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MS. Heb. a. 3, fol. 28. Paper, 25^ x 8| inches. It is 
much rubbed and defaced, so that several passages are 
illegible and others uncertain. The letter is written, in 
a poetic style, by Jeshua kohen ben Joseph, on behalf 
of the two congregations (Kabbanite and Qaraite 1) at 
ISIo Amon (Alexandria), to Ephraim ben Shemariah as 
head of the Jerusalem congregation at Fost^t. When 
describing it for the catalogue, I read the date as 
W = 700 Sel. = X389 A. D. This cannot be right. The 
second character, which is very uncertain, seems most 
likely to be a &, and the date will then be (1)340 Sel.= 
1029 A.D. The latest date I have found in connexion 
with Ephraim is 1041 A.D. (see remarks on no. iii). The 
object of the letter is to ask for contributions towards the 
ransom of four Rabbanite and three Qaraite Jews, who 
had been captured by a certain Arab pn 'nN p '>p2\ and 
the account forms an interesting parallel to the well-known 
story of Hushiel and his companions (/. Q. R., XI, pp. 
643 sqq.). 

In this case the prisoners came from Antalia, the modem 
Adalia, in the south of Asia Minor, situate on the bay of 
the same name. 

I originally copied this and other documents, intending 
to put together the evidence relating to Ephraim ben 
Shemariah. That, however, has meanwhile been done 
by Dr. Poznanski much better than I should have done it, 
and I need therefore only refer to his admirable article in 
the Bevue des Mvdes Juives (vol. XLVIII, pp. 145 sqq.), 
to which these texts (III, IV, V) form an appendix. 


D-anan my D-ianxn n^''N nosyn nprh n»''»nn nomn ha (i) 
n^i»n nam nann (2) na^oo m-'aj niNaon npi)2 iiNon m'na 
naen^ nn^n^n mnta D-'pin nppin Dvns mim D'Bnp fssi o'lCiTp 
msij o'lB'^cnn movo oniT'a moi^ onc'tt (3) m^ia nmma 
nni£>^ (4) mjnv niT'C nnsia d^^Sto npoiy D''Si'D nmiD d^cits 
N'n .*. D'^PBD DMin n^ijj pa mme' ni^npoa ne'nn nihp nacip 
cS^^'an mvu iTE^nn my rT'ohtyn (5) n^jnan n''»5>Bn'i^n ninsn 
iK"i"i ni^inji n^jop n^bn ii>jjn* D^Jicn nnc'N"' cjiyoo inian 
iD^ D«pnn njiDE^n niNnna n3''3n3 ujinn* nyacn nii>j?a (6) njntjrin 
N^DDn nywn (7) anjn nynn my N\n nyanxn nibna m^^ 
{•DND inscN j 63 -lann onsN an -id pia lenaa iieyn i«?i» 
-iTiy imryn viiaa ^ajo imain vana (8) ti3d inana^i v:»^5« 
n^JiDD n!j tSD rhim pai nViyo Dii'B' .'. ^f rv-m^ n ja imty 
nisno "itJi nijiBTD xij rho rhim ycM n^Jiao n^j m: n^dd nom (9) 
"iNBDH nnyn bi (10) nhan n^i nhsD nS ninsts Ni» i>isa 

Njan^i Da5>i'a5>i Dai) cniDn D'' lyn ^nnB'yi ptn Tiini^sm 

.'. rho dijiy nyi? Dab laman "ib^» jwd (h) dj aw»n nann 
n p (12) D^oan 'n'>Khrh^ Q''f<obnn Tys jDpn |nan nyiB>^ [•'Jdd] 
c^^snon pcK N3 r-i3a nc's mcnpn ni5>npn "idbdi pnn hdv 
Da-^y n^rn "rf oaDi^B' lya (13) D^^i'N^ D''^Nic5'n nvDjan ^ne'a 
Toyn^i DataVK'ii^^ Dav^tyni* . . . 6ya D"'B'nn dj n^noDi naion 
njy voma sini ••• 3^ Dii'E' nija ^6y aB"i ac snpD (14) oa^j 
IDDJK' mar (15) ui? px dni •'• oaniay lyniann 3''B'[p''i D]aa mny 
nyiD D*[3an njom y^^o^ niasn mar «^n na lon^K' npnx n^i u 
D^nya dni naitai* ua oimn 'yy (16) T-om onny on ncn ^omi 
"jnD^ no'' •Tiic5'on Ntj' nojn ni[»i' i3]3n^ n!? w^nvny ana wid" 
wa wTinj Da pns nye* inno^ dk dj .*. ^an: t6 (17) niDi>i n* 
moNj ^[''JB'yDa pisj dni •*. Ji piv nyg' [innjs iswn m 
DN1 ••• 13 iNa'' D''pns ''"i> lyB'n nt ••• myc ^jn ijsaa (18) 
b iniN aa (19) nona nyc^i >a n^o ijnin: w^nn^ny nya njyj 
.*. D'-D^ »D^iyb TiUD iJNn^N nt? ^T .*. nyiK''!' 'h 'nni ':ri>iy 
Danaty i'.'^?!' vnbMa ''ma i3^ns< oanua (20) '?n nt wanao noao 


