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By Israel Davidson, Jewish Theological Seminary of 


IV. A Poem by Elhanan ben Shemaryah. 

The following document, which Dr. Cyrus Adler was 
kind enough to put at my disposal, is found in a collection 
of Genizah MSS. which he brought from Cairo as early 
as 1 891. It consists of a single sheet of parchment, 
measuring 29-2x11-4 cm. (11^x4^ in.), written on both 
sides. The writing is in square characters, and with the 
exception of the last line is legible throughout. The poem 
comprises sixty lines, thirty-nine of which fill one side of 
the sheet and the remaining twenty-one occupy the reverse 
side, the rest of this side being left blank. The first sixteen 
lines contain in acrostic the sixteen letters of the name of 
the author irmav "2V2 prbn } while each alternate line of 
the remaining forty-four lines begins with one of the twenty- 
two letters of the alphabet. 

While there is no positive evidence to prove the identity 
of this Elhanan b. Shemaryah, there is equally no ground 
to doubt that he is the well-known scholar of Kairowan 
who corresponded with the Geonim Sherira and Hai, and 
was the teacher of R. Nissim. 1 If this surmise is correct, 

1 This statement is in direct opposition to the opinion of Poznanski, who 
holds that Elhanan was the pupil of R. Nissim (}KWP "HMK, No. n). He 
bases his opinion on a passage in Gabirol's poem, addressed to R. Nissim, 



then this document is the only poetic composition of 
Elhanan that has come to our knowledge, unless his letter 
to the community of Jerusalem, now in the Oxford collec- 
tion of Genizah MSS. (Neubauer and Cowley, Cat. II, 
2873, 31 a), is likewise written in the poetic style. The 
style of the poem reminds us very much of the Hushiel 
letter (JQR., XI, 643 fif.). While it has no metre, it makes 
use of rhyme, parallelism, and biblical allusions, and has also 
a number of talmudic phrases. The language is in several 
places obscure, but because the writing is very clear I refrain 
from making alterations in the body of the poem, preferring 
to introduce my corrections in the notes. 2 There is one 
linguistic peculiarity which is worth especial notice. In 
a number of cases the vowel Yod of the word '3 is elided, 
and the consonant 3 is combined with the following word. 3 
Although the poem seems to be complete it does not 
contain any direct statement as to the time or the circum- 
stances of its composition. It opens with a eulogy of the 
men who acquire wisdom and learn truth and justice, who 
shun the path of the perverse and keep the commandments, 
the inheritance of the righteous (vv. 1-7). It then speaks 

where Elhanan is referred to as the "pn of R. Nissim (Brody, TBTI "1VB*, 
p. 37, 1. 14). It is, however, impossible that Elhanan, who was already 
famous as a scholar in the days of Sherira, should in his maturer years sit at 
the feet of a younger man. We must, therefore, construe the word fiX\ in 
some other way than its ordinary meaning. According to &HS1D 'pnpT 
the passage in Mo'ed katan 25 a, Win 12K WlMrl DID, is given in manu- 
script as lSyn "DX ina^n njQ. Hence "pri is used in the sense of 
father, or educator (see also Jastrow, s.v. fin), and Gabirol very likely 
refers to Elhanan as R. Nissim's teacher and not his pupil. 

8 Where the reading is very obscure I leave the text unpointed. 

s The following are the words in which the elision takes place : Ver. 53, 
1«B>» for 1KCM »3 ; ver. 54, DWlEfa for tWlE>S> O; ver. 56, 1DKC3 for 
1DKD »3 ; ver. 57, VWW for n»n "O ; ver. 58, MTVO for inn »3. 


of the men who proved unfaithful to the traditions of their 
fathers and, because of their pursuit after gain, found no 
profit in the study of the law but much weariness of flesh 
(vv. 9-14). From them the poet turns abruptly to speak of 
the men who search after knowledge diligently and who 
suffer great privations for the sake of their traditions 
(vv. 15-28). And just as abruptly he comes back to the 
wicked and the foolish ' who rebel without understanding 
and transgress without ascertaining the truth' (vv. 29-33), 
who, ignorant of the law, yet speak with haughtiness, and 
break all bonds as if to them alone all the land was given 
(vv. 34-40). Then, once more, the poet turns to eulogize 
the men who gave up their lives for their faith, as well as 
those who left their homes and their possessions that they 
might keep the law intact (vv. 41-6). And, finally, the 
poet tells us that these refugees found shelter in Rome, 
Teman, and Kedar, and concludes with an invocation that 
the great deeds of these men may bring everlasting grace 
upon them. By Rome he very likely means the western 
countries of Europe, and by Teman and Kedar he means 
Yemen and Southern Arabia in general. 

It is evident, therefore, that the poet has in mind some 
definite events, and we are justified in assuming that he is 
very probably speaking of the persecutions under the 
Fatimide Caliph Hakim, which lasted from 1008 to 1020, 
and extended over Egypt, North Africa, Palestine, and Syria 
(Graetz, Gesch., V 2 , 388), a fact which explains why the 
refugees found no other haven than Europe and Southern 


* onoiw ruian p^ani noan nsd din ntpN 

antra deb^i p"ix ^abn npb nnp7 

; ansp ns^ioi be'D ^nnrn DMwn nivll 

anDB'tti toio *un nfcann rup |iaJ 

/ 't ; • t • : -- / !~ " ■ ' t 

aninn anc« par6 » ^si?d prn t&J 5 

? aniB's Dnne6 j*kd ^dw ynoc Nii 

s ant?'' nknp nehto vnfow '» ri*n* 

°.BHDn awiaa twyno y 3B»n fa> btjI 

10 aniDD wed Bra anax mtoo vi:i3 

y • : - * • tt: / t -; T ; t 

11 antra nyw born nann ani? jy* io 
w anan anntf a^any ^an? n^ ip£' 
" anan btuid D'jaa nvi s6 nayfi 

J *r~ • t : - 't;/ * T s ;t- 

anw >to nsoa nxdh rt$> »d»b1 

/ ' • • ' t: v : / t : * • % 

4 The introductory eight lines are in greater part a paraphrase of Prov. 3. 
13 and 1. 3-6. 

B Cp. 1ITWD WOP '•a, Mai. 3. 14. « Cp. Prov. 2. 15. 

7 The text is obscure and very likely corrupt. Read perhaps yiDB' N">3 
B"H1E>X D'*Tnf$ }>»&? S)DiiT , and with reference to Deut. 18. 16 and Ps. 
17.5 render ' To continue to hear [the voice] of the creator, to strengthen 
the steps of the survivors '. 

8 The verb "Y)W? is to be supplied at the beginning of this verse. 

9 I suggest reading Bnpn DWE? Vi$TtD 3B7T ~fa< CJhrj and with 
reference to Pa. 55. 15 and Eccles. 10. 3, render : ' He chooses to throng [the 
house of the Lord] rather than be punished like the fools [whose under- 
standing] fails them ' 

10 Cp. Abot 1. 1 ; 3. 13. n Cp. Eccles. 12. 12. 

12 ' The students have to watch the gates [of learning] evening and morn- 
ing.' Cp. Prov. 8. 34 : Lowe, 7/5^ Mishnah on which the Palestinian Talmud 
rests, Berakot 1. 1, 4 (BniTBO . . . DUIjn J?^ DN pip TICKS). 

13 With reference to Ezek. 27. 9, I suggest reading N'n N? 31J7D, that 
is, the law is no merchandise among tradesmen and venders. 

14 Plural of B"l (Jer. 48. 29), the meaning is that the law can find no dis- 
tinction among people that are haughty and proud. 


'".anncj ayxa -inx » abn yi wi* 
ann e>k-i3 n^nna " iVw tnpri ntoatfl 15 
i8 / D' i iriNp nas* an^Mfca ^nn \bj; fjiDn^l 
-^anj)^ innaa -vya i^anip wab aN 
-■ annao "otaon 'twnai matea 1 ' ami spaa 

/ ■ t 1 • •■ : - • ; / t '; - ; tt: ' vv : 

cnyi ansa a^bfe ran aivas ->m»3 
y ana-iD na byae* ^'t^ i« ^rfna-na 20 
anipno a-rtn f/inb » a^aiii? a-in 2S DcbiJ 
^anrififeD a-iiya an\bg ^nsab ^bnbn ntoij? 

ansKTO aniai -neb ^ito-ig a^aan na^j 
^anoDCM jxna a^yia? B^yiap ,ntaaK niapx 

» on?B inipa nipiaa ^a-pnx ah "obVl 35 
anino s»mntf nlnina wnini vine *6 

15 Prov. 1. 16. 16 Ezek. 33. 31. " Prov. 1. 21. 

18 Isa. 5. 11. ,9 Pjov. 2. 3. 20 /&«/. 1. ai. 

21 /Wrf. 2. 4. 

22 Deut. 33. £. The meaning of verses 19 and 20 is that they gathered 
together for instruction (BiTON 1D1D), wandering from village and town, to 
receive the words commanded as well as the laws handed down orally. 

23 Cp. Ps. 139. 16. u Cant. R. 1. 6. 

25 This verb is to be taken with B'lXMlD in the next line. 

20 Cp. Cant. 5. 11. Suffering is metaphorically expressed by saying that 
the face has become black. Cp. the expression JTM]?r0 1*23 TfftffTW 
(Ex. R. 1). 

27 Cp. Eccles. 12. 11. The meaning of vers. 22-4 can best be shown by 
rearranging the words as follows : BnrWO aiiya BivbjJ B^nbn ITlXlp 

ayimp a^aan nan aniai -nob -itab niaes iiibbk anxxno [antra] 
awa aijnap anoBaai jama [ant?]. 

28 I take the word BniB as a pass. part, of "113 (cp. pN nTnBnn TIB, 
Isa. 24. 19), and render the verse : ' The righteous who walk in integrity, 
though broken [in spirit] observed as they were commanded.' 

20 Hof. of m\ not biblical. 


anvnm -tfriB aS n\s/y naa 'n^ 
•D'-top? a*na 5»Mrt ^awi sfTj farin 
91 D^p Jt?3» wnp ^yn a^cn nit 

3 < Dnb :(:i D^3D Q"i3 32 |otr$3 D"33 ,0 

: « an'Bt? o^i; nna ^h roy ®bn 
^aniis tjbs did? / pa ; i nyi ^ao 
/ ona1» wt ana /id: w?J anfc? 
^anta WB>nj ^xij ^rnin 'ai a^xpi 
40 QnisE's lyy an 11 :|9 aniDi law 38 wna* « 
43 anaefo ni-iNa 4 -niDi , nn « pny iwsa mat 1 ' 
^n-iiD on^a ne6 ^anasD nna w3 
« Qnsi»n nan vd anxfa ?jna ana 

/ •:- t / • t : t :t 

«anTi"n a^xip npsno jnxn a^ Dn7 

30 Cp. Ezek. 18. 25. The Hif. of pn is not biblical. The meaning of 
verses 27 and 28 seems to be that if only every one did the same as these 
righteous people did, and if the heart and mind were pure, then the way 
would be measured and safe from traps and snares. 

