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A Dictionary of the Bible. By John D. Davis, Ph. D., D. D., LI*. D., 
Professor of Oriental and Old Testament L-terature in the 
Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J. With many new 
and original maps and. plans and amply illustrated. Third 
edition, revised throughout and enlarged. Philadelphia : The 
Westminster Press, 191 i. pp. vii + 840 + XIV maps. 

In the language of the author, the book aims to be a dictionary 
of the Bible, not of speculation about the Bible. It seeks to 
furnish a thorough acquaintance with things biblical. To this end 
it has been made a compendium of the facts stated in the 
Scriptures, and of explanatory and supplementary material drawn 
from the records of the ancient people contemporary with Israel. 
In other words, critical discussions are avoided ; where they are 
at all suffered to come in, the spirit is unequivocally traditional, 
orthodox. The main feature of the Dictionary therefore consists 
in arranging the scattered references bearing upon an article with 
little regard to divergences of sources. Such a work no doubt 
fulfils a want ; it has gone now through three editions. 

Kursgefasstes Lehrbuch der speziellen Binleitung in das Alte 
Testament. Von Dr. Karl Holzhey, Professor der alttesta- 
mentlichen Exegese am Kgl. Lyzeum in Frelsing. Paderborn: 
Ferdinand Schoeningh, 1912. pp. ix + 217. 

Practical Handbook for the Study of the Bible and of Bible Lit- 
erature. Including biblical geography, antiquities, introduc- 
tion to the Old and the New Testament, and hermeneutics. By 
Dr. Michael Seisenberger, Royal Lyceum, Freising. Trans- 
lated from the sixth German edition by A. M. Buchanan, 
M. A. (London) and edited by the Rev. Thomas J. Gerrard. 
New York: Joseph F. Wagner, [1911]. pp. xii + 491. 



Knowing the Scriptures. Rules and methods of Bible study. By 
Dr. Arthur T. Pierson. New York: Gospel Publishing 
House, [1910]. pp. 459. 

Introduction to Bible Study: The Old Testament. By F. V. N. 
Painter, DD., Litt. D., Professor in Roanoke College. Boston 
and Chicago: Sibley & Company, [1911]. pp. xi + 2D 5- 

The Great Epic of Israel. The web of myth, legend, history, law, 
oracle, wisdom and poetry of the ancient Hebrews. By Amos 
Kidder Fiske, A. M. New York: Sturgis & Walton, 191 i. 
PP- xi + 376. 

The Old Testament. By the Rev. H. C. O. Lanchester, M. A., 
Rector of Salle, Norfolk. New York: Longmans, Green, and 
Co., [1911I PP- vii + 251. 

A Short Introduction to the Old Testament. By the Rev. F. 
Ernest Spencer, Vicar of AH Saints', Haggerston. London 
and New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1912. pp. viii + 

Introductory works to the Bible, according as they deal with 
the collection as a whole (history of the canon or text) or with the 
several books singly (contents and critical questions concerning 
composition and authorship), are either general or special; they 
may of course also be both. Such books are as a rule intended 
for the student; whether the manner of presentation be copious 
or concise, it is nevertheless always argumentative. A further 
variety will consist in an outline of the history of biblical literature 
as the single productions follow each other in time interspersed 
with an account of the fortunes of the Jewish people and of its 
spiritual progress ; a work of this kind, though ambitious in its 
pretensions, is particularly serviceable in the hands of a popularizer 
who knows how to utilize the labors of others and possesses the 
gift of language to turn the dry technical learning into pleasant 
and interesting reading. All of these varieties are represented in 
our list. Holzhey has written a special introduction to the Old 
Testament. What singles his work out among so many others 
that have preceded it is not so much the neatness with which the 
contents are summed up or the critical position set forth, or the 


rich bibliography at the end of each paragraph, but rather the 
circumstance that the writer who accepts the theories of the 
dominant critical school is a Catholic and that his book has 
received the episcopal imprimatur. As a work of succinct informa- 
tion it will commend itself to all Catholic students for whom it is 
primarily designed. — Seisenberger has compressed within a volume 
of moderate bulk, over and above a general and special introduc- 
tion to the Old and New Testament, a Geography of the Holy 
Land, a Biblical Archaeology, and a treatise on the Science of 
Interpretation (Hermeneutics). The whole is written in simple 
language suitable to the understanding of the less mature student 
and the educated layman. Unlike his colleague and co-religionist 
Holzhey, Seisenberger is unrelenting to the critics. His procedure 
is to give on every debated point the traditional account with 
which the modern (critical) theory is contrasted; then there fol- 
lows a refutation which moves in the track of the usual harmonistic 
exegesis common to all opponents of the critics, be they Catholics, 
Protestants, or Jews. It must be owned that the picture of the 
critical position is somewhat overdrawn. But we cannot cavil at 
the Churchman who finds much that is precious to him at stake 
if he follows out the critical theories to their logical conclusions. 
It is crudely, but none the less truly, brought out that according 
to the critics the priests who foisted upon a credulous king or 
people a newly composed code of laws as Mosaic were forgers, the 
whole of Judaism and Christianity based upon it is the outcome of 
repeated acts of deception and not of divine revelation, and Jesus 
himself who speaks of Abraham as the founder of the race, of 
Moses as a writer, and of David as a psalmist, was himself ignorant 
and therefore could not be God. The author refuses to turn the 
traditional account of the religious development of Israel upside 
down. Polytheism is but an aberration; it was preceded by a 
primitive revelation which was for some time obscured. The 
teaching of the Church on the subject of inspiration is shown to 
be intermediate between the broad conception which allows for a 
book originating in a merely human way, without supernatural 
intervention of the Holy Ghost, to be called inspired, if the Church 
under the guidance of the Holy Ghost admits it to the Canon 
(modernist position), and the narrow conception which assumes 


that every word was a matter of divine communication. Thus with 
the rejection of verbal inspiration it becomes possible to make 
allowance for the human individuality of the sacred writers which 
expresses itself in a particular phraseology. On the other hand 
it is maintained that the choice of many most important words and 
expressions, "such as Elohim, Yahweh, Logos, Sophia, Mashiach," 
was made through inspiration. The editor (p. vi) calls attention 
"to a theological distinction which would seem to have come into 
prominence since the author first wrote his book, and which does 
not appear to have been made sufficiently clear even in the latest 
edition. It is the distinction between inspiration and revelation. 
All the Bible is inspired, but not all the Bible is revealed. A sacred 
writer, for instance, might write down an account of an event as 
he had seen it or heard it from an eye-witness. The source of 
his information is purely natural. In writing it down, however, 
he does so under the influence of that supernatural charism which 
is known as inspiration. On the other hand, he might have the 
knowledge infused into his mind directly by God." Such a position 
will naturally make room for some or all of the concessions to 
criticism found in Holzhey, himself the author of a treatise on the 
question of inspiration. The Christian religion as administered 
by Rome is a very restful thing. On matters of weighty concern 
whether they be classed as dogmas or doctrines the Church has 
made pronouncements which no faithful son of Mother Church 
can challenge. His mind is therefore set at rest and there is no 
room for doubt or contrary opinion. The Catholic scholar may 
still find scope for setting forth and elucidating and sometimes also 
of defending the truth, but he can do no more. Where Rome has 
not spoken, and Rome often wisely abstains from speaking, the 
Catholic student is free to exercise his critical faculty and seek 
the truth according to the approved canons of scientific research. 
The works of both these Catholic teachers are among a host of 
others a witness to the fresh impulse given to biblical studies 
among Catholics by Pope Leo XIII in his Encyclical Letter 
Providentissimus Deus (November 18, 1893) of which an English 
version is printed in Seisenberger's Handbook on pp. 159-179- The 
purport of that pastoral letter was to re-assert the solicitude of 
the Church for the cultivation of Holy Scripture and to lay down 


rules for "carrying on successfully the study of biblical science" 
to the clear end that the errors of rationalism, "the peremptory 
pronouncements of a newly invented free science" might be com- 
bated with the weapons of criticism. It thus meant a counter- 
reformation in studies biblical. "The Church by no means pre- 
vents or restrains the pursuit of biblical science, but rather protects 
it from error, and largely assists its real progress. A wide field 
is still left open to the private student, in which his hermeneutical 
skill may display itself with signal effect and to the advantage of 
the Church. On the one hand, in those passages of Holy Scripture 
which have not as yet received a certain and definite interpretation, 
such labors may, in the benignant providence of God, prepare for 
and bring to maturity the judgment of the Church; on the other, 
in passages already defined, the private student may do work 
equally valuable, either by setting them forth more clearly to the 
flock or more skilfully to the scholars, or by defending them more 
powerfully from hostile attack." 

An orthodox Protestant exposition of the rules and methods 
of Bible study in a popular style or rather in the manner of. a 
preacher discoursing before his congregation is the work of 
Pierson. It is a trifle diffuse for the average seeker after informa- 
tion. But to those in need of edification or of an exposition which 
addresses itself not so much to the intellect as to the heart the 
book will no doubt appeal. 

Professor Painter's work is intended for school use. Its 
purpose is to set forth the literary, historical, and ethical value of 
the Bible. Within its compass and for the readers contemplated 
the small volume is admirably written. 

Mr. Fiske may rightly boast of "a capacity of setting forth 
clearly what he learns and thinks, to be 'understanded of the 
people'." His style is certainly masterly. His source of informa- 
tion is largely the "Encyclopaedia Biblica"; but he is somewhat 
mistaken when he tells us that "comparatively little has been 
added since its publication." As a restatement in clear and fascin- 
ating language of all that is "too detailed, too argumentative, too 
heavy or too dry" in the lore of specialists Mr. Fiske's volume will 
no doubt appeal to a large class of readers who unable or unwilling 


to wade through the mass of argument or discussion will be 
pleased to find laid before them the conclusions of at least one 
set of scholars who belong to the dominant school. In order to 
revive the waning interest in the Jewish Scriptures the author 
proceeds to divest them of all authoritativeness as inspired docu- 
ments. "The common intelligence will no longer accept the dogma 
that they are divine revelation, except as divine revelation is to 
be traced in all human development; or that they are the specially 
inspired word of God and contain in all parts infallible truth, to 
be unquestioningly accepted, for the common intelligence has 
come to know better. It has been taught to discriminate and to 
apply reason, and its liberty is not to be excluded from this one 
field. All truth may be accounted divine, all great thoughts and 
noble sentiments may be regarded as inspired, but no more in this 
literature than in others, ancient and modern. The voice of God 
did not vociferate (sic) in one small country for a few centuries 
and then fall into silence," and so on. Accordingly, though recog- 
nizing the genius of the "peculiar people" on the moral if not on 
the intellectual side, he is amazed at their "superior pretension" 
arising out of an indomitable self-assertion and consisting in im- 
posing their literature, described on the title-page as a "web of 
myth, legend, history, etc.," upon a credulous world "at their own 
valuation." Myths pervade the Jahvist and Elohist, the stories 
of the heroic period and of the beginnings of the monarchy are 
steeped in legend, and the history of the two Kingdoms was 
compiled rather "with a view to edification for the future than 
information of the past." The prophets who developed out of 
"diviners or soothsayers" had many "crude and barbarous" con- 
ceptions with regard to the deity and the "worldly destiny" of 
their own nation ; but withal they taught lofty ethical principles 
which constitute the peculiar contribution that the Hebrew genius 
made to mankind. The burden of the later prophets from the 
Second Isaiah down to the Second Zechariah was the promise of 
world dominion born of the "imagination of the wandering Jew 
who believes that the covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob 
is still to be kept." In the Law, the vitality of the ethical principles 
inherited from the prophets "was impaired in the stress laid upon 
formal observances and ceremonies. As a whole this law ...... is 


an unattractive and uninspiring mass of dead letter .... Its ethical 
standard is not higher than that which already was appearing in 
Greek literature and philosophy. Even the conception of deity 
.... was less lofty than to be found in the poetry and philosophy 
of Greece at the time of the second temple. Nevertheless, the 
influence of this Mosaic heritage upon the later religious develop- 
ment and upon the destiny of mankind for ages has no parallel in 
human history." "To accept the book of Esther as historical or 
as in any sense a narrative of facts is no more rational than be- 
lieving in Jonah's three days' sojourn in the stomach of a 'great 
fish' . ... . It is interesting .... as illustrating the character and 
spirit of the Jews in Judea in the last centuries before the 
Christian era, the spirit of the Maccabees and of those who cru- 
cified the gentle teacher of Nazareth." The "I" of the Psalms 
Signifies the personified community. "The wonderful thing about 
all these varied utterances that sprang from the devoted community 
of which the temple at Jerusalem was the center and the syna- 
gogues were scattered branches, is their adaptation to human 
moods and needs and aspirations in the individual man, which has 
made of them an anthology of religious devotion and worship for 
all time." It is an extravagant claim to regard the book of Job 
as a virtually faultless production. "It contains subtle delinea- 
tions and some powerful descriptions, but it does not reach the 
profound depths of philosophy touching human life that were 
sounded in Greek tragedy of nearly or quite the same period, and 
does not excel in power of description, splendor of imagery or 
force of expression, the greatest passages of Greek poetry." The 
author's concluding estimate of the "epic" is that it is "massive, 
conglomerate, amorphous, inartistic, but imposing, with much that 
is precious to mankind mingled in its great bulk with much of 
grosser quality, the deposit of centuries in which the treasures 
were stored. Losing the cement of sanctity it may disintegrate, 
but that which is precious can never be lost." 

Mr. Lanchester's object is likewise to popularize the results 
of the higher criticism which in his opinion has come to stay; but 
he is not bound hand and foot to all of its vagaries some of which 
may now be refuted by the aid of archseological finds. Above all 


he writes with sympathy and reverence. He dissects and dissevers, 
but the parts do not become infinitesimal. He compares and seeks 
to establish literary dependence, but only to prove to himself and 
to others how far above comparison is for instance the first chapter 
of Genesis. Though he concedes much to a sane criticism, he is 
emphatic in having to give up nothing that is vital in the value of 
the Old Testament. What Mr. Fiske designates as myths, are to 
him "theological conceptions." It is still in his judgment a book 
of unique and incomparable significance, first as the depository of 
the thoughts of one of the most gifted nations of the ancient 
world, then as unapproachable in most of its parts from a purely 
literary point of view, and lastly as the record of the self-revela- 
tion of God to His chosen people. 

While the critics have a friend in the rectory of Salle, Norfolk, 
they are apparently not well received in the vicarage of All 
Saints' in Haggerston. Mr. Spencer is a well-informed and well- 
read man; he has perused the great mass of modern critical writ- 
ings down to the latest German brochure; but he has succeeded 
in persuading himself that the higher critics are losing ground. 
He believes that archaeology has come to the rescue of the tradi- 
tional position. He is shocked at the slur which an exponent of 
Wellhausenianism casts upon the traditionalists as "censorious 
persons." Among the latter, he thinks, are scholars of eminence, 
such as Hengstenberg, Keil, Bachmann, Gasser, Moller, Oettli, 
Klostermann ("who stood out, excommunicate"), and others. 
Genesis, he argues, will be allowed to be the testing ground of the 
critical analysis. "If it is uncertain here it is uncertain every- 
where. Now let the English reader take a Genesis in which the 
sources are indicated in different colour or type, and the process will 
appear strange and unnatural. An interesting, beautiful, and very 
old story is observed to be distorted and perplexed. Sometimes 
the climax, to which all leads up, is snipped off" (p. 73). "The 
cutting up of most of the Hebrew prophets into fragments, with 
an entire contempt for Hebrew literary tradition, which is the 
delight of the German intellect, seems to me to be based upon 
precarious principles" (p. m). He has no scruple, on the au- 
thority of Sirach, to accept the Isaianic authorship of the second 


part of Isaiah. "The Deutero-, Trito-, and many other Isaiahs 
tend to dwarf the original Isaiah" (p. 112). "All men agree that 
David wrote the kinah on the death of Saul and Jonathan and the 
kinah on the death of Abner. The man who could write such 
poems was a master of his art. He could turn his hand to other 
and even deeper themes. By this admission the fancy portrait of 
David as a half-heathen savage is shattered .... His people were 
right in attributing to David, magnanimous, brave, and a genius, 
poetry that has stirred the heart of the world, and which tells 
to-day his faults as well as his virtues" (p. 163). Accordingly 
there is a substantial portion of genuinely Davidic productions in 
the Psalter. "I am aware that there is a general agreement among 
Hebrew scholars that the language of Koheleth is impossible to 
Solomon, and much later .... But it may also be said, and has 
been said by many competent scholars, including Pusey, that the 
language is not decisive. The whole tone and substance and man- 
ner of the book is like Solomon's old age With regard to the 

language it may be said that the language is not the language of 
any post-captivity writing. It is only peculiar and supposed to be 
late. Now just in this matter there seems extreme danger in a 
too confident critical position. For it is certain that Solomon, 
and especially in his old age, was an expert linguist in cognate 
dialects. It is not conceivable that he held converse with his 
numerous foreign wives in dumb show. He must have thought 
and spoken in dialects allied to but not the same as his native 
tongue. And it is not unnatural to his old age, therefore, that his 
language, though still pure Hebrew in the main, should have a 
colour of foreign words and foreign turns of expression given to 
it" (p. 19s). I fear that readers who are a bit more familiar with 
the history of the Hebrew language than the author shows himself 
to be and perhaps with the recollection of what Krochmal has 
said about the language of Koheleth will be tempted to smile at 
the well-intentioned but naively absurd theory with which we are 
here regaled. Of an equal merit is the author's brief for the 
ketib in Josh. 5, 1. Verse 6 ( "13~> ; the Septuagint, by the way, read 
also 13JTQ80 ) cannot be cited in support, as any Jew might so 
have expressed himself at any time. The ketib in verse 1 is a 
plain error due to aberration of the eye to 4, 23. The Masoretes 


had no compunction about correcting it. The kere is substantiated 
by the Septuagint. To a reader coming from Wellhausen the 
booklet may prove a serviceable antidote. But criticism will have 
to be demolished with more formidable siege-works. 