ncK (21) D3''B'j;oi nrhvQ ib'n nyrfhvso aiD nmnh D3i>i^n ensjji 
£33^nN n'-iaf' nuim nm: onaijum ^> annriBi 3^ onamni oraon 
inaa mi» Ni>i niso dj u nprnni (22) nixo ono^p oa D^ntyn 
nw3pin trie's ainr »sm Duim o^nsD D3[id]R3 onn^K'i tj^J'^ 
. . , K> '•03 &n»wJi w3nj>B> nimyo i:niN dnna dj (23) Diniisi 
noi't}' D3m«t?o (24) Nnm lat^n dJ? rh'^sy n'rha dind B^sy 

W^N pn^BTIB' DnD3 >3 D1 .*♦ i'N1K« 'Hi's **' HKD 

[o'Di] nr3n3 DW3ij?n irb ip''vn 3int n^m CBintn (25) trntion 
Y^pn^ iB'N ^y (26) ibid tyi hbti B>in cn-jd utyaa by uioin 
iB'y npss? Dn^ijy Mim [Dn]rh&& DUinr in31 Dmn? D^j;3nN3 ui? 
^D"! iNn3»i>i D''3inr wm^n '<p:i'h wjnai (27) ^'''i'B' DTiina Doinr 
i3i»VK {28) -iN^jni v/'b^ D^nina cainr D»Bn?i nj>3n nso nensnn 
mb n^m on^s-ix b:h Mwn «h anioai Dnnix ^33 inuNirin 
I'an nNijDi) wij -idhk' (29) pots inb' ny3n!' oyb« nM> 
tVirn ti)3r\bmf [rijm^n cnnxn oy «"'B'yK' id3 dxin ^k Dn^tfiJi 
ci'na' 1N3 >3 njnoB* w^Sn nxs ibw tj? .*. D)bv^ (30) nn^ns ^jn 
lOB'E}' D'NUnjjno (31) nnN n3y in3 ■^B'^5 ij; mwoNn [Ni> Dnn]N 
N*3n n^^NtDJK }'nN »j3d [a»in]D Dnin» nwB' d»j?i pn uk }3 ^■?3> 
•i p ij insn JjNjru 31 no innsi «jpr 3b^d ^in (32) ^3* oniK 
M'33i wnraN (33) n3'Ti wroin noxy in oniN wnisis yi nTyi>N 
ui? ij>ni3iy i»*« no «b w *in uidni UB'aj noayi oi^ ncpi* 
noN Dipnij Dipoo n3S'3?> i3»nNDn idiji (34) nivp y3nx3 wntaJE' 
pj3"i ny3ns (35) dhob' ny3B'n iSj^n »d*i osd t5'p3N >3N myn u^ 
"ION 3inr ir"'!'Bn ouinr D^tf^cn ntJ'l'En dtino DiTdib' pNip nB'i'Bi 
a"3yn i^''N3 omtjcn tib ivb *n^ fnsn ^wm (36) 3t no iprn v^n 
nnbw cons (37) lij noyB' noini S'' Dni3iJD3 "iioyi? i^^ax iTho 
»hN d!'S3 niDn5» q^vn psn>i ddin myi q^b'jn mw ono m-^p:) 
D^B'JN msj'y nnN n^B' ••. nDn3 onna B^n^i osn^sn {38) riE'yn* 
on DNB' 'wn ijy b'^nh (39) nro duny noNi vi>N WMpnoi woo 
mo* d^51 von3 pioyna' D3'I?y n\n» m3' in b'^n ano 13nib' dii'B'i 
lanyi nSi Dni> nion prB* ny lau ijy inn^oyn b«n (40) [dn]o 