81 Ps. 58. 4. 82 Deut. 32. 20. 

33 Jer. 4. 22. 

34 Cp. anon SO WDL", Num. 20.10. 

35 Isa. 24. 5. se Cp. Ps. 32. 9. 
37 Hos. 8. 12. 38 Ps. 73. 8. 

39 The 1 of D'HIDI may be a dittograph on account of lana 11 , or else read 

ianai aniDi,c P . isa. 10. i. 

40 Ps. 107. 27. 41 Ps. 75. 6. 

42 Sanhedrin 10. 2 (90 a). 

43 Jer. 2. 13. 44 Job 15. 18. 

45 The meaning of this verse is that these wicked people tore down the 
fences and raised up others as if they were the creators (D'HSW riDH), 
not the created (Dni"l3). 

46 Supply the word THnn before TOSTO and the verbs in the next verse, 
i.e. as if for them alone the earth ceases to bring forth thorns and thistles. 


.anoip anpno a^no ^w aa^ ^d^shd 40 (verso) 
« anauo T>Nni) a»Kab anpi a»xy nolb 

/ "t-:i- *t: • t- / *'t: t : c :t 

^anasno b»b» n? pnna anp n? 
51 Di-i33 f^'ya a^a ansa so n-'tanb a»:roJ 
» 2 anna -vb *p» anlns jid^o natj^n 

y — .,- T - I- . y ■ _. - ; . . 

anim ebiyi too aiiya aViy ^aiD 4 = 
".anjfab anrc warn btb aiiD^ni ^wd 

* •-.;- t : • *•:/ tt: t ; - : t 

M y an/3K ar6 a'l&y ^a^p iksd b»;# 
anvitM »ib> ^ao » jeh nSs fnbt? 

/ • • : T . : • /'v V •• T It; ... 

tfrin 60 nds nnx M a^as aru rn3 

/ • •— : t t •• • / • : v : t : • 

^Tjp ipw npna "ps ar6 u»an 5 o 
es aniDB* Brwab ajrn 62 nbyn ny^> anp-iX 

/ • : ■.•••:• t :- / ff :i- c t t 't : . 

05 aniea ar6 an nn 64 ifcye' n^ij Qyb 

/ • •-. • v t •• — : / t v / t - : 

17 Hif. of DpS 'to ferment'. The meaning of this verse is that these 
wicked people regarded themselves above the laws of nature, and therefore 
their wine and oil would not ferment, and their perfumes would not be mixed 
with lees. 

48 In this verse the poet turns again to the righteous and says that they 
surrendered themselves to those who came to light up the roads. What 
he means by this is not clear to me. 

49 Cp. the expression fl"QM 1S13 S?3 WW, Taanit 22 b. 

50 Cp. 1 Sam. 21. 10. 61 Jer. 51. 40. 

52 For BnriDD, the meaning of verses 42-4 is that these pious people 
gave themselves up to the sword and fire rather than forget the law and turn 
away from it to clasp the hand of the stranger. 

53 A paitanic usage instead of 1VBJ, cp. Kalir Shekalim : J?S33 f)Jfl J?D 

54 They left their possessions to the wily of heart. Cp. Prov. 7. 10. 
65 Isa. 41. 17. 50 Ps. 78. 25. 57 Job 36. 16. 
68 Paitanic usage for S]D3 ffiE\ M Ps. 112. 9. 

60 Isa. 5. 13. 6l Joshua 1. 11. 62 Ps. 112. 9. 

63 Cp. Job 21. 8. M Cp. Ps. 22. 32. 

65 The meaning of the verse is that the deeds they have done will be as 
an atonement for the people that shall be born. 


«: Qi-np ndh iKfc»33 « 6 -riaaa arm B3ip 
™ o>nny wdj D^^sba ffi rtar dts asan 
^Di-ob* be>m i?p^n "Q^na DpJ>n niK*l s5 

/ : • - -: t ^ t t — ~: t : 

n anas D^aa injins ipi>rv answy bh& 

/ *t ; t •- ."[V; / ' : -; • -; *■ ; 

70 ansa anaxi) wnrra ww a^jni b^ 
» amy wise wan « D^iyb aran arnsfi 

• t-; : * ; -r / t ; •• ; - t t •.. 

an . . hp . . . ipixa » an* [na] anix abates 6o 

V. From a Divan of Solomon Ibn Gabirol. 

In 1858 Leopold Dukes published a volume of Gabirol's 
secular poems which he gathered from manuscripts in 
Oxford, Parma, and Vienna. 1 With the exception of two 
poems which were in the possession of Carmoly, and to 
which Dukes evidently had no access, this volume, though 
containing only sixty-nine poems, represented almost all 
that was known of Gabirol's secular poetry. 2 Ten years 

66 Ps. 112. 9. 

67 Cp. Lev. 20. 20 and Yebamot 55 a. See also above, n. 3. 

68 Cp. Isa. 53. 10. 

69 Cp. Isa. 53. 12 and Zeph. 3. 10. The meaning is that they were 
numbered among the transgressors though they were engaged in prayer. 

70 Cp. Ps. 142. 6. 71 Cp. Isa. 53. 11. 72 Berakot 48 b. 
73 Cp. Isa. 53. 12. 74 Ps. 92. 15. 

™ With their suffering they atoned for the communities as with offerings 
of bullocks (Lev. 4. 13-21). Cp. Siphre, Deut. 32 : D'SID n\XTp& DB»3 

78 Prov. 11. 3. 77 Cp. Zeph. 2. 14. 7S Cp. Dan. 12. 3. 

1 Dukes, nth® "HiC, Hannover, 1858. 

2 Id., Salomo ben Gabirol aus Malaga, Hannover, i860, pp. 13, 14. 
Dukes claims that he published all the poems of Gabirol, even the fragments, 
but the fact is that he overlooked some poems even in the Oxford MS., as, 
for instance, the poem "njtt "I2*K njlfl reproduced below. 


later, in 1868, Senior Sachs made an attempt to gather and 
elucidate the religious poetry of Gabirol. 3 But his method 
of elucidation was so comprehensive that in a work of 167 
pages only 29 short poems were reproduced. 

Neither Dukes nor Sachs made any reference to a 
complete, independent Divan of Gabirol's poems. Stein- 
schneider's list of 65 poems is based on the Oxford MS. 
"ttWMh rortD, which is only an appendix to the Divan of 
Judah Ha-Levi (mw rono), and contains the compositions 
of many other poets ; 4 while Luzzatto, who began to make 
a list of Gabirol's poems, likewise made no mention of any 
special collection. 5 

The first intimation of the existence of a Gabirol Divan 
was given by Harkavy in the prefatory note to four poems 
of Gabirol published by him in 1893, 6 although he did not 
emphasize this point. 7 Then came the list of 114 poems 
published by Neubauer s from a Genizah manuscript which 
seems to have been originally an index to a Divan of 
Gabirol. 9 Further proof that the poems of Gabirol were at 
one time gathered into a Divan has been furnished by the 
thirty-three leaves from the Genizah in the possession of 

3 Sachs, BHWI *W, Paris, 1868. 

* St., Cat. Bodl., pp. 2336-7 ; Neub., Cat., 1970, III. 

5 Luzzatto, D'iB^an mi?,p. 102. In r6t?n, I, 38, David Kahana states 
that he compiled a list of Gabirol's poems, but does not speak of any special 

6 Harkavy, D , 35f > D5 EWin, No. 3 (published as supplement to f'PDn, 
1893, No. 144, under the title of DnBKD HWIN), p. 4. 

1 He merely says : '131 TINXD "'"33 12"Vn JKYHD p5>rU. 

8 Gedenkbuch zur Erinnerungan D. Kaufmann, Breslau, 1900, pp. 279-87. 

9 Neub. and Cowley, Cat, No. 2835". It may be of interest to know 
that just as in MS. Oxford No. 1970 the poems of Gabirol follow the poems 
of Judah Ha-Levi, so also in this index the record of Gabirol's poetry follows 
that of Ha- Levi's. 


E. N. Adler. This fragment, which has been identified and 
edited by Brody, 10 contains the greater part of thirty-four 
poems of Gabirol, 11 thirteen of which had been entirely lost 
to us. 12 And now we have in the fragment from the Taylor- 
Schechter collection, reproduced below, additional and con- 
clusive corroboration that Gabirol's poetry had already long 
ago been gathered in one independent collection. 

Our fragment (T-S. Loan 69) consists of two mutilated 
leaves of paper, the first of which is only about four-fifths of 
its original size (17 x 16 cm.). The second leaf, still pre- 
serving its original size (21 x 16 cm.), has also preserved its 
original pagination, and bears the number 30 (i.e. b). The 
poems, written in a cursive hand, are numbered from 122 to 
1 26. And since the leaves are consecutive we have in this 
fragment ff. 29 and 30 of what was once a Divan of 
Gabirol's poetry. The name of Gabirol, it is true, is not 
mentioned in the fragment, but there cannot be the least 
doubt that the poems are his. For No. 1 22 is also found in 
the Oxford MS., 13 No. 123 is mentioned in Neubauer's list, 14 
No. 124 is the oft reprinted poem beginning V0JO3 wi>D 
nsnn, and No., 126 has likewise been included in Dukes's 
edition. 15 The only poem of which there was not even 
a record until now is No. 125, and that poem could be 
recognized as Gabirol's by its very diction, as will be pointed 
out in the notes to the text. Our fragment, therefore, gives 
us two poems for which there is no other source at all, one 

10 MGWJ., LV, pp. 76-97. 

11 The fragment contains thirty-six poems, but Brody doubts Gabirol's 
authorship in two cases : fol. 30 a, b and fol. 33 a. 

12 See ibid,, p. 92, where Brody gives a list of them. 

13 St., Cat. Bodl, p. 2337, No. 54. 

" Gedenkbuch, p. 286, col. 3, No. 22. " TO^t? *"W, No. 69. 


poem which is found also in the Oxford MS., and two others 
which give us better readings than that of the printed texts. 
The first poem (No. 122) is an elegy on his father's 
death. 16 From the expression ?an •nv rrn ne* »3k (ver. 5) 
we may infer that his father was a man of importance, and 
from the last verse, in which he consoles himself with the 
fact that he is safe from further sorrow (^BJl ,N3 niJD \3 /l 
nn nsn /ijn mnn i6 1iy), we may infer that his father was 
the last of his kin to die. 17 The second poem (No. 123) 
seems to be a satire on some versifiers who had no talent 
for poetry. It reminds us of another long poem of Gabirol 
on this subject, and recalls to mind some of its phraseology, 18 
as will be pointed out in the notes to the text. Only the 
first five lines of this poem are preserved, and by comparing 
the number of lines on fol. 29 b with the number of lines on 
fol. 30 b we find that of the twenty-eight lines only eight are 
missing. I, therefore, assume that five of these eight be- 
longed to No. 123, making the whole poem consist of ten 
lines, one was the opening line of No. 1 24, and the remaining 
two lines must have contained a superscription to No. 1 24. 19 

16 This was already pointed out by Brody (MGWJ., LV, p. 95, note 72), 
from his study of the Oxford MS. 

17 To establish the text of No. 122 of our fragment with greater facility 
and precision, my friend Prof. Marx obtained for me through Prof. Cowley 
a facsimile of two pages of the Oxford MS. (Pococke 74, fol. i7ob-i7ia). 
These two pages contain the last twenty-four verses of the poem T\7\ HDJJ 
D'OINJ tP3?l , and Nos. 122, 1 24 as well as the first nine lines of No. 126 of 
our fragment. 

