Oxford, 1906.) 

It is not too much to say that the publication of the present volume 
marks a new period in the history of Hebrew bibliography, for we are 
here for the first time presented with a methodical account of a very 
large portion of the Hebrew literature which for centuries lay hidden 
in the Genizah vault of the Old Cairo Synagogue, and was only 
brought to light within quite recent years. Of the 316 volumes 
described in the new Catalogue, no fewer than 166, containing between 
them as many as 2,675 fragments, come from this far-famed source ; 
and although opinions may differ as to the exact amount of value 
that is to be attached to the many new finds * that have already been 
made among these decidedly miscellaneous collections of texts, even 
the least enthusiastic cannot fail to recognize that they are at any 
rate of much more than ordinary interest. Even in the case of works 
that have been known before in either printed or manuscript form, 
their text is, as Mr. Cowley rightly observes in his preface to the 
present volume, usually worth collating on account of the comparative 
antiquity of most of the fragments. 

The 150 volumes which hail from sources other than the Genizah 
of course also offer very many points of interest ; and if to the great 
wealth of fresh material thus made known be added the fact that the 
entries are uniformly so described as to help forward further research, 
and that students are furthermore very materially assisted by the 
indexes and other tabulated statements which accompany the descrip- 
tions, the amount of our debt to the learned Bodleian librarians 
whose names figure on the title-page will at once become apparent. 

Future workers will, of course, be able to add much to the information 
that is here offered. Many fragments also which perforce had to be 
entered without title or author's name will no doubt in the course of 

1 See Steinschneider, Zeitsehrift fur Sebraische Bibliographie, vol. X, pt. 3, 
pp. 89, 90. 



CRITICAL NOTICES 585 

time be duly identified and more fully described. But the future 
labours here contemplated are now for the first time made possible 
by the publication of the volume before us, which will indeed not 
only prove an excellent guide to the Bodleian MSS. themselves, but 
will also be found to offer substantial assistance in the description of 
the many Genizah fragments that are deposited in other libraries. 

In the present notice we propose to give first a brief survey of the 
literature described in the Catalogue, and then pass on to a considera- 
tion of the method of cataloguing Hebrew MSS. as exemplified in the 
present work. Before doing so, however, it seems right to refer to 
Mr. Cowley's statement at the beginning of his preface regarding 
Dr. Neubauer's share in the work. The first two sheets, i. e. down to 
col. 32, were printed off before Mr. Cowley's participation in it began. 
From 1896 to the end of 1899 the two scholars collaborated in the 
preparation of the descriptions, their joint labours in a measure con- 
tinuing as far as col. 226, the end, in fact— as will be seen presently — 
of a distinct and separate part of the Catalogue. From that point to 
the end Mr. Cowley has been in sole charge of the work. 

The MSS. described in the new volume fall into two divisions. 
Nos. 2603-2813 (it will be noticed that the numbering is taken up 
from Dr. Neubauer's first volume) constitute the first part, and 
Nos. 2814-2918 (cols. 227-420) are "Later Acquisitions." The "List 
of Shelf marks" which precedes the descriptions at the same time 
provides a guide to the provenance of the MSS., so that no doubt 
need be left in the student's mind as to whether a fragment or entire 
work comes from the Genizah or some other source. The first part 
is divided into the following sections : " Biblical Fragments," "Trans- 
lations," "Midrash," "Commentaries and Supercommentaries," 
"Talmud and Commentaries," "Liturgical Fragments," "Theology," 
"Masorah, Grammar, and Lexicography," "Kabbalah," "Poetry," 
"Mathematics," "Astronomy and Magic," "Medicine," "Polemics," 
" History," " Miscellaneous." The second part, which is only slightly 
smaller than the first, is arranged under the headings: "Biblical," 
" Talmud," " Liturgy," " Miscellaneous." 

It will be noticed that the number of sections in the second part 
is much smaller than in the first. This departure from the more 
elaborate division of the earlier portion is fully justified by the fact 
that by far the larger number of the volumes are of so miscellaneous 
a character that the arrangement under special sections does not at 
all correspond to the actual contents. The first leaf or two of 
a volume of fragments may, for instance, suggest its being placed 
under the section " Bible," but the larger part of it may belong to 
any other conceivable subject. It was, therefore, wise to describe 

VOL. XIX. Q q 



586 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

Nos. 2858-2918 (as against Nos. 2811-2813 in the first part) under 
the heading " Miscellaneous." 