Reasonable Biblical Criticism. By Wows J. Beecher, D. D., 

Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature, Auburn 

Seminary (1871-1908). Philadelphia: The Sunday School 
Times Company, 191 i. pp. xvii + 335. 

Wider den Bonn der Quellenscheidung. Von Lie. theol. Wilhem 
MoellER. Giitersloh: C. Bertelsmann, 1912. pp. 229. 

Ober Doppelberichte in der Genesis. Eine kritische Untersuchung 
und eine prinzipielle Prufung. Von Dr. Arthur AllgeiER, 
geistlicher (sic) Lehrer am Friedrichsgymnasium zu Freiburg 
im Breisgau. (Freiburger Theologische Studien. Unter 
Mitwirkung der Professoren der theologischen Fakultat 
herausgegeben von Dr. G. HobERG und Dr. G. Pfeilschifter. 
Drittes Heft.) Freiburg im Breisgau: HerdERSCHE Verlags- 

HANDLUNG, 191 1, pp. XVI -f- I43. 

I. Mose 14. Eine historisch-kritische Untersuchung. Von D. 
Johannes Meinhold, Professor der Theologie in Bonn. 
(Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fur die alttestamentliche Wissen- 
schaft, XXII.) Giessen: Alfred ToepELmann, 1911. pp. 50. 

An Introduction to the Pentateuch. By A. T. Chapman, M. A., 
Emanuel College, Cambridge. {The Cambridge Bible for 
Schools and Colleges.) Cambridge: at the University Press, 
191 1. pp. xx + 339. 

Professor Beecher's attack on the critics equally falls short of 
the mark. The reader expects a "counter-critique" ; the title of 
the book, "Reasonable Biblical Criticism," leads him to suspect 
concessions of a certain kind. But nothing of the sort happens. 
You cannot offset criticism by allegorical interpretation, by imput- 
ing to the sacred writers thoughts that are foreign to their lan- 
guage, nor by a multitude of harmonistic devices. If the work 
succeeds in confirming in their inherited beliefs the particular kind 


of readers to whose level of culture its homespun style descends, 
it will have achieved its purpose ; I doubt whether it will produce 
even so much as a ripple in the circles of the critics and their 
immediate disciples. 

On the other hand, Moller's work ought to command atten- 
tion. He meets the critics on their own ground. His book 
consists of two parts: a negative and a positive. In the former 
he takes up the reasons which have led to the analysis into 
"documents." He shows that the doublets or parallel accounts, 
if they are to serve as a clue to disentangling the knot, issue in a 
deadlock. There remain doublets within one and the same docu- 
ment that still are left to be accounted for. Apparently it is all 
a matter of degree, since a certain amount of duplication is con- 
sidered harmless. Where then is the line to be drawn? And if 
an attempt is made to carry the analysis to its logical conclusion, 
the "documentary" theory resolves itself at the hands of Gunkel 
and Sievers for instance into the "fragmentary" hypothesis ; the 
"documents" accordingly cease to be such and the text is broken up 
into an amorphous mass of infinitesimal parts, disjointed, without 
unity or character. As for the criterion of divine names, it 
likewise breaks down. Somehow the ancient writers forget them- 
selves and introduce Jhvh where you expect Elohim and vice 
versa. The critics thus cornered lay the blame at the door of the 
compiler or editor. But who is to tell where his exercise of au- 
thority stops? For the current conception of the editor is that 
he is altogether mechanical : he transcribes the "documents" word 
for word, he is blind to contradictions and incongruities, he is 
perturbed by no duplication, so long as he can save from the 
ancient documents all that is possible. But once you grant that 
his individuality asserts itself, and occasionally also beyond the 
assumed brackets in long portions which show literary skill, he 
really becomes an author ; but then it becomes apparent that he 
does not mechanically transcribe at all, he uses his "sources" 
intelligently like so many an ancient or modern historian. And to 
return once more to the divine names, the one Elohist of the 
earlier critics received at the hands of their successors a twin- 
brother; but now it is becoming evident that there was a third 


Elohist who is the most archaic. For in certain legends of Genesis 
which critics are constrained to place in pre-Israelitish times, the 
destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is an instance, Elohim is a 
non-descript appellation of the deity as might have been current 
with any people. As an analogue one may think of the philosophic- 
sceptical use of Elohim in Koheleth. But if this be true, that is 
to say if the choice of the divine name be conditioned in the 
subject-matter, it ceases to be a criterion of authorship, as one 
and the same author would be led by the subject in hand to dis- 
criminate. If style and phraseology are to serve as indices of 
disparate authorship, it is all well enough if the documents are 
sufficiently lengthy to show all those traces of linguistic individu- 
ality; but when, as with Gunkel and Sievers, J and E and P are 
split up into multitudinous fragments, the similarity of language 
in certain groups of fragments becomes a pu^le. Moller is 
sensitive of the fact that to overcome the dominant method of 
criticism mere fault-finding and negative criticism will not avail. 
Hence in the positive part he proceeds to show by an example (the 
story of Abraham, Gen. 1 1, 27-25, 11) how by a more profound 
delving into the intent of the sacred writer supposed difficulties 
disappear and all assumes a harmonious aspect. As in the case of 
Eerdmans, we are ready to admit that criticism has been too facile 
with its universal remedy and that often the malady which they 
sought to cure was but imaginary. What differentiates the latter- 
day commentary to its disadvantage is the unwillingness to do 
exegetical work pure and simple of the kind that an earlier 
generation laboriously engaged in; to operate with the analysis 
of the texts carried to an absurd point is after all an easy matter. 
With a modicum of linguistic preparation (and it takes a life-time 
to enter into the fine points of Hebrew construction and style) 
and with the dissecting method which one so readily acquires and 
imitates, the commentary is all ready, almost made to order. If 
our present fashion of shallowness is to pass away and make room 
for the seriousness with which Holy Writ should be studied, a 
little scepticism concerning the efficacy of the analytical method 
will go a long way. Let us be grateful to those who are willing 
to inject this wholesome doubt into the minds of Bible commenta- 
tors. The result will probably be a saner criticism held in check 


by sound learning and a sense of responsibility which will shrink 
from vagaries. Moller's little book accomplishes the important 
service of stirring our conscience as expounders of Scripture. 

We have had occasion to see how divided even modern 
Catholics are on the critical position. Another example is furn- 
ished by the work of Allgeier who, at least for the book of Genesis, 
endeavors to refute the arguments for the existence of parallel 
(and contradictory) accounts which were advanced in a monograph 
by Schulz published in 1908. The harmonistic devices are much 
the same as elsewhere in the works of the traditionalists though 
bolstered up by much erudition. The second part of the work 
which deals with the dogmatic objections to the theory of duplicates 
is interesting as showing that no definition ex cathedra has so far 
been forthcoming in the Church with reference to the all-important 
matter of inspiration. Hence it is that for the time being a certain 
measure of freedom and divergence of opinion exists among 
Catholic dogmaticians which makes for the infiltration of criticism 
into the works of Catholic students of the Bible. The tone of the 
monograph, though polemical, is dignified ; and since it is but proper 
that in a controversy both sides should be heard, Allgeier's work 
by the side of that of Schulz will hold its own. An intermediate 
position is certain to win out in the end. 

In spite of all these attacks, it is but fair to say that a sane 
adherence to the dominant type of criticism is holding the ground. 
Professor Meinhold's monograph on the fourteenth chapter of 
Genesis is perhaps not a fair specimen of what is currently 
acceptable to a large body of critics. His demolition of the 
archaeological evidence in favor of the historicity of the main 
points in the narrative goes a bit too far. Post-exilic Judaism 
is a convenient enough receptacle for accommodating all manner 
of literary productions for which one is unwilling to find a place 
in earlier epochs, chiefly for the reason that the centuries con- 
secutive upon the work of Ezra are so obscure. — Unstinted praise 
belongs of right to Chapman's Introduction to the Pentateuch 
published as a part of the Cambridge Bible for Schools and 
Colleges. The current treatises on the subject are so technical 
and overmastering that we know of no work better suited to the 


needs of the beginner than this admirable presentation by Chapman. 
A sober tone prevails throughout. Counter-arguments are brought 
to the attention of the learner and their force submitted to a 
searching criticism. It was a wise procedure not to entangle the 
student in all the ramifications of Pentateuchal analysis of the 
so-called advanced type. The broad outlines are sedulously kept 
in mind. As a work of information on the position of the Well- 
hausen school it will remain useful for some time to come in the 
hands of English-speaking students. 

Egypt and Israel. By W. M. Funders Petrie, D. C. L-, LL. D., 
F. R. S., F. B. A. London : Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, 191 i. pp. x + 150. 

Grundsteine zur Geschichte Israels. Alttestamentliche Studien von 
Martin Gemoix. Mit zwei Karten. Leipzig: J. C. 
HiNRicHs'sche Buchhandlung, 1911. pp. viii + 480. 

Die Indogermanen im Alten Orient. Mythologisch-historische 
Funde und Fragen. Von Martin Gemoll. Leipzig: J. C. 

HlNRICHS'sche BUCHHANDLUNG, 10,11. pp. VIII + I24. 

Professor Petrie, preeminent among living excavators and 
explorers of ancient Egypt, has written a popular work on the 
relations of the land of the Pharaohs and Israel. He begins with 
Abram, the shepherd prince, and concludes with the Christian age. 
He places the exodus in the year 1200 B. C. ; he accordingly as- 
sumes from the mention of Israel as resident in Palestine in the 
stele of Mereneptah that only a part of the Israelites went into 
Egypt. He describes the relations to Egypt in the period of the 
monarchy, the bearing of the Elephantine finds on the beginnings of 
the Jewish immigration into Egypt, the great Alexandrian colony, 
the temple of Onias the foundations of which were laid bare by 
him; he shows how the Logos doctrine was developed on the soil 
of Egypt, how again the discovery of the Logia of Jesus sheds 
light on the composition of the Gospels, how finally certain elements 
of the Egyptian religion have entered into Christianity. It is cer- 
tainly a very useful treatise on a subject which will always excite 
interest. Petrie apparently has no difficulty about accepting the 


sojourn in Egypt and the exodus as historical though no direct 
reference to either is found on the monuments. 

Gemoll, on the other hand, is radical. There have been others 
who played fast and loose with the traditions deposited in the 
Bible concerning an event to which the sacred writers never weary 
of alluding. His starting-point is an investigation into the mean- 
ing of "Misraim." Winckler's theories on a Misr contiguous to 
but nevertheless outside Egypt are gone into at length. But the 
author arrives at the conclusion that the biblical Misraim together 
with the land of Goshen are to be sought in Southern Palestine. 
It is there that Israel was oppressed, and the exodus means but a 
forced migration of some tribes further North, pushed out of 
their seats by a fresh wave of migration. By a series of daring 
and highly questionable geographical identifications Gemoll trans- 
fers Jephthah and Gilead from across the Jordan to the West; 
Jabesh-Gilead is the same as Jebus-Jerusalem (= Salem = Kiriathr 
jearim) ; the CanaaniteS and Kenites are made identical and both 
proclaimed non-Semites; with them are furthermore identified the 
Horites = Jijaru = Aryans whose capital Jerusalem was; the 
Hyksos were likewise Aryans ; mount Zion was the "mountain of 
Jahveh," and Peres-Uzza is but the deformed Iranian pairidaesa 
= paradise ; the high-priest Aaron and Araunah upon whose 
threshing-floor David built an altar are brought together with the 
Iranian deity Varuna; Jahveh accordingly becomes Yima-Yama, 
Ahura-Varuna's twin-brother. The sum and substance of all these 
novel contentions is that Jahveh though indigenous in Canaan was 
derived by the Israelites from the Aryans in Palestine. In his 
subsequent work, "Die Indogermanen im Alten Orient," a mass of 
Celtic lore is adduced to show that the population which occupied 
Palestine in pre-Israelitish times was not specifically Indo-Iranian, 
but rather generally Indo-European and that the invasion proceeded 
from the West. I doubt whether sober-minded scholars will take 
seriously all these lucubrations of a fertile imagination; it suffices 
to mention that in the newer work Abraham is brought together 
with King Arthur and Lot with Lear. What a stupendous amount 
of lost labor ! That here and there something may be found to 
learn from his observations we will not gainsay. But the two 


works must be judged by the general theories rather than by the 
details, and the former are untenable alike in method and results. 

The Source of the Christian Tradition. A critical history of 
ancient Judaism. By Edouard Dujardin. Revised edition, 
translated by Joseph McCabE. [Issued for the Rationalist 
Press Association, Limited.] London: Watts & Co:, 1911. pp. 
xvi + 307. 

Sociological Study of the Bible. By Louis Waiais. Chicago: the 
University of Chicago Press, [1912]. pp. xxxv + 308. 

Geschichte der Alttestamentlichen Religion. Kritisch dargestellt 
von Eduard KoEnig, Dr. Phil. u. theol., ord. Professor u. 
Geheimem Konistorialrat. Giitersloh: C. Bertelsmann, 1912. 
pp. viii + 608- 

Die Ddmonen und ihre Abwehr im Alt en Testament. Von Dr. 
Phil. Anton Jirxu. Leipzig: A. DEiCHERT'sche Verlagsbuch- 
handlung Nachf., 1912. pp. vm + 99. 

Resting on the hypercriticism of Maurice Vernes "who has 
proved that the compilation of all the biblical writings, especially 
the prophetical works, must be placed later, not only than the 
destruction of the ancient kingdoms, but 'even than the restora- 
tion," M. Dujardin makes a clean sweep not merely of the tra- 
ditional account of the history of the Jewish people and of the 
Jewish religion, but also of the conceptions of the current school 
of criticism. With the composition of the biblical books placed 
in post-restoration times, all that is narrated in them concerning 
the long stretch of time antedating that event is pronounced myth- 
ical and legendary, and the "scientific" spirit has to content itself 
with the scanty allusions in extraneous sources to sketch the "early 
days" of Jewish history in all told eighteen pages. Pre-exilic 
Israel is reduced to the level of any of the petty peoples who were 
its neighbors, and "Jahveh, who afterwards became the one god of 
the Jews, the Eternal of the Christians, and the Absolute of the 
philosophers, cannot have been a less abominable idol than Camos 
(Chemosh) and Milcom." Jewish history begins in 588. The Re- 
storation was the work of the Jerusalemites who had remained. 