18 I have reference to the poem IID ilDJJ (see Sachs, iTPITlrl, I, 47-56 ; 
Dukes, tW, No. 9 ; Graetz, &XT0 Bp?, p. 49> 

19 It is, however, possible that fol. 29 b contained originally twenty-nine 
lines like fol. 30 a, in which case nine lines would be missing. Two of 
these must have belonged to No. 124, one as superscription and one as the 
opening line, and the remaining seven must have been part of No. 122, 
making it consist of twelve verses. 


The third poem (No. 124) has already been published 
five times, 20 and I would have refrained from reproducing it 
a sixth time were it not for the fact that our Genizah frag- 
ment presents the best text so far known, and does away 
with some of the far-fetched interpretations to which the 
commentators were forced to resort. As Sachs has pointed 
out, 21 this poem is in the form of a dialogue between 
Gabirol and some friend to whom he complains of his mis- 
fortunes. Verses 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10 are spoken by Gabirol, 
and verses 3, 4, 7, 8 by his friend. The fourth poem 
(No. 125) seems to be a conciliatory epistle, written to 
a friend with whom he had quarrelled, but whose friendship 
he wished to retain, provided the friend admitted he had 
acted wrongly (compare verses 21-24). The identity of 
this friend, however, is impossible to establish. As stated 
in the tenth verse, this poem was written at the age of 16, 
and its phraseology reminds us of another poem written in 
the same year. 23 Altogether, then, we know with certainty 
of five poems composed by Gabirol at this early age. They 
are ncn mn, 23 jj^nn, 24 tukti tix^d, 25 nin nay, 26 and $>Kr£nn, 
the first twenty-nine lines of which are found in the last 
poem of our fragment (No. 126). This poem was published 
once by Dukes, 27 but his text is so faulty that instead of 
merely giving the variants I feel justified in reproducing the 

20 -nSDpK *tJ3 (1850), p. 1 ; TO^K* 'W (i8 5 8\ No. 3 ; D^CW Qpb 
(1 86a), p. 37 ; I'm *M flSpl SlUJ p noS>B> »n (1878?), pp. 8-12 ; 
TOT 1VC? (1906), p. 36. 

21 nn '33 TOpl Z2"VT\ , p. 8. 2a See notes to the text. 

23 TOT "32 flXpl J3"tD, p. 12. Sachs conjectures that it is probably 
another version of the poem Tin nDJf {ibid., p. 13). 

24 = No. 135 of our fragment. 2S See above, n. 20. 
26 See above, n. 18. 27 HD^C T>V, No. 69. 


complete text of our fragment, though it is but a small part 
of the whole poem. 

In addition to the text of the poems I deem it proper, 
in this connexion, to present in an appendix a number of 
corrections to the Genizah index published by Neubauer. 
As Neubauer himself informs us in his prefatory note, 28 it 
was impossible for him, on account of his poor eyesight, to 
add any comment to the text, and the identification of 
many of the poems was made by Halberstam. Yet there 
are many poems still unidentified, and the few identifications 
which I add may prove of service to students of Gabirol's 
poetry. A full list of Gabirol's poems, giving the printed 
and manuscript sources, would fill a long felt want. But 
this must be reserved for another occasion. Meanwhile let 
us hope that Dr. Brody will be enabled to complete his 
excellent edition of Gabirol, 29 and make such a list 

nxaDXN . . . itu 

. , a r6i 

sipr'SB' n'frjn mb rteh nnx arc? "n?[3 n^g n]m nap 
2 ww ^ob my rpriN *iy any nyi> ^xn to? 

t : ■ : '••'• vvnv - • t " : T 

28 Gedenkbuch, p. 279. 

29 a*"Wn "VES Berlin, 1898-1900, 8°, 36+28 pp. 

30 In the Oxford MS. there is no superscription. Words enclosed in 
brackets are supplied from the Oxford MS. unless otherwise stated in the 

si This verse is to be construed as if it read JTlbjn "03^ TO" [pK»] 3K3 
it»Bt5> iTIX T15M "KPtf naifl, which may be rendered : ' My heart is bowed 
down like a ghost from the ground (cp. Isa. 29. 4) when my grief, for 
which there is no balsam, reaches its height (cp. Num. 23. 3).' 

S2 Cp. Lev. 13. 52. The fragment reads : DW 1K&. 



t; • v-!i- t / * : - •• v : • -: ■ r * t r: ••• 

any n^it]? -px 37 i>tee> no t6 !>an ng nvt nete \?x 

4 ".ri[;]ix n[p]nk> ib"io;i »dw nfas i^y S8 ^yi lyx 

« aj-ay [n]npn] """*? "fi-'JQ i^?3 *>^ ^P1¥ nisb njn 

«a\3E> ^[pin "ipko an 13 isaria raj> fowi h< 

«nj[sn] nciriB> o^as taine>f5 »? n*ft "nro$ n»*jt$» sh 

33 Cp. Lam. 2. 11. 

34 This verse is thus to be rendered : ' The more I call unto mine eye not 
to grow weak with weeping the more it weeps.' 

3 5 MS. Oxford reads: niDn i>31 D33K bit H33K. 

36 The meaning of the last two words is not clear to me. Perhaps we 
may construe the phrase to mean that the eye is constantly flowing with 
tears like he who has an issue (cp. Lev. 22. 4) and read r\*n 3!3n 
or perhaps read F|»n aN3H , i. e. the tear which the pain has revived never 

37 The meaning of this phrase is obscure. Perhaps we ought to read 
bi3S? fbi>tjl (cp. Isa. 47. 9). MS. Oxford reads : ^33B» TMt6 . 

33 Our fragment reads : IPS' 1 T"K . 

39 On the frequency of this and similar metaphors in the poetry of the 
Spanish-Arabic period see Goldziher, 'Bemerkungen zur neuhebraischen 
Poesie ' (JQR., XIV, 721). Following is a list of the verses in the poems of 
Gabirol in which the expression O'D 1 1TD3 occurs. Dukes, ilDPtJ' TC, 
No. 6, ver. 1 ; No. 9, ver. 6 ; No. 10, ver. 5 ; No. 15, ver. 1 ; No. 16, ver. 9 ; 
No. 22, ver. 6 ; No. 62, ver. 5 ; in No. 24, ver. 10, the expression D^C '23 
is used. 

10 The suffix refers to ?3n in the preceding verse. 

41 His righteousness has been a sign that his soul is bound up in peace 
with God. 

42 The word i>an is used here in the sense of ' fortune ', and the poet 
warns us not to put our trust in fortune, because her spoils are greater than 
her gifts. 

43 Henceforth (TIM **inN) know this of the world that she sharpens her 
arrows (cp. Jer. 9. 7) to kill men. The form PfTtf] , which presupposes a 
root *Sn, can be explained by 1 Sam. 20. 38. 


".Taj? ids n>n in* t6 dn yasx \bj) ng:D3 "ivn I0 

45^3'' nnx nD3i irrin Dy taai> -iid 1 ' e»&6 *)3b> 

t ; t "-; p T T : t • T ; T *;*.'•„■ 

46 .nn3 efiagn. yj) tos ban "'nte-ia* jv etais cyaJiK 

rP|>n \?J> tpDV 1 3N3n »3 'B'W 3K3 B>X t^Ssb 31t?K 

49 .pi»' ! t riNn njn mnn t6 liy itfeji «xa nun *3 pi'n 

TIN* JO DT HJS13N f"J?3 ^K 3D31 

40 ni? ;NDnK *w jo -yw ba n>ux 

w — • 

51^31 n^n 'i?3i'' ispi naun »*ti ipox n*r asp 

[6]a? Di»n wy^ia 53 rjTj| jaw 11513 52 nine' wiroi 

=6ai wd 5>a titji tap *efcK 53, >yYi* rcpi 

44 The world presses [on man] like a ring on the finger when it has not 
enough of breadth to fit the thickness [of the finger]. The fragment reads : 
ni)3D3, MS. Oxford reads : ,T3J> 103 rP3 7P &6 DN. 

45 Woe to the man whose heart turns after her splendour and inclines to 
her beauty. MS. Oxford reads : 133> "11X1 B"K^» "Q2>. 

46 Construe this verse as if it read C?3>N iTHS . . . i>3D VntTDI 
pa* 5^3^. 

47 MS. Oxford reads: H3 '"MO "O. 

48 In the last two verses the poet tries to console himself by the fact that 
the death of his father is the last blow that fate can aim at him. 

49 ' He wrote to one of his friends blaming him who laid claims to the art 
of poetry without possessing the gift for it.' In deciphering this, as well as 
some of the other Arabic superscriptions that follow, I consulted my friends 
Prof. Israel Friedlaender and Mr. B. Halper. 

60 Cp. Hos. 9: 14 and the expression fli'D dlp03 QHT (Berakot 10 a). 

61 A similar expression is found in the poem Tin riDJJ (nOPE* H'SJ*, 

No. 9 ; riTinn, i, pp. 47-56), v. 70. 

62 Cp. Ps. 11. 3. 

63 VaiN (Exod. 35. n) would be better suited to the metaphor. 

64 Cp. Deut. 4. 25. 

65 T'jni' 1 would be more correct. 



-! t: -• : • - : -: v — :|- 't: 

pj-ni ia-n Nist3[»] whi [D] *msr\ 5 ? . . na "vtfa lair "iste 5 

(fol.2 9 b) 

[nairn inruta vi]nefe>iT| 

[nwoj? -3D 60 K"ne>] wr6 

H nB-p[Nn] dv-.^j) niaai liao 

— ^ I wj <j 

5»napin 'raxia vnrjra] pap] 
["aa]5> naa? pint> nx-is avn 

56 Fragment i - eads Dpi, but the metre requires IDpi . 

57 The MS. is torn in this place and it seems as if two letters are missing. 
We should perhaps read DTD in the sense of stanzas, the meaning would 
then be that these pseudo-poets write in faulty stanzas and do not know the 
laws of scansion. Cp. also his poem "Jin itOJJ, ver. 33: }1J!*V Is? ICK 

tyooto 1a mnb ww nani> -ma. 