.'. Dn«W3 inDjn Dnnsn (41) ne^nn dj? M'ha D«nph [ujoia Dnit? 
*iy5» 'n' isww 3-1 -ID [i33]3n jptn mnn dj> i3V3pn3 p "inNi> 
mtjn W3 HB'yj no mcNi diujj Dn3i3 loy ujtui (42) wnb'Ji 
Dn3 Qi^^s wnJNE' (43) nuiyni niNonn 3nD f\2p[T\ ^:'>]bv imb* 
3inr E'^i'En D-'B'i'in hb'W dhb' .dhd ins '•013 nio»i» "iby w^i'K idn 
^Ni Dn3nn i^ty ^jn d'3{j> Donao no in^sy D''3int D^nso {44) inb^ 
D^Nnpn i^np !?« inx anao (45) dj nvo'san •<r\v2\tf D'mn niSnp 
n3nn nt3 noytj' Q''3pin b !>« D''3naD onoy n^^bx »iN dj 
nnnvi Ds^cni D>jn ^« D''3n3o nni'B''' m r inna-'i 3i> utiT'I (46) 
nr^'by my pa^DV dj iIj^n (47) nnah 3iinni» a''33-ini CN-ipno 
ntwnn id-is inb^ on^anxi Dnioai cnniNs oni'B'^ crnriN Quaint 
D«ni» on DJ Ds-iN i>N nnybn napn y'lo^ ^hx DnriNn (48) 
'riNT b* i[''b] wij^ann (49) i^aa rhan onain uyctya .*. ci\bwh) 
by u imy nxa-'i innoB' d'ijBwi vdiIjb' T'on^B' D''n^No wi'NB'i 
i»3 D»y HBTJB' 1N3B' i^*N Dyi laisHB* onnNH oy (50) nm^fyn inana 
oy n[D]m noyan (51) P333 siid nyi B'sno vE'yo 3id bi n3it3 
oia3 oa'ijK nin anaon mnai •*. nae' D^niiK i'^aa'' nrh)r\ Qi^jyn 
li» DJ conoD lanun c^oi'B'n'n nD''ja *33 a-'E'ipn (52) wnx 
'3 Tisnrni> n^j "Yeravh (53) dj imtnij o^nat* 3i id "onn u-ins 
nWi) QJ 13^ nr3 ima la's b^n iia 3'"'nB' no Ti>atni) as 
nawn 310 annmi'i ipvon bnpn by ntn^snaon unpi* (54) Tiiaa 
niB'y pNcn an *ai mm (55) mvon tiibt; pa'^n an ••a aniNinh 
nijproi n^^NDJN p« mo a-iUB^ a'B'JNn ny3B'n ib^ti hi ntn mam 
anniNa iioyij udd bik b 3«n ai:a b bi n3E' B»n3 ''b3»i (56) 
'3 nn« nnaena b nIji ins b^n b (57) nxtn nis»n nmnn n^ »a 
bi* MNT (58) -in -\m "in aibpi nwcn wdb'b' bnE« *33 b b 
'•' »3 nyn^i nnnxs punni^-i ub ••'* nna nn^ ayoB' yciB'B' ■'O 
ai>iyh nm aSy3 lac ab»n Nini (59) VB'yo ^aa B"Ni» jnwn 
an b nnini n3nn mns i3naD !>npn b ujianni .*. t{3n 
3it:3 inotyi imin nunnij aNnbo ibci Ttiin *svi nmioan (60) 

1"* Added above the line. 


13'3Dnh yn'W'b^ y-ynrh (6i) d^h^nd i^san nbm nn»B' inj^a 

btj' TUB' i^D3 nT3 anaj • d^toj nvah ny ny^ wni^N n3[i»] (62) 

3it3 n3B>h D)b&h) D"n^ nnoB'i' 

Di^B' nn3 
55 in3n ^k^jt -13 pan m^B> 55 D"n n3 loi'Dn no 55 nmv^ "i3 tiDV 

pinx 13 P|DV D"i-iaN 13 i>KTOE' 

jna n3 nt^D cidv n3 n»jiB> 

55 iTonj n3 nSn pny ^'nidb' -13 fjov 

n'DX p D^»n pHN n3 ^ii>n t|''!>3 aim "o -ib>3o 

55 nnj?D n3 no^ty 55 |nn« -i3 1113 

'-it5'3D n3 pan tiov ncsD n3 p|dv' 

(in margin) 55 "wbn p fn3n {jNinJ 

Address (on the verso) : — 

D^^^anon mipn br^pn pja ij»3iK'n un^p* m^hn^ 

nann onax 3n no pia DB^xnai D'Di>E'n\T dd^jss 

DJ vn^on -iDic D"ioB« ^t "Tityn nnoc 3-1 p 5 63 

3T yB'"' HDniDi^c ivb HD'sn Dnn«D ijao Di'''y 

D^^^anon n'hnpn tib' onTiuia *Bnn orT'nN mdo 
NmjD3N pDN K3 Tna3B' Dvo^jan 'nca 
DnxD DNODs bti nwto j»ijy3 bin 
Di^B' nn3 

'-1 Probably written by the same band. 