A few may have returned under Cyrus, but the founders of the 
Jewish nation must be sought among the miserable population 
which remained in the country. What we moderns call patriotism, 
nationalism, love of country, in Jerusalem all found expression in 
the name of Jahveh. The work of the school of Ezra — for Ezra 
himself may have been a fictitious person — consisted in the pro- 
hibition of any other cult than that of Jahveh, of any representa- 
tion of the deity in a material form, and of mixed marriages. A 
hierarchy was established and the Sabbath and circumcision were 
made national institutions. When this work was done, Jewish 
literature began. The first pages of the Mosaic books were written 
about the middle of the fifth century. The Jahvist-Elohist writers 
projected their own theories into the past. They composed the 
narrative of the beginnings to square with their latter-day needs 
and wishes. The year 409 is the approximate date for the pro- 
mulgation of Deuteronomy. The Elephantine Jews who turned to 
Jerusalem soliciting their interest in the restoration of their 
destroyed temple opened the eyes of the hierarchy to the necessity 
of safeguarding the monopoly of Jerusalem. The Deuteronomic 
Law is the expression of the imperialist policy of Jerusalem; just 
as the Priests' Code belongs to the period when the state of 
Jerusalem had definitely secured the hegemony over one half of- 
Palestine coinciding in the main part with the beginnings 
of prophetism in the Greek era. Hellenism gave the impetus to 
prophetism. Over against the ruling aristocracy with their tend- 
ency to Hellenization there arose the prophets as leaders of the 
nationalist democracy. Hosea and Amos and Jeremiah and 
Ezekiel and Isaiah are but fictitious names; the real authors lived 
in the troublous times of the Hellenist invasion. The prophets 
and Scripture in general were internationalized in aftertimes; in 
their own day the prophets were the protagonists "not of justice, 
but of the claims of their own people and their political party." 
The Second Isaiah closes the century of the prophets about 200; 
Daniel, in 164, inaugurates the era of the apocalypses. The Psalter 
intervenes as the hymn-book of the traditionalist party. In the 
Apocalypses Jewish imperialism has come to the despairing sur- 
render of itself into the hands of the supernatural. It is then 
that religious faith is born. "That is the prodigy of the Jewish 


soul. When all hope is forbidden, it still finds grounds for hope. 
It does not abdicate ; it does not renounce ; it persists in its dream 
of revenge, even when the foot of the Roman is upon it. But 
its indefatigable imperialism now demands that an angel shall come 
down from the heights of heaven." If Shammai counseled resist- 
ance, the meek Hillel simply bade the people not to despair but 
to believe and hope. Prophet-agitators arose who were the 
disciples of Hillel, among them John the Baptist and Jesus the 
Nazarene. The Jew of the Dispersion for a correct estimate of 
whom we must turn to Tacitus, bent to the inevitab'e but found 
strength in his confidence that he would conquer in the end. But 
with the idea of victory over their enemies was associated from 
the earliest prophets that of the revenge of the lowly over the 
powerful. That message won the lower classes of the pagan 
world. "Then through the Empire the news suddenly spread that 
the day of deliverance was at hand, and that, marvelous to relate, 
not only the Jews, but the Judaisers and all the lowly would come 
to them, would be invited to take their place in the kingdom of 
vengeance. This novelty was taught by a Jew of Tarsus, in 
Syria." The book issued from the Rationalist Press Association 
may appeal to the circles for which it has been translated, but 
hardly to sane readers whose canons of historical criticism will 
guard them against the vagaries of the "scientific mind." 

The new point of view from which Mr. Wallis approaches 
the "Bible problem" is in his estimation the application of sociolog- 
ical method in explaining the evolution of the history of Israel 
and Judaism. The sum and substance of his reasoning for which 
the data have been culled from works of the dominant school of 
criticism (not always at first hand, though the author shows him- 
self well-informed) is to the effect that the Hebrew nation, as 
known to history, arose at the point of coalescence between the 
incoming Israelite clans and the Amorite city-states already estab- 
lished in Canaan ; that the amalgamation of the two heterogeneous 
elements entailed a long process during which nomadism and civ- 
ilization fought for supremacy; hence for some time the nation 
was divided, one part in which the Amorite tendency was stronger 
worshiping the national god in the character of an ordinary, 


"civilized" Baal, who countenanced the social system of civilization, 
with its universal slavery and its disregard of the common man, 
and the other where the old Israelite tendency was the more 
powerful claiming the national god as the patron of the old, 
brotherhood mishpat. "As a consequence, the evolution of Yahweh 
from a god of nomadism into a god of "civilization" was ob- 
structed." That obstruction was the work of the prophets who 
stood for the ideals of ancient Israel. Through the fight against the 
Amorite gods the religion of Israel took on its world-renowned 
character of absolute exclusiveness, and through the struggle with 
civilization, the "Amorite iniquity," the prophetic mishpat was 
evolved. There were two classes of prophets, however, the 
"regulars" and the "insurgents." The pendulum • sways : now the 
Amorite element predominates, now the Israelite. The prophets 
(of the "insurgent" class) are not to be classed with the modern 
socialist. They are not interested in the abstract question of 
"human rights" ; they merely protest against the crowding of the 
less fortunate property-owners into the lower, enslaved class. 
When at length the Baal tradition was defeated, the prophets were 
silenced, and the Torah with its Church and hierarchy established 
itself. Under a new and subtle form, that of ritualism, the ancient 
Amorite tradition was brought back. The social problem was 
rejected by Judaism. Jesus was more than a prophet; he made 
himself "one" with the Redeeming God of the Hebrews. While 
Christianity began its history in the lower social strata, the 
Catholic Church rejected the social problem when the religion of 
Jesus became institutionalized; in terms of Old Testament evolu- 
tion, the Catholic Church became tinctured with "Amoritism." 
There was at length a great social revolt against the mediseval 
Church ; but Protestantism likewise became externalized, and the 
social problem was once more pushed to the background. Modem 
society dissolves the ancient bonds between politics and religion. 
The modern Church cannot have a "social program," at best it 
may serve as a generator of moral and spirtual energy. The great 
social awakening in our days means that we are learning that 
human problems are caused not only by the bad will of individuals 
but by defective social arrangements. Sociology will assert itself 
as the synthesis of individualism and socialism. — Leaving aside 


the sociological framework in which the author has expressed his 
ideas, the central thesis of the evolution of Judaism out of a 
conflict of nomadism and civilization has been taken over from 
Wellhausen and Stade and others. The question, however, how it 
came about that the new "variety" of religion as represented by 
that of Israel was evolved is not sufficiently answered by the 
circumstance that whereas the Normans, the Kassites, the Hyskos 
found national group-organizations already formed in the lands 
they conquered, the Israelites supplied the framework of national 
government and religion to the city-states of the Amorites. The 
query is still pertinent, Why did not Chemosh for instance develop 
on the same lines as Jahveh ? The Moabites were nomads like 
the Israelites, and they found an aboriginal Amorite population 
on their settling in their new habitat. It would seem that a 
personal element is left out of account entirely, the personal 
equation which from the start made Jahveh and Israel unique. 

One turns away with a sense of relief from all these inter- 
esting but nevertheless subjective constructions of the history and 
development of Judaism to Konig's monumental "History of the 
Old Testament Religion." On a previous occasion it was our 
privilege to refer to the eminent services of Konig in the province 
of the linguistic study of the Old Testament. The author thus 
comes excellently prepared for his latest work through the entire 
course of which a singular mastery of all the details of exegesis 
is maintained. But Konig's previous works, as for instance his 
notable "Introduction to the Old Testament" (1893) and his 
"History of the Kingdom of God" (1908), aside from minor publi- 
cations, have fitted him as a critic and theologian. The signal 
feature of the present work, however, consists in its argumentative 
method which by the way distinguishes also Konig's linguistic 
works. Thus, while a positive development of his own theories 
concerning the weighty subject in question runs from beginning to 
end, there is nevertheless at every stage introduced a thorough 
review and discussidn of the views which he is constrained to 
reject. The book will commend itself if for no other reason on 
the ground of this feature alone which enables the reader to study 
the questions independently and to review in his mind all possible 


and impossible positions that have found sponsors. Readers who 
will consult their aesthetic pleasure or comfort as paramount will 
perhaps be repelled by the constant strain to which their reasoning 
and critical power is put by Konig, the student who values informa- 
tion of the right sort above literary entertainment will on the 
contrary be grateful to him for the all-round discussion of 
momentous problems. The layman of whatever description with 
perhaps a theory of his own ready-made has his natural preference 
for the neat theories ; the scholar wants the facts, the hard facts 
which fit themselves with difficulty into any one system. Konig 
believes in criticism; he is an upholder of the documentary hypo- 
thesis; but he is conservative with reference to the order and 
dating of the documents. He places the Elohist before the Jahvist 
and the latter in Davidic times, while the Decalogue and Book of 
the Covenant (Exod. 21-23) ar e assigned to the Mosaic period. 
He emphasizes what is common to two or more of the sources 
and he establishes their credibility with regards to the events which 
they narrate. With such preliminary and basic principles he sets 
aside the crude evolutionistic notions which make of the pre- 
prophetic religion a polytheism or polydaemonism originating in 
totemism, animism, and the like. He questions the misnomer "pre- 
prophetism" ; he knows of the ancient prophets and the later 
prophets. The first prophet of the monotheistic religion was 
Abraham and it meant a turning away and separation from magic 
and divination and the many gods and the sensual representations 
of them. Konig vindicates the historical character of the religion 
of the patriarchs and of Moses. The God of Moses was neither 
Canaanized in the sequel nor Babylonized. There is no ground 
for contrasting the prophetic religion and the "Volksreligion." 
Apostasy existed; but withal the "legitimate" religion maintained 
itself. It was kept alive in the prophetic guilds who carried on the 
Mosaic traditions. The "prophets of action" (a phrase adopted 
from Herder) were followed by the oratorical (literary) prophets. 
Their work consisted in leading the people back to fidelity to their 
ancestral God. There was nothing new in their message. They 
were not founders of the religion of Israel. Nevertheless they 
contributed noteworthy moments towards the spiritualization of the 
character and worship of God. They equally spiritualized the 


conceptions of the Kingdom of God and of the providential mission 
of Israel in the world. When the work of the prophets was done 
and Israel won back to its God and its mission, the task of inuring 
the people to its career of faith, obedience, and hope was taken up 
by the scribes and rabbis. The appraisal of the final stage of the 
religion of the Jews as it found its expression in the dogma of 
the supremacy of the Torah is naturally undertaken from the point 
of view which looks for the consummation of the spiritual 
potencies of Judaism in the Gospel. Such are in the main the 
salient points of a work which it is hoped every student who aims 
at arriving at conclusions which may be tested by objective argu- 
ment will make his vade-mecum. 

A monograph on the demons and the means of warding them 
off in the Old Testament undertaken "without any preconceived 
opinion or apologetic tendency," yet arriving at the conclusion that 
"Jahveh was at all times the sublime world-God of the Hebrews 
and not the product of an evolution from crude beginnings up- 
wards," should evoke interest. The author finds that the Hebrews 
believed in addition to the One God in a multitude of subordinate 
spiritual beings which we designate as demons. The belief in 
demons, however, was totally opposed to the Jahveh religion. 
Naturally with the belief in the existence of demons it became 
necessary to find ways and means of warding them off. Some of 
the elements of the cult as prescribed in the Priests' Code are 
ultimately rooted in the desire of counter-acting the evil influences 
of demons. While the belief in the existence of demons, the 
shedim perhaps excepted, has its origin in common-Semitic tradi- 
tions, it is possible that the cult laws in P may have been influ- 
enced by Babylonian customs. But if such an influence be assumed, 
it antedated the conquest. Against certain critics it is denied that 
Jahveh betrays any demoniacal features. Whatever be the merits 
of the author's general conclusions, exception must be taken to 
several points of detail. Thus the interpretation of Wiyv as an 
original plural (of the type DTt^N) from which the singular •OITP 
was subsequently derived, or of tt^K in Gen. 32, 25 as "demon" 
(on the basis of Assyrian) and of 1J1X "pm (v. 30) as "he made 
him bend the knee, i. e. subdued him," will hardly be taken 


loijETi' 1 mw p -itjt^k nan ntnnm nj^n mayn pe6n piso. 

Thesaurus totius Hebraitatis et veteris et recentioris. Auctore 
EuESER Ben Iehuda, Hierosolymitano. Schonebergi apud 
Berolinum in aedibus Prof. G. LangenscheidTi. Ill, parts 

6-12 (niin - ivtt). pp. 1397-1740. 

La duree de I'annee biblique, et I'origine du mot njC. Par S. 
Ferares. Extrait de la Revue de Linguistique, 1912. Paris : 

LlBRAIRIE DuRLACHER, 1912. pp. 24. 

Parts 6-12 complete the third volume of Ben Iehuda's Thesau- 
rus of which a lengthy notice appeared in vol. II of the New Series 
of this Review (591 ff.). Of new words or words to which a new 
signification is given we may mention D1T "current (of thought)," 
man "schoolmate," nivan "omelet," yjn "solemn," ntn "waist- 

•• : t-,t 

coat," npvn "blouse." — Ferares would make us believe that i"UE> 
which is etymologically connected with H35J > "to double" corre- 
sponded to a measure of time consisting of two lunations and that 
in the period of Abraham a year was equal to seven months or 
lunations. His arguments are not convincing. 

Das Buchwesen im Altertum und im Byzantinischen Mittelalter. 
Von V. Gardthausen. Zweite Auflage. Mit 38 Figuren. 
(Griechische Palaeographie. Von V. Gardthausen. Zweite 
Auflage. Erster Band.) Leipzig: VeiT & Co., 191 1. pp. xii + 

Papyri Graecae Berolinenses. Collegit Wilhelm Schubart. 
{Tabulae in usum scholarum. Editae sub cura Iohannis 
LiEtzmann. 2). Bonnae: A. Marcus, MCMXI. pp. xi + 
tabulae 50 -f- pp. xxiii. 

The Old Testament in Greek. According to the text of Codex 
Vaticanus, supplemented from other uncial manuscripts, 
with a critical apparatus containing the variants of the chief 
ancient authorities for the text of the Septuagint. Edited by 
Alan England Brooks, B. D., Fellow and Dean of King's 
College, and Norman McLean, M. A., Fellow of Christ's 
College, University Lecturer in Aramaic. Volume I. The 


Octateuch. Part I. Genesis. Part II. Exodus and Leviticus. 
Part III. Numbers and Deuteronomy. Cambridge: at the 
University Press, 1906. 1909. 1911. pp. viii + 155; viii + 
405; vii + 676. 

Codex Zuqninensis Rescriptus Veteris Testamenti. Texte Grec 
des manuscripts Vatican Syriague 162 et Mus. Brit. Additionnel 
14, 665. Edite avec introduction et notes par Eugene TissEr- 
ant. (Studi e Testi. 23.) Roma: Tipografia Poliglotta 
Vaticana, 1911. pp. lxxxvii + 2 77- 

Septuaginta-Studien. Herausgegeben von Alfred RahlFS. 3. 
Heft: Lucians Resension der Konigsbucher. Von A. Rahlfs. 
Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1911. pp. 298. 

Fragmente einer griechischen tjbersetsung des samaritanischen 
Pentateuchs. Von Paul Glaue und Alfred Rahlfs. Mit 
einer Lichtdrucktafel. (Mitteilungen des Septuaginta-Unter- 
nehmens der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu 
Gottingen. Heft 2.) BerLn: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung. 
1911. pp. 68. 

A Coptic Palimpsest containing Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Judith and 
Esther in the Sahidic dialect. Edited by Sir Herbert Thomp- 
son. London: Henry Frowde (Oxford University Press), 
1911. pp. xii -f- 386. 

Untersuchungen uber die Peschitta sur gesamten hebrdischen Bibel. 
Zugleich ein Be'trag zur Erkenntnis der alten Bibeliibersetzun- 
gen. Von Dr. Ch. HELLER. Teil I. Berlin: M. PoppELAUER, 
1911. pp. 72. 

Die aussermasorethischen Ubereinstimmungen swischen der 
Septuaginta und der Peschittha in der Genesis. Von Lie. 
theol. Johannes Haenel. (Beihefte sur Zeitschrift fur die 
alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. XX.) Giessen: Alfred ToepEL- 
mann, 191 1. pp. 88. 

Gard'thausen's work on the Book in Antiquity and in the 
Byzantine period which constitutes the first volume of the second 
edition of his monumental text-book of Greek Palaeography (the 
first edition appeared more than thirty years ago) should be 


brought to the attention of all students of the Bible. - For the 
manner in which ancient Hebrew books were prepared we have 
a monograph by L. Blau (Studien z. althebr. Buchwesen 1. Strass- 
burg i. E. 1902). But apart from the fact that the relation of 
Oriental customs to Western modes is elucidated in the larger 
context as furnished by Gardthausen, the student of the Scriptures 
who has to deal with Greek and Latin translations must necessarily 
possess himself of information bearing on all matters palaeographi- 
cal. To all such the new Gardthausen will be welcome indeed. In 
the introduction palaeography (in the narrower sense) is defined 
in its relation to epigraphy and diplomatics (study of documents) ; 
a history of Greek palaeography from Montfaucon to modern times 
is then given together with a bibliography of specimens of writing 
as well as of facsimile reproductions of entire manuscripts. The 
history of book making in antiquity is treated in nine chapters 
dealing with writing material (papyrus, parchment, "palimpsests," 
paper, "water-marks," "the bookworm"), the external form of 
manuscripts (wood or wax tablets, the leaf, the scroll, the format 
of books), letter "and seal, bookbinding, writing utensils, ink, color, 
silver and gold script, ornaments, initials, painting. Exact and 
up-to-date as the information is, it is singularly fascinating. The 
externals of book producing have their history which all book- 
lovers will do well to study. Many practical hints on the manner 
of describing manuscripts will be found in this condensed text-book 
of Greek palaeography. 