58 This is all that is left of the superscription. As the poem has already 
been thoroughly commented upon by S. Sachs in his essay j3 DDPC "On 
VTTI 'ID DSpl 7IT3J, pp. 8-ia, I shall abstain from further comment, 
except where the Genizah MS. differs from the printed text. 

59 MS. Oxford has clearly HBlin. Sachs reads nSlln. 

60 Cp. Eccles. 2. 22 ; 3. 18. 

61 MS. Oxford reads : na'DNfl DflvS? • Sachs (loc. cit., p. 9) corrects it 
into naDKn DIT^S? , and maintains that the word DnvJJ refers to the words 

t v.-: T 

ntJtJ'l "IC'y, interpreting it to mean, ' Is it for a youth of sixteen to mourn 
over the sixteen years that have passed ' ' Our text gives a much more 
logical sense : ' Is it for a youth of sixteen to lament over the day of death ! ' 
See also Sachs, ibid., p. 2. 


na^aa -ctai nirn ra-bjn 
nawp db> nsnnn 'tja'i 
nann narrbsb 13 nipi 

t ; t- t: •/••-: 

nanyn nycnb b'y>~"ro' 

na'pn nsbn sbi Ty Di'ni''- Wsa t^k a&a:. iriat* 


'iiy'D '33b ra'oaDE' 5 

iriJD nD?sm fan tiw 

nil bas ^sp-ina yxa-nn*. 

D'preBn by niaa b'y>-nD>. 

brrx naa-iyi b'niN-nn" 

jwi lybrnx aia Dim ro 

'a runx nTyp nbi 
"'lycba bip3 TxinaK 

v_, . ,j 

n[ii]-j' cob ie>« s^k mani 

niiinao n'lpxa irai 

niixi rnaj? ni'i jiKB> ni'i 

69 niniya bEh ip' 'kok baa 

nhviD on ie>a'a niyini 

niirtf na m-n ban isste 

00 [n^'nina tit t?i'Nb nybnn nap 

origjub iB/i'ni Dinn y?$ 
wa Dva laaa bins iab ic>k 

1>B31 «WDOy Nb DT1K 

T - : -.. T -; • T-; 

idiio' nD3n ni^ba- iaba r 

t tit : : • * ; 3 

nnn» 7 °e«Nb 'nafe> iota 71b 

t • ; ■ t - t ; - I; 

fi2 MS. Oxford and printed texts read : ''D3C, 

« 3 ibid., ?ispnnb. 

« 7Wrf., naU3 "|M'l 3K3J B*OK niBfl, which is difficult to explain, for 
nai33 could not refer to K"t*iK, and the abstract noun is n3'"*i, but in our 
text it refers correctly to E>33 . 

65 A kasida composed when he began to write poetry. 

66 The manuscript reads nna , but the nature of the kasida requires that 
the first hemistich of the first line should have the same ending with which 
the whole poem rhymes. For a similar expression see his poem lin ilDy, 
ver. 3:11113 TIT 1'H "3 J)11. 

67 The same phrase is found in the above-mentioned poem, ver. 91. 

68 Ezek. 31.8. 

« 9 The word int?D is to be understood. Cp. inC3 IDflO I'M iyj, 
Isa. 33. 15. Manuscript reads JYIIiyj D5? lip' *B>3S bs3. 

70 Manuscript reads nnnD '"136? B»Nb 1D1K lb, but the metre requires 
the transposition. 



"I . . . W Tf&W. *& D"J??3 

['jiost wn nana i>wn 

"nroyp rnayi rra? nipi 

72 . . . . D3 T13nb 1*N3" "VX3 

• t t; ■ : ~ • ; 

J3 nViiaa rray rrvaana 


nhiap oa into? nnb'jrwi 
nhpee i? !qk rnix isai 
n[m]san ppon trai bi 


nn !>a S>k am 

. . . n»n . . . mne "h dm 

m»B30 CD31 

nniDK Dn>ia ■nin ns-ii-6 

-: t t ■ : ' t : v : 

nhV-iBt? nyab'b nnw fex 
ni-to r^y w«d ;yc6 

: t •• -: t '- - ; 

nhpy *jgtei \bj?o npvi 

n1*Wi? w ^a to niann 

7c ni-inyn a^pw nys To? 

nVriie i>a - by nv naioi 

: t c *t: -t : • 

Qitwp wj »jk r* n . . . . (fol.3oa) 

•aw -n w . . . . * 


■a$> . . . . ny . . . 

Dip eh-iri To *jan 5>y aw 

na^na nap; "I'yni 

t?K 1 r«iani wdk-^ik? ^ni 80 

jypS 3*ni|r^n n^ ay 

na^xi aiete ijk i? ;yp!> 

nts>uK frao-5>aj> N|ip \bi 

D^-'pai 3iE>n njp-^y 'a ^as 

71 ' Run from my wrath.' Cp. Job ai. 30. The poet is also playing 
upon the phrase iTT3yD 1*Uy (Isa. 10. 29). 

72 Read perhaps flVUtSS (2 Sam. 12. 31). 

73 ' And thou wilt tremble at the wrath of my spoken arrows like a woman 
that gives birth to her first-born after being barren in her youth.' Cp. Jer. 
32- 3°- 

74 Supply perhaps H3H DS"|. 7r> Ps. 35. 14. 

76 ' I shall hear the supplications.' miny = pi. of /Tiny, formed from 
"iny after the analogy of mtiy from IDy. 

77 'And every day thou shalt lick the dust off my boots.' Jinay = pi. 
absolute. In the Bible only the pi. const, is found. 



ni-irv en wi onb^j? 
nii'K'Jin nfen ntorn 

J8 rn"VOt 1DS10 '•riD JiB^a VP 

nhftb ta awisn id:!? 

Tfrffinri nWa -inw aai> 

nhijn niy "iSinm [i"£]bn 

ninnx ^n-nxp-^s itj>e>ki 

rirten onto npi &6n 

ni-BDB "nVvBh [tsb]b "jn 

nifrtan n[isnb vrtfprsi] 

ni^a.i «va* ira neh 

... I T T * ~: T ' « ; *£> 

niniDji fnibayD D'fcw 

•t : j • ■ t -; t "t : 

D'tntf or6 w " a ... 131 

d:^ nbriiwa Kin nj?b 
^r?e>a nW lib tk>k liyi 

. . . t6n f$n »b n5» . . . 
"on ^x ih np im 

[niVjnnn 5>a efcha bs [n^nn] [iBp] 
aafeoi S2 F$~ty n^jtt "f'$(fol.3ob) 

78 A similar expression is found in the poem Tin HBSJ, ver. 98 : nYVB* 

D^tn D^iy w lTiipnxa urn noin "no. 

79 Reads perhaps DrVTCW. 

80 ' I join an oath unto thee that thou punish the heart of the rash with 
these beautiful [verses].' For the use of 1211 in this sense cp. nT l 3nN 
£3^03 DJ'i'V (Job 16. 4). It is also possible to read . . . H^N f|3 Wiarfj 
and render it as follows : ' I associate these [verses] with thee that thou 
punish the heart of the rash with these beautiful verses.' But the repetition 
of the adjective n?X is objectionable. 

81 There is no superscription in the Oxford MS. The words or letters 
enclosed in brackets are supplied from the edition of Dukes (nDPE^ ^Tt?, 
No. 69), which is based on that manuscript. For interpretation of some lines 
of this poem see S. Sachs, nn ya HSpl irVOa }3 Ttobv. T1, pp. 13-16. 

82 Edition = pN. 


nfonan f>a ^ n^na -ista vnSb incd riDDin tins? 

Q' 1 ?!?'!'? n^Dni pton] "rcste s 
rtaaE> [n'Btpi] nbfo ri&b 
nnab nmno rnvia 

TT"J|- Tf}« T ; 

rvfoa sj^k [ioa a]b 83 Di s ni 
84nnn , > mioN ana $>aa 

• * : t t -: t t : 

ansragn ^niDVV spy* io 
«°nnfen nmj t6 n»o twn 

tt; t ;* t: t • *: 

njins aeri 91, oi?n ^ana 
fijikw irtj? pis $>ty piBD 
Qjfe'n wtW nrna'ra 
nViwa Mn'DnrjD njarn Is 

[n nntja] annni 
[ni^N?n e>»nrn] on^ja 

[nihsa a^abtti d]5 o$n?:n 
87[iy6idj tpib' s^jot onijn 

rri^ax nip6pbni_ rrirnfca 

niha? tvn[tog]a rwjr 

92 it6$3 otatori nioteni 

.ni^D? a'eto ^oa p6 3g»rn 

94 ni^D n^nao D'prn 

83 Edition =nb rum. s4 Cp. Ps. 35. i. 

85 Cp. Jer. 6. 2, and Brown and Driver, Heb. and Eng. Lexicon, s.v. 

rnrt n. 

88 Cp. i Chron. ia. 38. The Ed. reads BmNS? 101V "tljn. The 
MS. Oxford reads tV'W ion" 1 ~!iyi , and on the margin are given two 
variants, DmtKP IDT and JTHt? "IDIV DTJJ1. Dukes {ibid., p. 69, n. 4) 
copied one of the variants wrongly and gives "1KB' 1t3"V ?X1. 

87 So in text, but I suggest reading nvXJ and render the clause as 
follows : 'And they continue to destroy the remnant that was saved.' 

88 Cp. Jer. 50. 17. 

89 Read perhaps , , . n?TI 'TJJ and the verse may be rendered : ' The 
mighty have oppressed her with their might until the wealth which she once 
possessed became their possession.' Ed. reads Jlvni "ID "TCW. 

90 Ed. reads nmCl. 91 Ibid., VlSil 

92 Ibid., JllpiTD and in a note gives the reading TYl^SO 

93 ibid., iTDnro. 

94 Ibid., TYIPISJ, and the fragment reads JTl?ti3. Both these readings are 
incorrect since the context requires a parallel to rmiX3 , hence my correction. 


rfhya ""jnntob *n -rate 
so nihb rt^aoa rnnn 


"rvfoa? oa p« ng i^^pjm 
10, n6;No ntofe>n ni^sa 

nihn#n D^Bten it^rn] 

ni^psa ni-ifc>an v»nrr] 

106 nihD3 rrmfiBD n-wm n[i 

nftsKn "»nfoa wa^[rn] 

ntatg nvVbao ^yani 
ru'iyn runo ^n n&ri 

t *-;t t ■ : •* t: 

tisd ynx «!*b$ ^>a -ib>k 
arnia ns ra wsfco nxra 
awoy Era ^3t? ^orajn 2 o 

"»nrnpB3 rfrwDKn vrn 
*]bbb>'o "> 5 rnlD? TD?n iste 

nip^na j-ne* D 5? IW ^1 25 
inba [rjbh] not? 109 [?;i jna 

95 Ed. reads JiTnxij. 

96 ' And make her rejoice with the gorgeous garment of betrothal.' 
TvbSD is used instead of 7I73JD (Ezek. 23.12) for ni7)?a, cp. Jer. 2. 2. 