Out of the very large number of noteworthy points in the MSS. 
described we select the following for special mention : — At the outset 
we find the term iTIin ?!? lltTO in a fragment of a Pentateuch 
(No. 2603, 1) which changed hands in 976 after the destruction of 
the second Temple (a.d. 1046). The different uses of the term 
IllriD in mediaeval MSS. still await full tabulation, and a special 
index of unusual terms and of usual words employed in an unusual 
sense would be helpful. We note that toil fcOtfriD is duly entered 
in Mr. Cowley's Hebrew and Arabic Index. The Haptaroth of the 
triennial cycle treated by Dr. Bflchler in the J. Q. R., V, p. 420 sqq., 
VI, p. 1 sqq., meet us in Nos. 2603, 19; 2615, 18; and elsewhere. In 
No. 2608, 2, the word D^SIfl is translated by 3N?"lt3DK, thus curiously 
connecting what is now commonly regarded as images of ancestors 
with the heavenly bodies. One of the tasks which the cataloguers 
have partly left to future workers is the strict classification of MSS. 
into Rabbanite and Karaite. Thus No. 2624, n is manifestly Karaite. 
No. 2628, 31 contains an Arabic translation and "a rational com- 
mentary on Chronicles," the author often pointing out contradictions 
between statements found in the Books of the Bible ; and it may here 
be remarked that a systematic study of Jewish mediaeval rationalism 
is still a "desideratum." The Jewish Encyclopaedia affords but 
little help in this matter. No. 2633 contains a " Collatio Hebraici 
codicis cum codice Hebraeo-Samaritano," and it might therefore 
prove useful to Dr. von Gall in his forthcoming edition of the Hebrew- 
Samaritan Pentateuch (see State's Zeitschrift, 1906, II). 

Under the heading " Midrash " we notice an interesting codex of 
the 'OtyDtt' BIpX dated a.d, 1307 (No. 2637), which should prove 
useful for collation with the printed editions and other MSS. 
Shortly before (in No. 2635) we meet with ni3N J3D, "an extended 
commentary on Aboth de R. Nathan by Yom Tob, son of Moses 
Zahalon, the Sephardi," a " unicum" which Professor Schechter found 
so useful on account of the '3 NITDIi of the text which it embodies 
(see his edition of }DJ *3YT 1YI3K, p. xxx). The fragment of the 
Sn^ao described under No. 2659, 1, conjectured by the cataloguers 
to be part of the "WVC |«7»B> 'Yl «n^3D,is, in fact, found in the 
printed text of that work (see ed. Hoffmann, p. 12). No. 2660, 7 
contains two fragments of the 1TOVU ftWH which will probably be 
found worth collating. In this connexion the British Museum 
fragments of the ni^Hl ITD^n embodied in the MS. Or. 5531 (also 
from the Genizah) may be mentioned. No. 2667, 15 presents us 



CRITICAL NOTICES 587 

with a compendium of NJPXO N33 . Highly interesting is No. 2670, 
containing for the most part responses and letters of famous men, and 
incidentally throwing light on various historical and literary matters- 
No. 2672 (a palimpsest) contains portions of the Jerusalem Talmud 
written over Jeremiah, ch. viii, in Georgian. With regard to 
No. 2696, where the ritual treatise entitled "VSKS "ISD is described, 
one wonders whether this curious appellation bears any relation to 
the title " Mashafa Tomar," the Ethiopic name of the miraculously 
sent-down "Sunday Letter" which has enjoyed such wide-spread 
publicity in Europe and elsewhere, and with which Abraham ibn 
Ezra's TQWl DtlN has been brought into relation 1 . The mention of 
"lU"l2n nnN in the scribe's colophon suggests a miraculous agency 
in connexion with the naming of the work. 

The name pDtn found twice in No. 2724 represents TJ)D by V"2 1")"N 
(see e. g. Steinschneider, Arabische Literatur derJuden, p. 260). The 
Yemenite poets are rather given to this kind of permutations. It is 
part of the mild kabbalistic tendency to which they are addicted. 
In the Brit. Mus. Or. 41 14, WOM is likewise introduced in the 
substitution of spi? for the name fpf, the numerical value of the two 
words being the same. No. 2700 contains a Prayer-book according 
to the rite of Egypt. No. 2711 appears to. represent the ritual of 
Fez or some other North African locality or country, but the descrip- 
tion "Sephardic rite" is applicable enough. Attention should also 
be drawn to No. 2741, 1 (Jtf tfotm D3nn \tm IW1B J»"WB '*D 