On a previous occasion we noticed the publication by Cavalieri 
and Lietzmann containing specimens of Greek codices from the 
Vatican (JQR., New Series, I, 574 f.). In the same series Schu- 
bart furnishes specimens of Greek papyri from Berlin. The speci- 
mens run all the way from the fourth pre-Christian to the eighth 
post-Christian century. When it is remembered that the archetypes 
and the earliest copies of the Septuagint must have been written 
on papyri and in script similar to the one used on the contempor- 
aneous papyri extant the importance of practice in reading papyri 
becomes obvious. 

The Larger Cambridge Septuagint edited by Brooke and 
McLean is now complete so far as the Pentateuch is concerned. 


The minor edition which preceded the present undertaking is, as 
students know, that by Swete and has now gone through a num- 
ber of editions. While the latter confined its apparatus to a se- 
lected list of uncials, the larger work is inclusive of all uncials; 
then a stately number of selected ;ursive manuscripts, all of the 
ancient versions of the Greek, and a goodly number of Greek and 
Latin Fathers have been drawn upon for variants. With regard 
to the cursives, the number collated falls below that embodied in 
Holmes-Parsons, though quite a number of new cursives which 
have come to light since the Oxford publication have been collated 
for the new work. The distinguishing mark of the new edition is 
its reliability on which score the sins of the Oxford editors or 
their collaborators are well known to students (comp. Ceriani, 
Lagarde). Of course, no human work of so gigantic a size can 
be perfect. I have come across a number of errors, particularly 
errors of omission. Thus, to mention one example, the last verse 
of the sixth chapter of Numbers (in the Hebrew) which is wanting 
in the Septuagint (original) is found not only in quy"? (as the 
editors note), but also in G (curiously enough without the asterisk). 
A word or two must be said about the new Septuagint for the 
benefit of the majority of Bible students who are apt to use it and 
who are not Septuagint specialists. In the first place the editors 
have simply given the text of B (the famous Vatican codex; where 
it was defective, another uncial takes its place) with some minor 
deviations from the text as published by Swete. In the apparatus 
the variants from the sources indicated above are registered. But 
no critical restoration of the original of the Septuagint as it left 
the hands of the translators was intended. Let therefore no one 
mistake the intention of the editors. The warning is not superflu- 
ous considering the use to which Lagarde's well-known publication 
has been put. For despite the warning of its editor who merely 
laid the foundation for a reconstruction of Lucian, his text has 
been persistently taken for Lucian's. In the second place, the 
arrangement of the variants is necessarily mechanical. Only in this 
way could the task of registration be accomplished with any degree 
of reliability. The arrangement therefore serves practical purposes. 
It is not an easy task to reconstruct the consecutive reading of the 
manuscripts on a given verse. But it can be done, and done to 


advantage, on the basis of the painstaking labor of the editors, 
if one will only take the trouble to re-write the evidence in extenso 
as he requires. Much that is at present disjointed or misleading 
will be found to be clear when brought together. Thirdly, with 
regard to the daughter-versions and patristic quotations, what is 
actually found in them is given, but the editors naturally do not 
guarantee that every reading thus recorded goes back to a Greek 
source. For the daughter-versions frequently deviate from the 
Greek by transposition, addition, and curtailment. And the Fathers 
have often quoted from memory, or wove the words of Scripture 
into their own words with the least intent of quoting exactly. 
Fourthly, to the unitiated the editorial work appears gigantic it 
is true, but nevertheless mechanical. They think that all that the 
editors did was excerpting readings, though even that requires in 
the case of manuscripts a knowledge of palaeography, in the case 
of the daughter-versions a fine knowledge of some seven languages 
or dialects, and in the case of the Fathers much erudition. If one 
remembers that from the list of cursives extant only a certain 
number have been selected, while the remainder were incorporated 
from Holmes-Parsons and marked as such, it becomes evident that 
a principle of selection was to be obtained. Now this principle of 
selection is based on nothing short of a painstaking and thorough- 
going study of all the apparatus of Holmes-Parsons which pre- 
ceded the preparation of each volume in the manuscript. How 
much discrimination this kind of work entails those who have 
busied themselves with similar labors alone know. Thus when it 
was ascertained that a group of say some thirteen manuscripts 
constituted a class by themselves, three or four were selected as 
representatives of the. class, while the variants of the other 
members of the class were not verified but allowed to stand on 
the authority of the Oxford editors. This point is mentioned not 
merely to show how much penetration of the mass of variant 
readings was required before the editors could approach the task 
of re-examining those cursives which were selected for the pur- 
pose. For the right weighing of the evidence as now presented 
it is imperative that the student know that a letter of the alphabet 
may stand for the manuscript which it designates, but in reality 
for an entire group of manuscripts. In other words, the sigla do 


not stand for individuals, although in the nature of the case as 
far as the editors' intention goes they should so be taken; but in 
the final estimate of the readings it becomes important to know 
which of them are group-readings. To illustrate, of a group of 
four manuscripts (74, 76, 84, 134) the latter (134 = t) was 
selected as the representative. A t reading is therefore, unless 
the contrary becomes evident, the reading of not one, but of four 
manuscripts. Two further manuscripts (44 = d, 106 = p) figure 
among the selected manuscripts which were examined afresh. It is 
misleading to treat them as equal in importance to t. For they 
represent but themselves. Both belong to the t group, but because 
they deviate rather extensively from the group, it was deemed 
necessary by the editors to give their evidence based on their own 
sight. As a matter of fact, the deviations are not of importance ; 
some of the omissions are due to error (homoioteleuton, etc.) or 
to a desire to condense the text. This time the editors have erred 
perhaps in giving too much. But when one understands their 
motive and moreover has learned to value the readings and by 
comprehending them to remove them, both the procedure of the 
editors is recognized and the dangers of giving them undue weight 
is warded off. Attention is finally to be drawn to the Hexaplaric 
material recorded at the bottom of the page. Our knowledge of 
the late Greek translators is thus extended and many corrections 
to Field's great work are obtained. In the light of the remarks 
given in the preceding it becomes evident why a work of this 
nature must necessarily be a slow one. Our present generation 
cannot expect to witness its completion; our successors will, if 
not possessed of the original of the Septuagint, at least possess an 
apparatus at once fuller and more reliable. 

A new manuscript of the Septuagint, or as much as now re- 
mains of it, has been given to the learned world by M. Tisserant 
in a splendid edition. Fortunately* no part covered by the Larger 
Cambridge Septuagint is contained therein so that it will be re- 
served for the future parts to incorporate it as a new uncial. 
Strictly speaking, it is not one, but six codices. But the parchment 
of these various codices was used in the ninth or tenth century 
for the text of a Syriac Chronicle after the Greek script had been 
washed off (palimpsest). The Syriac codex which was probably 


written in the Zuknin monastery (hence Codex Zukninensis) is 
now divided between the Vatican Library and the British 
Museum; but the major part is in the Vatican. Portions of the 
underlying Greek text were deciphered and published by Teschen- 
dorf in 1857 and by Cozza-Luzi in 1902 (1905). Cornill and after 
him Ceriani identified the Ezekiel parts with the Lucianic recen- 
sion. With the exception of one leaf (III Ki. 8, 58-9, 1) the whole, 
according to the editor whose contentions are substantiated by the 
investigations of Rahlfs (see below, and TLZ., 1911, col. 742), 
exhibits a Lucianic text. In the Book of Judges for instance the 
new manuscript shows marked affinity with the cursive 54 which 
has been claimed as Lucianic by G. P. Moore for Judges and 
recently by Hautsch for the whole of the Octateuch (see JQR., 
New Series, I, 572 f.). The parts recovered contain portions of 
Judges, III Kingdoms, Psalms, Ezekiel, and Daniel. The editor 
has read the palimpsest without the aid of chemical reagents (Gard- 
thausen, Buchwesen, 107 f.). 

Through the editor's kindness Rahlfs was placed in a position 
to utilize the Zuknin text of III Kingdoms for the third part of 
his Septuagint Studies which deals with Lucian's text of the Books 
of the Kingdoms (Samuel and Kings). The monograph which as 
a model of critical labor centering about an important Septuagint 
recension few will be able to approach does honor alike to the 
author and to the philosophical Faculty of the Gottingen University 
which awarded the first prize to the essay submitted to it in 
manuscript. After a survey of the witnesses of the Lucianic text, 
their respective value is determined, and the conclusion is reached 
that the group 82. 93 is superior to the group 19. 108 and that singu- 
lar readings of individual manuscripts within these groups may lay 
claim to consideration only in a few exceptional cases, that fur- 
thermore Lagarde's edition, while corresponding to these prin- 
ciples on the whole, will bear revision here and there. On the 
basis of a renewed investigation of Josephus (one will remember 
Mez' thesis of an "Ur-Luzian" before Lucian), the Greek writers 
to the end of the third post-Christian century, and the Latin 
writers as well as fragments of the Old Latin Bible, Rahlfs proves 
conclusively that there cannot be any question of a Lucianic type 
in advance of Lucian. He then submits certain parts of the Lu- 


cianic recension to a thoroughgoing test with regard to its sources 
(his treatment of the catalogue of Solomon's governors the author 
rightly regards as the specimen of a textual commentary which in 
his judgment it will become imperative to write some day on the 
whole of the Septuagint) and his result is that the basis of the 
recension is an ancient, pre-hexaplaric text of the Septuagint which 
is closely related to the text of the Vatican (B) and the Ethiopic 
translation. Nevertheless there are elements in Lucian which are 
not of his own making, yet are at variance with B Aethiops. As 
a certain want of principle appears to characterize the recension 
in question it is not easy to find a criterion for singling out what 
is Lucianic and what pre-Lucianic. Nor will the criteria if found 
be necessarily the same in the several books as Lucian may have 
followed different principles in different books or he may have 
had collaborators who. though on the whole working according to 
his principles nevertheless went their own way in many particulars. 
A by-product of Rahlfs' investigation is the authentication (in the 
greater part of the Bible) of the B text and of its related satellite, 
the Ethiopic version, as embodying the text nearest to the original 
considering that both Lucian and Origen (as is probable) made 
it (that is, a text cognate to it) the basis of their recensions. 

The second instalment of the Gottingen Academy publications 
dealing with the Septuagint (JQR-, New Series, I, 573) is devoted 
to fragments of a Greek version of the Samaritan Pentateuch 
edited by Glaue and Rahlfs. The leaves which were found in 
Egypt are now the property of the University of Giessen and be- 
long to a codex which was written in the fifth or sixth post- 
Christian century. The fragments contain portions of Deuter- 
onomy. The Samaritan character of the text is made certain by 
the famous reading in 27, 4 "mount Gerizim" for our "mount 
Ebal"; moreover the words are transliterated and in Samaritan 
fashion (Cowley, Samaritan Liturgy, II, p. lix) written in one 
word: apyapi(i/i. It is interesting that £ reads here likewise: in 
monte garzin (overlooked by the editors). Other Samaritan pecu- 
liarities of rendering which tally with the Samaritan Targum 
occur. A Greek translation of the Samaritan Pentateuch was 
known to have existed before this find was made (see the refer- 
ences by the editors p. 61 ff.). According to Rahlfs the fragment 


Gen. 37, 3 — 4. 9 collated in the Larger Cambridge Septuagint and 
denoted as A 4 belongs likewise to the Greek version of the 
Samaritan Pentateuch. 

A palimpsest manuscript acquired by the British Museum has 
brought to light the. Sahidic text of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Judith, 
and Esther which has been edited by Sir Herbert Thompson. 
Hitherto we have only possessed fragments of these books (see 
the list pp. x-xii). The collocation of Ruth with Judith and 
Esther is peculiar. In Greek manuscripts this grouping is very 
rare; but it is met with in Syriac (Jacobite codices) (Crum, p. vi, 
n. 1; Rahlfs, TLZ., 10.12, col. 68). The editor avers that he has 
spared no pains to make the text as accurate as possible; but in 
view of the condition of the MS. in many parts he would not 
be certain that he has escaped error. I have noticed an error oh p. 
18, 1. 30, where the second letter II should be corrected to N (see 
p. xii). In the place in question there is a reading which is found 
in one lone Greek MS. (118) and the Old Latin (see AJSL., 
XXVIII (1911), 5). The editor has not ventured to pronounce 
upon the filiation of the Greek text underlying the translation. "In 
the book of Joshua this text follows none of the three chief 
uncials (A, B, F), but seems to be based on an independent text, 
having many readings peculiar to itself." My own examination 
which at present is in process of completion (I am preparing in 
connection with my forthcoming edition of the Book of Joshu? 
in Greek according to MS. 54 and cognate witnesses, a Greek- 
Sahidic-Latin-Ethiopic-Syriac-Hebrew Index) goes to show that 
the basis of the text is related to B and the unrevised Ethiopic; 
the present text reveals Hexaplaric revision of which there are a 
few elements even in B and a great many in the Ethiopic; it also 
shares some readings with the Latin. Of course, there are met 
with additions which belong to the translator and were no part of 
his "Vorlage"; but otherwise it is safe to say that we have before 
us the Bible text current in the Egyptian Church. The latter 
appears to be relatively the purest and, when judiciously emended, 
it will some day yield the original. The importance of the new 
publication is thus seen to be great. 

Heller's monograph on the Peshitta is apparently a doctorate 
thesis and, as is usual with such publications, is ambitious in plan 


but modest in actual accomplishment. It announces itself as the 
first part of a work on the entire Peshitta of the Old Testament. 
The author has used no manuscripts except one codex of the 
Royal Library at Berlin which contains but a small part of the 
Old Testament. He assumes Jewish influences in the Syriac ver- 
sion but repudiates Schoenfelder's notion that the Peshitta is de- 
pendent upon Onkelos. He arranges his observations culled from 
various parts under lists showing the agreement of the Peshitta 
with talmudic exegesis or talmudic hermeneutics as well as with 
principles of interpretation evolved by the mediaeval Jewish 
exegetes. As a specimen of erudition the work may pass; but 
when it comes to accepting his contentions I fear that a modicum 
of criticism will overthrow them. Questions of dependence must 
be settled by a process of elimination ; otherwise we may be dealing 
with mere coincidence. I have come across misprints. 

The question of the relation of the Peshitta to the Septuagint 
at least for the book of Genesis is the subject of a monograph by 
Hanel. His critical apparatus for the Peshitta (p. 5 f.) is satis- 
factory. The investigation is carried on with judgment. No single 
method will do justice to the problem. While he repudiates the 
thesis that the Peshitta was made use of by Lucian, he is not so 
certain that in all places where the Peshitta goes with the Septu- 
agint against the received Hebrew text the Syriac was influenced 
by the Greek; for it is quite conceivable that in a number of these 
coincidences the Hebrew text underlying the Syriac agreed with 
that at the basis of the Greek. A certain criterion of dependence 
would be found where the rendering of the Peshitta might be 
reduced to an error of misinterpretation of the Greek; but the cases 
are few. To illustrate by one example: Gen. 2, 10 ~>31 V Kip 1 ilD 
1BE> Sin tvn E>SJ DIKfl )b Nip 1 "1KW. The construction of nTI CBJ 
is difficult ; it is thrown out by moderns as a gloss. Other commen- 
tators treat it as apposition to the pronoun in "O- But whether 
gloss or original, it is apparently significant indicating the recog- 
nition by the man that the animals were living creatures like 
himself and at the same time that they were not of his species (see 
Nahmani). It is unnecessary to go further and take iTTI K>B2 as 
secondarly accusative (Nahmani ; so clearly the Samaritan Tar- 
gum) ; it implies, moreover, that the antecedent of the relative is 


the generic word for "animal" (so apparently Saadia and Vulgate), 
whereas the natural assumption is that the antecedent is "name" 
and that the pronoun in V is not a mere 'a'id but refers back to 
the generic word for "animal," exactly as in the first 17. I have 
recently had occasion to deal with this passage in connection with 
the rendering of the 'a'id in the Greek Hexateuch. Now, while the 
first "h is rendered avra (uniformly attested), in the case of the 
second 1? the witnesses vary between avro and avra. The omission 
in some witnesses (notably in m and Philo J4) might be taken 
as an indication that avro was the Original and that the 'a'id was 
omitted as redundant. Phil-arm J4, however, together with certain 
Greek MSS. and the Bohairic, Sahidic, and Ethiopic, has avra, 
and I am inclined to believe that such was the original reading. 
Hence Hanel's deductions with reference to the plural (lehon) 
in the Peshitta as due to following a faulty reading of the Septu- 
agint fall to the ground, especially as the first 1? is equally 
rendered lehon. Though Hanel is wrong in this instance, his 
general contention about the difficulty attaching to laying the 
hand on clear cases of Greek influence in the Syriac in sub- 

An Interpretation of Genesis. Including a translation into present- 
day English. By Rev. F. P. Ramsay, Ph. D., Pastor Third 
Presbyterian Church, Omaha, Nebraska. New York and 
Washington: The Neale Publishing Company, 1911. pp. 