97 Fragment reads 17J) • 

98 Construe the verse as if it read TISD ptf *7K Will 17J 1W. Ed. 
reads USPini. 

99 Ed. reads Jli'ia' 1 . . . 17»BW. 

100 Ibid., DUjn, and in a note Q»3jn. 

101 ' Hungry and thirsty like does that are failing in strength.' Ed. reads 
ni?1D ni?lKT3 m^Na, which is entirely void of sense. 

102 Fragment reads 'vrU. 

103 Ibid., nOT- The word \>17 is to be supplied from the first hemistich, 

i.e. rfh'hs W!) apjp man? *?i7. 

104 Pass. part, of "IpS. Fragment reads JTI"llp' , B3. Ed. has in a note 


106 Ed. reads IID 1 ". In this verse Gabirol begins to enumerate the great 
deeds of the man to whom the poem is addressed. 

106 Read perhaps nih^D Wrt^DD. 

107 Plur. 3rd pers. of |)7 . 

108 Fragment reads *"IU3. 109 Ibid., Jin. 

110 Supply the word pTS, i.e. he sought justice and deeds of righteous- 


ni^[ij)i] jjn *6? In5[is]3 [P^Dsnij '"int n]j> p^ds: tb^ 

113 n^«j?n njfcB* » 2 ninths m [rnji> p=ipj] dni ia pnpp? 

115 rt^pp 114 ia vjasK' [nnj«3] [fp^np wp] ^sp [iani] 


As already stated above, the Genizah fragment published 
by Neubauer contains an index of the first lines of the 
poems of Judah Ha-Levi and of Ibn Gabirol. The index 
of Ha-Levi's poems is on the recto, and that of Gabirol's 
is on the verso of the manuscript ; the writing, however, 
does not quite cover the whole of the verso, so that this 
appears to be the end of the list. On examining the list of 
Gabirol's poems we find that it contains 114 titles. This 
seems to show that the Divan from which our two leaves 
are taken was much larger than the Divan which the writer 
of the index had before him, for our fragment shows that 
the original Divan had already contained 1 %6 poems in the 
first thirty leaves. 

Of the 114 poems enumerated on the verso, one was 
identified by Halberstam as Judah Ha-Levi's, and one as 
Abraham Ibn Ezra's (col. 1, No. 5 and No. 26) ; 18 were 
identified by him as already printed in the edition of Dukes, 
and one more as printed by Sachs in Ha-Magid, 1864, 
p. 140 ; 27 were shown to have been recorded by Zunz in 
Liter ahirgeschichte, pp. 188-9, and the remaining 66 were 

111 Cp. 1 Sam. ar. 9. m Ed. reads mntt6. 

113 As Dukes remarked, this refers to the Sanhedrin, who sat in a semi- 
circle (Sanhedrin 4. 3). 

114 Fragment reads D3 . 

115 The poem contains ninety-four lines, but our fragment ends with the 
twenty-ninth line. 


left unidentified. Of these 66 I shall identify here 13, 
and of the other 48 I will give additional references in 27 
cases. To facilitate reference, I number the poems in each 

MS. Oxford No. 2835". 
Verso. Col. 1. 

6. nnini? . . . Read nw6 -w (in didp an no, II, p. 6). 

7. pin spin? (cp. Zunz, Lit.-Gesch., 188, No. 25). 

8. Tticb ntM W (in Sachs, onw n»B>, p. 132). 

9. an: nai> 1 . . . Read ana nai> ir6e> (#/£, p. 163). 

10. T^paN *i[ne>] (##., p. 150; Baer, 5>tnt8* mi35> TiD, p. 34). 

11. |VW nj»B> (Sachs, /&#., p. 140; M. Sachs, Religiose Poesie*, 

P- 7)- 

16. ISDn Win lb (Brody, IWi nyB>, p. 39 ; H. M. Lazarus in 

Jews' College Jubilee Volume, p. 207). 

17. »?N n?y W (Dukes, Zur Kenntniss, p. 157). 

18. nn W (Sachs, nnW "W, p. 107; Brody, ffBW DnD3ip, 

No. 68). 

19. "IE>N , 1E' (cp. also Luzzatto, D'JD'an rsb, p. 71, No. 61). 

20. H1T pi> D1^B> (cp. Luzzatto, ibid., p. 72, No. 98). 

21. HDD ^J? aait? (Dukes, Zur Kennt., p. 158). 

22. »B* 133 B>"W (Halberstam, nniK 5>B, p. 23; Graetz, Bpi> 

tMW, p. 55). 

23. fTTCD 113315? (cp. Luzzatto, z&i/., p. 71, No. 70). 

24. TPtSW hm (Dukes, Zur Kennt., p. 158; Taen, XII, 357 

yhvri, II, 111; Sachs, DTTil i"W, p. 126). 

25. PT13 nj1E> (Geiger, Salomo Gabirol, p. 141). 

Col. 2. 
1. K»N3 mortn ^Xl (cp. St., Ca/. Bodl., p. 2337, No. 57). 

15. enata »^3D onyi (Harkavy, FpDNn, VI, p. 148). 

25. nam '»» ma (Graetz, #/</., p. 45 ; Brody, CTWl W, p. 21). 


Col. 3. 

2. tnnn i? no wr (msopK na, p. 21; Graetz, #*'</., p. 52; 

■ Brody, Dnw "W, p. 32). 

4. iin b -ax -11s t6n. Read TOann 5>a 'ax nix xbn ('opN <tm, 
p. 26). 

14. npn^O mia i>1BN. This is very likely identical with the 

poem on an apple (nriNan , s) published by Harkavy in 
epDKn, VI, p. 148, which begins npnt?D n?J hax. Both 
of these readings, however, are void of meaning. 
I suggest, therefore, npne>» flj)}? vg, which refers to 
the apple on the tree. 

15. flpD m nt nob (Dukes, n»^S? *W, No. 64). 

16. ^ by nnW (Brody, "wn -w, p. 36). 

19. DTlon nn 1^X3 iJliw. Perhaps identical with ^JJD ^XC 
DVienn. See below, Col. 4, No. 13. 

22. m ipox »TT. Identical with No. 123 of our fragment. 

23. VUtna TIS^D. See text of the article, note 20. 

25. n*r yaen s6n (tisdpn na, p. 22). 

26. y*iDt« un jot (Sachs, rwin, II, p. 2). 

Col. 4. 

1. nn nna -iyc (Sachs, dnw n»e>, p. 129). 

2. n* iivpa bwso (msDps w, p. 26; Dukes, nobs? »w, 

No. 66). 

3. 'Dra ia tie> (Sachs, Vn n*e>, p. 156). 

4. irW b&6 W (Sachs, *&</., p. in; Brody, TOW D"iD31p, 

No. 77; id., TETl "lytf, p. 41). 
7. nnc^aa ■pmne> (Dukes, ZurKennt., p. 171 ; Sachs, 'en ■'""W, 

p. 134; M. Sachs, Rel. Poesie, p. 8). 
10. -p. an WW (Brody, 'even D")tMlp, No. 79; Sachs, 'en n^, 

p. 137 j Sachs, JiV. Poesie, p. 9). 
12. iw im bac Identical with Col. i, No. 18, q. v. 


13. ['n»]nn «y>jm yiW (msopN *m, p. 29; nm bv, p. 22; 

tlWEn D1D31P, No. 8). 

15. ntnpN nnru? (Sachs, rvnnn, II, p. i; nn-^n n^, p. 152; 

nniN i»o, p. 23). 

16. iiiTff py w (nnw n^, p. 117; wn, xii, 357; d-iojip 

DWBH, No. 7 ; Dukes, Zwr Kenntniss, p. 171 ; Sachs, 
Rel. Poesie, p. 8). 

Col. S . 
5. brai iJNI f^Nl (Brody, Monatsschrift, LV, p. 85, No. 19). 

VI. Two Poems of Joseph ben Jacob Ibn Sahl. 

Our knowledge of the life and writings of Joseph ibn 
Sahl is still very scanty. We have the testimony of 
Abraham ibn Daud that he was a pupil of Isaac ibn Ghayyat, 
and that he was rabbi of Cordova from 11 13 to his death 
in 1134. 1 From two poems which he addressed to Moses 
ibn Ezra 2 we gather that he was very much attached to 
this poet, 3 and that in his earlier years he suffered greatly 
at the hands of some ignorant people. 4 Beyond this we 
have no biographical information concerning him. Yet we 
may assume that he must have written some scholarly 
works, considering the high rabbinic post which he held; 
he must have known Arabic, since, according to Bezalel 

1 Neubauer, Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles, I. 75. Moses ibn Ezra, accord- 
ing to the quotation in pDHl* 1SD (London, 1857, p. 229 b), places the date 
of his death in 1123. 

2 Dukes, Moses ben Ezra, Altona [1839], pp. 101-3. 

3 Cp. Dukes, ibid., p. 102, USV D'lD TWtt bb, and p. 3, aiSIK TWO 

-pram t^sk -ixn . . . vb. 

* Ibid., p. 102, H.4-7. 


Ashkenazi, he translated some responsa of Alfasi from 
Arabic into Hebrew, 6 and he certainly must have composed 
a large number of poems, since Ibn Daud, 6 as well as Harizi 7 
and Moses di Rieti, 8 speak in high terms of his poetic gifts. 
Moses ibn Ezra also mentions him in his Kit&b al-muhadara 
wal-mudakara? and quotes four verses from his poems. 10 

The two poems given below do not add much to our 
biographical knowledge of Ibn Sahl. They are nevertheless 
interesting, for one is addressed to Isaac ibn Ghayyat, his 
teacher, and the other may be one of the poems from which 
Moses ibn Ezra quoted. 11 The fragment (T-S. LOAN 168), 

6 DSllpD ftCW, B.M. fol. 108 a. See also Steinschneider, Heb. Uebersetz., 
p. 912, 3. 

e Neubauer, ibid., ibid. 

7 \D1D3nr), ch. 3, ed. Kaminka, pp. 39, 41. 

8 £3J)D tSHpD, p. 99. Rieti classes Ibn Sahl with Gabirol and Moses ibn 
Ezra, and in a note copies the words of Ibn Daud. 

3 pDm 1 'D, ibid. See also Steinschneider's index to the rhXKrai'N, in 
his Cat. of Berlin MSS., II, p. 130, according to which the name of Ibn Sahl 
occurs three times in that work. 

10 These four verses are cited by Dukes in QiDHp ?rU, p. 10. As this 
book itself is rather rare I repeat them here : 

Dwnne mm inpnn nwvj? d» "hn TiDn (a) 

The fact that the two hemistichs rhyme with each other leads me to think 
that it is the opening line of a Kasida. 

niN^B 11DD5? t6 )]%>b W pT3 mtfl5> DK -V3 TON (b) 

wa» ^jniT 1 m ids 'C231 px "by hdh ... (c) 

Dukes suggests that the word n&O ma y De supplied at the beginning of this 

mtop nruo ^1 vjnni' rbbi ir p ids' ♦nrao) (d) 

To judge from their rhyme and metre it is possible that verses b and d are 
taken from one poem. 