([i. e. Aix] wmn nw 3 *\d\> 

No. 2769 contains a long and interesting collection of poetical 
pieces. On fly-leaves attached to No. 2773, 1 1, are some of those lists 
of books which delight the eye of a modern collector. No. 2776, 5, 
embodies "an appeal by a Karaite to his brethren to gather in 
Jerusalem, since Islam is favourable to Karaism." With this compare 
the statement of a Karaite author in Pinsker, rWlBlp ''Dip? , p. 73 : — 
'131 Nnp»n ^jn? flB }inna }ri3 tOW HP nop leWi. In this con- 
nexion see S. Poznanski, Bevue des Etudes Juives, vol. XLIV, p. 165 8 . 

The fables described in No. 2765 remind one very strongly of the 
style and manner of pictorial illustration employed in Isaac Sahulah's 
Wfilpn ?B>D. May it not be the case that the same author composed 

1 See the comprehensive edition of texts in Greek, Armenian, Syriac, &c, 
by Dr. Maximilian Eittner, Wien, 1905 {Denkschri/tm der Kais. Akademie 
der Wissenschafien, Band LI, i). 

3 rpv jir, apparently = Saint Joseph, is remarkable as a Jewish name. 

3 On this and some other points touched upon in this notice, see also 
S. Poznanski, ZeitschriftfUr Hebr&ische Bibliographie, X, pp. 139 sqq. 

Qq 2 



588 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

another series of fables which have so far not been printed? 
Nos. 2842-3 present us with a Singalese ritual which embodies some 
variations from the printed text, and also contains many additional 
pieces. The ,{ >WT\ \>7V W }3 DC ffbun It6r\it6x 3KH3 of No. 2857, 7, 
reminds one of the kabbalistic book of healing given by an angel to 
Adam, and then successively to Enoch and Shem (see the beginning 
of tam 'D) ; also of the nJ [3 DC N1p31 . . . nVWI tptb nitttfil ">SD 
(see Benjacob, D^iaDil ~fi»"IX, p. 549). In substance, however, the 
3fc6ri3N?N 3ND3 no doubt stands in close relation to the "Prognostics 
from convulsions (NDSl)," contained in e.g. the Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 
2084 (Syriac). In No. 2878, 33, a letter is addressed to Jftpn ??3 
D'DOI T<jn Bmn Wlpn. Instead of D^DDI one is strongly inclined 
to read D^DDI, the name of an Egyptian town found in other Genizah 
documents ; but if any connexion with DDDJH be supposed here the 
name ought to be interesting to an excavator like Prof. Petrie, who 
describes his recent discovery of the ancient site in Hyhsos and the 
Israelite Cities. 

Of the immensely important Aramaic Papyri of the fifth century 
B.C. (No. 2881, &c.) one need not say much here, as future investiga- 
tion on the subject will no doubt centre round the splendid recent 
publication entitled Aramaic Papyri by Sayce and Cowley. Of special 
importance for mediaeval Jewish history are the Genizah letters and 
documents bearing on the history of the Geonim and their associates 
as well as social life in general (e. g. Nos. 2875-8). The documents of 
this kind that have already been published make one wish for an 
edition of all the extant material in a separate volume. With the rite 
of EDSK (i. e. of Asti, Fossano, and Moncalvo ; No. 2893) should be 
compared the Brit. Mus. MSS. Add. 19664, Or. 2733-4 (all three 
being distinguished by notes in an Italian hand modifying the original 
Franco-German rite). We remark lastly that No. 2905 is a work by 
Moses Cordovero. Extracts from it are contained in the Brit. Mus. 
MS. Add. 19788, fol. 55 a sqq., where the following heading is found : 

ijdd £3pi^D Q**wn *w bv ponno cm -irm 'do pnjno *wp nr. 

In speaking of the method of cataloguing employed in the work 
before us, it is necessary to bear in mind that Drs. Steinschneider x 
and Neubauer are the joint inaugurators of the modern scientific 
manner of describing Hebrew MSS. The aim of these two leaders 
has throughout been the same. It is that of producing in the 

1 This notice was finished before the lamented death of the great 
teacher took place. There is no need to make any alteration in the text ; 
but it is only fitting to pay here a special tribute of respect to one who 
was the greatest Hebrew bibliographer the world has yet seen. 