La Nuit de Penouel. Etude de philologie, d'histoire et de myth- 
ologie israelites. Par Alfred-B. Henry. Paris: Librairie 
Fischbacher. 1911. pp. 43. 

The Book of Exodus. In the Revised Version. With introduc- 
tion and notes. By the Rev. S. R. Driver, D. D., Regius 
Professor of Hebrew, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, 
&c, &c. (The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges.) 
Cambridge: at the University Press, 1911. pp. lxxii -f- 443. 

The Book of Numbers. In the Revised Version. With introduc- 
tion and notes. By A. H. McNeilE, D. D., Fellow and Dean 


of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. (The Cambridge Bible 
for Schools and Colleges.) Cambridge: at the University 
Press, 191 i. pp. xxvii + 196. 

1DK nbna nj ^tsan vh. (Exode xxiii, 19; xxxiv, 26; Deut. xii, 21). 
Une erreur de traduction dans la Bible. Extrait de la Revue 
de Linguistique, 191 1. Par S. FerarES. Paris: Librairie 
Fischbacher, 1911. pp. 32. 

Commentary on the Booh of Deuteronomy. By W. G. Jordan, 
B. A., D. D., Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament liter- 
ature in Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. (The Bible 
for Home and School.) New York: The Macmiiaan Com- 
pany, 191 1. pp. 263. 

Ramsay's "Interpretation of Genesis" is the popular work of 
a preacher. He writes for the untutored. And he writes for 
believers, for Christians. He makes them acquainted with the 
technical terms used in Bible introductions and Bible commentaries; 
he gives a sketch of the critical theories concerning the origin of 
the Pentateuch; he sees no difficulty in placing the compilation of 
the Pentateuch in post-Mosaic times, but the editors used Mosaic 
material. As for Genesis, Moses used pre-Mosaic material. In 
the book a translation of Genesis into modern English is given 
which is accompanied by explanatory notes. As a specimen of the 
translation we may quote Gen. 44, 18 ff. (p. 229) : 

"Then Judah came Up close to him and said, 

'O Your Excellency, — I beg that you will permit your servant 
to speak a word in Your Excellency's hearing. Do not be irritated 
with your servant, for you are the same as Pharaoh. Your Ex- 
cellency asked his servants," etc. 

As with other attempts in the same direction (see below), the 
effect is not a pleasing one. I doubt whether the modern man is 
so far removed from the language of Shakespeare that the English 
of the Authorized Version, barring isolated cases, is for him unin- 
telligible. As for style, generations have labored in creating the 
English biblical diction which alone seems to fit the sacred liter- 
ature. Somehow the older translators had the right feeling for 


the simplicity of the original which no modern paraphrase can 
match. The concluding chapters of the book are in the nature 
of summaries. In describing the character of Abraham, the author 
calls him "a falsifier," one who "used falsehood without a twinge 
of conscience." The critics may be wrong about the dating of 
Genesis; but their historical sense guards them against measuring 
the heroes of Genesis with a modern standard. That is at least 
one gain of historical criticism. — M. Henry submits the narrative 
of "the night of Penuel" (Gen. 32, 24-33) to a fresh examination. 
The etymologies of the Jahvist narrator (Jabbok combined with 
'bk; Isra-el interpreted as "he striveth with God" in the place of 
"God striveth") cannot be accepted; in the interpretation of Penuel 
("Face of God") he is nearer the truth. Whatever of historical 
fact may be found to underlie the legend amounts to a pre-Jahvistic 
reminiscence of the conquest of Canaan which began somewhere 
in the fourteenth century B. C. Gen. 34 and 48, 22 are further 
reminiscences. In all of them Jacob is represented as a courageous 
warrior so utterly at variance with his character in the framework. 
As for the religious content of the myth, we are confronted with 
the demoniacal character of Jahveh (contrast Jirku above) who 
is a savage deity, given to nocturnal attacks, partial to those who 
please him, subject to moods and whims, pliant to those who 
know how to win him by the art of magic. He attacks Jacob 
for no cause whatever, simply because he encounters him at night 
time ; he easily maims the titan that dares to wrestle with him ; 
but before he extricates himself out of the hands of Jacob at the 
rise of dawn he is made to bless him, to pronounce a berakah, 
a magic formula of incantation. Thus the vanquished becomes 
victor. Hosea (12, 1-6) well understood the sense of the myth. 
In the myth furthermore reveal themselves the vicissitudes of the 
gods. Jacobel was the name of a Canaanite city in the sixteenth 
century B. C. and presumably also of a Canaanite god. He was 
absorbed among many others by Jahveh. Jacob was in truth not 
the supplanter, but the supplanted. Af last he became a mere 
shadow of his former character, a mere patriarch. The change 
of name to Israel marks the final stage of the metamorphosis. — 
The books of Exodus and Numbers in the Cambridge Bible for 
Schools and Colleges have found worthy expounders in Driver and 


McNeile. A new feature is the use of the Revised Version in the 
text. Thus the commentary is relieved from the necessity of 
registering alternate renderings; the margin of the R. V. is re- 
tained at the foot of the text. Driver's strength lies in his intimate 
acquaintance with the language and his cautious criticism. Valu- 
able excursuses convey much useful information and aim at clarify- 
ing disputed points of much interest. Comp. the notes on the 
site of Sinai, or, in the appendixes, on the Passover, the date of 
the decalogue, and the Code of Hammurabi. In the Introduction, 
the outline of the narratives concerning the exodus and the person 
of Moses is accepted as historical. A full discussion of the, data 
from Egyptian monuments precedes this estimate. In Numbers, 
McNeile distinguishes between the JE narrative which is based 
on traditions which in all probability took their rise from actual 
facts and the P narratives which are "only laws in narrative 
clothing, and therefore very few of them can be regarded as 
possessing even a basis of actual Mosaic history." As for the 
laws which belong exclusively to P, though their present form 
is late, they contain elements which are primitive in several parts, 
"but whether any of them date from a period as early as Moses 
it is impossible to say."- — After reviewing the history of the inter- 
pretation of IDS aSm HJ Wan &6 (Exod. 23, 19 and parallels), 
M. Ferares arrives at the conclusion that its original meaning was : ' 
Thou shalt not seethe a kid while it is a suckling. — The volume on 
Deuteronomy in The Bible for Home and School is the work of 
Prof. Jordan. In the Bibliography Zangwill's "The Children of 
the Ghetto" is included, "a novel, but also an important document 
relating to the life of the modern Jew as moulded by the 
ancient law." 

The Book of Joshua. Edited by John Sutherland Black, LI* D. 
(The Smaller Cambridge Bible for Schools.) Cambridge: at 
the University Press, iqio. pp. 145. 

The Book of Joshua. Edited by the Kev. P. J. Boyer, M. A., Vicar 
of Rothersthorpe, Northampton. (The Revised Version edited 
for the use of Schools.) Cambridge: at the University Press, 
1911. pp. xx + 103. 


The First (and Second) Book of Samuel. Edited by A. F. 
Kirkpatrick, D. D. Dean of Ely. (The Smaller Cambridge 
Bible for Schools.) Cambridge: at the University Press, 1911. 
pp. 176 ; 176. 

Origenes, Bustathius von Antiochien und Gregor von Nyssa tiber 
die Hexe von Endor. Herausgegeben von Erich Keoster- 
mann. (Kleine Texte fur Vorlesungen und Ubungen. Her- 
ausgegeben von Hans LiETzmann.) Bonn : A. Marcus und 
E. Weber's Verlag, 1912. pp. 70. 

The volumes Joshua and I and II Samuel in the Smaller 
Cambridge Bible for Schools appear in revised editions. They 
are eminently useful in their concise and lucid form. Of another 
series published by the Cambridge Press and intended likewise to 
be used in schools the book of Joshua has appeared. The text is 
that of the Revised Version and notes and introduction are com- 
mendable. For University students who wish to become acquainted 
with patristic expositions of the Scriptures at first hand Kloster- 
mann's publication of the homily of Origen together with the 
refutation by Eustathius of Antioch and a letter of Gregory of 
Nyssa all dealing with the witch of Endor will prove very wel- 
come. The text is based on a Munich MS. of the tenth century. 

The Hebrew Prophets, or Patriots and Leaders of Israel. A text- 
book for students of the high school age and above. By 
Georgia Louise Chamberlin. Chicago : The University oe 
Chicago Press, 191 1. pp. xviii + 237. 

The Hebrew Prophets for English Readers. In the language of 
the Revised Version of the English Bible, printed in their 
poetical form, with headings and brief annotation. Edited by 
Francis H. Woods, B. D., and Francis E. Poweee, M. A. 
Volume III: Obadiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah (XL-LXVI). Ox- 
ford: at the Cearendon Press, pp. xii + 317. 

The Composition of the Book of Isaiah in the Light of History and 
Archaeology. By the Rev. Robert H. KennETT, D. D., Regius 
Professor of Hebrew and Fellow of Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge, Canon of Ely. London: published for the British 


Academy by Henry Frowde (Oxford University Press), 1910. 
pp. vii + 94- 

The Book of the Prophet Isaiah. With introduction and notes. By 
G. W. Wade, D. D., Senior Tutor of St. David's College, 
Lampeter. {Westminster Commentaries.) New York: Edwin 
S. Gorham, 191 1. pp. lxxxii + 431. 

iTW "IDD Das Buch Jesaia. Nach dem Forschungssystem Rabbiner 
Samson Raphael Hirschs iibersetzt und erlautert von Julius 
Hirsch. Frankfurt a. M. : J. Kauffmann, 1911. pp. vii + 508. 

A Critical and Bxegetical Commentary on Micah, Zephaniah, 
Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel. By John Merlin 
Powis Smith, Ph. D., William Hayes Ward, D. D., LL. D., 
Julius A. BewEr, Ph. D. {The International Critical Com- 
mentary.) New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911. pp. 
xix + 363 + 146. 

Jefeth b. Ali's Arabic Commentary on Nahum. With introduction, 
abridged translation and notes. Edited by HarTwig Hirsch- 
feld. {Jews' College Publications, No. 3.) London, 1911. pp. 


The Book of Habakkuk. Introduction, translation, and notes on 
the Hebrew text. By the Rev. George G. V. Stonehouse, 
B. D., Vice-Principal of the Theological College, Coates Hall, 
Edinburgh. London: Rivingtons, 1911- PP- xiii + 264. 

Miss Chamberlin's volume on the Prophets which is part of 
a series of text-books for religious education is intended for the 
maturer student in the upper classes of the high school or the 
earlier years of the College. The treatment is naturally popular 
in character: the language simple, yet lofty; the paragraphs well 
balanced and supplied with headings; biblical texts introduced at 
length in their historical setting; useful maps and historical tables. 
The results of the higher criticism are accepted ; thus the Messianic 
passages of the First Isaiah are placed in post-exilic times. The 
last prophetic utterance is that of Jonah; its universalistic message 
is the sum of Old Testament prophecy. The Christian point of 
view is indicated at the conclusion. "Even at this point our chain 


is incomplete, for we have made no mention of the prophet of 
Nazareth, but our task like that of the Hebrew nation was to 
prepare the way for larger truth, whether from the lips of Hebrew 
or Gentile." In a footnote to p. 3 the author refers to the Zionist 
movement. "It should not be looked upon as an effort of the 
Jewish people to realize in this age their old dream of a world 
power in Palestine, to which all nations of the earth would pay 
homage. In it, however, we see still persisting the hope of a future 
for the Jewish people, which is the expression of an optimism 
upheld through all the ages by firm trust in Jehovah." — The third 
volume of the Oxford prophets for English readers (see this 
Review, New Series, I, 578) contains Obadiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah 
40-66. — In dealing with the composition of the book of Isaiah, 
Prof. Kennett starts from the assumption that Isaiah did not 
commit his prophecies to writing ; they were rather handed down 
orally by his disciples and at length embodied in a written collec- 
tion. In the process, though the memory of the ancients was 
retentive aided as it was by the poetical form of some of the 
prophecies, much was lost sight of so much so that the later 
editors were compelled to have recourse to the life of the prophet, 
a biography in the manner of the stories of Elijah and Elisha in 
the book of Kings, to make good to some extent the deficiencies. 
These narratives date from "at least as late as the time of the 
Exile," and consequently the collection of discourses forming the 
nucleus of the First Isaiah which may be ascribed to the son of 
Amoz was put together at a still later date. So far as the size 
of this nucleus of genuine Isaianic material is concerned, Kennett 
(with some 253 verses) in the main agrees with Marti (some 245 
verses). Marti, however, assumes that, though the collection of 
the prophecies is much posterior to the lifetime of the prophet, 
the fragments which entered into it were composed by Isaiah 
himself ; he refers to 8, 16 and 30, 8 in corroboration of his opinion. 
Kennett has apparently overlooked the latter passage; with refer- 
ence to the former he maintains that "it is more natural to under- 
stand the words to mean that the prophet's teaching must be writ- 
ten on the fleshy tablets of his disciples' hearts." Kennett goes 
further than Marti in assigning the greater part of the book to 
the second century B. C. ; thus not only substantial portions of the 


Second Isaiah, but also the whole of the Third Isaiah (56-66) for 
which Marti finds room (barring a few minor additions) in the 
fifth century B. C. are brought down to Maccabean times. Sub- 
jective as the decomposition of our Isaiah at the hands of the 
English critic is, his interpretation of single points is open to the 
same animadversions. Though Kennett is not alone in maintaining 
that flDPyn designates "one or more young women of marriageable 
age" (comp. Stade for instance), the generic article is here utterly 
impossible; the example Eccl. 7, 26 which is customarily adduced 
in proof is not to the point : there the predicate is generic, and 
"woman" in the singular and without the article would be an 
adequate English rendering, not "women" in the plural ! You 
may say "woman is treacherous and seductive," but you cannot 
say "woman is with child." Whatever has been said to the con- 
trary, the prophet can only have referred to a definite young 
woman. — Wade's criticism for which the Editor has thought fit 
to offer an apology is conservative in comparison with Kennett's 
analysis. After the manner of Duhm, three Isaiahs seem to suffice. 
The prophecies concerning Immanuel (in a Messianic sense), the 
Prince of Peace, and the Shoot out of the stock of Jesse are 
assigned to Isaiah. While the Servant songs are declared of 
independent origin, it is assumed that they were incorporated in 
Deutero-Isaiah and that accordingly the Servant denotes the col- 
lective people of Israel. — Julius Hirsch whose work on Isaiah 
was edited by his son Marcus was a son of Samson Raphael 
Hirsch. The exposition of the prophet moves in the tracks of 
the noted rabbi's interpretation of the Pentateuch and other parts 
of the Scriptures. It goes without saying that the whole of Isaiah 
was the work of the son of Amoz. But this absence of criticism, 
even in the face of Ibn Ezra's well known thesis of an exilic 
Isaiah, is a small matter compared with the absurd renderings 
with which the volume is replete and which are banal perversions 
of all common sense. As exegetical curiosa we may single out 
the following gems : "And the daughter of Zion, that was to be 
a booth in the vineyard (for the "vineyard" 5, 1, 2 is compared; 
the "booth" is the Torah), was left like a night-lodging in a field 
of stubble (nt^pD combined withK'p!)" (1, 8); "when ye come, 
let it be, that My countenance be seen ; but who hath required this 


at your hand? it is a trampling of my courts" (1, 12) ; pon ntVS 
"direct to salvation that which is still in a ferment" (1, 17); "and 
it shall judge," the subject is "the word" of v. 3 (2, 4) ; v. 5 and 
following are placed in the mouth of the heathen, "O house of 
Jacob ! take the lead, we would walk along in the light of God" ; 
"which have brought him to the point (1.3 icy "It^K) that he bows 
down, etc." (2, 20) ; "and it is God, that will make them bare of 
all charm (jnriQ "their seductiveness" from nriS; 4, 17b) ; TOTIS 
(v. 24) is "foolish joy" ; "from rule and law he was kept away, 
and as for the story of his times (the times of the galuth during 
which he was deprived of all rights), who could narrate it in 
detail" (53, 80) ; "and also of them I will take to be Levites for 
the priests (the worthy among the heathen will minister to the 
priest people, illuminated by the spirit of the divine law; 66, 21); 
and so on. The work, it is but fair to say, should not be taken 
as a sample of the contribution of Judaism at large to the elucida- 
tion of the greatest prophet in the Scriptures; it simply repre- 
sents a family tradition which in the nature of things will not be 
long in disappearing. 