11 The first of the four verses quoted has the same metre and rhyme as 
our poem, and seems also to deal with the same theme. It must, however, 
be admitted that the second poem excels by far in its style the poem 
addressed to Ibn Ghayyat, and reminds us forcibly of the style of Gabirol. 


in which these poems are found, consists of two leaves of 
paper (17-5x13 cm.), which are not consecutive. They 
are very likely the outer leaves of a fascicle. I do not, 
however, consider them as part of a Divan of Ibn Sahl, but 
rather as part of a collection of poems by various authors. 
The reason for it is that the poems of Ibn Sahl are preceded 
by a fragment of a poem of Ibn Gabirol. What our frag- 
ment contains of the Gabirol poem corresponds to verses 
51-70 of the poem beginning noann n?nn. 12 In the edition 
of Dukes there are 98 verses to the poem, and yet our 
fragment has the word rfca (= finis) written after the 
seventieth verse, which goes to prove that the poem suffered 
at the hands of the copyists. Further proof that the 
copyists were careless with this poem is the fact that even the 
ninety-eighth verse does not seem to be the proper ending. 13 
Dr. Brody, in his admirable edition of Gabirol, has begun 
to publish this poem, but his edition has thus far reached 
to the fortieth verse. 14 It is advisable, therefore, to give 
here in a note the variants of our manuscript. 15 

Omitting fol. 1 recto and the first two lines of the verso, 
which are occupied by the lines of Gabirol, we may proceed 
to the text of Ibn Sahl. 


b"r i>riD p *\w yb 

b"\ ntoj p prw '■a nbxp 


tyy* 1D3 IBta rfiTT tfDB> 

t Vr J 

> 2 Dukes, n»i>E> »"W, No. 68. ls Ibid., p. 68, n. 6. 

" Brody, annWl "W, Berlin, 1900, pp. 35-6. 

» Ver. 54, nrV'2'1 ; ver. 56, p{2> [DB>] \\V) ; ver. 59, ,TKt» |1IW ; ver. 
60, Dnj)31 Q>2&b ; ver. 62, 0^15? 13^1 ; ver. 64, DnpiO J)»n ; ver. 65, 

wzb nonm; ver. 66, nnm& DnitD. 



/ t v t -: t *• - : 

Mnnna i:?;>rii 
. . . . n ns 32fni 

[ n ]TT 'W? ^5? 
[n ,, ]^ne> njo 24 nx 

26 au \ba ^y »aa 

?i!>»3 nroe> 

T * T ; T 

loaoEfn SIB? 

rnna ^i>3 
'^n-D nrta = 

•• I tit J 

bvrfcn &nb 
rnna \i>an 21 iD3 

a*|yB >jjbj XI . . . io 
(fol. 2, recto) 

w u 

ontfTD nnaaeh ntonna asm wran d^k e>*i 

88 own n!r> ins »-vjn:» n^as 5>D3 nax- row 

nwn ijpasnoi) rrtiw E>jroa 13 wfeg ani r6v 

• ; 't * - ;v- T - ^ *• : * / ■ * ; - : - : 

16 Cp. Isa. 50. 10. " Ps. 69. 4. 

" Piel of ht (cp. D*30 ant D^tn, Isa. 46. 6). 

19 Cp. Job 38. 28. 

20 Read perhaps !THVT2 (= in her circles). Cp. Isa. 22. 18, i.e. 'May 
God grant that his wandering sun of friendship may be stopped in her orbit.' 

25 According to the metre of this poem the line should begin with 'ban. 

22 From the point of metre we must regard the Sheva in "pn as Sheva 

23 Text of manuscript reads 'JJOD but over the ID the scribe wrote a J. 
Both readings, however, are without meaning and against the metre. 

24 Read perhaps iTIK, imperative of iTTK (cp. m» WIN Cant. 5. 1) ; 
the meaning, however, remains obscure. 

2B Job 38. 32. 26 Read perhaps TO. 

27 Cp. Zech. 9. 9. 2S Lev. 11. 18. 


""B^Mjtt a* jaw nn»'e> i»\b? T!["J]n 3 29 & , nix' n? 1 ?] 

D'Djji ons ^" 32 pspa <$ [Vtirn ^jna 3 "n[¥]} 

ce^o Qtrw \!$ pin jjjob l^no nt$> btan ipso 

.trow TB>n 5)S3 ^naK> DW^sn io 33\bn "v#n axi (fol. 2 , 

l l verso) 

dwjtd onpn yanoa nsnri to «p /^ar^aa ' 

84 twain nba *|b towru a^i }ie6 *nb »oy pxi , D 

s^ote inK atea ^»x nn nvw* n»B> ?6 -veto nt3 
own naix ss njg3 iabn i3 najrn a&K »ja niarn 

D'n&e' nnmsa Ti-i-nts'i ^1 n*ria ?6 -fix wrf 

: tt •• : »t v": •• : v ': t ■•: 

coya t|bd tof ns a>ri?« bji) trn ^bd aaiai , 5 

29 Either read nriDB>, or take pKHl to stand for pXn *»). 

30 An appellative for the Egyptians (cp. Gen. 10. 13). 

31 1 Sam. 28. 16. 

32 The manuscript is torn, but the word pK is written on the margin, 
apparently by the same scribe. It seems that in the text the two words 
pK *3 were written by mistake pa . 

33 Pr. 25. 12. 

34 Lev. 27. 21. 

35 ' And this I shall offer as a peace-offering in the fire of love.' 3HK is 
sing, of DUnX, Hos. 8. 9. 

36 Construe it as if it read TOW 3^> 13^n. MS. reads fUJU lbi>n. 

37 MS. reads 13311. 

38 Cp. the expression HDVIO pT (Sanhedrin 32 b). 



VII. Three Poems of Joseph Ibn Zaddik. 

Joseph ibn Zaddik, the younger contemporary of Ibn 
Sahl, and his successor in later years to the rabbinate of 
Cordova (1138-1149), was highly praised for his poetic gifts 
by Judah Halevi, 1 Abraham ibn Daud, 2 Judah Harizi, 3 and 
Menahem di Lonzano. 4 It is very probable that many of 
the liturgical hymns which bear the name of Joseph in 
acrostic were composed by him, yet his authorship is certain 
only in three Piyutim. 5 Our knowledge of his secular 
poems is likewise very scanty. There is one poem which 
he addressed to Judah Halevi when the latter passed 
through Cordova on his way to Palestine, 6 and recently 
Dr. Brody brought to light three more poems, two of which 
are inscribed to Isaac ibn Muhagir, 7 and the third the 
editor presumes to have been addressed to Moses ibn Ezra. 
There are still two other poems which are in some sources 
ascribed to Ibn Zaddik, but their authorship must remain 
a matter of doubt. For one of them is found in the Divan 
of Judah Halevi, 8 and Dr. Brody is inclined to think that 

1 Cp. Brody, Diwan, I, Nos. 10, 32, 83, 124. 

2 Neubauer, Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles, I, 75. 

3 , J1DDnn, ch. 3 (ed. Kaminka, pp. 39,42). 

« niT v\v, 137 b. 

5 (a) nbv rarb iw pons bv\ O) wip nw )b, (<o . , . norm 

"P 'On nJJP. SeeZunz, Literaturgeschichte, p. 216; Neubauer and Cowley, 
Caial., II, p. 155, No. 2738, 4g. 

* It was first published by Luzzatto in iTtliT 1"Q flPirD, p. 58. It is also 
found in Graetz's tPYitVlf Dp?, p. 101, and in Brody's "PETI "lys*, p. 127. 

7 Brody, Drei unbekannte Freundschaftsgedichte des Josef ibn Zaddik, 
Prague 1910. 

8 Ibid., Diwan, I, No. 49 (DJ1D3 1»1!). In the notes to this poem 
Brody states that two lines (3-4) of this poem are quoted by Eleazar b. Jacob 
Ha-Babli in the name of Ibn Zaddik. 


it is more likely the composition of Halevi than of Ibn 
Zaddik, 9 and the other, while in the Divan of Abraham ibn 
Ezra it is ascribed to Ibn Zaddik, 10 is ascribed in another 
source to Abraham ibn Zaddok. 11 

The texts produced below are found in two Genizah 
fragments of the Taylor-Schechter collection. The first 
fragment (T-S. Loan 73) consists of a single sheet of paper 
(2,0 x 15 cm.), and contains two poems, one of which is 
incomplete. From the fact that the first poem is marked 
with the letter '3 we may draw the conclusion that it is the 
second poem of some collection, perhaps a Divan of Ibn 
Zaddik. It cannot be taken as the number of the page, 
since it is placed on the inner margin of the page. The 
other poem, however, bears no number, but the absence of 
the number may be due to the faded condition of the 
manuscript. The complete poem seems to be an epithala- 
mium, and is addressed to Isaac ben Abi 'Ali, who is 
perhaps a son of Ezekiel b. Jacob Abu 'AH of Damietta, 
to whom Judah Halevi addressed a poem when he left that 
city to continue his journey to Palestine. 12 

The second fragment (T-S. Loan 167) consists of a 
small sheet of paper (14-7 x 10-5 cm.), written on one side 
only, and contains a poem addressed to Rabbi Joseph ibn 
Migash. This poem is found also in the Divan of Abraham 
ibn Ezra, and there it is stated that it was composed by 

s Ibid., Freundschaftsgedichte, p. 7. 

10 Egers, Diwan des Abraham ibn Ezra, p. 5. 

11 pITT 13313, XXIX, 29-30. See also Steinschneider, Die Handschriften- 
Verzeichnisse d. k. Bib. zu Berlin, II, p. 32, MS. 54, fol. 60b ; Egers, Diwan, 
pp. 149-50; Brody, Freundschaftsgedichte, p. 6. 

12 Brody, Diwan, I, No. 30. See Steinschneider, Introduction to the 
Arabic Literature of the Jews, § 12, n. 10 (JQR., IX, 627). 