CRITICAL NOTICES 589 

student's mind a clear, definite, and accurate notion of each work 
dealt with, and to show its position in the class of literature to which 
it may happen to belong. A careful delineation of authors' names 
and dates, a record of scribes and owners, and various other biblio- 
graphical details, form the framework in which all the descriptions 
are set. So far our two great cataloguers follow the same path. But 
in the mode of realizing their common aim they differ greatly. 
Dr. Steinschneider cultivates extraordinary fullness of detail, and 
he is never tired of tracing a name, a date, or any other interesting 
point, through all its possible bibliographical windings. Dr. Neubauer, 
on the other hand, limits himself to what he regards as the details 
necessary for cataloguing purposes. He indeed very often puts in 
a hint or two to guide the student on his path of further research, 
but his descriptions are all the same uniformly concise and circum- 
scribed in range. It is, in fact, hardly incorrect to say that 
Dr. Neubauer's descriptions of MSS. bear almost, though not quite, 
the same relation to Dr. Steinschneider's Hebrew MSS. Catalogues as 
Zedner's excellent, but brief, entries of Hebrew printed books bear 
to the Catalogue of the similar collection of books at the Bodleian. 
Both scholars are— as indeed Zedner also was in his own line — 
bibliographical artists, more or less; for even great elaboration 
of a number of details need not necessarily destroy the symmetry of 
the whole. Each of them builds on a certain well-matured plan of 
his own, and each at any rate desires to observe balance and propor- 
tion within his own structure. 

If one is asked, which of the two methods is to be preferred to the 
other, the answer must be that there are advantages on both sides, 
and that it is, perhaps, as well that the two kinds of works should 
co-exist. For against the greater amount of information imparted 
on the wider method may not unfairly be set the saving of time and 
space that is effected by the shorter scheme. In the one case the 
object is to exhaust all that can bibliographically be said on any 
given point ; in the other a much larger number of works can, in 
their general features, be made known to students within a given 
time. A third plan that might be adopted consists in first publishing 
a brief but carefully tabulated account of a collection of MSS., and 
then proceeding to prepare a catalogue on a full scale; but this 
alternative has no practical bearing on the case now before us. 

In the new Bodleian volume, then, the method employed by 
Dr. Neubauer in the volume published in 1886 reappears, with some 
few modifications, in all its admirable conciseness and clearness. 
The continuity of method was, in fact, unavoidable in the present 
instance ; and one may add that the work would — to the regret of 



590 THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW 

many — have had to delay its appearance if the wider method had 
been adopted. But whilst rightly making the present volume uniform 
with its predecessor of 1886, Mr. Cowley and Mr. Nicholson are fully 
aware of the advantages offered by the fuller plan of work. In his 
" Introductory Note " Bodley's Librarian writes as follows : — " There 
were powerful reasons for not attempting in this volume any con- 
siderable new departure in cataloguing ... A much more advanced 
standard of detailed description has, however, been adopted of late 
years for the cataloguing of Bodleian MSS., and may be expected 
to be followed in the next volume of the catalogue. I hope also 
that within the next decade it may be possible for Mr. Cowley to 
undertake an appendix to vols. I and II, which will give the student 
all the supplementary palaeographical and historical information 
which it may be desirable to add." 

The Bodleian Library thus gives us an excellent instalment worked 
on the old system, and it at the same time promises more on a fuller 
scale for the future. Something remains, of course, to be learnt from 
such oriental cataloguers as the late Drs. Wright and Rieu, who in an 
eminent degree, combined clearness with fullness ; but in the mean- 
time we are genuinely grateful for the present gift, both as a work 
admirable in itself and as an earnest of greater things to come. 

G. Maegoliottth. 



DR. KARPELES ON NINETEENTH CENTURY JUDAISM. 

Jews and Judaism in the Nineteenth Century, by Gustav Kaepeles. 
Translated from the German. Philadelphia (the Jewish Publica- 
tion Society of America), 1905, pp. 83. 

Durihg the winter 1899-1900 Dr. Karpeles lectured to the Vereinfur 
judische Geschichte und Litleratur, at Berlin, on Jews and Judaism in 
the nineteenth century. Our enterprising American coreligionists did 
not even wait for the lectures to be published in the original. The 
translation before us was made from the author's unpublished MS., 
and English readers may well feel grateful for having these lectures 
made accessible to them. 

Delivered before a mixed audience, these four lectures do not 
pretend to be anything more than popular addresses. But they are 
interesting and stimulating, and form a welcome addition to the 
author's valuable services towards the popularization of Jewish history 
and literature. Dr. Karpeles is here chiefly concerned with German