The work begun by the late William R. Harper with his 
Commentary on the Minor Prophets has been continued for the 
books of Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habbakuk, Obadiah, and Joel 
by three American scholars, John M. P. Smith, W. H. Ward, 
and J. A. Bewer. Ward's contribution (on Habbakuk) is the 
smallest. It is also very brief. Thus it lacks a bibliography. 
Bewer has written on Obadiah and Joel ; to Smith belongs the 
rest. The critical attitude is sane and cautious. The vagaries of 
hypercriticism with liberal assignments to Maccabean times are 
vigorously repudiated. Joel is placed in the fourth century. The 
exposition which proceeds along the well known lines of the 
International Critical Commentary of which it is a part is rich in 
textual and linguistic observations which will be found helpful 
by the student for whom the series is intended. 

Hirschfeld's edition and translation (in part) of Jepheth b. 
Ali's Arabic commentary on Nahum is a gift for which we ought 
to be grateful considering that only a small portion of Jepheth's 
exegetical labors have thus far been made accessible through pub- 


lication. The student should not fail to note the corrections 
given by Bacher in TLZ., 1912, col. 164 f. 

Stonehouse's Habbakuk is an Oxford dissertation. The au- 
thor deals at length with the critical theories. The translation is 
based upon an emended text. Notes on the Hebrew text complete 
the useful monograph. The paper contributed to the "Old Testa- 
ment and Semitic Studies in Memory of William Rainey Harper," 
131-142, apparently escaped the author's notice. 

Die Schriften des Alten Testaments. In Auswahl neu ribersetzt 
und erklart. Dritte Abteilung. Erster Band. Lyrik (Psalmen, 
Hoheslied und Verwandtes). Ubersetzt, erklart und mit Einlei- 
tungen versehen. Von Dr. W. StaErk, Professor der Theologie 
an der Universitat Jena. Mit Namen- und Sachregister. 
Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & RuprECht, 1911. pp. xxxn -j- 285. 

Die Psalmen. Hebraisch und deutsch. Mit einem kurzen wissen- 
schaftlichen Kommentar. Von Dr. Nivard ScheloEGe, O. Cist., o. 
Universitatsprofessor in Wien. Mit oberhirtlicher Druck- 
genehmigung. Graz und Wien : Verlagsbuchhandlung 
Styria, 191 1. pp. xxvn + 235. 

Das Buck der Psalmen. Lateinisch und deutsch mit erklarenden 
Anmerkungen. Herausgegeben von Augustin Arndt, S. J. 
Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet, 1910. pp. vni + 480. 

Life, Death, and Immortality : Studies in the Psalms. By the Rev. 
W. O. E. OesterlEy, D. D., Hon. Sec. of the Society of Sacred 
Study (London Diocese), Hon. Assist. Sec. of the Church 
Reading Union (London Diocese). London: John Murray, 
191 1. pp. xv + 188. 

The Hebrew Personification of Wisdom. Its Origin, Development 
and Influence. By Charles Everett Hesseegrave, A. M., 
Ph. D. New York: G. E. Stechert & Co., 1910. pp. vn + 33. 

Bine babylonische Quelle fur das Buck Job? Eine literar- 
geschichtliche Studie. Von P. Dr. Simon LandErsdorfer, 
O. S. B. (Biblische Studien. Herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. O. 
Bardenhewer in Munchen. XVI, 2.) Freiburg im Breisgau : 
Herdersche Vereagshandeung, 1911. pp. xii + 138. 


Commentary on the Book of Job. By George A. Barton, Ph. D,, 
Professor of Biblical Literature and Semitic Languages in 
Bryn Mawr College. (The Bible for Home and School.) 
New York; The Macmillan Company, 191 i. pp. ix + 321. 

Das alt est e Liebeslied der Welt. Das Hohelied Salomons (Canti- 
cum Canticorum) D'TCH ■PE>. II. Teil der Poesien des Alten 
Testaments im deutschen Gewande. Von JuDr. M. Epstein, 
emeritierter mahr.-schles. Landesadvokat in Briinn. Frank- 
furt a. M. : J. Kauffmann, 191 1. pp. vn + 22. 

Das dritte Buch Esdras und sein Verhaltnis su den Btichem Esra- 
Nehemia. Von P. Edmund Bayer, O. F. M. Gekronte Preis- 
schrift. (Biblische Studien. XVI, 1.) Freiburg im Breisgau: 
Herdersche Vereagshandeung, 191 1. pp. xiii + *6i. 

German laymen have had the advantage of two monumental 
works on the Old Testament specifically intended for their use. 
I refer to the Bibles of Reuss (German edition, 1892-94) and 
Kautzsch (third edition, 1909-10; see JQR-, New Series, I, 577). 
The latest undertaking which we owe to the well known Gottingen 
publishing firm of Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht has features in com- 
mon with its two predecessors ; witness the exposition in the form 
of a running commentary (Reuss) and the short introductions 
and the non-technical textual notes (Kautzsch). The new features 
consist firstly in offering selections rather than the whole of the 
Bible ; but the parts eliminated from the translation are referred 
to in the introduction to each volume. The principle of selection 
implies that not all the parts of Scripture are of interest to the 
modern reader. In this respect the editors have freed themselves 
from the dogma of inspiration. In the second place, the books of 
the Bible are arranged according to literary characteristics. The 
aesthetic point of view is indeed made much of for purposes of 
classification. The volume with which we are immediately con- 
cerned is devoted to the lyric genre. It contains the Psalms and 
the Song of Songs; with the latter is classed Ps. 45, and the two 
together exemplify secular lyric poetry. The psalm in question is 
rightly enough taken as an epithalamium in honor of one of the 
kings of North Israel; The emendation in v. 13, it may be said 


in passing, is utterly uncalled for ; the Septuagintal construction of 
the text (comp. also the Targum) was influenced by the interpre- 
tation of the king as the Messiah. The Song of Songs is taken 
to contain some wedding songs, but in the main the poems are 
simply erotic. While the collection dates from the third century, 
most of the poems ascend to pre-exilic times. As for the Psalter, 
a few psalms may with probability be assigned to Maccabean times, 
many, as the greater number of the royal paslms, many hymns, 
etc., are pre-exilic, ascending to the times of the prophets, and 
there is no reason to doubt that some may really claim David as 
their author, though the titles are of late origin and the historical 
references to David's life may be proved to be erroneous. But 
the bulk comes from exilic and early post-exilic times. The 
psalms are classified as hymns or prayers, both public (choral) 
and private (individual) ; then there are poems centering about the 
worship and such as are of a didactic character. Though the 
translation makes the appearance of being in the rhythm of the 
original, the translator acknowledges that all such scanning is 
tentative. We are only in the beginnings of the metrical study 
of the Old Testament. The difficulties are well nigh insurmount- 
able. The text is often badly preserved, we know next to nothing 
about the pronunciation of Hebrew when it was a living language, 
anl the exact determination of the rhythmical form of the verse 
is at present only a matter of guesswork. — Schlogl is a Catholic 
scholar who has done some preliminary labor in the matter of 
scanning Hebrew verse ; he announces a work soon to be published 
which will deal at length with this subject. In his edition of the 
Psalms he scans the verses throughout with a degree of certainty 
which leaves nothing to be desired. But it is achieved at the ex- 
pense of the text. As in his previous exegetical works, conjectural 
criticism and emendation occupy a far too prominent place. Sub- 
jective as his reconstruction of the text is, it will fail to win 
universal assent. No exception should be taken to the principle. 
Attempts of this kind will have to be made. As a mere attempt 
the publication merits attention. Textual criticism of the character 
described is resorted to also in the headings and is made ancillary 
to the maintenance of the traditional opinion concerning the author- 
ship and date of the collection. Accordingly at least two thirds 


of the Psalms are vindicated for David. He cannot conceive any 
reason why modern criticism should object to Moses as the author 
of the Psalm ascribed to him. I have made an examination of 
several Psalms as reconstructed by Schlogl and my impression of 
the work is that while it is painstaking and thorough it rests en- 
tirely on subjective grounds ; some emandations are good, and 
some decidedly prosaic and forced.— Augustin Arndt's reprint of 
the Vulgate with a new German translation and short notes con- 
taining references to the Hebrew text is intended for intelligent 
devotional reading. The Psalter as a whole was collected by 
Nehemiah with the assistance of Ezra, but the individual collections 
are still older. The bulk belongs to David. — Oesterley presents 
a popular study of the religious content of the Psalms under the 
beads of God, sin, and the fviture life. The first chapter shows 
the influence of Gunkel's Schopfung und Chaos. In the doctrine 
of God three stages are differentiated testifying to an "ever-pro- 
gressing revelation." Interesting word-studies are interspersed. 
Some of the Psalms are anterior to the foundation of the mon- 
archy and others date from the Maccabean period ; throughout 
that long stretch of time there has been a religious development 
which is mirrored in the collection. 

Hesselgrave's study of the Hebrew personification of Wisdom 
represents a thesis for the doctorate submitted to New York 
University. With the Wisdom Literature placed in post-exilic 
times, the writer has no difficulty in tracing the origin of the 
Wisdom speculations chiefly to extra-Jewish currents of thought, 
be they Babylonian, Persian, or Egyptian (Breasted's suggestion 
concerning the influence of Egyptian lore on the Messianic doctrine 
is accepted). In the specific literature centering about Flokmah 
of Palestinian origin and of the Greek period influences of Greek 
speculation are at work, and at length Wisdom is hypostatized as 
a separate being, the companion and helper of Jahveh before the 
world was made, the first created of God. Plato's archetypal ideas 
are at the root of this conception; the tendency to transcendentalize 
the idea of God was another factor. In the Egyptian diaspora 
the author of the "Wisdom of Solomon," but more strenuously 
Philo struggled to bring Judaism in harmony with Hellenistic 
thought ; the result was a great service, but God was left "too 


transcendent, and the mediator too indefinite, too intangible for 
the average man to grasp in a way that would minister to his 
religious needs in an age for extreme emphasis on the concrete 
and indefinite." The process at length culminated in the move- 
ment which had sprung up in Palestine around the prophet and 
preacher of the new Kingdom ; St. Paul was on the road to indenti- 
fying the risen Christ with the Logos-Wisdom of Hellenistic 
Judaism ; the complete identification was reserved for the writer 
of the Epistle to the Hebrews and for the Johannine Gospel. 
"Since the writing of the Gospel of John, Christianity has strug- 
gled to understand the 'two natures' here mingled, and the end is 
not yet." The writer puts forth his thesis clearly and logically. 
Of course, the premises are subject to dispute. Altogether the 
writer confines himself to one set of authorities. His theories are 
all too certain. We miss the pros and cons which in a first effort 
should never be wanting. Within the range of the literature selec- 
ted the writer has succeeded in informing himself capitally, though 
even here encyclopedias and general works are mainly laid under 

In a paper contributed to the Journal of Biblical Literature 
(XXV (1906), 135 ff.) Prof. Jastrow has sought to draw a par- 
allel between the poem of Job and a similar Babylonian text dealing 
with the suffering of the just. In his opinion the biblical poem 
was indirectly at least influenced by the Babylonian production. 
The contention accepted by several scholars whose attention was 
drawn to the problem is now made the subject of a monograph 
by Landersdorfer (of the Benedictine Order). The author re-edits 
the text in transliteration accompanied by a translation and a com- 
mentary; he submits the poem to a literary estimate; in similar 
fashion he appraises the biblical poem entering at the same time 
into the critical questions concerning its origin and purpose; he 
then compares the two productions and arrives at the result that 
there does not seem to be sufficient ground for assuming that the 
biblical book is in any manner, whether directly or indirectly, 
dependent upon the Babylonian poem. Similarities exist, but they 
do not point to direct or indirect borrowing; both rest on a 
popular account in prose which preceded the poetic form and each 
of these in turn is grounded in natural observation of the life 


about which is too general in character to necessitate literary de- 
pendence. Moreover, there are also differences; and though 
reservations are made in favor of a possible dependence of a 
remote character, it is maintained that no positive evidence exists 
to categorically maintain that the one is borrowed from the other. 
The essay is free from all bias and moves along the lines of 
scientific investigation. Whether the results will, meet with 
general acceptance or no, the question has been re-opened. A 
check at any rate has been placed upon the too facile method of 
emphasizing similarities and ignoring differences all with the more 
or less avowed tendency to minimize the originality of the sacred 
writers.— Barton's Commentary on Job in the Macmillan Series 
is a scholarly product which is deserving of unstinted praise. 
Barton is emphatic that there is no literary connection between 
our story of Job and its Babylonian counterpart, though he admits 
that the story of Job probably came to the Hebrews from a 
foreign source, possibly from Babylonia. With regard to the 
integrity of the book, Barton throws out the Elihu speeches 
together with ch. 28 (the praise of Wisdom) and 40, 15-41, 34 
(the description of behemoth and leviathan) as interpolations. He 
accepts the conclusions of his pupil, Dr. H. H. Nichols (AJSL-, 
XXVII, 97-186), that the Elihu discourses are themselves a com- 
posite document, but he is willing that the theory should be sub- 
mitted to further criticism. With the exception of a few glosses, 
the poem up to the end of ch. 23 is substantially in the form 
given it by the author (barring textual corruptions). Bildad!s 
third speech is tentatively reconstructed to consist of 25, 1-6 ; 24, 
17. 18. 5-8; 30, 3-8; 24, 21. 22. 19. 20. 24. What remains of chs. 
24 and 30 belongs to Job. To the third speech of Zophar are 
assigned verses 7-11. 13-23 of ch. 27. Job's last address was 
composed of 27, 1-6. 12; 29, 2-25; 30, 1. 2. 9-31; 31, I-34. 38-40. 
35-37- The date of the poem is placed about 400 B. C. The 
author was a Palestinian Jew. The intermediate notes between 
the English text and the commentary are a trifle too full and I 
fear are misleading for the very reason of their fulness. The 
reader will take them as matter bearing upon the text. Yet 
many of them, as for instance those of the Targum, may be of 
■the nature of expansions which are interesting enough exegetically, 


but hardly textually. It is true that the daughter-versions of the 
Septuagint are very useful in reconstructing the Greek text; but 
then the attempt should be made to do that work of reconstruction 
and then only the reconstructed Greek text should be cited as 
evidence, and that only also then when it has been ascertained 
that the Greek is based on a Hebrew variant. In the present 
state of the criticism of the Greek all such by-work is largely orna- 
mental. It testifies to Barton's industry and good information at 
first hand; but with a scholar of Professor Barton's type the 
testimony might be taken for granted and the material allowed 
to rest in the card case until it was ready for systematic treatment. 

Dr. Epstein is a man of advanced age, a lawyer by profession, 
who has turned to translating the poetic parts of the Old Testa- 
ment somewhat freely into German verse. He acknowledges his 
indebtedness to Graetz, but above all to several Catholic commen- 
tators and specifically to Professor Schlogl to whom the rendition 
of the Song of Songs is dedicated. The rhymed translation has 
somewhat of a modern ring; but that is a matter of taste. 

The problem of the relation of the apocryphal I (or III) 
Esdras to II Esdras (the translation of the canonical books Ezra- 
Nehemiah) to which reference was made in this Review (New 
Series, I, 567 f.) is the subject of a painstaking investigation by 
Bayer. The author's aim is to controvert the theories of Howorth 
and Torrey according to whom the apocryphon represents the 
genuine translation of the canonical Chronicles and Ezra-Nehe- 
miah by the Septuagint preserved in a fragmentary condition. 
Bayor contends that the translation is by no means a close 
version, if by closeness is meant literalness. The translation is rather 
a free one. Deviations from the original occur ; some are based 
on a different text which occasionally is to be preferred to the 
received text; but the translator- often failed to grasp the mean- 
ing of the Hebrew; his knowledge of the biblical Aramaic with 
its numerous foreign words was particularly deficient. The latter 
point serves to prove that the original which underlies the trans- 
lation was like the canonical recension composed in both lan- 
guages. The translator handled his text with a great deal of 
freedom by way of condensation or amplification. Of course, all 


those cases are to be discounted which have undergone corruption 
in the transmission of the Greek text. Corruptions abound partic- 
ularly in the proper names. The apocryphon is not a fragment. 
The two words with which it closes ( km eiziowrixBrioav ) are not 
the translation of 1BDSO (Nehem. 8, 13) but are based on DVOl 
misread into D , N31. Ingenious as this conjecture is, it will not 
carry conviction. Thus the characterization of the work under- 
lying the apocryphon as an excerpt from Chronicles-Nehemiah 
with the tendency to constitute a temple chronicle beginning with 
Josiah and ending in the promulgation of the Law by Ezra be- 
comes a matter of doubt. Moreover, there is enough matter within 
this framework which is only remotely connected with the temple. 
Witness the story of the three youths for which Bayer vindicates 
a Semitic original. It will be readily conceded with Bayer that 
the apocryphon and II Esdras are independent works. There is 
much solid learning and earnest thinking in Bayer's effort. The* 
problem is too intricate to be disposed of lightly. In any future 
handling of the question Bayer's thesis may be upset, but his 
book will have to be consulted and his arguments met. 