G 2 


Ibn Ezra in honour of Ibn Zaddik. 13 As far as the author- 
ship of the poem is concerned, I am inclined to accept the 
testimony of our fragment, for the Ibn Ezra Divan is known 
to have a number of poems ascribed to him erroneously, as, 
for instance, No. 217, which is clearly the composition of 
Joseph ibn Zebara. 14 Moreover, the extravagant praise 
which our poet lavishes on his friend Joseph would be more 
appropriate in the case of Ibn Migash, considering how 
equally lavish such men as Isaac Alfasi, 15 Judah Halevi, 10 
and Maimonides 17 were in their praises of Ibn Migash. 
There is, however, one point which casts a doubt on the 
identity of the Joseph to whom Ibn Zaddik addressed this 
poem. In verse 17 the poet refers to the son of his friend, 
and in the last verse he calls him by his name, Solomon. 
To our knowledge, however, Joseph ibn Migash had only 
one son by the name of Meir, whom Harizi mentions in 
the forty-sixth chapter of the Tahkemoni}* We have, 
therefore, to look for another celebrated contemporary of 
Ibn Zaddik who had a son by the name of Solomon. And 
here, again, Harizi comes to our aid. For in the same 
chapter, in speaking of the great men of Toledo, Harizi 

13 Egers, Diwan dts Abraham ibn Ezra [=E], p. 87, No. 196. The 
poem had previously been published by Egers in MGWJ. 1883, p. 423 [ = E'], 
afterwards it was also edited by Rosin in Reime und GedichU des Abraham 
ibn Esra, pp. 121-3 [ = R], and by Kahanain jn"iOn J1D3n J*31p, I, 44-6 
[ = K]. 

14 Albrecht, Siudien zu den Dichtungen Abrahams ben Ezra., Leipzig 
1903, pp. 27, 32. 

16 According to Ibn Daud in n?3pT] 'D Alfasi wrote of Ibn Migash 

witd rontw ab m nvm bv nm i!»bkb> (Neub.,, i, 76). 

16 Brody, Diwan, I, Nos. 62, 95, 114, 130; II, No. 21. 

17 See Maimonides' Introduction to the Mishna, ed. Wilna, 1908, fol. 5 b, 
11. 4-6 from above. 

18 Ed. Kaminka, p. 350. 


mentions Solomon b. Joseph ibn Shoshan as contemporary 
of Isaac the grandson of Joseph ibn Migash. 19 It is there- 
fore plausible that our poem was addressed by Ibn Zaddik 
to Joseph ibn Shoshan, whom Harizi describes as Wan N^n , 
and perhaps on the occasion of the birth and circumcision of his 
son Solomon. 198 This would lend a more pregnant meaning 
to the seventeenth verse Tnnx "pi roai vb new 313JD "\3 ' Thy 
son will come after thee that the light of the West may not 
be quenched '. Of course we must not lose sight of the 
possibility that Ibn Migash also had a son Solomon, of whom 
history has no other record, in which case the poem could 
very well have been addressed to him. Be this as it may, 
the text of our fragment is so much superior to that of the 
Divan of Ibn Ezra that I feel justified in reproducing it, 
irrespective of the identity of the persons mentioned in it. 

The strophic character of the following poems is that 
of the Muwa&hah, or girdle song. Each poem, however, 
illustrates a different form of Muwa&Sak? For the better 

» ibid. ■. 131 {run anson p rxhvf w wan rrwBo -irnDDi 
naiafr rot jew p vpv. 

19a This poem naturally dates from before 1149, the year in which Ibn 
Zaddik died. If, therefore, Joseph ibn Shoshan had already given birth to 
a son, when this poem was composed, he must have been born at least 
twenty years before. This would put Ibn Shoshan's birth at about 1125, and 
not 1135, as Graetz assumes (Geschichte, VI, 207 : Hebrew translation, IV, 
243, 2 44> 4°9l- See also Schwab, Rapport sur les Inscriptions Mbralques de 
VEspagne, pp. 58-60. 

20 On the structure of the MuwaXXah see M. Hartmann, Das arabische 
Strophengedickt. I. Das Muwaisah (Weimar 1897), pp. 95 ff. Briefly stated 
it is as follows : The Muw. has two component parts, the bait, consist- 
ing of three or more lines, and the lfufl, consisting generally of two lines, 
each line again being divided into two hemistichs. Each bait has two sets of 
rhymes, one for the first hemistichs and one for the second hemistichs, and no 
two baits need have the same rhyme. In the case of the leufl, on the other 
hand, the two sets of rhymes are uniform throughout the poem, so that by 


understanding of the metre be it remarked here that the 
JM tot? in the middle of a word is disregarded, while a 
rbp nyun is counted as a full vowel. 

(T-S. Loan 73, recto) 

rMYne> wine* »"Wtd njnp dk ■we' 
e>"w no 24 pn^ n, ?"^3? V^S "? 

them the various 6a<fe of the poem are held together as if by a girdle — hence 
the name MuvcaVsah. Sometimes a hufl may have three sets of rhymes, one 
for the first hemistich of the first line, another for the first hemistich of the 
second line, and a third for the second hemistichs of the two lines. In that 
case the uniformity is kept up through the poem, as for instance in the first 
poem of our texts. The ordinary Muw. begins and ends with a Icufl, con- 
taining altogether six Tcufls and five baits, but there is also a class of Muw. 
which begins with the bait, in which case the number of kufls is only five. 
Both of these classes are illustrated by our texts (Nos. 1 and 3), while the 
incomplete poem (No. a) is altogether peculiar since its %ufl consists only of one 
line. For the use of the Muw. in later Hebrew poetry see Bacher, jDWW 
(Budapest 1910), pp. 75 ff. 

21 'Another poem of his [addressed] to Isaac b. Abi'ali, the Lord 
strengthen him.' 

22 This poem is undoubtedly a wedding song, and the poet, alluding 
perhaps to the ceremony of veiling and unveiling the face of the bride, 
compares her beauty to the dawn breaking through the darkness, and says : 
' See if the daughter of the morning star has broken through the darkness of 
her armour, and let us awake at the sound of her song, at the sound of her 
dove-like cooing.' 

23 Note the alliteration and paronomasia. MS. reads rW TV. 

24 Cp. Amos 7. 16. From here to the end of ver. 7 the poet devotes himself 
to the praise of the bridegroom. ' What ', says he, ' shall I say of the house 


pnp-bx nibv!? eHtv 5 
in 1 ' is onb 3t2« 

n^ip-^s mat 

25 nan ran 1533 

133a |n r&pp 

13-15 DnVi niny 

rvsa *fln niy-6 
7i>0\& rtpbb 
nn ynj B W3 
rnii -iix tap 

29 n'oftnBp nn 

T V T i ■ * T 

QiOt^ ^3313 !»3 

rrjfc'p r£ru 'o ratf 

D^rnpp Dfrnp 
cpripn s pb>3 nn 
D^npp liD 26 pn«ga 10 
nnsrin-np nn pnto 
■tiid rans nimb 

TV* • T 

nn'-rna jissn *£ 
ino rw ihd ra 

t t v : • 

rrfaob mnn ?b\ 

t 1* v : * 't t 

n JJ , n "!?V $ "J*? (verso) 
mop •'bub rwsnn 

of Isaac [b. Abi'ali], for he holds so exalted a position that one might as well 
attempt to ascend to heaven as to attain it, and, whether pleased or dis- 
pleased, let all who wish to attain it desist, for it shall remain with him as 
an inheritance.' 

26 From this verse to the end of the poem the poet lavishes his praise on 
the bride. ' From afar the winged wind rode and stole the spiced odours 
of the charming doe, holding sweet counsel about her, for the time of love 
has approached (vers. 8-10). Beneath her ornaments she conceals for thee 
the choicest splendour (ver. 14). Her beauty, if not masked, would put to 
shame the stars of heaven (ver. 19). He who has looked into her face has 
looked upon a constellation ' (ver. 26). 

26 MS. reads iTTDjn. 27 Cp. Prov. 7. 18. 28 MS. reads Dl'3. 

29 Cp. Isa. 3. 18. 30 MS. reads 1T0DB>D. 



rwtysx spy* 
rwnss tf'in rw 

T VT • ' ' " 

mm 33 -fen -in b& 

t : t - - v 

nKJte tp rb ninn? 

T ; • T T -* _ T 

M nya"i»y s^y 
wis nay ?k 

31 nn vyo yten 20 

V T ''t ** 

— - .. T • • 

«yrri>8 nn» [mj] :jk 

»nataj>n nyna K»ai 
niiota hb piDiK ny 

t v: v* t : t *■ 

ruab ns 1 " nii 



nn^tf ma nnie> 

•• • T VT 

n T N 10 tfitow 

ens pi> nnx 35 "nt5h» 

ns3 i"? &> *bn biw 

'Ti~ - •• ■ t; t; 

nainx. , >ns itjhnn *{» 
na^en pib row na 

T • - T T ~:t 

nin? m nnani ypfn 
»rpfen iDy? aha iy£ 
3 '»riMi ^san hmscm te 

nyf»a nrb$ 

S6 iySD3 DK '3 

ny nijyjfx -px 
\bip3 ^k 
wfen i!?n? 

'TO3D w 

31 ' The pomegranates of a watered branch ' may be a poetic expression 
for her ' temples '. Cp. Cant. 6. 7. 

82 MS. reads ni13?, but metre requires correction. Cp. also Cant. 4. 6. 

83 A poetic term for the bridegroom. si Job 38. 32. 
35 See n. 20 above. 36 Cp. Ps. 37. 23. 

87 ' Death shall bring me peace unless I find my delight and my brother.' 



(T-S. Loan 167) 

Mag "ni 1 ^ w »D'j>»a j^dd ?e» "x 

«MjyTn viba ^a^atsb «tdm dt^>3 

* t-: •: • • • -:t r v;v t t 

crnp fiat?* xia n^a «jriNfe> «iba* *6 

^rrityyx ab nia» 

«[ntetean NS"ip 

wrft^np D$) '•Dan 

Q^IPD *TJj ^n osn 
dw tetejf> aan ja s 
«isK DhK nv wan 

V t *t; * t 

b& nvn, *ity *rm] 
^job* "oa nsan on 

38 The inscription in E reads : 1HK ^N fll) JSaDJJ fa S]DV '"> *B ^Kpl 

(im it pw. 

39 ' Where is the old [wine] that brings new joys ? ' The poem may be 
divided into two parts, the first, ending with ver. 10, is devoted to the praise 
of wine, and the second, extending from ver. n to the end of the poem, is 
devoted to the praise of Joseph. The first part would seem to indicate that 
the poem was written on some festive occasion, perhaps on the circumcision 
of Joseph's son, Solomon. 

*<> ee'rk. rw. « ms. tnw. 

42 A poetic name for the Jewish people. Cp. bvWP 1 *33 ^X8 (Exod. 
24. 11). 

43 Deut. 32. 14. li EE'RK. ]"hsf. 

45 The vessels are profane until the wine sanctifies them. RK read 
incorrectly *JDJ!D. 

46 Referring to Jer. 35 the poet says that he who tastes wine is blessed, 
but he who curses it is cursed. 

47 ?X is wanting in E. 48 Jer. 15. 18. 
49 This verse is wanting in MS. 

