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To the very suggestive Lectures on the "Polity of the Ancient 
Hebrews," (JQR., N. S., Ill, iff.) the following may be added: 

P. 36. That Joash was chief of Ophrah is suggested also by 
Abrabanel in his Commentary on Judg. 6, 16, 31. 

P. 52. That insulting parents is punished with death is stated 
by Philo (Tischendorf, Philonea, 77) and Josephus (c. Ap., II, 
27 and 30). They seem to have derived this anti-traditional law 
(see Sanhedrin 7, 8) from Deut. 27, 16 having interpreted Arur, 
as suggested by Judge Sulzberger (pp. 52, 61-2, 65), to mean 

(That Josephus interpreted Arur to mean death punishment 
is evident also from his statement (c. Ap., II, 27) that a judge 
who takes bribes is punished with death. It is generally believed 
that this law of Josephus is a conscious deviation from the Law, 
intended to glorify the Jewish sense for justice. It is, however, 
more probable that Josephus derived this law from Deut. 27, 25 
where Arur is stated to be the punishment of inc rip?.) 

The Karaites, relying on Deut. 27, 16, hold that every manner 
of insulting parents is punished with death ; see Mibhar on Ex. 21, 
17. The fifteenth century Karaite Elias Bashyazi (Intr. to his 

in'i>K rms) states: nivas ma Kin inx optsi. 

Abraham Ibn Ezra seetrs to have interpreted Arur as ma 
punishment; see M. Friedlar.der, JQR., VIII (1895-6), 144, n. 1. 
That Arur pronounced against the removal of landmarks PUJ J'DD 
injTl (Deut. 27, 17) implies punishment {Lectures, p. 62) is 
very probable. The Romans also permitted the killing of such 
an offender (Plutarch, Numa 16). 



P. S3. For the interpretation of mfo in Deut. 21, 8 as "a 
teacher" (of rebellion) see Sifre ad loc: "p"7 1DXJ?b mbC5> : Hlfal 
mnx ; see also Abrabanel in his commentary ad loc. : YID DTP IX 

N'ono dj xmc «bs kdih Nine th *6i bacn tttd id nine mbi 

iws th oniN mm a^nn nx. 

P. 56. That niD in Deut. 19, 16 indicates the nature of the 
crime (apostasy) is stated also by Ibn Ezra, ad loc. Ps.-Jon. and 
Onkelos who translate HID by N'tSD also seem to take DID to mean 
idolatry; see Levy, .j. v. K'DD, Kohut, s. v. NOD. 

P. 67. That by DiT3N ntSDnnBK'D (Num. 36, 6) recognizable 
kinsmen are meant is also the opinion of Philo; see also Werke 
Philos, II, 141, n. 1. 

P. 20, 1. 3, read 153, 600. 

Marietta, Ohio Bernard Revel