Les Psaumes de Salomon. Introduction, texte grec et traduction. 
Par J. ViTBau, Docteur es Lettres. Avec les principales 
variantes de la version syriaque per Francois Martin, Prof, 
de langues semitiques a l'lnstitut Catholique de Paris. (Doc- 
uments pour Vetude de la Bible. Publies sous la direction de 
Francois Martin.) Paris: LetouzSy et Ane, 1911. pp. 427. 

Viteau's new edition and translation of the Psalms of Solo- 
mon will be welcomed not so much for any new results that it 
may contain as for the thoroughness with which the ascertainable 
facts concerning date, author, and the times of the composition 
have been put together. The author furnishes not only a com- 
plete bibliography, but he summarizes the contents of each con- 
tribution. Very useful is the minute study of the phraseology of 
the Greek. The Greek is a translation from a Hebrew original 
which was composed between 63 and 40 B. C. by a member of 
the Pharisaic party at Jerusalem. The translation was made 
between 40 before and 70 after C. The ascription to Solomon 


may come from still later times. The really Hew feature of the 
work is Prof. Martin's contribution in which the variants from 
the Syriac translation recently discovered by Rendel Harris are 

The Culture of Ancient Israel. By Aaron P. Drucker, M. A. 
New York: Bi,och Purlishing Co., 1911. pp. 124. 

The Story of Israel and Judah. From the Call of Abraham to the 
Death of Nehemiah. By H. J. Chaytor, M. A., Headmaster 
of Plymouth College. London : Blackie & Son Limited, 
1911. pp. xii + 311. 

Selections from the Old Testament. Edited with introduction and 
notes by Henry Nelson Snyder, President and Professor of 
English Literature in Wof ford College. Boston : Ginn and 
Company, 1911. pp. xix -\- 210. 

Early Religious Poetry of the Hebrews. By E. G. King, D. D., 
Sidney Sussex College Cambridge. Cambridge : at the Uni- 
versity Press, 1911. pp. xvi + 156. 

The Wisdom of the Apocrypha. With an introduction. By C. E. 
Lawrence. {The Wisdom of the Bast Series.) New York: 
E. P. Dutton and Company, 1910. pp. 124. 

Mr. Drucker's lectures delivered before the Jewish Women's 
Council of Chicago were no doubt admired by his audience. A 
lecturer has a right to indulge in statements which when set in 
cold type need more than the enthusiasm of a club to substantiate 
them. Mr, Drucker might have done himself more justice had he 
chosen to wait a few years with the publication for which a little 
more information and a little less of hasty generalization would 
certainly have proved useful. The two lectures on the art and the 
drama of ancient Israel betray a shallow conception of the two 
elements of "culture." What the prophets have to do in a treatise 
on the evidence of "general culture" (see Preface) among the 
ancient Israelites I fail to see. For it is the un-religious kind of 
culture that the author sets out to describe. Mr. Drucker should 
not have followed the Authorized Version in the rendering of 
Isai. 40, 3. — Mr. Chaytor's Story of Israel and Judah is written 


for students of the higher grades in a secondary -school. The ideal 
which he sets himself was, in the language of Driver whom he 
quotes, to present nothing that a boy on reaching manhood should 
have to unlearn on the ground of either science or history. What- 
ever of criticism is injected into the Bible narrative which is re- 
told in simple language, is of the moderate kind. — Prof. Snyder 
presents the narratives of the Old Testament and some specimens 
of poetry in the language of the Authorized Version. The texts 
are printed consecutively. The aim of the selection is to teach 
the Bible style. Short notes follow at the end of the volume. In 
the hands of a good teacher, the volume will prove a very useful 
text-book. — Dr. King endeavors to put. before the general English 
reader some idea of the rhythm of Hebrew poetry (kinah, acrostic 
poetry, the strophe, etc.). At the same time the varieties of subject- 
matter are illustrated. — The volume on the Wisdom of the 
Apocrypha contributed to the "Wisdom of the East" series is 
devoted to the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus which are 
reproduced in the translation of the Revised Version. A few 
portions have been omitted. An introduction giving an estimate 
of the two apocryphal works precedes. 

Prophecy, Jewish and Christian. Considered in a series of War- 
burton Lectures at Lincoln's Inn. By Henry Wace, D. D., 
Dean of Canterbury. London: John Murray, 191 1. pp. 192. 

Messianische Weissagungen. Aus dem massoretischen und Vulgata 
-Texte fur akademische Ubungen zusaramengestellt von P. 
Maternus Wolff, O. S. B. Trier: Moseiaa-Verlag, 1911. 
pp. iv + 103. 

The Parting of the Roads. Studies in the development of Judaism 
and Early Christianity. By members of Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. With an introduction by W. R. Inge, D. D., late 
Professorial Fellow, now Honorary Fellow of the College and 
Dean of St. Paul's. Edited by F. J. Foakes Jackson, D. D., 
Fellow and Dean of the College. New York: Longmans, 
Green and Co., 1912. pp. xii + 347. 

The Hope of Catholick Judaism : An Essay towards Orientation. 
By J. H. A. Hart, M. A., Fellow and Lecturer of St. John's 


College, Cambridge. Oxford : Parker & Co., 1910. pp. xiv 
+ 162. 

Mountain Pathways. A study in Ethics of the Sermon on the 
Mount. With a new translation and critical notes. By 
Hector Waylen. Introductory letter by F. C. Burkitt, M. A., 
D. D., Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the University of 
Cambridge. Second edition : revised and enlarged. London : 
Kegan Paul, Trench, Truebner & Co., L,td., 1912. pp. xviii + 

"The Son of Man," or Contributions to the Study of the Thoughts 
of Jesus. By Edwin A. Abbott. Cambridge : at the University 
Press, 1910. pp. lii + 873. 

The Warburton Lectures on Prophecy by the Dean of Can- 
terbury certainly conform to the purposes of the foundation 
which is "to prove the truth of revealed religion in general, and of 
the Christian in particular, from the completion of prophecies in 
the Old and New Testaments which relate to the Christian 
Church, especially to the apostasy of papal Rome." Dr. Wace 
rejects the critical views not because he is opposed to criticism 
itself, but because he is convinced "that those views rest on a 
totally mistaken, and in the strict sense of the word, preposterous 
application of criticism." With Dillmann he refuses to abide by 
a criticism which "turns the whole Old Testament topsy-turvy." 
He avers that spiritual principles and truths of the most vital 
consequences are involved in the conflict between the critical theory 
and "the theory of the Bible." "The narrative of the Bible repre- 
sents God Himself as the great Author and Inspirer of His own 
revelation, not leaving men gradually to find Him out, as they 
would discover principles of science, or of ethics, or of theology, 
but as Himself finding them out, entering personally into relations 
of covenant with them at the very outset of the revelation in the 
person of Abraham, and leading them on by successive words, 
prophecies, rebukes, deliverances, to know Him better, to trust and 
to follow Him. The other view represents men as struggling for 
centuries with crude thoughts of God, without any sure, clear, or 
authoritative revelation from Him. It is all the difference be- 
tween a natural evolution and a positive supernatural education." 


"Successive revelation" will best describe the process. Predictive 
prophecy runs through the two Scriptures. The Messianic pre- 
diction is rooted in the very life, and in the intensest experience, 
of the Jewish people. An evolution it is, but it is accomplished 
throughout by the hand and the voice of the Evolver. The New 
Testament is perfectly continuous with the Old. The prophets 
looked always to the future, and to that extent the present was 
illuminated. We are not sufficiently informed about the contem- 
porary reference of the Isaianic prophecy of Immanuel; but "that 
the Son of the Blessed Virgin has proved to be God with us, 
this is a matter which all Christian hearts will thankfully ac- 
knowledge." The eschatological predictions in the Gospels cannot 
be reduced to vaticinations after the event. The apostle's predic- 
tion that the Gentiles will be sharers with the Jews in their 
spiritual inheritance has become true. While not disposed to 
denounce another communion, as a Protestant Churchman he can- 
not disguise his belief that Catholicism represents an apostasy re- 
sembling the one depicted in the Epistles to the Thessalonians and 
in Revelation. Whatever be our view as to the merit of Dr. Wace's 
deductions, his insistence on the prophetic element in Scripture 
is indeed timely. 

The Messianic or Christological passages of the Old Testa- 
ment are gathered together by P. Wolff for the convenience of 
acedemic teachers and students. The Hebrew text and Vulgate 
are printed in parallel columns. The first passage is the 
Protevangelium (Gen. 3, 13-15). 

"The Parting of the Roads" is the general title of a volume 
of ten essays dealing with the development of Judaism and Early 
Christianity. The essayists are all either past or present members 
of Jesus College, Cambridge, and the greater number of them are 
young men who took their degrees "within the present century." 
Three of the ten essays are devoted to Judaism, and a fourth on 
"The Break between Judaism and Christianity" is from the pen 
of Mr. Ephraim Levine who is described by his teacher as an 
orthodox Jew. Mr. Levine shows himself at home in modern 
theological literature ; he has read and digested exegetical works 
on the New Testament, a subject which few men who are "drawn 


towards the ministry of the Synagogue" have cultivated; like some 
of his fellow-essayists he gleans his loca probantia from what is 
near at hand, from Encyclopedia articles for instance; like all of 
them, he writes interestingly; his conviction that the survival of 
Judaism after the daughter-religion had separated from the mother- 
church receives its justification not merely from what it still 
means for the Jews but also from what it has done for the world, 
will be shared by every Jew. Of the three papers devoted to phases 
of Judaism and meant as introductory to the New Testament 
studies, the one by Oesterley on Judaism in the days of the Christ 
will prove interesting to Jewish readers who will note with satis- 
faction the author's familiarity with Jewish sources, but in partic- 
ular his apparent desire to be just to the religion of the L,aw. One 
cannot fail to discern in this gratifying change of tone the influence 
of Schechter whose years of residence in Cambridge, rich in pro- 
ductive scholarship which made him world-famous, were just as 
fruitful in impressing his Jewish view of things touching that 
interesting border-land between Judaism and Christianity on the 
rising theologians of the Cambridge school. It is equally a 
healthy sign of a momentous turn which theological study in 
England has taken that Schechter's Aspects of Rabbinical Theology 
are being read, excerpted, and commented upon. — Mr. Hart who 
avers in the preface to his book on "Catholick Judaism" that when 
at the advice of Professor Swete he came to Dr. Schechter, he 
"waved his hand at the Wilna Talmud and said, It's all in there," 
is another instance of a young English theologian who has perused 
the Aspects of Rabbinic Theology. His attitude is controversial. 
Finding Dr. Schechter no friend of the theory that in the apoca- 
lyptic literature there is contained an older stage of Rabbinism, he 
endeavors to construct in rebuttal a wider "Catholick" Judaism 
which is common to Old and New Testaments, to the prophets and 
apocalyptists, to Jesus and the rabbis. Mr. Hart's fondness for 
detecting paronomasias (instance Christus and Chrestus) which 
was noticed in a previous work by the same author (see this 
Review, New Series, I. 407 ff.) remains open to objection, and so 
some of his general theories will arouse dissent. The little volume 
which is part of a series in which it is aimed to "discuss Judaism 
in its history, or its doctrines, from a Christian standpoint, and to 


bring before both Christian and Jewish readers the relation that 
Christianity holds to Judaism," is on the whole interesting, and 
while the Christian standpoint will not be accepted by Jews it 
merits attention, especially as the Jewish side is sufficiently taken 
into account. — Mr. Waylen's interpretation of the Sermon on the 
Mount of which a new translation is offered serves in the main 
the purpose of showing how the sayings of Jesus are rooted in 
the teachings of the Old Testament and in rabbinic lore. The 
author who is "not ashamed to confess experiences of that order 
of things which is popularly called 'psychic'," though availing him- 
self of all the light which historical, or, as we should say, philo- 
logical study, is able to throw on these ancient sayings, is never- 
theless eager to penetrate behind the mere word to the spiritual 
or "psychic" thought underlying it and thus to detect points of 
contact which the narrower philology will pass by in silence. The 
translation is not exactly intended to be in modern English; but 
the language chosen is interpretative and is meant to reproduce 
the effect on the immediate hearers to whom the sayings were 
addressed. The text underlying the translation is of the author's 
own making; readings from the Old Syriac are introduced. As 
an example we may mention the rendering 5, 32: But I say to you 
that he that dismisses his wife concerning whom adultery has not 
been alleged, etc. Interesting is his interpretation of fiaps 5, 22 not 
from /iwpoc "fool," but as a transliteration of mfo "rebel" ! The 
author is perfectly justified in his repudiation of the tendency "to 
soften down and take the keen edge off even many of the 
simplest sayings in the New Testament" which he traces to "want 
of personal experience in the lives of professing Christians" com- 
bined with "far too much reliance upon outward forms, church- 
organizations, and clerical ministrations." 

The signification of the title, if a title it be, "The Son of 
Man" which is used by Jesus with reference to himself has been 
the subject of special investigations within recent years. Dr. 
Abbott assumes that the current idea in England at any rate is 
that in using this self-appellation, Jesus had reason to believe that 
his hearers would recall the phrase used in Daniel (7, 13) con- 
ceived as a title of the Messiah. Against this contention the author 


argues that Daniel does not mention "the Son of Man" at all, but 
merely says "one like a son of man," that is one like a human 
being, and in the second place that "the Son of Man" is not a 
recognized Messianic title in either of the Talmuds or in any other 
early Jewish literature. Even in Enoch "the son of man" is not 
a title. A supernatural being is introduced as having the appear- 
ance of a man, and then in the sequel he is naturally enough 
referred to as "the" or "that son of man," that is, the being pre- 
viously characterized. If then the appellation does not straight- 
way denote the Messiah, what does it denote? Accordingly, Dr. 
Abbott's working hypothesis with which he starts in order to defend 
it by a minute examination of the documents bearing on the ques- 
tion is to this effect: Jesus was influenced by the Scriptures in 
their entirety, not indeed excluding the vision of Daniel but in- 
cluding a great deal more ; the Scriptural conception of "man" and 
"the son of man" has reference to the dignity of man as above 
the beast and as possessing the faculty of communion with God; 
"the son of man" in Hebrew really means "the son of Adam (the 
first man)" who was not brought forth from the earth, like the 
other animals, at God's command, but formed by the L,ord God 
Himself from the dust of the ground, inspired by Him with the 
breath of life, and commanded by Him to rule over the animal 
creation ; in particular Jesus had in view the appellation of "son of 
Adam" given to Ezekiel; the Targum correctly renders bar Adam 
( 'son of Adam") ; hence Jesus, speaking in Aramaic, called him- 
self bar Adam, "son of Adam".; Ezekiel saw one like "a man" 
near the throne in heaven, that is, he realized the humanity of 
God; and when the prophet was addressed as "son of man," it 
signified the divinity of man ; Jesus was attracted by this vision, 
as there are many more parallelisms between Ezekiel and Jesus ; 
he appropriated this prophetic conception of the humanity of God 
and the divinity of man and, in using the self-appellation bar Adam, 
he meant to convey to his hearers the thought: Keep constantly 
in view my human nature, that you may perceive how divine a 
thing human nature may be, and that you may be led through 
the knowledge of the divinity of Man to the knowledge of the 
humanity of God; Paul understood Jesus well when he designated 
him as the second Adam, being the incarnation of the real or 


ideal Man, the Lord above, the perfect and heavenly pattern of 
the earthly and imperfect Adam who fell. Dr. Abbott quotes 
Kimhi in support of his theory that "son of man" in Ezekiel is a 
title of honor; but the further deductions by the Christian theolo- 
gian would certainly not be acceptable to the Jewish commenta- 
tors. Even Rashi in his first explanation (the second explanation 
appears to be a gloss) is bent upon emphasizing the distinction 
between the prophet who is born of woman and the angels with 
whom he associates. But the view of the gloss which is borne 
out by Jerome is probably nearer the truth : the prophet is to 
remember that he is but man. However that may be, Dr. Abbott's 
work which represents a painstaking study of all the passages in 
the Gospels, including the fourth, is replete with fine exegetical 
observations. His insistence on going behind the words to 
the thoughts and on harmonizing divergent accounts to get at 
the facts is a sound principle which serious students will do well 
to ponder over. Altogether the book is an important contribution 
to the exegesis of the New Testament. Much can be learned from 
a series of longer footnotes. Nothing has escaped the attention of 
Dr. Abbott. Thanks to Wunsche's translations, he is at home in 
the midrashic literature as far as it bears upon his subject. He 
has also availed himself of the information furnished him by 
Jewish scholars. 