»• The MS. as well as EE' reads JTlKTIp 01? niD3n. Rosin reads niKOn 
nityfap Dy, and explains it in the following way : Sie, die hier an der Tafel 
befindlicken Lehrer Israels, bleiben mit den keuschen ' Lehrerinnen ' (D$> nfoan 


.^eju k>7v©b mq^iJifi iini ^o^y , 

O'pya 31 Kin w, p ^nn-'-ispn "fiefes 

o^e/p k&is m S'arifc' nri ae^n m 

"fi'ijan fjDi' *£ inn d^3? niosrip 

ipsn i>x »3 DBfe? iqpi> efhg: 

""pON} Dip; DB>b nlD2 iwiebl 1 5 

M TT£J8 13? nap; x? igte a-jjjo ij 

TJW? H$ N ? POE' 1PV 59 nn33 

nitPIlp) gliicklich vereint, wahrend ich davon reisen muss, and nicht weiss, ivo 
tch in aller Welt so vortreffliche Menschen mir noch einmal suchen soil (Reitne u. 
Gedichte, p. 123, n. 3). Kabana adopts the reading of Rosin. This inter- 
pretation, however, is not only far-fetched, but it also breaks the continuity 
of the poem, and does not explain to whom OK'n^n in v. 10 refers. In my 
opinion the whole passage from v. 6 to v. 10 may be rendered as follows : 
' Bring the red balsam (i.e. wine) for the incurable wounds of the heart so 
that it (i.e. the heart) live again, and let it (i.e. the wine) become the 
redeemer and healer of souls.' Then, addressing himself to the wine, the 
poet continues : ' While I go in search of them, the wise of Israel, the wise 
of the people of holiness, let thy mercy be compassionate upon them (i. e. the 
wounded hearts and souls), and do thou dress them in the glory of thy sweet 

51 EE'RK. DE'pas nJKl "\bx 1J!. 

52 ee'rk. o&abn Tiro bx »5>y. 

53 Cp. Gen. 49. 11. " E. iDI. 

55 A play on Ezra 47. 13, where ^DT 1 is used as a verb. RK read >}p. 
66 Refers to the Urim and Thummim, cp. Num. 27. 21. Cp. also 2 Sam. 
16. 23. E reads txh 13183 SflBTTI ; E'. fDJO DDp' ; R. 13183 iwlBOl 

db6; k. d$2 i3io3 iwrn. 

"EE'RK. -px* "piX .131. 

58 Judah Halevi says of Ibn Migash UIJID 13 JDt3 131JJ (Diwan, I, 
No. 130, ver. 7). MS. reads 7HnK "JOB' H333 nb- 
n» MS. rvi3. 


wttfpno ^3 ""bras Dmj6 taw 

«rr^rjj nsip i?y rntan «t6i ■'a-n^a 

rfen ^3K-ritt .frro ps ^ji^td: »a 

r6na ny rnin men bo nm* i6\ 

ijWj? axo Dtfyn *rfrn ni33 *a 

VIII. A Poem of Joseph ben Shesheth Ha-Sephardi. 

In the third chapter of the Tahkemoni Judah Harizi 
mentions twice the name of Joseph ben Shesheth among 
the great poets of Spain, and in both instances he mentions 
him immediately after Moses ibn Ezra, 1 from which we 

60 E' reads HMD DnajT? DW, R reads QW, K reads DW. The 
word DW may, however, be taken in the sense of DW 11133, i.e. fate 
(cp. above, Poetic Fragments, V, note 39), and vv. 18, 19 may be rendered 
as follows : ' Heaven hath made a covenant with thee, nay the earth will 
help thee to make fate itself thy slave' (BB>33^ B^13j6 OW "ptlffl JHK). 

61 A similar statement is applied by Judah Halevi to Ibn Migash *ptUB>1 
UJiK BWl iriKI W3 IBO^ (ZVawt, I, No. 95, ver. 23). MS. reads 


62 ee'. minn th ; rk. punctuate rrainn i\b\. 

63 E. P^BTI j E'. rkBTffl. ' «* MS. reads '3. 

1 The passages read : i"T2>3 (6l D'ppTO K~IIJ> }3 H5WD "CD 1W3 &6l 

owan row tow p sicd *ii . , . D'pm rsab nw p spv m 
n»p H3i w rnue? iw a^vn ne^ p sjdi" 1 'Oil . . . oaicoriri, ed. 

Kaminka, pp. 39, 41). The Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 27, 113 has in the first 
passage the reading DW p TWO ,m \ 'O'TO &6l, in accordance with which 
Kaempf suggested the reading of HE'D also in the second passage (iTIOT 
D'TVC, p. 8, 1 1 ). But aside from the fact that this manuscript is well known 
to be full of errors (see Kaminka, ibid., 468), there is no doubt that Hfc'D is 


may assume that Harizi speaks of a poet who flourished 
during the first half of the twelfth century. 

The poem given here below, likewise from the Taylor- 
Schechter collection, 2 is probably the composition of this 
ancient poet, for the name of Joseph ben Shesheth is clearly 
stated in the title, and traces of the acrostic Joseph are 
discernible in the second stanza, where the ' Yod ' and the 
' Samek ' of the name are marked with three dots in a 
slanting position — the usual sign of the letters of an acrostic 
in ancient manuscripts. Unfortunately the stanza is illegible 
just where the other initials ought to be. However, the 
mere fact that the name of our poet was Joseph ben Shesheth 
is not sufficient in itself to establish his identity indisputably. 

The poem, as the title indicates, was addressed to the 
' famous scholar R. Judah ', but all that is left of R. Judah's 
patronymic is the initial n and the final J, from which it 
is impossible to learn his identity. We gather, however, 
that he was a Cohen, 3 famous for his generosity, 4 his great 
learning, 6 and his eloquence. 6 From the closing stanza it 
seems that he was involved in some struggle from which he 
came out victorious, but what the cause of the struggle was, 
or who his enemies were, is difficult to conjecture. 

The purpose of the poem was to invite R. Judah to leave 
Spain, where he must have felt himself a stranger, 7 and 

here a dittography due to KM)] p DB'O preceding it. For other poems by 
Joseph ben Shesheth cp. Neubauer, Catal, II, 2699, 5b (beg. 1CJU TtO 
. . . pj? ^V JW2 WIT DW), 2712, 11 h (beg. WJTll ixb TJftl). 
For the family name Shesheth, cp. The Itinerary of Benjamin ofTudela, ed. 
Asher, II, pp. 3-5. 

2 T-S. Loan 7. Paper, 1 leaf, 15-14 cm., cursive hand, written on one 
side only. 

3 Cp. ver. 11. 4 Cp. ver. 14. 6 Cp. vers. 15-17. 
6 Cp. ver. ai. 7 Cp. ver. 2. 


settle in ;j!V msr, 8 which very likely stands for Fostat. 9 
From this it is to be concluded that Joseph ben Shesheth 
himself, though originally a Spaniard, was no longer there. 
Indeed, the fact that the surname Ha-Sephardi was applied 
to him is additional proof that he lived outside of Spain. 
If not for this, we might perhaps identify him with Joseph 
ben Shasheth ibn Latimi, a liturgical poet of the thirteenth 
century, but the latter seems to have lived to the end of his 
life at Lerida in Spain. 10 

As to the form of the poem, it may be remarked that in 
the manuscript the verses are not separated but follow each 
other continuously, occupying altogether thirteen lines. Of 
course there is no punctuation. The metre of the shorter 
verses is that which is known as Basit, 11 consisting of 

(1) — <-> - and (3) - w , while that of the longer 

verses consists of (2) + (i) + (a), in other words, a modified 
form of the same metre. Each group of short verses has its 
own rhyme, while all the longer verses are divided into 
two hemistichs and have throughout the poem one uniform 
rhyme for the first hemistichs and another for the second 

'*i bin bx yv bx "s '2': maon nw '-a t\wb om 
12, jnj? 3ts£ xxib j . . . n npjirr 

14 ]m nybaa "insn w -napa W-np i 

8 Cp. ver. 4. 

9 Neubauer, Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles, I, 118; Jewish Encyclopaedia, 
V, 61 a. 

i° See Landshuth, nTDJin HIDtf, p. 98. 

11 Kaempf, Die ersten Makamen, p. 21, 3 b. 

12 The meaning of this phrase is obscure. 13 Jer. 8. 22. 
14 The Pual of JDT is post-talmudic. 


i6jyn «nrua a.'rrrfl i^-np 
i-|jjs;-ba *ij£ i>nxb to-tfei 

18 I5?'s"fi!!'f ?' stf 

to iB |ise frn niD[ni] ^jn Tjf>a ^a] nt$ twp s 

• • • c^nj? ^s™?^' 
. . . . aal> Diiion . , . , 

. . . bsp ptn d"Bi^ [a]"ap - ' 

W no 2 " jp^i iairi a^x p^an 

23 D^cgr jm 22 rvnx tij 21 N rj IO 

Dorian jap Dnpg -eras 

to ?t»»a natoa ron •on hat 2B "11^,1 I5?3? ^S? 

^bnp ^>a 2«dji Dnpn fjjT 

^HR 1^1 D^iyb' py 15 

28 ^>te> onfen Dnsan tpMo 

/ T *T ; • T-; I • 

16 Jer. 41. 17, and Rashi adloc. 

16 = 'Wilt thou tarry', cp. Sanhedrin 11.4 : m b& 13H DK fOJIB J'N. 

37 Isa. 33. 20. 18 Ps. 78. 12. 

19 Analogous to fDlt in ver. 1, arid likewise post-talmudic. 20 Jon. 2. 1. 

21 Gen. 47. 23. We may perhaps connect this verse with the preceding 
and read : ilHK "TO Xn JC1 , ' and he appointed this lion's whelp '. 

22 So in MS., the metre requires D^IX, cp. 1 Kings 10. 20. 

23 The ' hatef ' in this and in several other words is disregarded. 
« Joel 4. 14. 

26 Num. 21. 1. It is simply a poetic allusion to the East. 

26 MS. reads DJ1. 

27 Cp. the expression nY,D1 WW nil in Gabirol's JTlS^O "irD, 

§ inoani> jiw id. 

28 Job 12. 17. 






».19»n natwi yrni Vs!»3 
ptyain b«Bh vnj; npt? 

Bfefo V6O03 ttBV^ 8l ^ 

/ v t :- ; / • r * :i- 

etai ro^o vnab> neon 

/ v t - • : t t ; - : t 

3 2. fan rm / ni» t ia vae 
-ns> i>nm mib»an ^ip 

«13S VnsO tlW ^3 ^W 

-t tv: t : ' 

M-QB> QHJJ1 wffio&n ritw 

30 J»5?3 D^iTjrtajrDj} ^T D V 

2 niD nui 


liai .-I3T-QN 

He banished these three wise men from speech,' i.e. he surpassed 


30 i Kings 5. 11. sl Lam. 4. 3. 

82 Cp. the expression TwbiTO p-BHtJ' HD Kiddushin 39 b. 

33 1 Chron. 5. 2. 

34 So in MS., but the metre is incorrect. 

36 Lev. 26. 19. S6 Hos. 12. 1.