MS. Heb. d. 65, fol. 4. Vellum, gi x 9 inches. The text 
is much broken, and is written in a very diflBcult cursive 
hand. It is a letter addressed to Ephraim ben Shemariah 
in 1035, apparently referring to his action in some case 
such as that described in no. iii. The nx pN na^ky* CNl 
(line 10) must have been Solomon Gaon at this date. The 
Nagid (lines 13, 19, 21), whose authority seems to be 
regarded as final, is no doubt Samuel ha-Nagid. 

nnnn miyna V3" unoa 'M:iir] . i? (i) 

nnoi^ naaci n[*«n nana poiyn] micm rh? (2) [ms]D D"p^ pi 
jwn 'ji nya pD « nnxi (3) [1^ Q]''>p^ innjja p» Dipon ah a^ >b 
[yojcnoi vho^n an b bub naB* TiriJi noi^i^a tibw n'-p^ l[3n3] 

n> ism ''■ia''N ityy-ii ui? a-'xan « nn e)Dv 6 ns^DNa (4) 

Tanx ba [noijy pa n^ n^m (5) nnx pB' b niyon ^ry u^i 
[b^jn] »a [«!]« 'nana rii{}'n[» ri]io l^o b^ I^di niE'yi' nha* noi 
noN'' >Di liapi'B' vnn^D nnx "vnrb pxi nyhn onx pi non (6) 
pnx vcBW b '3 un pn»n^ iw (7) [b^] naim ntj'yn no i5» 
vnuiy (8) [bji? maa inn^o xnn e>*n ma* ma «!» nsi nosi 
no njn nino ncn dow ^y i^a^pc hd nou nn^ anaa n'Nni 
Dy ana i? ^nanai npii'non nswe'i di^b> bm (9) D^yj noi am 

Ni* DJ T (10) n^yu^ p^ nannon ipng'K ainio 

^h^Ni VD' (11) inx* Dipon *as pt? na^e** cnt iraiD ana n'si 
ana ^jdd hnt n^b> fjutya idin ^n^^n vi>N »ana n^yw ^b marnc 
i'NiDB' '•ij na^Di inona in-ut?a nns ana nr (12) [a]na ninai 
Dtyn bw nspo T-naio (13) [dj] »n33ianni ynion nspo >pna^N 
ko[b>] (14) . . . i> . 1 . , . n ny^ »n» ran i? ana n^ o inyna 
nvnn i^a si* rtian nan po oijyj sh inin^bc nB>y n^ n^i'B'n 
miani inann r^i-^^ m-iB'n p miani (15) . . . DC'n nK [m'[]'>b 
Nin n:n (16) [ajinan 6nb> . . . inns nain n-nc miB^ jo 
n»i> >DpiD K^oens Nnu-u B'n i^j^bk ^f jim ncm D^bn !?« wanj 


vnn^o hv ^ajran b ''tb yn),ro by Tiayns? i»d (17) btm '3ni 
b».) inijnD inoi ton •>2 (18) ^noma prnm iwa by iIj jn'^jjo 
TJj[nD] (19) D'-ana ixa ^a 'b "wwi ni> yn'i «!» nip yn no^JtrN idsd 
na D^ainr d^b'B' loa iiddh nnis' "lo nb^c ^a onsiDD nnnoa itB> 
bn nxB'Ji iDsyi' na^t^^ t^xn anpb) (20) miann *» b na urr^r 
T«n Dj> njnriN"! (21) mpon nw dni raa ^nsa iI^vkd nrn pjpn 
[lajmo ni'''bn nij^i^m onann nn'DN »jj?nr n'lnDD iNia nnx 
Dnain '•np'-y •<'? ainan lis Msn nsn b^a pb ui? im*y* ok (22) 
13N Tia it) iTnc HDi nnsy naiBTi nan N^sion b (23) a^c'nb na 
nantJ'D lanKtjni Sra nninon bai (24) im'a» pnw Nij Tyo 
p^Dsn Ni»B> ybv ba nona (25) v^y ait^nn b^ apa nnx i>N maiya 
an Dii'B' bpm (26) ^nixn N'n •'a lau nixnai ysint bsi T-ana 
13 nonx mv ^nijN ^yni 'ondi nton omaNJi 
nnDB'i> Idb* nig' ax »vn (27) 

Verso : 
cnsN an 10 (2) one'* yn J?i zb *b ab ba a[inNi'] (i) 
isoi nfya nix %n' bvf nnoB' (3) no na ni^na pmnaoa nann 

A. Cowley.