Neutestamentliche Grammatik. Das Griechisch des Neuen Testa- 
ments im Zusammenhang mit der Volkssprache. Dargestellt 
von Dr. Ludwig RadErmachER, o. Professor an der Universitat 
Wien. (Handbuch sum Neuen Testament. Band I, I.) 
Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr (Paul SiEbeck), 1911. pp. iv -\- 207. 

An Atlas of Textual Criticism. Being an attempt to show the 
mutual relationship of the authorities for the text of the New 
Testament up to about 1000 A. D. By Edward Ardron HuT- 
Ton, M. A., Vicar of St. Michael's, Hargrave. Cambridge: at 
the University Press, 191 i. pp. xviii + 125. 

Nauum Testamentum Latine. Secundum editionem Sancti Hie- 
ronymi ad codicum manuscriptorum fidem recensuerunt 
Iohannes Wordsworth, S. T. P., Episcopus Sarisburiensis, et 


Henmcus Iulianus White, A. M., S. T. P., Noui Testaraenti 
Interpretationis Professor apud Collegium Regium Eondini. 
Editio minor curante Henrico I. White. Oxonii; e Typo- 
grapheo Clarendoniano, MDCCCXI. pp. xx + 620. 

The Commentaries of Isho'dad of Merv, Bishop of Hadatha (c. 
850 A. £>.), in Syriac and English. Edited and translated by 
Margaret Dunlop Gibson, Hon. D. D. (Heidelberg), EL. D. 
(St. Andrews), M. R. A. S. In three volumes. With an 
introduction by James RendEL Harris, Hon. D. Eitt. (Dubl.), 
Hon. EE. D. (Haverford), Hon. D. theol. (Eeiden), Hon. 
EL. D. (Birmingham), Hon. Fellow of Clark College, Cam- 
bridge. (Home Semiticae. No. V.) Cambridge: at the Univer- 
sity Press, 191 i. pp. xxxiii -j~ 290; 238; 230. 

The Modern Speech New Testament. An idiomatic translation 
into everyday English from the text of "The Resultant Greek 
Testament." By the late Richard Francis Weymouth, M. A., 
D. Eit., Fellow of University College, Eondon, and formerly 
Headmaster of Mill Hill School. Edited and partly revised 
by Ernest HampdEn-Cook, M. A., formerly Exhibitioner and 
Prizeman of St. John's College, Cambridge, B. A., London. 
New York: The Baker and Taylor Co., pp. xiv + 674. 

The Gospel according to St. Luke. Edited by Frederic W. Far- 
rar, D. D., formerly Dean of Canterbury. (The Smaller 
Cambridge Bible for Schools.) Cambridge: at the University 
Press, 1910. pp. 266. 

La date de "I'epitre de Barnabe." Par Michel d'Herbigny. Extrait 
des Recherches de Science Religieuse, Nos. 5 et 6, 1910. Paris : 
Bureaux des "Recherches de Science Religieuse," 1910. pp. 
417-443; S40-566. 

Radermacher's Grammar is not intended for learners. But 
for all those who wish to make a study of the relation of so-called 
Biblical Greek to the Hellenistic language the work will prove 
eminently useful. The student of the Septuagint will do well to 
consult the Syntax considering that thus far this side of the gram- 
mar has not been treated by either Helbing or Thackeray. — The 


study of textual criticism is not an easy one. For the New Testa- 
ment great masters have done eminent work. The uncials have 
been thoroughly collated and of the thousands of cursives a twen- 
tieth part at least is available to the student. The mass of evi- 
dence as far as ascertained has been sifted. Three large groups 
have come to the surface : the Alexandrine, Western, and Syrian. 
Mr. Hutton's aim was to offer the student "a kind of chart" to 
show him his way in the maze of critical work. With a view to 
this purpose he has drawn up a list of select passages (312 in 
number) in which the three forms of the text show divergent 
readings. In a series of tables the evidence of quite a formidable 
list of authorities (Greek MSS., daughter-versions, Fathers) is 
gathered up ; by means of signs indicating the three groups together 
with peculiar types the reader is enabled to see at a glance which 
of the types are represented by each authority. When thus new 
MSS. present themselves it will be possible by the aid of these 
tables to ascertain their character at least in the light of telling 
examples. In an excursus on the Ferrar group it is shown that 
of the five MSS. examined by the author (13, 69, 124, 346, 543) 
three (13, 346, and 543) may be entirely ignored since they have 
nothing in them that cannot be found in 69 and 124. — The minor 
edition of a critical text of the Latin (Vulgate) New Testament 
is for the first part (to the end of Romans) a reprint of the 
major edition (Oxford 1909-1905) ; for the rest only the more 
important codices have been inspected. Of the two collaborators 
in the major edition, Wordsworth has departed this life; the 
smaller edition has been prepared for the press by White alone. — 
Ishodad who was one of the most learned Nestorian bishops lived 
in the ninth century. Of his commentary on the Old Testament 
only a small amount has been published (selections from the Minor 
Prophets and the Psalter by Diettrich who has also written on 
Ishodad's place in the history of the exegesis of the Old Testa- 
ment; Job by Schliebitz; Canticles by Euringer). Now his com- 
mentary on the Gospels is presented in full (text, translation, in- 
troduction). The text is based on a transcript of an Ooroomiah 
MS. in the possession of Dr. J. Rendel Harris (who has written 
the introduction to the edition) ; in the footnotes variants from 
two Cambridge and one Oxford MS. are given. For the trans- 


lation Mrs. Gibson, the editor of the Syriac text, has had the 
benefit of suggestions from Prof. Nestle. This triple cord should 
guarantee the quality of the work. The value of Ishodad consists, 
in the language of Dr. Harris, in that he is "a mine of informa- 
tion." "He supplies us with (i) acute criticisms as to the causes 
of various readings, including Synoptic variations ; (2) he brings 
us evidence for the existence of Syriac variants, in the case of 
readings whose attestation has been hitherto limited to Greek, or 
to Greek and Latin ; (3) he recovers for us a number of actual 
quotations from the lost Syriac of Tatian's Diatessaron, which are 
reinforced by the secondary evidence of a number of passages in 
which Ephrem comments upon the Diatessaron ; (4) he supplies 
us with a mass of readings from the Old Syriac Gospels, which 
are anterior to the Diatessaron, or, if we follow Dr. Burkitt's 
criticism, somewhat later than the Harmony." On p. xxvi of the 
Introduction burning and heavy should change places; see, by the 
way, Nestle, Binfiihrung 1899, 231 ; Wellhausen, Bvangelium 
Lucae, 139. 

In 1886 (reprinted 1892) Weymouth published The Resultant 
Greek Testament, "exhibiting the text in which the majority of 
modern editors are agreed." Upon this text is based his trans- 
lation into every-day English now appearing in a revised edition. 
Whatever one may think of the attempt to use modern English 
in a translation of the Scriptures, Weymouth has understood the 
difference between that which is antiquated and that which is 
obsolete or obsolescent. "Without at least a tinge of antiquity it 
is scarcely possible that there should be that dignity of style that 
befits the sacred themes with which the Evangelists and Apostles 
deal." He does not believe that a slavishly literal translation is 
calculated to bring out the force of the original. He evidently 
thinks of the Revisers when he refers to men of high ability and 
undoubted scholarship "racking their brains to exhibit the result 
of their labors — a splendid but idle philological tour de force — in 
what was English nearly 300 years before." Nevertheless, it is 
not his intention to supplant the older versions. His own trans- 
lation was rather to serve by the side of its elder compeers as a 
succinct and compressed running commentary. He has paid at- 
tention to whatsoever may shed light on the Greek which is not 


the classical, but the later form of the language ; and help was 
sought from the Septuagint and the Hebrew Scriptures. As a 
specimen the first four verses from "The Letter to the Hebrews" 
may follow : 

"God, who in ancient days spoke to our forefathers in many 
distinct messages and by various methods through the prophets, 
has at the end of these days spoken to us through a Son, who is 
the pre-destined Lord of the universe, and through whom He 
made the ages. He brightly reflects God's glory and is the exact 
representation of His being, and upholds the universe by His all- 
powerful word. After securing man's purification from sin He 
took His seat at the right hand of the Majesty on high, being 
made as far superior to the angels as the Name He possesses by 
inheritance is more excellent than theirs." 

The volume on St. Luke in the Smaller Cambridge Bible for 
Schools appears now in a new edition, revised and enlarged. In 
the Introduction, St. Luke is said to dwell on Christ's ministry 
to the world; his, is moreover, the Gospel of Womanhood and 

The Epistle of Barnahas is not in the canon. It is first men- 
tioned by Clement of Alexandria, and its date has been variously 
fixed. It is admitted by all critics that it was written certainly 
after the destruction of Jerusalem and before the death of 
Hadrian. M. d'Herbigny's paper is directed against Harnack who 
in his Chronologie der altchristlichen Litteratur refuses to make 
any deductions from 4, 4 where Daniel 7, 24 is quoted with some 
important alterations : "Thus also saith the prophet, Ten fiaaikuai 
(dominions) shall rule over the earth, and a small king shall arise 
thereafter, who shall humble all at once three kings." According 
to Harnack, the writer in adducing the prophecy was himself 
ignorant of its signification. D'Herbigny is of the contrary opinion. 
Naturally Pseudo-Barnabas thinks of the Roman emperors. The 
question has been, How is the count to be made? The author 
considers Caesar and Anthony as the first two and thus easily 
finds the eleventh in Vespasian whose immediate predecessors were 
Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, who all three died in one year. The 
hypothesis in support of which an interesting exegetical analysis 


is given (reluov aKavSakov with reference to the triumph of the 
cross, a stumbling block to the Jews) is certainly plausible. 

Die Oden Salomos. Aus dem Syrischen iibersetzt, mit Anmer- 
kungen. Von A. Ungnad und W. StaErk. (Kleine Texte, 
etc. Herausgegeben von Hans Lietzmann.) Bonn: A. Mar- 
cus und E. Weber's Verlag, 1910. pp. 40. 

Das Verstdndnis der Oden Salomos. Von Lie. theol. Wilhelm 
Frankenberg, Pfarrer in Ziegenhain. (Beihefte zur Zeit- 
schrift fur alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. XXI.) Giessen : 
Aefred ToepEi,mann, 191 1. pp. 103. 

Les Odes de Salomon. Une oeuvre chretienne des environs de l'an 
100-120. Traduction frangaise et introduction historique. Par 
J. Labourt et P. Battifoe. Paris: Librairie Victor Lecoffre, 
1911. pp. viii + 121. 

Die Oden Salomos. Syrisch-hebraisch-deutsch. Ein kritischer 
Versuch. Von Hubert Grim me, o. 6. Professor an der 
Universitat Minister i. W. Heidelberg: Cari, Winters Uni- 


Around the Odes of Solomon which J. Rendel Harris made 
known in 1909 a literature of goodly proportions has arisen. 
Ungnad and Staerk give a translation of the Syriac together 
with a translation of the fragments preserved in the Pistis Sophia. 
The other three publications take sides in the controversy con- 
cerning the reputed Jewish origin of the Odes in accordance with 
a theory advanced by Harnack. Grimme follows Harnack and 
reconstructs the Hebrew original in metrical form; Frankenberg 
who sees in the Odes a Christian product of the Alexandrian school 
and of the times between Clement of Alexandria and Origen 
attempts a retroversion into Greek as not merely the immediate, 
but the ultimate original. Batiffol, on the basis of Labourt's trans- 
lation of the Syriac, though he rejects Hamack's theory and vindi- 
cates for the Odes a Christian origin, ascends higher; according 
to him the poems were composed between 100 and 120 in Syria 
or perhaps Asia Minor. 


A Fountain Unsealed. London: The Bible House, 1911. pp. 129. 

Our Grand Old Bible. Being the story of the Authorized Version 
of the English Bible, told for the tercentenary celebration. By 
William Muir, M. A., B. D., B. L-, Second edition. New York : 
Fleming H. Revell Company, MCMXI. pp. xii + 242. 

The Story of the English Bible. By Preston B. Wells, A, M., of 
the Louisville Conference Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
Louisville, Ky. : Pentecostal Publishing Company, 1911. pp. 

Our English Bible. The history of its development. By the Rev. 
J. O Bevan, M. A., Rector of Chillenden, Canterbury. With 
introductory note by the Marquess of Northampton, K. G. 
London: George Allen & Sons, 1911. pp. xv + 93. 

The Romance of the English Bible. By John T. Faris. Philadel- 
phia: The Westminster Press, 1911. pp. 63. 

Records of the English Bible. The documents relating to the 
translation and publication of the Bible in English, 1526-1611. 
Edited, with an introduction, by Alfred W. Pollard. London : 
Henry Frowde (Oxford University Press), 1911. pp. xii + 

The noble achievements of the British and Bible Foreign So- 
ciety are interestingly set forth by the Rev. T. H. Darlow, Literary 
Superintendent. In tracing the history of older attempts in the 
direction of making the Bible accessible in the vernacular and in 
disseminating it, the fact is brought out that the material means 
for all such purposes came from voluntary contributions. Thus 
the expense of issuing the revised French Geneva Bible (1588) in 
three different sizes "to suit people of all conditions" was defrayed 
"by certain wealthy men who sought no gain for themselves but 
only to serve God and His Church." The expense of producing 
the first Bible printed in America (Cambridge 1663) was borne 
by the "Corporation for the Promoting and Propagating of the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ in New England" founded in 1649. The 
Port Royal version of the New Testament in French was issued 
in 1667 in many forms and sizes, including very cheap editions 


for the poor; we are told that pious persons "sent out from Paris 
a great number of colporteurs to sell copies at cost price, or even 
less, and defrayed the expense by voluntary gifts." The British 
and Foreign Bible Society which was founded in 1804 has spent 
nearly sixteen millions sterling and issued more than two hundred 
and twenty-nine million copies of the Holy Scriptures complete or 
in parts. Versions have been published in some five hundred 
languages or dialects. It is certainly a source of gratification to 
every lover of the Bible that the Scriptures, though in the form 
of a Protestant Christian version, is penetrating the dark continents 
and the farthest isles of the sea. In England, an English Bible 
may be had for the price of tenpence and a New Testament for a 
penny. To the British Bible Society we owe the cheap editions of 
the Hebrew Bible; from its press will be issued Christian D. Gins- 
burg's new and large edition of the Masoretic text. The Society's 
Report for 1910-11 popularly presented constitutes a splendid 
memorial of the tercentenary of the English Bible. — Beside Prof. 
Cook's publication in honor of this great event just referred to 
which received notice in this Review (New Series, I, 576), five 
further treatises have appeared all dealing with the story of the 
English Bible. The most interesting documents relating to the 
translation and publication of the Bible in English have been edited 
by Pollard. Aside from the learned introduction by the editor, 
the documents tell their own story; and as they are. not so readily 
accessible, their publication will be welcomed by all interested in 
the steps by which the Authorized Version came into existence. 
The other publications all narrate the story or romance of the 
English Bible interestingly and learnedly. 

Readings from the Bible and Apocrypha. Selected and arranged 
by- Edith Mary Ecroyd. London: Henry Frowde (Oxford 
University Press), [1911]. pp. vi + 336. 

Biblical Quotations. By John H. Bechtel. Philadelphia: The 
Penn Publishing Company, 191 i. pp. 180. 


Five Minute Bible Readings. From Genesis to Revelation. For 
private use and family worship. Arranged by a layman. With 
introduction by Henry Van Dyke, D. D. New York: Flem- 
ing H. RevEll Company, 1910. pp. x + 378. 

Three popular works all aiming at supplying convenient 
manuals for private reading of the Scriptures and for the increase 
of Bible knowledge among the laity. 

Dropsie College Max L,. Margolis